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  • Feb 20th 2014
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Most famous Companies from Lebanon

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    1

    Najjadeh Party

    By the name ‘the rescuers’ or ‘the helpers’ (Arabic: حزب النجادة | An-Najjadah, Najjadah, Najjadeh or Najjada) is known a Lebanese nationalist party of Fascist trend that appeared in Lebanon during the 1930s. Lebanon in the 1930s witnessed the emergence of two paramilitary youth sport organizations of sectarian cast with clear fascist tendencies in Beirut and other Lebanese cities, the Lebanese Phalanges led by Pierre Gemayel and the Najjadah. The latter began its existence in 1933-34 as a Sunni Muslim boy-scouts organization founded and led by Muhi al-Din al-Nasuli, the editor of the influential pan-Arabist Muslim newspaper, “Beirut” (Arabic: Bayrut), with the purpose of protecting the Muslim community and to act as a counterweight to the Phalangists. A keen admirer of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini – whom were viewed at the time in both Syria and Lebanon as role models of strong statebuilders – al-Nasuli’s newspaper (among others) was involved since 1933 in publishing Hitler's speeches and excerpts from Mein Kampf. He often criticized the "moral chaos" in public life and adopted the supremacist motto "Arabism Above All" on his own newspaper's masthead. Al-Nasuli's Bayrut also
    9.25
    4 votes
    3

    Future Movement

    Future Movement (Arabic: تيار المستقبل, Tayyar Al-Mustaqbal) (FM) is a Lebanese political movement, led by MP Saad Hariri, the younger son of the assassinated former Prime Minister of Lebanon, Rafik Hariri. The movement is the largest member of the March 14 Alliance, which won a majority of the seats in the 2009 parliamentary elections. The Party was officially founded in August 2007, yet it was only declared on April 5, 2009 in a convention held at the BIEL convention center in Beirut. After the killing of Ahmad Abdel-Wahid, the Future Movement called on Prime Minister Najib Mikati to immediately resign, claiming his cabinet had shown incapability to maintain the country’s security. Future Movement is part of the March 14 Alliance that includes, amongst many groups, the Christians associated with the Lebanese Forces and Kataeb parties (main 2 allies of FM). Most of its base is made up of Sunni Muslims. The main opponent of Future Movement is the March 8 Alliance, most important parts being Free Patriotic Movement (FPM) led by General Michel Aoun and the Shia Hezbollah and Amal Movements. There are also other opponents that are neither with March 8 Alliance nor March 14 Alliance
    6.60
    5 votes
    4

    New Lebanese Movement

    The New Lebanese Party {Hizb Al-Lubnaniyin Al-Judud) is a Lebanese political party established in 2006. Its main targets are changing the political system in Lebanon into a more stable, less dependent on confessionalism system and leading Lebanon to become a major regional power in terms of culture, economics & diplomacy.
    6.40
    5 votes
    5

    Lebanese Option Party

    Lebanese Option Gathering (LOG) (Arabic: تيار الإنتماء اللبناني French Courant de l'Option libanaise ‎) is a Lebanese predominantly Shia political movement established in 2007. It is headed by Ahmad al-Asaad the second (Arabic: أحمد الأسعد‎), the son of the former speaker of the Lebanese Parliament Kamel al-Asaad and strongly protests the political hegemony of the two movements Hezbollah and Amal on the Shi'ite community in Lebanon. It's platform is more in line with the Lebanese majority March 14 Alliance and greatly opposed to mainstream Shi'ite movements allied with the March 8 Alliance, namely Hezbollah and Amal Movements, but the Lebanese Option Gathering is not an official part of the March 14 Alliance and keeps an independent secular status.
    7.75
    4 votes
    6

    Razkari Party

    Established in 1975 by Faissal Fakhro, Riz Kari is a Lebanese Kurdish group dissatisfied with the leadership of the Kurdish Democratic Party (Lebanon). Riz Kari supported the Kurdish forces fighting against the Iraqi regime. For a brief period during the 1975 Civil War, however, Riz Kari joined forces with the Kurdish Democratic Party to form the Progressive Kurdish Front in an effort to eliminate differences in the ranks of Lebanese Kurds. Riz Kari was weakened in the mid-1970s by the defection of part of its organization, which called itself the Leftist Riz Kari, or Riz Kari II. This organization, led by Abdi Ibrahim, a staunch ally of Syria, rejected the formation of the Progressive Kurdish Front because it included the "right-wing" leadership of Jamil Meho.
    7.75
    4 votes
    7

    Democratic Left Movement

    The Democratic Left Movement (DLM, Arabic: حركة اليسار الديمقراطي‎ Haraket Al-Yassar Al-Dimuqratiy, Arabic acronym HYD) is a leftist political party with seats in the Lebanese Parliament. It was founded in September 2004 by left-wing intellectuals and activists who previously split from the Lebanese Communist Party (LCP). The DLM affirms a European-style social democracy—but is open to all forms of leftism—and encourages the development of a secular state. The party operates under a decentralized framework that emphasizes diversity of thought. It participated in the 2005 Cedar Revolution, a wave of demonstrations against the Syrian occupation of Lebanon, and calls for correcting imbalanced relations with Syria. The DLM won its first parliamentary seat in Lebanon's 2005 elections representing the Tripoli district. On June 2, 2005, amid election rounds, Samir Kassir, a founder of the movement, was assassinated in a car bombing. Less than one month later, George Hawi, a former secretary general of the Lebanese Communist Party and an ally of the DLM, was killed in a similar car bombing in Beirut. In the 2009 elections, the party again won a single seat, instead representing the West
    9.33
    3 votes
    8

