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Most famous Companies from France

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    Union for a Popular Movement

    Union for a Popular Movement

    The Union for a Popular Movement (French: Union pour un Mouvement Populaire French pronunciation: [y.njɔ̃.pu.ʁœ̃.muv.mɑ̃.pɔ.py'lɛʁ] ; UMP French pronunciation: [y.ɛm'pe]) is a centre-right political party in France, being one of the two major contemporary political parties in the country along with the center-left Socialist Party (PS). The UMP was formed in 2002 as a merger of several centre-right parties under President Jacques Chirac. The party enjoys an absolute majority in the National Assembly, while the plurality in the Senate is held by the Socialists and their allies. Jean-François Copé is the party secretary-general. The UMP is a member of the European People's Party (EPP), the Centrist Democrat International (CDI) and the International Democrat Union (IDU). The former leader of the UMP, Nicolas Sarkozy, was elected President of France in the 2007 presidential election, but was defeated by Socialist François Hollande in a run-off five years later. Since the 1980s, the political groups of the parliamentary right joined forces around the values of economic liberalism and the building of Europe. Their rivalries had contributed to their defeat in the 1981 and 1988
    8.50
    6 votes
    3

    Rally of Republican Lefts

    The Rally of Republican Lefts (Rassemblement des gauches républicaines or RGR) was an electoral alliance during the French Fourth Republic composed of the Radical Party, the Independent Radicals, the Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance (UDSR) and several conservative groups. Headed by Jean-Paul David, founder of the anti-Communist movement Paix et Liberté (Peace and Freedom), it was in fact a right-of-center conservative coalition, which presented candidates to the June 1946, November 1946, and 1951 legislative elections. Despite its name, the coalition was on the right wing of French politics; for a long time, the French republican right has refused to call itself "right" since the right-wing in France has historically been associated with monarchism (this practice is known as sinistrisme). It was subsided by French employers, who saw in it the best defense against Communism and the defender of economic liberalism, in a context marked by various nationalizations supported by the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Gaullist movement. Employers conceived the RGR as such until at least the 1951 creation of the
    9.00
    5 votes
    4

    Republican Party

    The Republican Party (Parti républicain, PR) was a French right-wing political party founded in 1977. It replaced the National Federation of the Independent Republicans that was founded in 1966. It was created by future President of France, Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. It was known to be conservative in domestic, social and economic policies, pro-Nato, and pro-European. In 1978, the Republican Party allied with centrist groups to form the Union for French Democracy (Union pour la démocratie française, UDF), a confederation created in order to support President Giscard d'Estaing and counterbalance the influence of the Rally for the Republic over the right. However, after Giscard d'Estaing's defeat at the 1981 presidential election, the PR gravitated away from its founder and a new generation of politicians, led by François Léotard, took the lead. This group called la bande à Léo ("Léo(tard)'s band"), advocated an alliance with the Neo-Gaullist Rally for the Republic (RPR) and covertly supported Jacques Chirac's candidacy at the 1988, against the official UDF candidate Raymond Barre. During the 1995 presidential campaign, the PR divided again between the two main right-wing candidates:
    7.00
    6 votes
    5

    New Anticapitalist Party

    The New Anticapitalist Party (French: Nouveau Parti anticapitaliste, NPA) is a French political party founded in February 2009. Its name was originally intended to be temporary; a vote on the name being held at the founding congress on 6–8 February 2009, where NPA won over "Revolutionary Anticapitalist Party" (Parti anticapitaliste révolutionnaire) with 53% of the vote. The party (9,200 members) is intended to unify the fractured movements of the French radical Left, and attract new activists drawing on the relative combined strength of far-left parties in presidential elections in 2002, where they achieved 10.44% of the vote, and 2007 (7.07%). The party is closely associated with Olivier Besancenot, the main spokesman of the former strongest far left party, the Revolutionary Communist League (LCR). In March 2011, Myriam Martin and Christine Poupin were elected the main spokespersons of the NPA. In the 2012 presidential election Philippe Poutou came eighth in the first round with 411,160 votes, 1.15% of the total votes. At the founding conference (6 to 8 February 2009), 630 delegates voted on a series of documents, which had gone through a long process of amendment and re-amendment
    8.00
    5 votes
    6

    Popular Republican Movement

    The Popular Republican Movement (Mouvement Rᅢᄅpublicain Populaire or MRP) was a French Christian democratic party of the Fourth Republic. Its leaders included Georges Bidault, Robert Schuman, Paul Coste-Floret, Pierre-Henri Teitgen and Pierre Pflimlin. The most successful Christian Democratic party in France, the MRP was founded in 1944 by Bidault and other Catholic activists who participated in the anti-Nazi underground Resistance during the Second World War. The party was initially quite successful and participated in most of the governments of France's Fourth Republic (1946-1958). Unlike its Christian Democratic counterparts in Germany and Italy, however, the MRP's vote totals precipitously declined in later elections. The revival of pre-war conservative leaders and parties as well as the emergence of Gaullism in 1947 as an alternative to the center-left governments that dominated France immediately after the war deprived the MRP of many conservative voters who had reluctantly tolerated the party's domestic program of social welfare legislation and state-directed economic planning because it was the most powerful counter-weight immediately after the war to France's
    7.40
    5 votes
    7

    Social Democratic Party

    The Social Democratic Party (Parti social-démocrate, PSD) was a French centrist social-democratic party. Originally named Democratic Socialist Movement of France (Mouvement démocrate socialiste de France, MDSF), it was founded in 1973, by a split from the Socialist Party. Its founders (among them Max Lejeune, André Santini, Pierre-Cristophe Baguet, Charles Baur, Émile Muller, Joseph Klifa and Auguste Locoeur) opposed to the alliance with the French Communist Party arranged by François Mitterrand on behalf of the Socialist Party based on the Common Programme. In 1978, it joined the Union for French Democracy, the center-right confederation created in order to support President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. In 1995, it merged with the Centre of Social Democrats, the Christian-democratic component of the confederation, to form Democratic Force.
    8.50
    4 votes
    8

    Union of Democrats for the Republic

    The Union for the Defence of the Republic (1968–1971, French: Union pour la défense de la République) or Union of Democrats for the Republic (1971–1976, French: Union des Démocrates pour la République), commonly abbreviated UDR, was a Gaullist political party of France from 1968 to 1976. It was the successor to Charles de Gaulle's earlier party, Rally of the French People, and was organised in 1958, along with the founding of the Fifth Republic as the Union for the New Republic (UNR), and in 1962 merged with the Democratic Union of Labour, a left-Gaullist group. In 1967 it was joined by some Christian Democrats to form the Union of Democrats for the Fifth Republic, later dropping the 'Fifth'. After the May 1968 crisis, it was renamed Union for the Defense of the Republic (UDR); it was subsequently renamed Union of Democrats for the Republic, retaining the abbreviation UDR, in 1971. It survived de Gaulle's death by only six years. It dissolved in 1976, and its successor was Jacques Chirac's Rally for the Republic.
    7.00
    5 votes
    9

    Democratic Republican Alliance

    The Democratic Republican Alliance (Alliance démocratique, AD, or Alliance républicaine démocratique, ARD) was a French political party (1901–1978) created in 1901 by followers of Léon Gambetta, such as Raymond Poincaré who would be president of the Council in the 1920s. The party was at first conceived by members of the Radical-Socialist Party tied to the business world who united themselves in May 1901, along with many moderates, as gathering center-left liberals and Republicans "opportunists" (Gambetta, etc.). However, after World War I and the parliamentary disappearance of monarchists and Bonapartists, it quickly became the main center-right party of the Third Republic. It was part of the National Bloc right-wing coalition which won the elections after the end of the war. The ARD successively took the name Parti Républicain Démocratique (Democratic Republican Party, PRD) then Parti Républicain Démocratique et Social ("Social and Republican Democratic Party"), before becoming again the AD. The ARD was completely discredited after Vichy's collaborationist regime, an option strongly supported by its major leader Pierre-Étienne Flandin and other members such as Joseph Barthélémy.
    6.80
    5 votes
    11

    Liberal Democratic Party

    The Liberal Democratic Party (French: Parti libéral démocrate), abbreviated to PLD, is a classical liberal political party in France. It was founded in 2008 by a split in the Liberal Alternative. It seeks to fulfil the same role as the former Liberal Democracy, uniting supporters of Alain Madelin. In the 2010 regional elections, the PLD were allied to Liberal Alternative and the Centrist Alliance. In the 2012 presidential election, the PLD didn't run its own candidate, but endorsed François Bayrou in the first round and Nicolas Sarkozy in the second round. In the 2012 legislative election, the party ran some of its own candidates, but also endorsed a number of Miscellaneous right, Union for a Popular Movement, Centrist Alliance, and Democratic Movement candidates.
    6.60
    5 votes
    12
    Democratic Movement

    Democratic Movement

    The Democratic Movement (French: Mouvement démocrate French pronunciation: [muv.mɑ̃.de.mɔ'kʁat] ; MoDem French pronunciation: [mɔ'dɛm]) is a centrist, social liberal and pro-European French political party that was founded by centrist politician François Bayrou to succeed his Union for French Democracy (UDF) and to contest the 2007 legislative election, after his strong showing in the 2007 presidential election. Initially named the Democratic Party (Parti démocrate), the party was renamed "Democratic Movement", because there was already a small Democratic Party in France. Traditionally, the UDF had always supported centre-right governments since its creation by Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. The UDF aligned itself with the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) following its creation in 2002, and even took part in the government coalition in the Senate from 2002 to 2007, though it did not participate in the Cabinet (except for Gilles de Robien). However, during the second term of Jacques Chirac, the UDF became increasingly independent of the UMP. On the initiative of its leader François Bayrou, it eventually supported a censure motion along with the Socialist Party. During the 2007
    6.40
    5 votes
    13

    Proletarian Unity Party

    The Party of Proletarian Unity (French: Parti de l'Unité Prolétarienne, PUP) was a French socialist political party. It was formed on December 21, 1930 by leftists expelled from the French Communist Party (PCF), together with some who had previously belonged to the left-wing of the Section française de l'Internationale ouvrière (SFIO). Its members were known in France as pupistes, and one of its notable leaders was Alexandre Edmond Bachelet. Owing to proportional representation, it at one time had ten seats in the Chamber of Deputies of the Third Republic. The PUP affiliated to the London Bureau of left-socialist parties. On January 31, 1937, it voted to rejoin the SFIO.
    6.40
    5 votes
    14

