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The Civic Renewal Party (Partido Renovaciòn Civilista, PRC) was a Panamanian right liberal political party.
The Civic Renewal Party was founded on 13 August 1992 by a group of professionals who had played key roles in the National Civic Crusade that opposed General Manuel Antonio Noriega's military dictatorship during 1987-1989.
The National Civic Crusade (Cruzada Civilista Nacional, CCN), a broad-based opposition movement composed of more than 100 groups, including members of the Roman Catholic Church, civil and professional organizations, and trade unions.
In 1994, it backed the recently resigned Comptroller General Rubén Darío Carles as part of the Alliance for Change '94 coalition and in 1999, it supported banker and former Arnulfista Party member Alberto Vallarino Clement, as a part of the Opposition Action Alliance.
Although the party elected three legislators to the unicameral Legislative Assembly in 1994 , in the 1999 election it failed to garner enough votes to survive and, pursuant to Panamanian Electoral Laws, was dissolved thereafter.
The Nationalist Republican Liberal Movement (Movimiento Liberal Republicano Nacionalista, MOLIRENA) is a center-to-right, pro-business liberal political party in Panama.
It was founded on 21 October 1981 by now defunct Third Nationalist Party, National Patriotic Coalition, National Liberation Movement and factions that had earlier split off from National Liberal Party and Republican Party. This party evolved as an alliance of traditional, oligarchy-controlled, primarily conservative organizations, which opposed the government of the military. According to a Soviet Union news article, "The MOLIRENA was aptly called a "patchwork quilt" by local journalists. The characteristic feature of the party was the link of the agrarian oligarchy with the commercial bourgeoisie, i.e. a union of the most conservative segments of the country. The names of members of MOLIRENA leaders César Arrocha Graell, Guillermo Arias and Rene Crespo, who, as members of the government before 1968, took part in the appropriation of almost a billion dollars from the state treasury, were mentioned in the local press in connection with former "merits.""
In 1984, the MOLIRENA was part of the Democratic Opposition
Communist Party (Marxist–Leninist) of Panama (in Spanish: Partido Comunista (marxista-leninista) de Panamá), a Maoist political party in Panamá. PC(ml)P was founded on January 9, 1980, by a group of militants of the Socialist Workers Front (marxist-leninist) (FOS(ml)).
PC(ml)P published Nueva Democracía (New Democracy) between 1980-2001.
Democratic Change (Cambio Democrático) is a political party in Panama. At the last legislative elections, 3 May 2009, the party won 23.4% of the popular vote and 14 out of 78 seats. In the last presidential election, the party leader, Ricardo Martinelli, was elected President of Panama with 59.97% of the vote.
The party was founded on May 20, 1998 and its leader is Ricardo Martinelli. The party lists more than 90,000 members according to the information provided by The Electoral Court (Tribunal Electoral).
The party has shown the most growth of any political party in Panama in 2008.
The Democratic Revolutionary Party (Spanish: Partido Revolucionario Democrático, or PRD) is a Panamanian political party. It was founded in 1979 by the General Omar Torrijos, and is generally described as a party of the centre-left of the political spectrum.
Since its creation have had strong ties with the military regime that ruled Panama since the military coup of 1968. Most of the members were people identified by his social policy, and the Canal Treaties legacy signed a few years before his death. The political pressure made by Torrijos Nationwide and Worldwide to the United States, were viewed as Nationalist and is listed as one of the greatest leaders Panama has ever had, along with Arnulfo Arias Madrid(although he was taken from office three times).
With the signature of the Canal Treaties, Torrijos compromised to return Panama to democracy. In order to do so he involved into a new political system by creating a new political party and ran as a presidential candidate in the coming elections of 1984 facing Arnulfo Arias.
With the death of General Omar Torrijos, the military coup ruling the country fell into a crisis for power. After his unclear death, two Generals resigned
The Solidarity Party (Partido Solidaridad) was a political party in Panama that recently merged with the National Liberal Party (Partido Nacional Liberal) and formed the new Patriotic Union Party (Partido Union Patriótica). At the last legislative elections, 2 May 2004, the party won 15.7% of the popular vote and 9 out of 78 seats. Guillermo Endara on the same day, at the presidential election, won 30.9% of the vote.
The Panameñista Party (Spanish: Partido Panameñista) is a Panamanian political party.