    Marada Movement

    The Marada Movement (Arabic: تيار المردة‎ | Tayyar Al-Marada) is a Lebanese political party and a former militia active during the Lebanese civil war, named after the legendary Syriac Marada or Mardaites warriors of the early Middle Ages. Designated the Marada Brigade (Arabic: Katibatun al-Marada), they were the personal militia of Suleiman Franjieh, president of Lebanon at the outbreak of the war, otherwise known as the Zgharta Liberation Army – ZLA (Arabic: Zgharta Jayish al-Tahrir) or Armée de Liberation de Zgharta (ALZ) in French, after Franjieh's home town of Zgharta in northern Lebanon. El Marada: The modernity of heritage The evolving legacy Clarity of purpose Firm attitude Pride, glory, potency, depth The Sword: Symbol of justice Lighting: Creativity and sharpness Red Color: Symbol of Sacrifice Green Color: Cedar of Lebanon Blue Color: Blue Horizon Pi: Unity of purpose, Depth in justice, Core values, Perseverance through adversity, Resilient stands, Circle: Unshakable loyalty, Evolving dynamism, Genuine relations, Eternity of being, Compass: Right direction, Clear decision, Safety value, Genuine legacy Green Color: Eternity of life, Versatility of nature, Promise of
    7.25
    4 votes
    9

    Shuraya Party

    Shuraya party (Syriac: ܫܘܖܝܐ) is an Assyrian political organisation established on July 25, 1978 in Lebanon, when the country was in the middle of its civil war. It is composed of "free philosophers" of different Eastern Church origin, who see themselves as Assyrians. Shuraya insists it is not bound by any Church, but resists against the reproach to be anti-Christian. It stress out to represent all oriental Christians and to maintain a coined Christian Lebanon. Since its foundation, it has worked closely together with the founder and leader of the Lebanese Forces militia party Bachir Gemayel, in which it see itself connected in the struggle and destiny for all Lebanese Christians. A party established its own magazine in Lebanon in the 1980s, dubbed "Shuraya". The party also opened its own radio show named my voice, to the wave of FM-radio. Shuraya supports a formation of an Assyrian State in the Assyrian homeland, in what is today Northern Iraq.
    9.00
    3 votes
    10

    Party of Socialist Revolution

    The Party of Socialist Revolution (Arabic: حزب الثورة الإشتراكية | Hizb al-Thawra al-Ishtirakiyya) was a communist party in Lebanon, emerging as a seemingly pro-Chinese split from the Lebanese Communist Party. The party was founded in 1964. The formation of the party was announced in early September 1964, with Youssef Moubarek as party chairman and Moustafa Chaker as general secretary. The group published Ila amam ('Forward'). The group did not fully support the line of Mao Zedong, but notably did not support the Soviet Union in their dispute with China. The group argued that the mainstream of the Lebanese Communist Party had become too supportive of Nasser, and accused Khalid Bakdash of 'revisionism'. The group argued that solely through people's war could Israel be defeated. Their best-known recruit was the Syrian General Afif al-Bizri.
    7.00
    4 votes
    11

    Christian Democratic Union

    The Christian Democratic Union of Lebanon is a right wing party currently headed by Lebanese MP Neemtallah Abi Nasr. and part of March 8 Alliance
    8.33
    3 votes
    12

    Lebanese National Bloc

    Lebanese National Bloc (Arabic: الكتلة الوطنية اللبنانية‎; al-Kutlah al-wataniyyah al-lubnaniyah), is a Lebanese conservative political party founded in 1936. The party's founder, Émile Eddé became president the same year under French protectorate. His son, Raymond Eddé, succeeded him as head of the party. In 1968, the National Bloc joined the Helf Alliance, a coalition which included former President Camille Chamoun's National Liberal Party and Pierre Gemayel's Kataeb Party. The alliance was relatively successful in Parliamentary elections held the same year, winning 30 seats (out of 99). Nevertheless, in 1969, the Bloc left the alliance after the Cairo Agreement. During the Lebanese civil war, although mainly Christian, the party refused to rejoin the Lebanese Front, formed by his former allies. During the war years, the party refused to arm a militia and kept a moderate line consisting mainly in defending the independence and unity of Lebanon aligning itself with the positions of the Sunni bourgeoisie, represented by Rashid Karami and Saeb Salam. The exile (in 1976) and the death (in 2000) of its leader, combined with the rise of the Lebanese Forces and Aounist current,
    8.33
    3 votes
    13

    National Liberal Party

    The National Liberal Party (NLP, Arabic: حزب الوطنيين الأحرار‎, literally Hizb Al-Waṭaniyīn Al-Aḥrār) is a center-right political party in Lebanon, established by President Camille Chamoun in 1958. It is now under the leadership of Dory Chamoun, his son. The party has adopted a hard line in regard to the preservation of Lebanese independence, and to the safeguard of the distinctive liberal practices in Lebanon with respect to freedom of expression and opinion and religious freedoms. Like most Lebanese political organization, it has a sectarian basis; the NLP is mainly supported by Christians. (For more information on this, see Demographics of Lebanon) In 1968, the party joined The Helf Alliance formed with the two other big mainly Christian parties in Lebanon: the Kataeb of Pierre Gemayel, and National Bloc of Raymond Eddé. During the Lebanese Civil War of 1975-90, the NLP was aligned with the mainly Maronite Christian alliance who fought the Lebanese National Movement (LNM). It had its own armed militia, the Tigers. In 1976, the NLP joined with the Kataeb Party (Phalange) and the Lebanese Renewal Party (LRP) to form the Lebanese Front, a political coalition. This was paralleled by
    8.00
    3 votes
    14