    Bloc identitaire

    The Bloc Identitaire is a far-right wing French nationalist political group. It was founded in 2003 by some former members of Unité Radicale and several other nationalist sympathizers, including Fabrice Robert, former Unité Radicale member, former elected representative of the National Front (FN) and also former member of the National Republican Movement (MNR), and Guillaume Luyt, former member of the monarchist Action française, former Unité Radicale member, former director of the youth organization of the FN (FNJ). Luyt claims inspiration by Guillaume Faye's works in the Nouvelle Droite movement. The Bloc Identitaire aims to be a "rally for young French and Europeans who are proud of their roots and of their heritage". It opposes miscegenation and "imperialism, whether it be American or Islamic". The Bloc identitaire runs the nationalist press agency and website Novopress, that has associates in most of Western Europe and North America. The Bloc identitaire has been accused of intentionally distributing several popular soups containing pork in order to exclude religious Jews or Muslims; in Strasbourg, Nice, Paris, and in Antwerp with the association Antwerpse Solidariteit close
    7.50
    4 votes
    15

    Renouveau français

    Renouveau français (literally "French renewal") is a French far-right nationalist political party affiliated with the European National Front, founded in November 2005. Renouveau français politically defines itself as nationalist, Catholic and "counterrevolutionary" — in this case, reactionary opposition to the principles of the French Revolution of 1789. Nevertheless, the organisation has a tricolour logo and claims to defend the "French nation". Renouveau français describes itself as a "structure for reflexion, formation and information, outside the electoralist framework, independent from all political formations and from all cleavages". Renouveau français is coordinated by a directorial committee and has regional branches in Île-de-France, Brittany, Anjou, Normandy, Vendée, Toulouse and Alsace. They claim several hundred members and "thousands" of sympathisers. Renouveau français describes itself as "nationalist", defining the notion as "defence of vital interests of France and the French, without any hatred". Renouveau français is monarchist and rejects freemasonry and lobbyist organizations, as well as Marxism and Classical Liberalism. The organisation claims to be the heir
    7.50
    4 votes
    16

    Société Française d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique

    The Société Française d'Astronomie et d'Astrophysique (SF2A) is a French society of professional (and a few amateur) astronomers. It was officially created on November 15, 1978, with Raymond Michard as the first president. The main goal of the society is to support and promote the French astronomical community at the government level. Its current membership is about 500, under the presidency of astronomer Fabienne Casoli. Each year the SF2A awards a scientific prize to a junior researcher, who must be younger than 36 and who must hold a permanent research position. The SF2A also edits a directory listing all the French astronomers. An annual meeting is organized that supports the communication of recent research results by young astronomers, the debate of more political issues related to astronomy, and the gathering of the various members of the French astronomical community.
    7.50
    4 votes
    17

    Rally for the Republic

    The Rally for the Republic (French: Rassemblement pour la République French pronunciation: [ʁa.sɑ̃.blə.mɑ̃.puʁ.la.ʁe.py'blik] ; RPR French pronunciation: [ɛr.pe'ɛr]), was a French right-wing political party. Originating from the Union of Democrats for the Republic (Union des Démocrates pour la République, UDR), it was founded by Jacques Chirac in 1976 and presented itself as the heir of Gaullism. On 21 September 2002, the RPR was merged into the Union for the Presidential Majority (Union pour la majorité présidentielle), later renamed the Union for a Popular Movement (Union pour un mouvement populaire, UMP). In 1974, the divisions in the Gaullist movement permitted the election of Valéry Giscard d'Estaing to the Presidency of the French Republic. Representing the pro-European and Orleanist centre-right, he was the first non-Gaullist rising to the head of the state since the beginning of the Fifth Republic in 1958. However, the Gaullist Party remained the main force in parliament and Jacques Chirac was appointed Prime Minister. Chirac resigned in August 1976 and in December 1976 the RPR was created in order to restore the Gaullist domination over the republican institutions. Though
    9.00
    3 votes
    18

    New Centre

    New Centre (Nouveau Centre, NC), also known as the European Social Liberal Party (Parti Social Libéral Européen, PSLE) is a centre-right political party in France, formed by the members of the Union for French Democracy (UDF) – including a majority of former parliamentarians (18 of 29 members of the UDF in the National Assembly) – who did not agree with François Bayrou's decision to found the Democratic Movement (MoDem) and wanted to support the newly elected president Nicolas Sarkozy, continuing the UDF-Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) alliance. Its creation was announced on May 29, 2007 during a press conference. During the legislative elections in June 2007 17 NC deputies were elected, in addition to five unaffiliated deputies elected under the "Majorité Présidentielle" banner. Only three MoDem deputies were elected, even though they won 7.6% of the first round vote and the NC-PSLE won about 2.3%. However, less than one hundred NC candidates were standing, compared to over 500 for the MoDem. Minister of Defense Hervé Morin was elected by the first round in Eure (50.05%), other candidates such as François Sauvadet, Charles de Courson were also elected by the first round. In
    8.67
    3 votes
    19

    Workers and Peasants' Socialist Party

    The Workers and Peasants' Socialist Party (Parti socialiste ouvrier et paysan, PSOP) was an ephemeral socialist organisation in France, formed on June 8, 1938 by Marceau Pivert. Its youth wing was the Workers and Peasants' Socialist Youth (Jeunesses Socialistes Ouvrières et Paysannes - JSOP). It developed out of a left-wing faction that was expelled from the Section Française de l'Internationale Ouvrière (SFIO), and named itself Gauche Révolutionnaire ("Revolutionary Left"). Alongside moderate Marxists, the party grouped Trotskyists (as an outcome of the French Turn) and Luxemburgists (such as René Lefeuvre). Another well-known leader beside Pivert was Daniel Guérin, a figure of Libertarian Socialism. Internationally, PSOP was an affiliate of the London Bureau of left-wing socialist parties, which also included the British Independent Labour Party and the Spanish Workers' Party of Marxist Unification (POUM). Appealing to a minority dissatisfied with both the SFIO and the French Communist Party (PCF), PSOP was a revolutionary socialist party, and had between 8,000 and 10,000 members. It edited the paper Juin 36, named in memory of the 1936 general strike that caused the split
    8.67
    3 votes
    20

    Action Française

    Action Française (French pronunciation: [aksjɔ̃ fʁɑ̃sɛz], French Action. Sometimes referred to by the acronym AF) is a French political movement. The name was also given to a journal associated with the movement. The movement and the journal were founded by Maurice Pujo and Henri Vaugeois in 1899, as a nationalist and anti-Semitic reaction against the intervention of left-wing intellectuals on the behalf of Alfred Dreyfus. Charles Maurras quickly joined Action Française and became its principal ideologist. Under the influence of Maurras, Action Française became monarchist, counter-revolutionary (objecting the legacy of the French Revolution) and anti-democratic, and supported integral nationalism and Catholicism. Shortly after its beginning, Action Française have tried to influence public opinion by turning its journal to a daily newspaper and by creating various organizations. By 1914, Action Française became the best structured and the most vital nationalist movement in France. In the inner-war period, Action Française enjoyed prestige and influence, but its popularity gradually declined, as a result of the rise of fascism and of a rupture in the relations with the Catholic
    7.00
    4 votes
    21
    Revolutionary Communist League

    Revolutionary Communist League

    See Revolutionary Communist League (Belgium) for the other Ligue communiste révolutionnaire. The Revolutionary Communist League (Ligue communiste révolutionnaire) (LCR) was a Trotskyist political party in France. It was the French section of the Fourth International (Post-Reunification). It published the weekly newspaper Rouge and the journal Critique communiste. Established in 1974, it became the leading party of the far left in the 2000s. It officially abolished itself on February 5, 2009 to merge with smaller factions of the far left and form a New Anticapitalist Party. It was founded in 1974, after its forerunner the Communist League (Ligue Communiste) was banned in 1973. The Communist League was itself founded in 1969 after the Revolutionary Communist Youth (Jeunesses Communistes Révolutionnaires), which was banned in 1968, had merged with Pierre Frank's Internationalist Communist Party. The group included members of other Trotskyist tendencies who were able to organise openly within its ranks to gain support for their views. Its official spokespersons were Alain Krivine, Roseline Vachetta, who are former members of the European Parliament, and Olivier Besancenot who was the
    10.00
    2 votes
    22

    Combats Souverainistes

    Combats Souverainistes (French: Sovereignty Fight) was a French euro-sceptic political group. It had three members of the 1999 European Parliament who sat in the Europe of Democracies and Diversities group. Its members are now part of Rally for France (French: Rassemblement pour la France).
    8.00
    3 votes
    23

    Société Française de Psychanalyse

    The Société Française de Psychanalyse (SFP) was a French psychoanalytic professional body formed in 1953, of which Jacques Lacan was a founding member. The early 1950s were a time of growing disagreements within the Société Parisienne de Psychanalyse (SPP), which is a member body of the International Psychoanalytical Association (IPA). The dispute centred around the president Sacha Nacht and the vice-president Lacan and the focal point was Lacan's practice of "short sessions". In January 1953 Lacan became the organisation's president, but in June of the same year, after further disagreement and a vote of no confidence, five members resigned from SPP. One of the consequences of this move was to deprive the new group of membership within the IPA. These five were Lacan, Dolto, Lagache, Favez-Boutonnier and Reverchon-Jouve. They formed a new group, the Société Française de Psychanalyse (SFP) and sought affiliation with the IPA. In the following years a complex process of negotiation was to take place to determine the status of the SFP within the IPA. Lacan’s practice, with his controversial innovation of variable-length sessions, and the critical stance he took towards much of the
    6.50
    4 votes
    24