The party is the oldest in Panama. It was founded in 1932 by Arnulfo Arias Madrid, a prominent medical, as the National Revolutionary Party. Its membership largely came from Patriotic Communal Action, a nationalist organization that opposed the large amount of American influence in Panama which had led a coup in 1930. The party s' first "Supreme Leader" and President was Ezequiel Fernandez Jaen, a key member of the "Patriotic Communal Action". Ezequiel Fernández Jaén became second Vice-President to Panamá s' President Juan Demóstenes Arosemena, who died in power. Ezequiel Fernández Jaén, became President of Panamá for only 3 days, after Juan Demostenes Arosemena died and while the first Vice-President Augusto Samuel Boyd arrived from Washington, where he was the Panamanian Ambassador.
In 1936, Harmodio's younger brother, Arnulfo Arias Madrid, became a national leader and President of Panamá in 1940. In the early 1930s, he had begun promoting a nationalist doctrine called "Panameñismo" (Panamanianism), and this became the basis for the party. It was renamed the Panameñista Party in the mid-1940s.
The November 29 National Liberation Movement (in Spanish: Movimiento de Liberación Nacional 29 de noviembre) (MLN-29) is a Marxist-Leninist party in Panama that was founded in 1970. The date in its name refers to the death of Panamanian communist leader Floyd Britton the year before.
Two years before its founding, on October 11 a military coup took power in Panama, and within days hundreds of leftists around the country had been arrested. Britton was one of the few that was killed during his incarceration, but by 1970 most had been released. The two biggest left-wing resistance groups at the time were the Movimiento Unidad Revolucionario (Revolutionary United Movement) and the older Vanguardia de Accion Nacional/Vanguard of National Action, both descended from the Partido del Pueblo de Panamá/People's Party of Panama, the country's oldest Marxist party and its Moscow-affiliated group. VAN and MUR were both heavily influenced by Maoism and the strategy and politics to come out of the Cuban revolution, and Britton himself had argued that Panama's left should not be beholden to any other country's government or politics, but that these two distinct ideological tendencies should be
Socialist Workers Front (Marxist–Leninist) (Spanish: Frente Obrero Socialista (marxista-leninista)) was a communist party in Panama. FOS(ml) was founded in 1973, following a split in the People's Party of Panama. FOS(ml) originated in the pro-Chinese 'Proletarian Wing' of PPP. FOS(ml) made its first public appearance on May Day 1973.
FOS(ml) was mainly active in the students movement. It also organized the Asociación de Amistad con la República Popular China. FOS(ml) published Bandera Roja (Red Flag) 1974-1980.
The general secretary of FOS(ml) was Enrique Castillero.
In 1980, FOS(ml) was dissolved following internal strife. One section would live on as the Communist Party (Marxist-Leninist) of Panama.
People's Party of Panama (Spanish: Partido del Pueblo de Panamá, PPP) is a communist party in Panama.
Founded on 4 April 1930 as the Communist Party of Panama (Partido Comunista de Panamá, PCP), after Panamian communists broke away from the Labour Party. Early leaders of PCP included Eliseo Echévez and Cristóbal Segundo. The PCP joined the Communist International, and reached its apogee of popularity during and right after World War II. In 1943 the PCP changed its name to People's Party of Panama.
This very small, but well-organized, party then exerted considerable influence on the Panamanian Federation of Students and on the trade union movements in the Panama and in the Canal Zone. It long controlled the Trade Union Federation of Workers of Panama. “After World War II the party concentrated on attacking the United States presence in Panama, leading the Panamanian government to crack down on it and then outlaw it in 1953. Subsequently, Communist influence in Panama's trade unions declined greatly and many party members defected to other groups".
In the mid 1960s the U.S. State Department estimated the party membership to be approximately 400.
Although small in membership, for
Workers Party (Marxist–Leninist) (in Spanish: Partido Obrero (Marxista-Leninista)) was a Trotskyist political party in Panama. PO(M-L) was founded in 1934 by Diógenes de la Rosa. For a brief period PO(M-L) was able to compete with the Communist Party over influence in the trade union movement, the tenants movement and other mass movements.
PO(M-L) struggled against the U.S. hegemony over Panama.
The National Liberal Party (Partido Liberal Nacional) was a liberal party in Panama. At the last legislative elections, 2 May 2004, the party won 5.2 % of the popular vote and 3 out of 78 seats. The party was an observer at Liberal International.
The party was formed in 1903 out of the Panamanian branch of the Colombian Liberal Party, shortly after Panama declared independence.
The PNL recently merged with Solidarity Party (Partido Solidaridad) to form the new Patriotic Union Party (Unión Patriótica).
The Patriotic Union (Unión Patriótica) is a political party in Panama. It was formed when the National Liberal Party (Partido Nacional Liberal) and the Solidarity Party (Partido Solidaridad) merged.
The party's current president is Guillermo Ford. After the party did not reach the minimum votes, it was merged with the Democratic Change Party.