    Arab Democratic Party

    The Arab Democratic Party – ADP (Arabic: الحزب العربي الديمقراطي‎ | al-Hizb al-'Arabi al-Dimuqrati) or Parti Démocratique Arabe (PDA) in French, is a Lebanese party, based in Tripoli. Its current leader is Rifaat Eid. The ADP traced back its origins to an earlier leftist students’ organization called the Alawite Youth Movement – AYM (Arabic: حركة الشباب العلوي | Harakat al-Shabab al-Alawiyya) or Mouvement de la Jeunesse Alaouite (MJA) in French, originally formed in 1972 at Tripoli by Ali Eid, a chemistry teacher. As its name implies, the AYM drew its support from the Shia Alawite sect minority of Lebanon, even receiving the personal backing of Rifa’at al-Assad, Syria’s vice-president at the time and himself a member of that sect. During the early war years, the AYM kept itself outside the LNM-PLO alliance, but in 1977-78 the movement joined the Patriotic Opposition Front – POF, a pro-Syrian multiconfessional coalition of Lebanese notables and activists founded in Tripoli by the MP Talal El-Merhebi (elected in 1972), Souhale Hamadah, Rashid Al-Muadim, George Mourani, and Nassib Al-Khatib, with Ali Eid being elected vice-president of the new formation. However, internal
    6.00
    4 votes
    15
    Toilers League

    Toilers League

    The Toilers League (Arabic: رابطة الشغيلة‎| Rabitat al-Shaghila) or Ligue des Travailleurs (LT) in French, is a Lebanese left-wing political party founded in Lebanon at the late 1960s and currently led by former Shouf MP Zaher el-Khatib. The Toilers League originated from a previous socialist students association formed at the American University of Beirut (AUB) in 1968 by the then student activist and Progressive Socialist Party (PSP) militant Zaher el-Khatib. In 1974 the group broke away from the PSP and re-emerged as a separated political party under Khatib's leadership, who succeeded to be elected to the Lebanese Parliament as the socialist deputy for the Iqlim al-Kharrub district of the Shouf. Marxist-Leninist and Pan-Arab nationalist in ideology, the League joined Kamal Jumblatt's Lebanese National Movement (LNM) in early 1975, even raising a militia named the Zafer el-Khatib Forces – ZKF (Arabic: Al-Quwwat Zafer el-Khatib‎), also known as Les Forces de Zafer el-Khatib (FZK) in French. After the collapse of the LNM alliance in 1982, the WL/ZKF switched their alligence to Syria and established a close relationship with the Shia Amal Movement. During the 1975-76 war the ZKF's
    9.50
    2 votes
    16

    Arab Socialist Union

    The Arab Socialist Union (Arabic: الاتحاد الاشتراكى العربى‎, Al-Ittiḥād Al-Ištirākī Al-ʿArabī) was an Egyptian political party based on the principles of Nasserist Arab socialism. The Arab Socialist Union was founded in Egypt in December 1962 by Gamal Abdel Nasser as the country's sole political party. The ASU grew out of the Free Officers Movement of the Egyptian Revolution of 1952. The party's formation was just one part in Nasser's National Charter. The Charter set out an agenda of nationalisation, agrarian reform, and constitutional reform, which formed the basis of ASU policy. The programme of nationalisation under Nasser saw seven billion Egyptian pounds of private assets transferred into the public sector. Banks, insurance companies, many large shipping companies, major heavy industries and major basic industries were converted to public control. Land reforms saw the maximum area of private land ownership successively reduced from 200 to 100 feddans. A 90% top rate of income tax was levied on income over ten thousand Egyptian pounds. Boards of directors were required to have a minimum number of workers, and workers and peasants were guaranteed at least half of the seats in
    7.33
    3 votes
    17

    Green Party of Lebanon

    The Green Party of Lebanon (Arabic: حزب الخضر اللبناني‎ ĥizb-al-khodor-al-lubnanī) is a Lebanese green political party. Founded in August 2008 by Philip Skaf, the green party advocates environmental protection, sustainable development, and human rights in Lebanon. It is the first Lebanese party to focus primarily on Green politics. Environmental concerns in Lebanon have been overshadowed by the sectarian nepotist political system and consigned to the bottom of the political agenda. This is despite the fact that Lebanon's tourism industry - a key part of its economy - relies heavily on the green spaces and woodlands that distinguish Lebanon from neighboring countries. The Green Party of Lebanon was founded on 20 August 2008 at a conference in Beirut's Monroe Hotel. The three hour conference, which assembled 65 members of the Lebanese elite, presented the party's charter and political and economic work plan followed by the election of its 20 member executive board. The executive board elected Philip Skaf, chief executive and creative officer at Grey Worldwide MENA, an advertising agency, as party president. In March 2009, the Green Party declared a state of environmental emergency
    7.33
    3 votes
    19