    Independent Republicans

    The Independent Republicans were a French liberal-conservative political group founded in 1962, which became a political party in 1966 (National Federation of the Independent Republicans). The leader was Valéry Giscard d'Estaing. In 1977 it became the Republican Party which joined the Union for French Democracy the following year. Eventually the Republicans joined the Union for a Popular Movement in 2002. The Independent Republicans came from the liberal-conservative National Center of Independents and Peasants (CNIP). In 1962, the CNIP chose to leave Charles de Gaulle's coalition due to his euro-scepticism and the presidentialisation of the regime. But, the CNIP ministers refused to left the cabinet and the "presidential majority". Under the leadership of the Minister of Economy and Finances Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, they created the group of the Independent Republicans. It was the small partner of the Gaullists which tried to influence the executive's policy in favour of economic liberalism and European federalism. The relation with the Gaullists tensed when Giscard d'Estaing was dismissed from the cabinet in 1966. The group became a political party, the National Federation of
    9.50
    2 votes
    25

    Miscellaneous left

    Miscellaneous left (divers gauche, DVG) in France refers to left-wing candidates that are not member of any large party. They either include small left-wing parties or dissidents expelled from their parties for running against their party's candidate. Numerous divers gauche candidates are elected at a local level, and a smaller number at a national level.
    9.50
    2 votes
    27

    Kanak Socialist Liberation

    The Kanak Socialist Liberation (French: Libération Kanak Socialiste, LKS) is a Kanak pro-independence and socialist political party in New Caledonia, led by Nidoïsh Naisseline. The LKS was founded by a split in the Party of Kanak Liberation (Palika) in 1981. The most radical members of Palika, which had been the base of the party since its creation, walked out criticizing the Palika's increasing moderation and increasing links with the metropolitan French Socialist Party (PS). Led by Nidoïsh Naisseline, a Marxist, it also refused to support Rock Pidjot of the Caledonian Union in the 1981 elections. However, the LKS moderated and it did not participate in the FLNKS-led electoral boycotts in the 1980s. In the 1990s, the party even started co-operating with the anti-independence Rally for Caledonia in the Republic (RPCR) in the Loyalty Islands. Thanks to this alliance, Nidoïsh Naisseline was president of the islands between 1995 and 1999. During this time, the LKS adopted a platform in favour of independence-association and started early negotiations with the loyalists while the FLNKS refused talks until a mining dispute in the North had been settled. The alliance with the RPCR ended
    7.67
    3 votes
    28

    Movement for France

    The Movement for France (French: Mouvement pour la France), abbreviated to MPF, is a French conservative and eurosceptic political party, founded on 20 November 1994, with a marked regional stronghold in the Vendée. It is led by Philippe de Villiers, once communications minister under Jacques Chirac. The party is considered Eurosceptic, though not to the extent of seeking to secede from the Union. In this way it contrasts with some other mainstream eurosceptic parties such as the United Kingdom Independence Party (UKIP). The MPF resists increases in European integration and campaigned for a "no" vote in the 2005 referendum on the European constitution. It is also strongly opposed to the possible admission of Turkey into the European Union and to what it sees as the Islamisation of France. The party is a member of President Nicolas Sarkozy's presidential majority, which gathers the allies of the ruling party Union for a Popular Movement (UMP). Founded in 1994, the party nominated Philippe de Villiers as candidate in the 1995 presidential election. He obtained over a million votes and 4.74% of the popular vote, but failed to pass 5%. In the 1997 legislative election, the MPF joined
    6.25
    4 votes
    29

    Union for French Democracy

    The Union for French Democracy (Union pour la Démocratie Française, UDF) was a French centrist political party. It was founded in 1978 as an electoral alliance to support President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in order to counterbalance the Gaullist preponderance over the right. This name was chosen due to the title of Giscard d'Estaing's 1976 book, French Democracy. The UDF effectively ceased to exist by the end of 2007, and its membership and assets were transferred to its successor party, the Democratic Movement (MoDem). The founding parties of the UDF were the Christian-democratic Centre of Social Democrats (CDS), the conservative liberal Republican Party (PR), the social liberal Radical Party (Rad.), the centre-left Social Democratic Party (PSD) and the centrist Perspectives and Realities Clubs (CPR). The UDF was most frequently a junior partner in coalitions with the Gaullist Rally for the Republic (RPR) and its successor party, the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP). Prior to its dissolution, the UDF became a single entity, due to the defection of Republicans, Radicals and most Christian Democrats to the UMP and the merger of the other centrist components. The party's last
    6.25
    4 votes
    30

    Alsace d'abord

    Alsace d'abord (ADA) (English: Alsace First, Alemannisch:Elsass Zuerst) is a political party seeking autonomy for Alsace in France. The party is considered to be a far-right party by most observers, due to its strong stance against immigration, its opposition to Turkish entry into the European Union and its affirmation of an Alsatian national identity. The party is opposed to French centralizing Jacobin attitudes and favours decentralization, fiscal and political autonomy for Alsace, and bilingualism in the region (Alsatian and French). It is often compared to the stronger Lega Nord in Italy. In the French regional elections, 2004, the party won 9.42% of the vote but failed to win seats. It had 9 seats in the Alsace regional council from 1998 to 2004 due to an electoral system more favourable to smaller parties than the current system, adopted in 2003. The party has one seat in the Haut-Rhin general council, held by Christian Chaton in the canton of Sainte-Marie-aux-Mines. The leader of ADA is Jacques Cordonnier, who replaced Robert Spieler in 2008. Spieler had been a National Front deputy in the French National Assembly between 1986 and 1988.
    7.33
    3 votes
    31

    Algerian People's Party

    The Algerian People's Party (in French, Parti du Peuple Algerien PPA), was a successor organization of the North African Star (Étoile Nord-Africaine), led by veteran Algerian nationalist Messali Hadj. It was formed on March 11, 1937. In 1936, the Etoile Nord Africaine (ENA), its predecessor, had joined the French Front Populaire, a coalition of French leftist political parties in power at the time. The relationship lasted a bit over six months. The Front Populaire dissolved the ENA in January 1937, hence the creation of the PPA two months later. Despite using peaceful methods of protest, the group's members were constantly pursued by the police in France and banned by French colonial authorities in Algeria. From 1938 until 1946, it operated as a clandestine organization. However, it had only moderate activities during World War II. There was also great hope that Algeria would be rewarded for its help in liberating France from the Germans, but in May 1945, a massacre of several thousands local people in Guelma during a WWII victory celebration ended all hopes. Early May 1945, Pierre Gazagne, secretary of the general government headed by Yves Chataigneau, took advantage of his
    7.00
    3 votes
    32
    Occitan Party

    Occitan Party

    The Occitan Party (Occitan: Partit Occitan) is a political party in France. Its aims include greater autonomy for the Occitania region of southern France. The Occitan Party was formed in Toulouse in 1987 through the union of different occitanist movements (Volem Viure al Païs, Païs Nòstre etc.), of candidates to the 1986 regional elections a d of various individuals. The party's aims are: Since 1987, the Occitan Party has contested elections at all levels in different constituencies. In the 1997 parliamentary elections, the POC's best candidates polled 1.8% of the vote. Party members hold office in a few townships, including Saint-Hostien. The Occitan Party takes part in economical or regional development struggles. Its members are active in struggles for the keeping of local jobs, against wholesale tourist commercialization, against the nuclear power industry, and for the preservation of Occitania's natural environment. They also take part in the defence of the Occitan language and identity. The Party's paper, Occitània, comes out every two months. The Occitan Party belongs to the Fédération Régions et Peuples Solidaires federation which brings together different regionalist and
    7.00
    3 votes
    33

    Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front

    The Kanak and Socialist National Liberation Front (French: Front de Libération Nationale Kanak et Socialiste, FLNKS) is a militant socialist pro-independence alliance of political parties in New Caledonia. It was founded in 1984 at a congress of various political parties, mainly indigenous but also of disgruntled and progressive New Caledonians of European descent. The FLNKS is composed of the Caledonian Union (UC) (a center-left formerly multi-ethnic party dating back to the early postwar period) on one hand and the National Union for Independence (UNI) on the other hand. The UNI includes Melanesian Progressive Union (a political movement based on the island's west coast and mainly around the village of Poya, where its founder, the late Edmond Nekiriai hails from), the Oceanian Democratic Rally (a Polynesian (Wallisian-and-Futunian) based party) and the Party of Kanak Liberation (PALIKA), a more radical party founded by left leaning students that came back from France after the May 1968 riots. Both the UC and UNI are of approximately equal size, and with varying rhetoric. However, all support the independence of New Caledonia The party has been divided since the early 1990s
    8.50
    2 votes
    34

    Pole of Communist Revival in France

    The Pole of Communist Revival in France (Pôle de Renaissance Communiste en France, PRCF) is a French political party founded in January 2004. It was a former internal tendency of the French Communist Party (PCF) and left the party, refusing the "mutation" engaged at the beginning of the 1990s. The president-delegate of the PRCF is Leon Landini, the president of the National Political Committee (CPN) is Jean-Pierre Hemmen, the national, directing spokesman political of Communist Initiative, is George Gastaud, and George Hage, a member of parliament for the Nord (departement) and senior of the National Assembly, is the honorary president. The PRCF is organized in associations in the French départements, sections and cells (democratic centralism). It is based on the theory of Scientific Socialism of Karl Marx, Friedrich Engels, Vladimir Lenin and other revolutionists. The PRCF publishes the Initiative communiste ('Communist Initiative') monthly magazine and the theoretical review "Etincelle". The organisation broadcasts a programme Convergence each Monday from 8 to 9 pm on Radio Galère. Its youth wing, "Young People for the Communist Revival in France" (JRCF), took part in 2006 in the
    10.00
    1 votes
    35

    Republican Party of Liberty

    The Republican Party of Liberty (French: Parti républicain de la liberté, PRL) was a right-of-center French political party created at the Liberation and absorbed by the National Centre of Independents and Peasants (CNI) in 1951. It was founded on 22 December 1945 by Joseph Laniel, André Mutter, Édouard Frédéric-Dupont and Jules Ramarony. The PRL's aim was to gather the French conservatives, totally discredited after World War II due to the importance of Collaborators in their ranks and their role during the interwar period. Bernard Frank mocked "this right which suddenly discovered itself a love for the Republic and liberty." The PRL's tentative failed, most conservative leaders trying to conserve their autonomy or to recreate parties of the Third Republic such as the Democratic Alliance, the Republican Federation or the Republican Social Party of French Reconciliation (Parti républicain social de la réconciliation française). The PRL campaigned for the "NO" to the 1946 referendum on the Constitution. It obtained 38 deputies at the 1946 legislative elections. The party was presided by Michel Clemenceau, who obtained 60 votes out of 883 during the 1947 presidential election — under
    10.00
    1 votes
    36