    Syrian–Lebanese Communist Party

    Syrian-Lebanese Communist Party (Arabic: الحزب الشيوعي السوري اللبناني‎, al-hizb al-shuyū'ī al-sūrī al-lubnānī), a communist political party operating in Syria and Lebanon founded in 1924 by the Lebanese Egyptian Fu'ad al-Shimali, the Lebanese Yusuf Yazbek and the Armenian Artin Madoyan. Its general secretary was Khalid Bakdash. The party was represented at the 6th Congress of the Communist International in 1928 by Fu'ad al-Shimali. Under the French Mandate it was an underground organization, then legalized in 1936–1939 by the French Front Populaire government, and again in 1941. The party took a new option of collaboration with the nationalist movement and playing down its socialist themes in 1936, in accordance with the 7th Congress of the Communist International in 1935. Later the party was divided into the Syrian Communist Party and the Lebanese Communist Party, but the decision, taken at the end of 1943, was only implemented in 1964. In between, common central committee and political bureau were maintained.
    9.00
    2 votes
    20

    Deprived Movement

    The Movement of the Deprived (harakat al-mahrūmin) (Arabic:حركة المحرومين) was founded in 1969 By the Imam Musa al-Sadr. It called upon peace between all Lebanese confessions and religions. The movement aimed at having no more "Deprived" people or regions in Lebanon. It had support from all confessions, but mainly the Shia confession. The movement was absorbed in 1975 into was it now called Amal movement.
    6.67
    3 votes
    21

    Lebanese Communist Party

    The Lebanese Communist Party – LCP (Arabic: الـحـزب الشـيـوعـي اللبـنـانـي | Hizb ash-shuy‘uī al-lubnānī) or Parti communiste libanais (PCL) in French, is a communist political party in Lebanon. It was founded in 1924 by the Lebanese intellectual, writer and reporter Youssef Ibrahim Yazbek and Fou'ad al-Shmeli, a tobacco worker from Bikfaya. The Lebanese Communist Party was officially founded on October 24, 1924, in the Lebanese town of Hadath, south of Beirut. The first meeting was made up of union workers, who formed independent unions for the first time in Lebanon (Previously, labor unions were controlled by the French). The meeting was also attended by scholars, academics, writers and journalists who were active in promoting the ideas of the French Revolution, and who were familiar with the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. The party was founded to cover the area held under the French mandate, which is now Syria and Lebanon. Initially, the party's name was "Lebanese People Party", in an attempt to evade the French ban on "Bolshevik" activities. The party was declared illegal at first, but the ban was relaxed during World War II. For about twenty years, the LCP
    6.67
    3 votes
    22

    Socialist Lebanon

    Socialist Lebanon (Arabic: لبنان الاشتراكي‎) was a small Arab nationalist group in Lebanon. The group was formed in 1965 by people like Ahmed Beydoun, Waddah Sharara and Fawwaz Trabulsi. In 1970 the group merged with the Organization of Lebanese Socialists, and formed the Communist Action Organization in Lebanon.
    8.50
    2 votes
    23

    Islamic Unification Movement

    The Islamic Unification Movement – IUM (Arabic: حركة التوحيد الإسلامي‎ | Harakat al-Tawhid al-Islami), also named Islamic Unity Movement or Mouvement de Unification Islamique (MUI) in French, but best known as ‘Al-Tawhid’, ‘At-Tawhid’, or ‘Tawheed’, is a Lebanese Sunni Muslim fundamentalist political party. It plays an active role in Lebanese internal politics since the Lebanese Civil War in the early 1980s. The IUM was founded in Tripoli in 1982 from a splinter faction of the Lebanese Islamic Group led by Sheikh Said Shaaban, one of Lebanon’s Islamist movements’ few charismatic Sunni religious leaders. A hardliner who believed that force was a good solution in politics, the radical Shaaban broke away from the Islamic Group soon after the June 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon, in protest for that Party’s leadership decision of adopting a non-violent, moderate political line in the early 1980s. Nevertheless, the two organizations have always maintained a good relationship, especially with Sheikh Fathi Yakan, founder and Secretary-general of the Islamic Group. At the height of its power in 1985, the IUM splintered, when dissident leaders Khalil Akkawi and Kanaan Naji left the
    6.33
    3 votes
    24

    Kurdish Democratic Party

    Jamil Mihhu established the Kurdish Democratic Party in 1960, but it was not licensed until 1970. Mihhu, however, supported the Iraqi government against Kurdish rebels fighting in that country, and he was captured and imprisoned by the Kurdish resistance in Iraq. Consequently, the leadership of the party passed to Jamil's son, Riyad. Another son, Muhammad, disagreed with his family's position on several issues and therefore in 1977 started his own movement, the Kurdish Democratic Party--Temporary Leadership.
    8.00
    2 votes
    25
    24 October Movement

    24 October Movement

    The 24 October Movement (Harakat 24 Techrin) (Arabic: حركة ٢٤ تشرين الأول ديمقراطية الاشتراكية‎) is a leftist progressist party known as the 24 October socialist progressist movement in Lebanon, founded in the year of 1969 by Farouk el-Moukaddem. The party main goals was to represent the oppressed citizens that were constantly sinking into poverty, unable to face the continuous growth of inflation. On 19 December 1973, during a wide protest organized by the movement, gun clashes erupted between pro-governmental armed men and the student branch of the party known as “Al itihad el sawri” (Arabic:الاتحاد الثوري), where multiple injuries occurred. This incident prompted a major military retaliation led by Farouk el Moukaddem against all armed men responsible for the attack which forced the army to intervene and conduct a raid on the party headquarters located at Farouk Moukaddem street near Al tall street and arrest the prominent young leader with 18 of his companions. The response was a full scale closure of the Northern city of Tripoli in protest for the arrest which rapidly extended to become a major demonstration in the capital city of Lebanon, Beirut, to reach out the Southern
    10.00
    1 votes
    26
    Ba'ath Party

    Ba'ath Party

    The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party (Arabic: حزب البعث العربي الاشتراكي Hizb Al-Ba'ath Al-'Arabi Al-Ishtiraki‎) was a political party founded in Syria by Michel Aflaq, Salah al-Din al-Bitar and associates of Zaki al-Arsuzi. The party espoused Ba'athism, an ideology mixing Arab nationalist, pan-Arabism, Arab socialist and anti-imperialist interests. Ba'athism calls for the renaissance or resurrection and unification of the Arab world into a single state. Its motto—"Unity, Liberty, Socialism" (wahda, hurriya, ishtirakiya)—refers to Arab unity, and freedom from non-Arab control and interference. The party was founded by the merger of the Arab Ba'ath Movement, led by Aflaq and al-Bitar, and the Arab Ba'ath, led by al-Arsuzi, on 7 April 1947 as the Arab Ba'ath Party. The party quickly established branches in other Arab countries, although it would only hold power in Iraq and Syria. The Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party was merged with the Arab Socialist Party led by Akram al-Hawrani in 1952 to form the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party. The newly-formed party was a relative success, and became the second-largest party in the Syrian parliament in the 1954 parliamentary election. This, coupled with the
    10.00
    1 votes
    27

    General Confederation of Lebanese Workers

    The General Confederation of Lebanese Workers (CGTL) (in French Confédération Générale des Travailleurs Libanais (CGTL), in Arabic الإتحاد العمالي العام في لبنان) is a loosely organized national trade union center in Lebanon. It was founded in 1958, and has a membership of 200,000.
    10.00
    1 votes
    28

    Syrian Social Nationalist Party

    The Syrian Social Nationalist Party (SSNP) (Arabic: الحزب السوري القومي الاجتماعي‎, transliterated: al-Ḥizb as-Sūrī al-Qawmī al-'Ijtimāʕī, often referred to in French as Parti Populaire Syrien or Parti Social Nationaliste Syrien), is a secular nationalist political party operating in Lebanon, Syria and Jordan. It advocates the establishment of a Syrian nation state spanning the Fertile Crescent, including present day Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, the Palestinian Territories, Israel, Cyprus, Kuwait, Sinai, southeastern Turkey and southwestern Iran. It is the largest political group in Syria after the Arab Socialist Ba'ath Party, with over 100,000 members. In Lebanon, it is part of the March 8 Alliance. Founded in Beirut in 1932 as a national liberation organization hostile to French colonialism, the party played a significant role in Lebanese politics and was involved in attempted coup d'etats in 1949 and 1961 following which it was thoroughly repressed. It was active in the resistance against the Israeli invasion of Lebanon from 1982 to 2000 while continuously supporting the Syrian presence in Lebanon. In Syria, the SSNP became a major political force in the early 1950s, but was
    10.00
    1 votes
    29
    6.00
    3 votes
    30
    Guardians of the Cedars

    Guardians of the Cedars

    The Guardians of the Cedars – GoC (Arabic: حراس الأرز; Ḥurrās al-Arz), also designated Gardiens du Cedre or Gardiens des Cèdres (GdC) in French, are a far-right ultranationalist Lebanese party and former militia in Lebanon. It was formed by Étienne Saqr (also known with the kunya or nom de guerre "Abu Arz" or "Father of the Cedars") and others along with the Lebanese Renewal Party in the early 1970s. It operated in the Lebanese Civil War under the slogan: Lebanon, at your service. The Guardians of the Cedars started to form a militia in the years leading up to the Lebanese Civil War and commenced military operations in April 1975. In September 1975, Communiqué No. 1 was issued to denounce advocates of the partition of Lebanon. The second communiqué contained a bitter attack on the Palestinians. The third articulated the party's attitude on the issue of Lebanese identity: Lebanon should dissociate itself from Arabism. The party spread its messages by means of graffiti in East Beirut, including slogans against Syria, the "Palestinian Resistance", and Pan-Arabism, sometimes with violent anti-Palestinian tones, as in the slogan على كل لبناني ان يقتل فلسطينياً ("It is a duty for each
    6.00
    3 votes
    31

    Communist Action Organization in Lebanon

    The Communist Action Organization in Lebanon (Arabic: منظمة العمل الشيوعي في لبنان‎, munaẓẓamah al-‘amal al-shuyū‘ī fī lubnān, French: Organisation de l'Action Communiste du Liban, abbreviation OACL) is a Marxist-Leninist political party and former militia group in Lebanon. The OACL was one of Lebanon's few multi-sectarian parties, with Christian, Muslim and Druze members, but its main base was among Shi'a Muslims. OACL played a major role in the political radicalization of the Shi'a community during the 1970s. In the 1980s, it had a membership of about 2000. The OACL was formed around 1970 through the merger of the Organization of Lebanese Socialists and Socialist Lebanon. The Organization of Lebanese Socialists was led by Muhsin Ibrahim and Muhammed Kishli. It had its roots in the Lebanese branch of the Arab Nationalist Movement (ANM), a radical pan-Arab movement. During the 1960s Ibrahim was a leading figure in the leftist tendency with the ANM. This tendency, led by Naif Hawatmeh, argued that the ANM ought to adopt a Marxist outlook. This was opposed by the top ANM leader George Habash who, although being open to introducing Marxist concepts like anti-imperialism into the
    7.50
    2 votes
    32
    Lebanese Forces