    Third Way

    Third Way (French: Troisième voie) a French Third Position organisation founded in 1985 by a merger of the small neo-fascist Mouvement nationaliste révolutionnaire, which gathered former members of François Duprat's Revolutionary Nationalist Groups (GNR), with dissidents from the Parti des forces nouvelles. Led by Jean-Gilles Malliarakis, the party adopted the slogan of 'neither trusts nor soviets' (ni trusts, ni soviets) and stood against communism, capitalism and Zionism. It used a trident as its emblem. For a time the party was associated with the Groupe Union Défense but maintained a generally poor relationship with the Front National (FN). This was the case until 1991 when Malliarakis decided to approach the FN, leading to a schism within the party from those who felt the FN did not conform to their way of thinking. As a result Christian Bouchet and his followers split off to form Nouvelle Résistance, a group that was to be more National Bolshevik in tone. The Third Way itself remained in the hands of Malliarakis but was dissolved soon after the split. Troisième voie also maintianed links with the white power music scene as Gaël Bodilis, who set up the Rebelles Européens
    10.00
    1 votes
    37

    Republican Front

    The Republican Front was a French center-left coalition which won the 1956 legislative election. In the context of the Algerian War, behind Pierre Mendès-France, it gathered the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO), the Radical Party, the Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance and the National Center of Social Republicans which came from a split of the Gaullist movement. The leader of the SFIO, Guy Mollet became President of the Council. His tenure was the longest of any Premier during the unstable French Fourth Republic. But his harsh policy in Algeria caused a division in the coalition and the resignation of Pierre Mendès-France and of some ministers.
    5.50
    4 votes
    38

    Confédération nationale du travail

    The CNT-F (Confédération nationale du travail) or National Confederation of Labour is a French anarcho-syndicalist union. It was founded in 1946 by Spanish anarcho-syndicalists in exile, and former members of Confédération Générale du Travail-Syndicaliste Révolutionnaire (CGT-SR), its name is derived from the Spanish CNT, the Confederación Nacional del Trabajo. Nowadays, two French organisations share the name CNT: They decline the term anarchist, preferring to call themselves "revolutionary unionist" (syndicalistes révolutionnaires). They accept the terms of the 1906 Charter of Amiens, the Charter of Lyon (1926) and the charter of Paris(1946). They also accept the participation in the professional election and the collaboration with others unions. They define themselves as anarchosyndicalist, while they have clear influences from council communism, worker anarchism of the Federación Obrera Regional Argentina (FORA) and the Situationist International.
    6.67
    3 votes
    39

    Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance

    The Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance (Union démocratique et socialiste de la Résistance or UDSR) was a French political party found at the Liberation and in activity during the Fourth Republic (1947-58). It was a founding member of the Liberal International in 1947. It was founded in 1945 by the non-Communist majority of the resistance network Movement of National Liberation. The project was to create a French labour party with all the former non-Communist Resistance. However, this plan failed because of the rebirth of the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the emergence of the new Christian-Democratic party Popular Republican Movement (MRP) and then of the Gaullist party, Rally of the French People (RPF). Henceforth, the UDSR associated itself with the Radical Party, who had been in government during most of the Third Republic, in the Rally of the Republican Lefts (Rassemblement des gauches républicaines or RGR), which presented itself as an alternative to the tripartisme alliance between the SFIO, the MRP and the French Communist Party (PCF). Its name is a typical example of French sinistrisme, where politicians tended to reject right-wing
    6.67
    3 votes
    40

    Arise the Republic

    Arise the Republic (Debout la République, DLR) is a political party in France that used to be a faction within the ruling Union for a Popular Movement (UMP). The party claims itself to be a traditional Gaullist group. It is led by Nicolas Dupont-Aignan and has two seats in the French National Assembly. Dupont-Aignan failed to win the required 500 endorsements from elected officials to run in the 2007 presidential election. He dropped out without endorsing any candidate, not even UMP candidate and current President Nicolas Sarkozy. However, he was re-elected by the first round of the 2007 legislative election as a DLR candidate in his home department of Essonne. The party is a member of EUDemocrats, a eurosceptic transnational European political party. DLR has little electoral support, and its support is concentrated in Dupont-Aignan's department of Essonne, where the DLR list polled 5.02% in the 2009 European Parliament election and it polled up to 36.14% in his hometown of Yerres The party also polled well in the Île-de-France region (2.44%), the North-West (2.4%) and the East constituency (2.33%). All of these regions include conservative and Gaullist departments. For example, it
    8.00
    2 votes
    41

    Christian Democratic Party

    The Christian Democratic Party (Parti chrétien-démocrate, PCD) is a conservative Christian-democratic party in France. The party was known as the Forum of Social Republicans (FRS) between 2001 and June 2009 before being adopting its current name. Its founder and leader is Christine Boutin. The FRS was established in March 2001 as a social conservative faction within the Christian democratic Union for French Democracy (UDF) and emerged as an independent party in December of the same year, when Boutin announced her candidacy in the French presidential election, 2002, in contrast with UDF leader and official candidate François Bayrou, and was consequently expelled. In 2005, the FRS called for a NO vote in the referendum over the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe. The PCD is a Christian democratic social conservative party, opposed to gay marriage, abortion and euthanasia. The PCD is an associate party of the Union for a Popular Movement and is a member of the Liaison Committee for the Presidential Majority. The party also claims 9,500 members as of 2009.
    8.00
    2 votes
    42

    Democratic Forces of Guiana

    The Democratic Forces of Guiana (French: Forces democratiques de Guyane, or FDG) is a political party in the French overseas région of French Guiana, in South America. The FDG had one Senator until the 2008 elections, Georges Othily who sat in the RDSE group in the Senate. The party is close to the Modern Left.
    8.00
    2 votes
    43
    Guadeloupe Communist Party

    Guadeloupe Communist Party

    The Guadeloupe Communist Party (Parti Communiste Guadeloupéen) is a political party in the French département d'outre-mer of Guadeloupe. The party has one seat in the French National Assembly in the group of the Socialist Party. From April to March 1958 there had been a federation of the French Communist Party. In 1958 the PCG was founded as an independent party at its 1st congress in the town Capesterre. In the elections to the French National Assembly in 1968 PCG has received 37.3% of the popular vote; one of three deputies from Guadeloupe in the French Parliament was a communist. In 1971 PCG occupied significant positions in 10 municipalities Guadeloupe (of 34), including 8 mayors. PCG enjoyed influence in leading trade unions - the General Confederation of Labour of Guadeloupe, and in the Union of Guadelopuean Women. In late 1967, at the initiative of PCG, the Young Communist Union was founded. In 1961 the second party congress of PCG, identified uniting all workers in the struggle for the provision of Guadeloupe internal autonomy within the French republic as the main political task of the party. The third party congress, held in 1964, adopted a political, economic and social
    8.00
    2 votes
    44

    Left Party

    The Left Party (Parti de Gauche, PG) is a French democratic socialist political party. It seeks to emulate the German political party Die Linke led by Klaus Ernst. It was founded in November 2008 by former socialist senator Jean-Luc Mélenchon and deputy Marc Dolez and others dissidents of the party together with the MARS movement (Mouvement pour une Alternative Républicaine et Sociale - Movement for a Republican and Social Alternative). They had left the PS five days earlier, in protest of the result of the Reims Congress vote on motions, where the leftist motion they supported won only 19%. They were joined after by other members from the left of the Socialist Party, by people who hadn't been members of a political party before and by dissidents from the Green Party following the deputy Martine Billard. Around ninety local elected officials (municipal, regional and general councillors), including two municipal councillors in Paris, have also joined the party. The party has met with unions such as the Confédération générale du travail (CGT), Solidaires Unitaires Démocratiques, CGT-FO, and the Confédération Française des Travailleurs Chrétiens. In the 2009 European Parliament
    8.00
    2 votes
    45
    Liberal Democracy

    Liberal Democracy

    Liberal Democracy (Démocratie Libérale, DL) was a French political party that advocated conservative liberalism and liberal conservatism, headed by Alain Madelin. The party replaced in 1997 the Republican Party, which was the classical liberal component of the Union for French Democracy (UDF). It became independent in 1998, after a split from the UDF. The cause of this departure was the election of four UDF president of regional councils with the votes of the National Front elects, which the Liberals refused to condemn. Those who refused to break ranks with UDF launched the Republican Independent and Liberal Pole, which later merged with Democratic Force and the so-called "Direct Adherents", in the New UDF. In the 1999 EU elections DL ran with the RPR list led by Nicolas Sarkozy. However, the pro-European tone of the RPR-DL campaign deceived and the list was placed in third, behind the eurosceptic RPF list led by Charles Pasqua and Philippe de Villiers. DL obtained 4 MEPs: Alain Madelin, Françoise Grossetête, Thierry Jean-Pierre and Hervé Novelli. In the 2002 presidential election, Alain Madelin obtained only 3.91% of the votes. On September 21, 2002, DL merged with the RPR and a
    8.00
    2 votes
    46

    Catalan Workers' Left

    Catalan Workers' Left (in Catalan: Esquerra Català dels Treballadors) was a political party in Northern Catalonia, France. ECT was formed in 1972, with its base in Perpignan. ECT was linked to the Socialist Party of National Liberation (PSAN). In 1977 a group, linked to the Socialist Party of National Liberation - provisional (PSAN-p), broke away from ECT and formed the Socialist Organisation of National Liberation (OSAN). ECT published La Nova Falç. ECT was dissolved in 1981, but many of its cadres continued to work in other political outfits, like Catalan Unity (UC).
    7.50
    2 votes
    47

    Democratic Rally

    Democratic Rally (French: Rassemblement démocrate, RD) is a monarchist political group established in 2004. It aims at converging all those who are attached to the conceptions of modern monarchy and remain faithful to the Capetian dynasty. RD tries to promote a new democracy. The movement is led by souverainist Philippe Cartellier. The RD groups moderate left, centrist and Gaullist monarchists. Calling itself a democratic royalist current (royalist democracy), it has lined with the National Movement led by former Bulgarian monarch Simeon II of Bulgaria.
    7.50
    2 votes
    48