    Lebanese Forces

    The Lebanese Forces (LF) (Arabic: القوات اللبنانية al-quwāt al-lubnāniyah, Syriac: ܚܝܠܘܬܐ ܠܒܢܢܝܐ ḥailaoṯe lebnonoye) may refer to The organization was created by the Gemayels, Camille Chamoun, and other party leaders during the Lebanese Civil War. It was initially a conglomerate of the various right-wing party militias, placed under the control of a council composed of various party representatives. The Kataeb Regulatory Forces provided the largest share of fighters and the Kataeb had the largest share on the council. Despite its original creation from party militias, the Lebanese Forces accepted new recruits without any specific party allegiance. The movement fought as the main militia within the Christian-dominated Lebanese Front. During the civil war, the LF fought different opponents at different times: The Palestinian Liberation Organization, the LNM, the LNRF, the Syrian Army, the Druze PSP in the Chouf, and the Lebanese Army loyal to General Aoun. In In the mid-1980s, political friction within the Lebanese Front resulted in growing distance between the Kataeb militants and the rest of the Lebanese Forces. In the end the Lebanese Forces and Kataeb became two separate forces
    7.50
    2 votes
    33

    Democratic Socialist Party

    The Democratic Socialist Party, is a small Lebanese party founded and led by former lebanese speaker of parliament Kamel Al-Assad. The party is hostile to Hezbollah and Amal movement, and enjoys most of its support from the Lebanese Shi'a community. However, support for it is tiny.
    5.67
    3 votes
    34

    Democratic Renewal

    The Democratic Renewal Movement (or Tajaddod) is a reformist, social liberal, secular political party in Lebanon. At the last legislative elections, in May and June 2005, the party was allied to the anti-Syrian March 14 Alliance, led by Future Movement of late Prime minister Rafic Hariri, that won these elections. The Democratic Renewal was founded in 2001 by a group of 50 Lebanese political figures, intellectuals and businessmen. It is headed by Nassib Lahoud(1944-2012), former Presidential aspirant, deputy of the Metn region from 1991 until 2005. The Democratic Renewal has one member in the Parliament, Misbah Ahdab of Tripoli in North Lebanon.
    7.00
    2 votes
    35

    Independence Movement

    The Independence Movement (Harakat Al-Istiqlal known also as Al Haraka) (Arabic:حركة اللإستقلال) is a neoconservative and secularist Lebanese political party based in Zgharta (Lebanon), founded in 2006 by Michel René Moawad, son of slain Lebanese President René Moawad and MP and former first lady Nayla Moawad. The movement is part of the anti-Syrian Qornet Shehwan Gathering and the March 14 Alliance. In the 2005-2009 it had 3 Maronite MPs for the Zgharta District in the Lebanese Parliament, Nayla Moawad, Jawad Simon Boulos and Samir Frangieh. Since 2009, the party has been led by Michel René Moawad, Jawad Simon Boulos and Youssef Bahaa El Douaihy.
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    36

    Al-Ahbash

    Al-Ahbash (Arabic: الأحباش‎‎ / al-aḥbash / English: The Ethiopians), also known as the Association of Islamic Charitable Projects (Arabic: ‏جمعية المشاريع الخيرية الإسلام‎‎ / jam'iyyat al-mashari' al-khayriyya al-islamiyya) is a Sufi religious movement which was founded in the mid 1980s. The group follow the teachings of Ethiopian scholar Abdullah al-Harari. The Association of Islamic Charitable Projects was founded in the 1930s by Ahmad al-Ajuz, According to Gary Gambill the AICP arrived in the Lebanon in the 1950's were he says "they blended Sunni and Shi'a theology with Sufi spiritualism into a doctrinal eclecticism that preached nonviolence and political quietism". The AICP remained without a leader until the 1980s when Abdullah al-Harari became the nominal head of the organization. and was taken over by Al-Ahbash in 1983. Al-Ahbash was founded in the suburb of Bourj Abu Haidar in Beirut and from there spread throughout the Lebanon to Tripoli, Akkar and Iqlim Al-Kharrub where they founded educational and religious institutions. Beginning in the 90's Ahbash propelled from a minority group to the largest Sunni movement in Lebanon mainly due to Syrian government backing. In 1995
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    37

    Liberty Front

    After Syrian withdrawal, Fouad Abou Nader restarted his public activities in launching, with his former companions, the “Lebanese Forces veterans” group. He decided to return to the Kataeb Social Democratic Party in the hope of initiating the necessary changes to avoid the repetition of the mistakes of the past. These necessary changes were: making the party more democratic to avoid fratricidal struggles for power and redefining the Cause. Quickly, he clashed with the direction of the party who refused any change about the feudal, hereditary and therefore anti-democratic structures. Consequently, Fouad Abou Nader decided with his companions who come from the Kataeb Social Democratic Party but also from other parties and movements to launch the “Liberty Front” on April 2007. The Liberty Front is a Lebanese political movement, social-democratic & defender of Lebanon sovereignty, independence & freedom, heir of the “Front for Freedom & Man” founded in 1975 by Dr. Charles Malik who became the “Lebanese Front” and the political offspring of the Resistance of the Front’s parties & movements fighters who cooperated together in the “Lebanese Forces Command Council” since 1976 before
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    38