    Federation of the Socialist Workers of France

    France's first socialist party, the Federation of the Socialist Workers of France (Fédération des travailleurs socialistes de France or FTSF), was founded in 1879. It was characterised as "possibilist" because it promoted gradual reforms. After the failure of the Paris commune (1871), French socialism was beheaded. Its leaders were dead or exiled. In 1879, during the Marseille Congress, workers' associations created the FTSF. However, three years later, Jules Guesde and Paul Lafargue (the son-in-law of Karl Marx) left the federation, which they considered too moderate, and founded the French Workers' Party (Parti ouvrier français or POF). The FTSF, led by Paul Brousse, was defined as "possibilist" because it advocated gradual reforms, whereas the POF promoted Marxism. In the same time, Édouard Vaillant and the heirs of Louis Auguste Blanqui founded the Central Revolutionary Committee (Comité révolutionnaire central or CRC), which represented the French revolutionary tradition. In the 1880s, the Socialists knew their first electoral success, conquering some municipalities. Jean Allemane and some FTSF members criticized the focus on electoral goals. In 1890, they split and created
    7.50
    2 votes
    49

    Unified Socialist Party

    The Unified Socialist Party (French: Parti Socialiste Unifié, PSU) was a socialist political party in France, founded on April 3, 1960. It was originally led by Édouard Depreux (from its creation to 1967), and by Michel Rocard (1967–1973). PSU was born through the fusion of the Autonomous Socialist Party (PSA), the Socialist Left Union (UGS), and the group around the journal Tribune du Communisme. The latter was a splinter-group of the French Communist Party (PCF), which had left after the 1956 inner conflict caused by the Soviet invasion of Hungary. The PSA and the UGS was a splinter-group of the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) party, which had left in due to the repressive policy of the SFIO Prime Minister Guy Mollet during the Algerian War of Independence and his support to General Charles de Gaulle's return and the advent of the Fifth Republic under the military pressure. The three groups were closely linked from 1958. In 1961, the newly-formed party was joined by Pierre Mendès-France, after he had left the Radical Party, and by Alain Savary, a former SFIO member as opposed as Mendès-France was to Charles de Gaulle's return to power in the turmoil of the May
    7.50
    2 votes
    50

    Alliance Royale

    Alliance Royale (English: Royal Alliance) is a French political party dedicated to the restoration of the monarchy in France and to increasing debate about the monarchy amongst the general public. The party was established in 2001 using the French symbol of the Fleur-de-lis as a logo, which was originally used by the monarchy in pre-revolutionary France. The party is also marked by its euroscepticism, and seeks to re-establish a constitutional monarchy as an institution that identifies France within European culture. The party was established in 2001 by Yves-Marie Adeline as a popular channel seeking to connect with the public at large in order to widen the debate in France about monarchy, which is not a commonly discussed topic, and to encourage people to see the benefits of constitutional monarchy. The party has established itself with the aim of "encouraging France to prepare her future within her institutions," i.e., the institution of monarchy. The party believes in the restoration of a monarchy as a constitutional body, and although considers the Orleanist pretender to be a viable candidante, does not specify any dynasty that it prefers. The party cites cultural identity
    9.00
    1 votes
    51

    Nouvelle Action Royaliste

    The Nouvelle Action Royaliste (NAR, New Royalist Action), is a monarchist (Orléanist) political movement marked by a will to found a constitutional monarchy in France. The movement has its roots in Action Française, the major French monarchist movement before World War II, which was re-formed by Maurice Pujo in 1947 around the movement Restoration Nationale. In 1971 a breakaway movement, the Nouvelle Action Française was established by Bertrand Renouvin. Soon, the name of this movement was changed to Nouvelle Action Royaliste; Renouvin, arguably “France's most prominent [...] and reasonable monarchist″ is the group's president. The NAR publish in particular a historical review entitled Le Lys rouge and a political semi-monthly Royaliste. The members of the NAR are sometimes described as "royalists of the left", due to close relations to certain ideas defended by the parties of the left. Its leader, Bertrand Renouvin appealed to his supporters to vote for Socialist François Mitterrand in both the 1981 and 1988 presidential elections. In November 1989, the NAR joined the 89 pour l'égalité movement, which campaigned to get voting rights for immigrants alongside SOS Racisme. At the
    9.00
    1 votes
    52

    Parti Communautaire National-Européen

    The Parti communautaire national-européen (PCN) is a Belgium-based political organisation led by Luc Michel, a former member of the Neo-Nazi FANE party. A largely National Bolshevik movement, it also has activists in France. The PCN was founded in 1984 as a successor to the similar Parti Communautaire Européen. The party bases its ideas on those of Jean-François Thiriart, who served as an advisor to Michel for a time after the foundation of the group, and seeks the creation of a single European state stretching entity from Russia to the Atlantic coast. Including activists with origins on both the far right and far left, it seeks to liberate Europe from its 'Yankee and Zionist enemies'. It has also been noted for giving support to controversial world leaders such as Yugoslavia's Slobodan Milošević, Iraq's Saddam Hussein, Libya's Muammar al-Gaddafi and Syria's Hafez al-Assad. The party has, from time to time, contested elections in Belgium and France (without securing elected office), although at the last Belgian elections they told their supporters to vote for the Vlaams Belang. The party is not connected to the European Community Party, a more recent initiative.
    9.00
    1 votes
    53

    Possibilism

    The Possibilists was a trend in the French socialist movement led by Paul Brousse, Benoît Malon and others who brought about a split in the French Workers' Party in 1882. Its leaders proclaimed what was essentially a reformist principle of achieving only what is 'possible', which they claimed was not the workers revolution.
    9.00
    1 votes
    54

    French Confederation of Christian Workers

    The French Confederation of Christian Workers (French: Confédération française des travailleurs chrétiens, CFTC) is one of the five major French confederation of trade unions, belonging to the social Christian tradition. It was created in 1919. In 1964, the union split, a majority founding the CFDT secular trade-union. CFTC is member of International Trade Union Confederation and European Trade Union Confederation. Its leader is Jacques Voisin. The CFTC won 8.69% of the vote in the employee's college during the 2008 professional elections. This result, however, is below the CFTC's 9.65% result in 2002, its best showing to date.
    5.00
    4 votes
    55

    Martinican Communist Party

    The Martinican Communist Party (French: Parti communiste martiniquais) is a political party in the French département d'outre-mer of Martinique. Georges Erichot is the general secretary of the party. The party was founded in September 1957 at the first conference of the Martinique federation of the French Communist Party. Amongst its founders was the communist MP Léopold Bissol. In the early 1960s PCM became the largest party in Martinique. In 1971 the party governed 4 municipalities. The strength of PCM was based on upon its mass organizations; the General Confederation of Labour of Martinique, the Martinican Communist Youth Union and the Union of Martinican Women. PCM conducted extensive work amongst the peasant population. At the time the policy of PCM stressed the specific conditions of the historical development of Martinique, the immediate need of a broad front to fight for autonomy for establishing 'democratic power, under control the masses, while maintaining economic and cultural ties with France'. In 1971 the general secretary of the party was Armand Nicolas. PCM participated in the 1960 and 1969 International Meetings of Communist and Workers Parties held in Moscow. The
    6.00
    3 votes
    57

    Nouvelle Résistance

    Nouvelle Résistance (NR) was a French far right group created in August 1991 by Christian Bouchet as an offshoot of Troisième Voie (Third Way), which was headed by Bouchet. Dissolved in 1997, NR described themselves as "national revolutionary" and part of the National Bolshevism and Third Position movement. It succeeded to the Troisième voie and Jeune Europe, a movement created in the 1960s by Jean-François Thiriart. NR was both anti-Communist and anti-capitalist as well as ecofascist. In 1989, then general secretary of the Troisième Voie, Christian Bouchet stated that there were two possible alternatives: either present themselves as a "National Revolutionary wing/margin of the National Front" or present itself as a "contest movement" which supported "all forms of contest (regional, ecologic, social, popular," etc. . The NR first decided to oppose the National Front "reactionary right" and enacted a policy of "the peripheries against the center," advocating for the creation of an "anti-establishment front," and rejecting left/right division. Bouchet then stated that this strategy had failed, and advocated alliance with Jean-Marie Le Pen's National Front, on a "Less Leftism! More
    4.75
    4 votes
    58
    Étoile Nord-Africaine

    Étoile Nord-Africaine

    The Étoile Nord-Africaine or ENA (French for North African Star) was an early Algerian nationalist organization founded in 1926. It was dissolved first in 1929, then reorganised in 1933 but was later finally dissolved in 1937. It can be considered a forerunner of the Front de Libération Nationale (FLN), who fought France during the Algerian War of Independence (1954–62). It was formed in 1926 by Nationalist politician Messali Hadj and called for an uprising against French colonial rule and total independence. It had no armed wing and attempted to organize peacefully. The party maintained links with the Parti Communiste Français (PCF, the French Communist Party) until the early 1930s, but the connection was later broken when, at the behest of the Comintern, the PCF declared Algerian national independence premature. In 1927, Messali Hadj participated in the creation of the League Against Imperialism. The reorganisation of the ENA in 1933 elected Messali Hadj President, Imache Amar Secretary General and Belkacem Radjef Treasurer. It also voted for an ambitious plan to lead Algeria to independence by peaceful means. The Étoile was dissolved by the French authorities in 1937 and Messali
    7.00
    2 votes
    59

    French Communist Party

    The French Communist Party (French: Parti communiste français, PCF ; French pronunciation: [paʁ.ti.kɔ.my.nist.fʁɑ̃.'sɛ]) is a political party in France which advocates the principles of communism. Although its electoral support has declined in recent decades, the PCF retains a large membership, behind only that of the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP), and considerable influence in French politics: two presidencies of the conseil général, 186 seats in regional parliament, and about 800 mayors. It is one of the most influential parties in France, behind the Socialist Party and the UMP. The PCF remains the largest party in France advocating communist views. Founded in 1920, it participated in three governments: in the provisional government of the Liberation (1944–1947), at the beginning of François Mitterrand's presidency (1981–1984) and in Plural Left's cabinet led by Lionel Jospin (1997–2002). It was also the largest French left-wing party in a number of national elections, from 1945 to the 1970s, before falling behind the Socialist Party (PS) in the 1980s. The PCF has lost further ground to the Socialists since that time. During the course of the Twentieth Century, the French
    7.00
    2 votes
    60