    Progressive Socialist Party

    The Progressive Socialist Party or PSP (Arabic: الحزب التقدمي الاشتراكي‎, al-hizb al-taqadummi al-ishtiraki), also known as Parti Socialiste Progressiste in French, is a political party in Lebanon. Its current leader is Walid Jumblatt. It is ideologically secular and officially non-sectarian, but in practice is led and supported mostly by followers of the Druze faith. The party was founded on 5 January 1949, and registered on 17 March the same year, under notification N°789. The founders comprised six individuals, all of different backgrounds. The most notable of these was Kamal Jumblatt (Walid Jumblatt's father). The others were Farid Joubran, Albert Adeeb, Abdallah Alayli, Fouad Rizk, and George Hanna. The PSP held in Beirut the first conference for the Socialist Arab Parties in Lebanon, Syria, Egypt and Iraq in 1951. From 1951 through 1972 the party had between three and six deputies in parliament. Under Kamal Jumblatt's leadership, the PSP was a major element in the Lebanese National Movement (LNM) which supported Lebanon's Arab identity and sympathised with the Palestinians. Despite Jumblatt's initial reluctance to engage in paramilitarism, it built a powerful private army,
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    39

    Lebanese Democratic Party

    The Lebanese Democratic Party (Hizb al-democraty al-lubnany; Arabic:الحزب الديمقراطي اللبناني) is a political party in Lebanon established by Prince Talal Arslan in 2001. Prince Talal is the son of Druze leader L'Emir Magid Arslan and has presided the party ever since its establishment. The Lebanese Democratic Party is officially secular and has members from all Lebanese sects, but most of its support comes from the Druze, who support the Arslan family. It is part of the March 8 Alliance. The party was represented in the Lebanese parliament in 2000 and in 2009. Emir Talal Arslan won a seat in the Parliament representing the Aley district, and three others representing the Baabda district. In July 2011, Emir Talal appointed his brother-in-law Marwan Kheireddine as minister of state to represent him and the party in the newly formed cabinet.
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    41
    Amal Movement

    Amal Movement

    The Amal Movement (or Hope Movement in English) is a Lebanese political party associated with Lebanon's Shia community. It was founded as the "Movement of the Dispossessed" in 1974. The Amal Movement is, by a small margin, the largest Shia party in parliament, having thirteen representatives to Hezbollah's tweleve. Amal is currently in an alliance which includes the Aounists, Hezbollah, and the Progressive Socialist Party. The movement's current name was originally used by the Movement of the Dispossessed militia, the "Lebanese Resistance Regiments", Arabic: أفواج المقاومة اللبنانية‎. This name, when abbreviated, created the acronym "Amal", which means "Hope" in Arabic.. The Amal militia was founded in 1975 as the militant wing of the Movement of the Disinherited, a Shi'a political movement founded by Musa al-Sadr and Hussein el-Husseini a year earlier. It became one of the most important Shi'a Muslim militias during the Lebanese Civil War. Amal grew strong with the support of, and through its ties with, Syria and the 300,000 Shi'a internal refugees from southern Lebanon after the Israeli bombings in the early 1980s. Amal's practical objectives were to gain greater respect for
    7.00
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    42

    Free Patriotic Movement

    The Free Patriotic Movement (FPM) (Arabic: التيار الوطني الحر, al-tayyar al-waṭani al-ħur), also known as the Aounist Movement (Arabic: التيار العوني, al-tayyar al-ʕaouni), is a Lebanese political party, led by Michel Aoun. It is the second largest party in Lebanon's parliament (after the Future Movement) and the largest party in the Christian half of the parliament. It has 18 out of the 128 seats in parliament (of which 64 seats represent Christians). The FPM is the main party of the March 8 Alliance, which includes Amal (13 seats), Hezbollah (12 seats), and the Progressive Socialist Party (7 seats), as well as seven other minor parliamentary parties (who between them have 16 seats). The FPM party promotes secularism, the rights of Lebanese expatriates, proportional representation, and a relatively high minimum wage. The party's support base is overwhelmingly from Lebanon's Christian community, but includes a small number of Shia Muslims. For many years, while Aoun was exiled in Paris, he led the FPM from abroad. He returned to Lebanon on May 7, 2005 after the Cedar Revolution forced the withdrawal of the Syrian forces, and then contested the legislative elections held in late May
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    43
    Hezbollah

    Hezbollah

    Hezbollah (Arabic: حزب الله‎ ḥizbu-llāh, literally "Party of God") is a Shi'a Muslim militant group and political party based in Lebanon. It receives financial and political support from Iran and Syria, and its paramilitary wing is regarded as a resistance movement throughout much of the Arab and Muslim worlds. The United States, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, Australia, Canada and Israel classify Hezbollah as a terrorist organization, in whole or in part. Hezbollah first emerged in response to the 1982 Israeli invasion of Lebanon, during the Lebanese civil war. Its leaders were inspired by Ayatollah Khomeini, and its forces were trained and organized by a contingent of Iranian Revolutionary Guards. Hezbollah's 1985 manifesto listed its four main goals as "Israel's final departure from Lebanon as a prelude to its final obliteration," ending "any imperialist power in Lebanon," submission of the Phalangists to "just rule" and bringing them to trial for their crimes, and giving the people the chance to choose "with full freedom the system of government they want," while not hiding its commitment to the rule of Islam. Hezbollah leaders have also made numerous statements calling
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    44