    National Front

    Front national (French pronunciation: [fʁɔ̃.na.sjɔ'nal]) is a nationalist political party in France. The party was founded in 1972, seeking to unify a variety of French far-right currents of the time. Jean-Marie Le Pen was the party's first leader and the undisputed centre of the party from its start until his resignation in 2011. While the party struggled as a marginal force for its first ten years, since 1984 it has been the unrivalled major force of the French far-right. The FN has established itself as the third largest political force in France, after the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) and the Socialist Party (PS). The 2002 presidential election was the first ever in France to include a far-right candidate in the run-off, as Le Pen beat the socialist candidate in the first round. In the run-off, Le Pen nevertheless finished a distant second to Jacques Chirac. Due to the French electoral system, the party's representation in public office has been limited, despite its electoral success. The current leader of the party is Marine Le Pen, who took over from her father in 2011. Its major current policies include economic protectionism, a zero tolerance approach to law and order
    7.00
    2 votes
    61

    The Right

    The Right (La Droite) is a political party in France, founded in 1998 by Charles Millon following his expulsion from the Union for French Democracy due to alliances he formed with the National Front, which allowed him to get elected as president of the Rhône-Alpes regional council. Right-wingers such as Michel Junot, Claude Reichman, Jean-François Touzé, Alain Griotteray and Michel Poniatowski were present at the creation of the movement. After the failure of Millon's project to merge La Droite into Charles Pasqua's Rassemblement pour la France (RPF) and the Centre national des indépendants et paysans (CNI), Millon founded the Liberal Christian Right (Droite libérale chrétienne) in October 1999. However, most members of La Droite refused to join the new party. Only three deputies, including Charles Millon, joined it. The first two of these deputies were beaten at the 2002 legislative election while the last one didn't run himself. In September 2002, Charles Millon was then named ambassador to the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) of the United Nations, while the Millonist group at the Rhône-Alpes regional council (Oui à Rhône-Alpes, ORA) fusionned itself with the Union for a
    5.67
    3 votes
    62

    Parti de l'Ordre

    The Parti de l'Ordre (literally Party of Order) was a French Orleanist and Legitimist conservative political party that existed during the Second Republic. The party won an absolute majority in the 1849 general election and were opposed to the Presidency of Louis-Napoléon Bonaparte, although he included members of the party in his administration in order to court the political center-right. After the coup d'état in December 1851, the party dissolved and its members were exiled. The party enjoyed widespread support in the north of France- in the 1849 elections, the departments of Finistère, Côtes-du Nord, Manche, Calvados, Eure, Somme, Aisne as well as Deux-Sèvres, Vienne, Vaucluse, and Haute-Garonne returned exclusively Parti de l'Ordre members to parliament. Support was lower in the east of the country.
    8.00
    1 votes
    63

    Party of New Forces

    Parti des forces nouvelles (PFN) or Party of New Forces was a French far right political party formed in November 1974 from the Comité faire front, a group of anti-Jean-Marie Le Pen dissidents who had split from the National Front (FN). The group included amongst its early members most of the membership of Ordre Nouveau, which had dissolved not long before the formation of the PFN, Alain Robert (the founder of Occident and the Groupe Union Défense or GUD), the academic Pascal Gauchon, the journalists François Brigneau and Roland Gaucher and the draughtsman Jack Marchal. A youth movement, Front de la jeunesse, was formed, although the party was also closely linked to GUD. Positioned on the far right, the PFN also sought links with the more mainstream right and joined former members of the Organisation de l'armée secrète in campaigning for Valéry Giscard d'Estaing in 1974. The group also launched its own well-produced journal, Initiative nationale, organised protests against the 1977 visit to Paris by Leonid Brezhnev (on the pretext of his support for the Polisario Front, which had taken French hostages) and in 1979 launched the Eurodroite alliance with the Italian Social Movement,
    5.33
    3 votes
    64

    General Confederation of Labour

    The General Confederation of Labour (French: Confédération générale du travail, CGT) is a national trade union center, the first of the five major French confederations of trade unions. It is the largest in terms of votes (32.1% at the 2002 professional election, 34.0% in the 2008 election), and second largest in terms of membership numbers. Its membership decreased to 650,000 members in 1995–96 (it had more than double when François Mitterrand was elected President in 1981), before increasing today to between 700,000 and 720,000 members, a bit less than the Confédération Française Démocratique du Travail (CFDT). According to the historian M. Dreyfus, the direction of the CGT is slowly evolving, since the 1990s, during which it cut all organic links with the French Communist Party (PCF), to a more moderate stance, and concentrating its attention, in particular since the 1995 general strikes, to trade-unionism in private sectors. Most recently in the news for briefly delaying Stage 3 of the Tour de France on July 7, 2008. It was founded in 1895 from the merger of the Fédération des bourses du travail (Federation of Labour Councils) and the Fédération nationale des syndicats
    6.50
    2 votes
    65

    The Greens

    The Greens (French: Les Verts, IPA: [le vɛʁ]; VEC or LV) was a Green political party on the centre-left of the political spectrum in France. They had officially been in existence since 1984, but their spiritual roots could be traced as far back as René Dumont’s candidacy for the presidency in 1974. On November the 13th of 2010, it merged with Europe Écologie to become Europe Ecology – The Greens. Since 1974, the environmentalist movement has been a permanent feature of the French political scene, contesting every election: municipal, national & European. In the years following Dumont’s challenge for the presidency, and prior to the formal confirmation of les Verts as political party, environmentalists contested elections under such banners as Ecology 78, Ecology Europe and Ecology Today. When, in 1982, the Ecologist Party merged with the Ecologist Confederation, les Verts were born. Under the ideological guidance of Antoine Waechter, the party in 1986 signalled a break with the traditional divide in French politics, declaring that environmental politics could not be “married” to either the left or the right (which gave rise to its famous slogan “ni droite, ni gauche” - "neither
    6.50
    2 votes
    66

    Breton Communist Party

    Breton Communist Party (in French: Parti communiste Breton) was a separatist and communist (Maoist-Guevarist) political party in Brittany, France. The group was founded in 1971, and had the historian Kristian Hamon as a notable member. It ceased to exist in 1980.
    6.00
    2 votes
    67

    Guianese Socialist Party

    The Guianese Socialist Party (French: Parti socialiste guyanais, or PSG) is a political party in the French overseas région of French Guiana, in South America. The PSG is currently the majority party in the regional council of French Guiana and has one seat in the French National Assembly, in the group of the Socialist Party; it is aligned with the Left Radical Party.
    6.00
    2 votes
    68

    Marxist–Leninist Communist Organization – Proletarian Way

    The Marxist-Leninist Communist Organization - Proletarian Way (Organisation communiste marxiste-léniniste - Voie prolétarienne or OCML-VP) is a French revolutionary organization formed in 1976, whose political practice is Marxist, Leninist and Maoist. Proletarian Way publish the monthly paper Partisan. The organization takes part in the International Conference of Marxist–Leninist Parties and Organizations (International Newsletter).
    6.00
    2 votes
    69

    Modern Left

    The Modern Left (La Gauche moderne, LGM), is a French centrist political party founded in 2007. The party was founded following the nomination of the former Socialist Senator and Mayor of Mulhouse, Jean-Marie Bockel to the François Fillon government in May 2007. Along with The Progressives of Éric Besson, the Modern Left represents the left wing of the coalition supporting President Nicolas Sarkozy. The party calls itself social liberal and supports a social market economy . In the 2008 local elections, the party obtained around 40 councillors, and Bockel won a narrow re-election in Mulhouse. However, the LGM incumbent in Pau, Yves Uriéta, was defeated. In the 2009 European Parliament election, the party obtained two MEPs on the lists of the Union for a Popular Movement. Both MEPs sit, like all other UMP MEPs, in the group of the centre-right European People's Party The LGM is a member of the Liaison Committee for the Presidential Majority. Jean-Marie Bockel was Mayor of Mulhouse from 1989 to 2010 and the party claims a number of councillors in various cities throughout the country. In addition, Bockel is Secretary of State for Justice and Liberties in the Fillon II government.
    6.00
    2 votes
    70

    Rally for France

    The Rally for France (French: Rassemblement pour la France (RPF), also briefly known in 2003 as Rally for France and European Independence or Rassemblement pour la France et l'Indépendance de l'Europe) is a political party in France of the right. It was founded in 1999 by the current party president, the Gaullist and former Interior Minister Charles Pasqua, then allied with Philippe de Villiers (ex-UDF). The RPF aims to fight against globalisation and European federalism. The party is opposed to further European integration. The acronym RPF was an explicit nod to Charles de Gaulle's Rassemblement du Peuple Français. The new party enjoyed early electoral success when it placed second in the 1999 European Parliament election in France, scoring 13 percent of the vote and winning 13 seats. This placed it behind the Socialist Party but ahead of the established centre-right parties, the Gaullist Rally for the Republic-DL list and the UDF. However Philippe de Villiers' departure in late 2000, in order to refund his Movement for France, severely damaged the party and Pasqua failed to run in the 2002 Presidential elections. The RPF has since suffered several setbacks in various elections
    6.00
    2 votes
    71

    Unité Radicale

    Unité Radicale was a French far-right political group close to the Third Position and National Bolshevism thesis. It was founded in June 1998 from the merger of Groupe Union Défense and Nouvelle Résistance/Jeune Résistance/Union des Cercles Résistance, issued from Nouvelle Résistance, and dissolved on August 6, 2002. The group was led by Christian Bouchet. Unité Radicale was a national-revolutionnary group which was strongly anti-Zionist : one of their slogans was In Gaza or in Paris, intifada (against the perceived Jewish threat). Other political lines included opposing imperialism and the increasingly merchandization of society. They works with the Mouvement national républicain of Bruno Mégret and some members of Unité Radicale where members of the Conseil national of this party. Collaborators to their Web site included former Collaborationist Roland Gaucher, who participated to the 1972 foundation of the National Front, along with Le Pen. At the beginning of 2002, Unité Radicale split. Christian Bouchet departed the movement with his friends, and the group was then led by Fabrice Robert and Guillaume Luyt who gave it a more racist and anti-Muslim outlook. An Unité Radicale
    6.00
    2 votes
    72

    Citizen and Republican Movement

    The Citizen and Republican Movement (Mouvement républicain et citoyen) is a political party in France. The party replaced, in 2002, the Citizens' Movement founded by Jean-Pierre Chevènement, who left the Socialist Party (PS) in 1993 due to his opposition to the Persian Gulf War and to the Maastricht Treaty. It is an euro-sceptic party with leftist aspirations. Chevènement led the list l'autre politique (the Other policy) for 1994 European Parliament election. It included members of left-wing opposition (socialist and communist candidates) to Maastricht treaty, feminists, radicals and Gaullists. The MDC supported the Socialist candidate Lionel Jospin for the 1995 presidential election, then integrated the Gauche plurielle coalition. From 1997 to 2000, it was represented in the government by Chevènement as Interior Minister. In order to prepare the 2002 presidential election, Chevènement created the Pôle républicain, which included a wide range of politicians: radicals, Gaullists, souverainists, socialists. He won over 5% and is sometimes blamed for Jospin's elimination. Its lack of success in the legislative election (losing all 7 MDC deputies elected in 1997) prompted Chevènement
    7.00
    1 votes
    73

    Radical Party of the Left

    The Radical Party of the Left (French: Parti Radical de Gauche, PRG) is a social-liberal moderate centre-left political party in France which advocates radicalism, secularism to its French extent known as laïcité, progressivism, pro-Europeanism, individual freedom and differs mainly from the social democrats of the Socialist Party on advocating private property. The PRG retains some support among middle class voters and in traditional Radical areas in the South West, but it only gains parliamentary representation by courtesy of the Socialist Party, with which it has been in close alliance since 1982, often running joint electoral lists or candidates. The PRG is the major centre-left party in Haute-Corse, Hautes-Pyrénées and in Tarn-et-Garonne. The President of the PRG is Jean-Michel Baylet and its Secretary-General is Elisabeth Boyer. The party's youth wing is the Young Radicals of the Left. The party was formerly a member of the European Liberal Democrat and Reform Party. The party was formed in 1972 by a split from the Republican, Radical, and Radical-Socialist Party, once the dominant party of the French left. It was founded by the Radicals who chose to join the "Union of the
    7.00
    1 votes
    74

    Union of the Socialist Left

    The Union of the Socialist Left (French: Union de la gauche socialiste, UGS) was a French movement of left-wing activists, founded at the end of 1957 by dissidents from the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO); former resistants, until then close to the Communist Party; social Christian trade-unionists (Ligue de la jeune République and the minority of the Confédération Française des Travailleurs Chrétiens (CFTC)). It was the first alliance between social Christians and Marxists. The UGS merged with the Autonomous Socialist Party in 1960 to form the Unified Socialist Party (PSU).
    7.00
    1 votes
    75

    National Centre of Independents and Peasants

    The National Centre of Independents and Peasants (Centre National des Indépendants et Paysans, CNI) is a liberal-conservative and conservative-liberal political party in France, founded in 1949 by the merger of the National Centre of Independents (the heir of the French Republican conservative-liberal tradition, many party members came from the Democratic Republican Alliance) with the Peasant Party and the Republican Party of Liberty. The CNI and its predecessors were classical liberal and economically liberal parties opposed to the dirigisme of the left, centre and Gaullist right. It participated in the Third Force coalition, and took a major role in government at the beginning of the 1950s. Antoine Pinay, its most popular figure, was Prime Minister in 1952, followed by Joseph Laniel from 1953-1954. It elected René Coty as President of France in 1953. It declined after the Dien Bien Phu military disaster in Indochina in 1954. In 1958, it supported Charles de Gaulle's comeback and approved the constitution of the Fifth Republic. Between 1958 and 1962 the CNIP was the second largest political party and Antoine Pinay was Minister of the Economy until 1960. However, the party
    5.50
    2 votes
    76

    National Republican Movement

    The National Republican Movement (Mouvement National Républicain or MNR) is a French nationalist political party, created by Bruno Mégret with former Club de l'Horloge alumni, Yvan Blot (also a member of GRECE) and Jean-Yves Le Gallou, as a split from Jean-Marie Le Pen's National Front on January 24, 1999. Although political observers have considered the MNR to be a far-right party, the MNR presents itself as classical liberal and nationalist. It opposes immigration, Islamisation, and the European Union, but, unlike the National Front, supports free markets and neoliberalism. Mégret has tried in the past to distance himself from Le Pen's provocative statements, in particular concerning Holocaust denial. In 2001, a call for reconciliation between the two parties was endorsed by Roland Gaucher. Pierre Vial left the MNR in October 2001, Bruno Mégret having expressed solidarity with the US after the September 11, 2001 attack on the World Trade Center. Initially, Bruno Mégret was the chairman, with Serge Martinez vice-chairman, Jean-Yves Le Gallou, executive director and Franck Timmermans secretary-general. Other notable members of the party included Jean Haudry, Pierre Vial,
    5.50
    2 votes
    77

    Program for Appropriate Technology in Health

    PATH is an international nonprofit organization that creates sustainable, culturally relevant solutions, enabling communities worldwide to break longstanding cycles of poor health. By collaborating with diverse public- and private-sector partners, we help provide appropriate health technologies and vital strategies that change the way people think and act. Our work improves global health and well-being.
    5.50
    2 votes
    78

    Radical Party

    The Radical Party (Parti radical, also called Parti radical valoisien) is a French liberal party of the center-right, which is the inheritor of the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party founded in 1901. The Parti radical valoisien was created in 1971 following the split between the left-wing of the Radicals, who formed the Left Radical Party (PRG), and the right-wing, who created the Parti radical valoisien. The Radical Party had lost much of its influence after World War II, despite Pierre Mendᅢᄄs-France's attempts to revitalize it by anchoring it to the left-wing. On 29 October 1969, Jean-Jacques Servan-Schreiber, issued from the left-wing, became its leader and was the craftsman of its definitive shift to the right-wing. In 1971, a minority of the old Radical Party who wanted to be a part of the left-wings Common Program spinned-out to create the Movement of the Left Radicals (MRG). They would support the candidate of the left-wings, Franᅢᄃois Mitterrand, at the 1974 presidential election. Henceforth, the classic Radical Party began to be known as "Valoisien," from the location of its national headquarters at the Place de Valois in Paris, in order to distinguish
    5.50
    2 votes
    79

    Decolonization and Social Emancipation Movement

    The Decolonization and Social Emancipation Movement (French: Mouvement de décolonisation et d'émancipation sociale) (abbreviated: MDES) is a political party for independence in French Guiana. It is generally a party of the far left. The principle platform of the party is the demand for independence of Guiana, currently an overseas region and one of the 26 regions of France. They also consider the possibility of becoming an overseas territory, which is different from an Overseas region. In 1998, the MDES obtained 3 seats in the regional elections with 8.6% of the vote. But in the 2004 regional elections, the MDES list put forward by Maurice Pindard obtained only 6.55% of the vote and no seats.
    5.00
    2 votes
    80
    Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Tradition

    Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Tradition

    Hunting, Fishing, Nature, Tradition (French: Chasse, Pêche, Nature, Traditions French pronunciation: [ʃas.pɛʃ.na.tyʁ.e.tʁa.di'sjɔ̃] ; abbreviated as CPNT French pronunciation: [se.pe.ɛn'te]) is an agrarianist French political party which aims to defend the traditional values of rural France. Its current leader is Frédéric Nihous. The party states it is neither right or left but represents rural people on the whole in their diversity. The party is a member of the Presidential Majority of Nicolas Sarkozy. Formed in 1985, it contested both the European elections of 1989 and 1994 without success. In 1999, it obtained six seats, led by Jean Saint-Josse who was at the top of the list. It lost all representation at the following election to the European Parliament in 2004, when it obtained less than the minimum 3% of votes that allow a party to be reimbursed for campaign expenses. Consequently, it faced a deficit of 300,000 euros. At one stage, it had 32 regional councillors, but lost all of them in that same year. After these problems, most members of the CPNT have joined the Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) or the Movement for France, but the party is still in existence, and nominated
    5.00
    2 votes
    81
    Pluralist Left

    Pluralist Left

    The Pluralist Left (Gauche Plurielle) is a political party in the French département d'outre-mer of Guadeloupe. The party has one seat in the French National Assembly in the group of the Socialist Party
    5.00
    2 votes
    82

    ADFE-Français du Monde

    The Français du Monde - ADFE, also known as Association démocratique des Français de l'étranger - Français du Monde (Association of French people overseas - French of the World), ADFE-FdM, ADFE and Français du Monde, is a French political and cultural group with a worldwide presence. It was established in 1980 to support abroad the candidacy of François Mitterrand to the Presidency of the French Republic, and was quite active in obtaining in 1982 the right for French citizens living overseas to elect their own representatives to a consultative assembly, the Conseil Superieur des Français de l'Etranger (CSFE), the denomination of which was modified in 2004 in "Assemblée des Français de l'étranger" (AFE), electing twelve senators to the French Senate. One of its main proposals, to allow French citizens overseas to elect members of the National Assembly of France, has been accepted and will become reality in 2012. The ADFE is one of the three groupings in the AFE with 56 of the 155 elected members, and has chosen three of the twelve senators representing French people abroad. While the groups in the AFE are not affiliated directly with French political parties, the ADFE is definitely
    6.00
    1 votes
    83

    Corps de l'INSEE

    The Corps of INSEE (Corps de l'INSEE) is a great technical corps of the French state. It is formed of the public servant Administrateurs de l'INSEE who on majority work for INSEE or in the French Ministry of Economy. People entering the Corps are educated at the ENSAE. Most of them are from École Polytechnique; these are known as X-INSEE; the rest come from École Normale Supérieure, regular curriculum of the ENSAE,ENSAI or via internal promotion.
    6.00
    1 votes
    84