    Islamic Group

    The Islamic Group (Arabic: الجماعة الإسلامية Al-Jama'ah Al-Islamiyah‎) is a Sunni Islamist group or gathering in Lebanon. Jamaa Islamiya was founded in 1952 as the Lebanese branch of the Muslim Brotherhood. Its leader is Faisal Mawlawi. The party has a military wing known as the al-Fajr Forces. Lately, it entered the Lebanese general election, 2009 beside Future Movement in Beirut 3 district. Currently they have one seat in the Lebanese Parliament.
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    45
    Kataeb Party

    Kataeb Party

    The Lebanese Phalanges (Arabic: حزب الكتائب اللبنانية, Hizb Al-Kata’eb Al-Loubnaniyya), better known in English as the Phalange (Arabic: Kata'eb), is a traditional right-wing political-paramilitary organization. Although it is officially secular, it is mainly supported by Maronite Christians. The party played a major role in the Lebanese War (1975–90). In decline in the late 1980s and 1990s, the party slowly re-emerged since the early 2000s (decade). It is now part of the March 14 Alliance, opposed to the March 8 Alliance, led by Hezbollah, and the Free Patriotic Movement. The Lebanese Social Democratic Party is also known as Phalanges Libanaises in French and either Kataeb (الكتائب اللبنانية Al-Kata’eb Al-Lubnaniyya) or 'Phalangist Party' (Hezb al-Kata’eb al-Lubnaniyya) in Arabic. Kataeb is the plural of Katiba which is a translation into Arabic of the Greek word phalanx ("battalion") which is also the origin of the Spanish term Falange. The Kataeb party was Formed in 1936 as a Maronite paramilitary youth organization by Pierre Gemayel who modeled the party after Spanish Falange and Italian Fascist parties he had observed as an Olympic athlete during the 1936 Summer Olympics held
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    46

    Popular Nasserist Organization

    The Popular Nasserist Organization – PNO (Arabic: التنظيم الشعبي الناصري | Al-Tanzim al-Sha’aby al-Nassery) or Organisation Populaire Nassérienne (OPN) in French, is a Sidon-based Nasserist party originally formed in 1973 by Maarouf Saad, a Sunni Pan-Arab politician and member of Parliament (MP) later killed by the Lebanese Army during a February 1975 dock strike held in that port city. The PNO’s military wing, the National Liberation Army – NLA (Arabic: Jayish al-Tahrir al-Watani) or Armée de Liberation Nationale (ALN) was first raised in March 1975 at Sidon by Mustafa Saad, son of the late Maarouf. Trained and armed by Fatah, the NLA was initially financed by Yasser Arafat’s organization and Libya, later replaced in the mid-1980s by the Sidon-born Saudi-Lebanese millionaire Rafic Hariri. A small but disciplinated fighting force, the NLA comprised some 500-1000 uniformed Male and Female fighters organized into conventional 'Commando', Infantry, Signals, and Military Police branches. It fielded a 'mechanized' corps provided with a single UR-416 armoured car seized from the Lebanese Forces in 1985, plus 40 all-terrain vehicles (Land-Rover, Toyota Land Cruiser and GMC light pickups)
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    47

    Al Badil Al Taharouri

    Al Badil Al Taharouri (The Anarchist Alternative) is a Lebanese anarchist organization. It is linked to the French anarchist group Alternative libertaire. Another name commonly used is Al Badil Al Chouyouii Al Taharouri (The Anarcho-Communist Alternative) or Alternative Communiste Libertaire.
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    48

    Nasserist Unionists Movement

    The Nasserist Unionists Movement – NUM or Nasserite Unification Movement (Arabic: حركة الوحدويين الناصريين‎; Al-Harakat Al-Tawhidiya Al-Nassiriya) is a minor Lebanese political party headed by Samir Sabbagh. It was founded in 1982 out from a splinter faction of the INM/Al-Murabitun, originally under the label Movement of Unionist Nasserites – MUN (Arabic: Harakat al-Wihdawiyin al-Nasiriyin). The NUM aims to unify all Lebanese Nasserite parties under one leadership and is currently a member of the pro-Syrian March 8 Alliance.
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    49

    Organization of Lebanese Socialists

    The Organization of Lebanese Socialists (Arabic: منظمة الاشتراكيين اللبنانيين‎) was a political organization in Lebanon. The organization was led by Muhsin Ibrahim and Muhammed Kishli. It had its roots in the Lebanese branch of the Arab Nationalist Movement (ANM), a radical pan-Arab movement. During the 1960s Ibrahim was a leading figure in the leftist tendency with the ANM. This tendency, led by Naif Hawatmeh, argued that the ANM ought to adopt a Marxist outlook. This was opposed by the top ANM leader George Habash who, although being open to introducing Marxist concepts like imperialism into the discourse of the ANM, wanted to retain the anti-Communist character of the organization. As the central leadership of ANM had shifted to Damascus, the Lebanese branch began to function more autonomously. The official ANM organ al-Hurriya ('Freedom'), of which Ibrahim had become editor in 1960, became a de facto mouthpiece for the Marxist sector. In 1968 the Lebanese branch of ANM broke its links to the mother organization, and renamed itself as the Organization of Lebanese Socialists. The viewpoint of the Organization of Lebanese Socialists on the split were formulated in the pamphlet
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