    United Guadeloupe, Socialism and Realities

    The United Guadeloupe, Socialism and Realities (French: Guadeloupe unie, socialisme et réalités, GUSR) is a political party in the French département d'outre-mer of Guadeloupe. The party is close the Modern Left and used to have one Senator sitting in the European Democratic and Social Rally. The party has one seat in the French National Assembly in the group of the Socialist Party; it is aligned with the Left Radical Party.
    4.00
    3 votes
    85

    Republican Federation

    The Republican Federation (French: Fédération républicaine, 1903–1940) was the largest conservative party during the French Third Republic, gathering together the liberal Orleanists rallied to the Republic. Founded in November 1903, it rivalized with the more secular and centrist Alliance démocratique (Democratic Alliance). Later, most deputies of the Fédération républicaine and of Action libérale (which included Catholics rallied to the Republic) joined the Entente républicaine démocratique right-wing parliamentary group. The Republican Federation was founded in November 1903 to gather the right-wing of the moderate Republicans (aka Opportunists) who opposed both Waldeck Rousseau's Bloc des gauches (Left-wing Block), his alliance with the Radical-Socialist Party and, for some of them, the defense of the Jewish officer Alfred Dreyfus. These conservative Republicans were ideologically indebted to Jules Méline, Alexandre Ribot, Jean Casimir-Perier or Charles Dupuy. They represented the Republican bourgeoisie, closely connected to business circles and opposed to social reform. Furthermore, they were fond of a relative decentralisation, thus enrolling themselves in the legacy of the
    4.50
    2 votes
    86

    Revolutionary Internationalist Action Groups

    The Groupes d'action révolutionnaire internationalistes (GARI) were an anti-imperialist group in France in the 1970s. Based mainly in the south, around Toulouse, it formed after the execution by the Francoist regime of the Catalan anarchist Salvador Puig Antich and was close to Spanish anti-fascists. Several GARI members, among whom Jean-Marc Rouillan, a former member of the Movimiento Ibérico de Liberación, or MIL (as was Salvador Puig Antich), would then create the leftist militant group Action directe.
    4.50
    2 votes
    87
    4.50
    2 votes
    88

    Third Force

    The Third force (Troisième force in French) was a coalition which governed in France from 1947 to 1952. It was composed of center-left and center-right parties in order to defend the Fourth Republic faced with the French Communist Party (PCF) and Charles de Gaulle's Rally of the French People (RPF). The parties-members were the French Section of the Workers' International (socialist party, SFIO), the Christian democratic Popular Republican Movement (MRP), the Radical Party, the National Center of Independents and Peasants and the Democratic and Socialist Union of the Resistance.
    5.00
    1 votes
    89

    Independent Workers' Party

    The Independent Workers' Party (Parti ouvrier indépendant, POI) is a French far-left political party founded in June 2008 after the dissolution of its predecessor, the Workers' Party. It claims 10,071 members. Amongst its four General Secretaries are former presidential candidates Gérard Schivardi and Daniel Gluckstein.
    4.00
    1 votes
    90

    Workers' Communist Party of France

    The Workers' Communist Party of France (French: Parti Communiste des Ouvriers de France, PCOF), is a minor French Marxist-Leninist political party. The PCOF was established in 1979. It supported the political line of the Party of Labour of Albania. The organization publishes a monthly newspaper called La Forge. The PCOF is an active participant in the International Conference of Marxist-Leninist Parties and Organizations (Unity & Struggle).
    4.00
    1 votes
    91

    Action directe

    Action directe (AD) was a French revolutionary group which committed a series of assassinations and violent attacks in France between 1979 and 1987. Members of Action directe considered themselves libertarian communist who had formed an "urban guerrilla organization". The French government banned the group. Action directe was set up in 1977 by two other groups, GARI (Groupes d'Action Révolutionnaire Internationalistes, revolutionary internationalist action groups) and NAPAP (Noyaux Armés pour l'Autonomie Populaire, Armed Core Groups for Popular Autonomy), as the "military-political co-ordination of the autonomous movement". In 1979, it was transformed into an "urban guerrilla organization" and carried out violent attacks under the banner of "anti-imperialism" and "proletarian defence." The group was banned by the French government in 1984. In August 1985, Action directe allied itself with the German Red Army Faction. Action directe carried out some fifty attacks, including a machine gun assault on the employers' union headquarters on 1 May 1979 as well as attacks on French government buildings, property management agencies, French army buildings, companies in the
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    0 votes
    92

    Communist Party of Réunion

    The Communist Party of Réunion (French: Parti Communiste Réunionnais, or PCR) is a Communist political party in the French overseas department of Réunion (in the Indian Ocean). The party has one seat in the French National Assembly. PCR was founded in 1959, as the French Communist Party (PCF) federation in Reunion became an independent party. In the same year, they decided to include demands for autonomy in their manifesto. The party said that it wanted autonomy but not independence. It has since abandoned its policy of autonomism. Paul Vergès led the party from its foundation until February 1993, when he stepped down and Élie Hoarau was elected general secretary; Vergès is currently serving as senator in the French senate. During the late 1990s the relations between PCF and PCR became somewhat strained, regarding differences in party lines. Relations were, however, fully restored in 2005, on the occasion of PCF leader Marie-George Buffet's visit to the island; subsequently, the PCR stood on the list of the French Communist Party in the 2004 European Parliament elections, and Vergès became one of three MEPs elected from the PCF list at national level. The main party leaders are
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    0 votes
    93

    French Socialist Party

    The French Socialist Party (Parti socialiste français) was founded in 1902. It came from the merger of the "possibilist" Federation of the Socialist Workers of France (FTSF), Jean Allemane's Revolutionary Socialist Workers' Party (POSR) and some independent socialist politicians like Jean Jaurès. Jaurès became the party leader. Unlike the Socialist Party of France led by Jules Guesde, it supported the principle of the alliance with the non-Socialist left in the Bloc des gauches. Finally, in 1905, under pressure from the Second International, the two parties merged into the French Section of the Workers' International.
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    0 votes
    94

    Jeune Nation

    Jeune Nation was a French nationalist movement founded by Albert Heuclin, and with members including Jean Marot, Jacques Wagner and the brothers Sidos, François Sidos (president of the movement), Jacques Sidos and Pierre Sidos (secretary general and later president). The emblem of Jeune Nation was the Celtic cross, "symbol of universal life" and an element of Christian imagery. On the 22 October 1949, the movement was present for the first time at the siege of the Napoleonic area in rue du Cirque. On the 28 March 1950, they were officially declared to the Prefecture of Police. They were dissolved in 1958 during the Algerian War after a series of violent episodes. After its dissolution, they announced their merger with the OAS, with a joint name of the Nationalist Party, and the same emblem. The legitimate heir of the Jeune Nation movement is Œuvre française created by Pierre Sidos in 1968 during the events of May 68.
    0.00
    0 votes
    95
    Ligue 1

    Ligue 1

    Ligue 1 (French pronunciation: [liɡ œ̃]; League 1, formerly known as Division 1 and sometimes referred to as Le Championnat), is the French professional league for association football clubs. It is the country's primary football competition and serves as the top division of the French football league system. Ligue 1 is one of two divisions making up the Ligue de Football Professionnel, the other being Ligue 2. Contested by 20 clubs, it operates on a system of promotion and relegation with Ligue 2. Seasons run from August to May, with teams playing 38 games each totaling 380 games in the season. Most games are played on Saturdays and Sundays, with a few games played during weekday evenings. Play is regularly suspended the last weekend before Christmas for two weeks before returning in the second week of January. Ligue 1 is one of the top national leagues, currently ranked sixth in Europe behind the English Premier League, Spanish La Liga, the German Bundesliga, the Italian Serie A and the Portuguese Primeira Liga. The league is officially known as Ligue 1 Orange as it is sponsored by French telecommunications company Orange. Ligue 1 was inaugurated on 11 September 1932 under the
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    0 votes
    96

    Miscellaneous right

    Miscellaneous right (divers droite, DVD) in France refers to right-wing candidates that are not member of any large party. They either include small right-wing parties, dissidents expelled from their parties for running against their party's candidate, as well as candidates who were never formal members of a party. Numerous divers droite candidates are elected at a local level, but also at a national level.
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    0 votes
    97

    People's Union for Wallis and Futuna

    The People's Union for Wallis and Futuna (French: Union Populaire pour Wallis et Futuna) is a political party in the French collectivité d'outre-mer of Wallis and Futuna. In the latest legislative elections of March 10, 2002, it won, together with the French Socialist Party, 7 out of 20 seats in the Territorial Assembly.
    0.00
    0 votes
    98

    Popular Front

    The Popular Front (French: Front populaire) was an alliance of left-wing movements, including the French Communist Party (PCF), the French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) and the Radical and Socialist Party, during the interwar period. It won the May 1936 legislative elections, leading to the formation of a government first headed by SFIO leader Léon Blum and exclusively composed of Radical-Socialist and SFIO ministers. Léon Blum's government lasted from June 1936 to June 1937. He was then replaced by Camille Chautemps, a Radical, but came back as President of the Council in March 1938, before being succeeded by Édouard Daladier, another Radical, the next month. The Popular Front dissolved itself in autumn 1938, confronted by internal dissensions related to the Spanish Civil War (1936–1939), opposition of the right-wing and the persistent effects of the Great Depression. The Popular Front won the May 1936 legislative elections three months after the victory of the Frente Popular in Spain. Headed by Léon Blum, it engaged in various social reforms. The workers' movement welcomed this electoral victory by launching a general strike in May-June 1936, resulting in the
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    0 votes
    99

    Walwari

    Walwari (French pronunciation: [wal.wa.ʁi]) is a political party in the French département d'outre-mer of French Guiana, created in 1993 by Christiane Taubira and Roland Delannon. The party has one seat in the French National Assembly in the group of the Socialist Party; it is aligned with the Left Radical Party.
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    0 votes
    100

    Young Republic League

    The Young Republic League (French: Ligue de la jeune république, LJR) was a French political party created in 1912 by Marc Sangnier, in continuation of Le Sillon, Sangnier's Christian social movement which was disavowed by the Pope Pius X (1835–1914). The LJR supported "personalist" Socialism, on the model of Emmanuel Mounier's theory of personalism. The Abbé Pierre was member of the party for a short time after leaving the MRP. Members of the LJR later joined the Union of the Socialist Left, the first movement including both Marxists and Social Christians.
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    0 votes
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