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The Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam was a massive demonstration against the United States involvement in the Vietnam War that took place across the United States on October 15, 1969. The Moratorium developed from Jerome Grossman's April 20, 1969, call for a general strike if the war had not concluded by October. David Hawk and Sam Brown, who had previously worked on the unsuccessful 1968 presidential campaign of Eugene McCarthy, changed the concept to a less radical moratorium and began to organize the event as the Vietnam Moratorium Committee with David Mixner, Marge Sklenkar, John Gage, and others.
By the standards of previous anti-war demonstrations, the event was a clear success, with millions participating throughout the world. Boston was the site of the largest turnout; about 100,000 attended a speech by anti-war Senator George McGovern. Bill Clinton, then a Rhodes Scholar at Oxford, organized and participated in the demonstration in England; this later became an issue in his Presidential campaign.
The first nationwide Moratorium was followed a month later, on November 15, 1969, by a second massive Moratorium march on Washington, D.C., which attracted over 500,000
Operation Freedom Deal was a U.S. Seventh Air Force interdiction and close air support campaign waged in Cambodia (later, the Khmer Republic) between 19 May 1970 and 15 August 1973, during the Vietnam War. The targets of the operation were the Base Areas and border sanctuaries of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Khmer Rouge.
With the end of Cambodian neutrality (due to a coup that ousted Prince Norodom Sihanouk and installed pro-US General Lon Nol as president), the Cambodian civil war escalated as the PAVN reacted to military actions by the Cambodians, Americans, and South Vietnamese.
On 15 March 1970, Lon Nol issued an ultimatum to the North Vietnamese, ordering them out of the border areas. The PAVN and their indigenous Khmer Rouge allies had occupied eastern Cambodia for the previous ten years and had established a logistical system and Base Areas along the border during their struggle for a unified Vietnam. They were not about to abandon their zones of control without a fight.
The newly-renamed Khmer Republic (which will herein still be referred to as Cambodia) enlarged and renamed its army Forces Aremees Nationales Khmeres or FANK and launched it against the PAVN.
The Fog of War: Eleven Lessons from the Life of Robert S. McNamara is a 2003 American documentary film about the life and times of former U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara as well as illustrating his observations of the nature of modern warfare. The film was directed by Errol Morris and the original score is by Philip Glass. The title is related to the military phrase "Fog of War".
The film won the 2003 Academy Award for Best Documentary Feature and the Independent Spirit Award for Best Documentary Feature. It was non-competitively screened at the Cannes Film Festival.
Using archival footage, United States Cabinet conversation recordings, and an interview of the then eighty-five-year-old Robert McNamara, The Fog of War depicts his life, from his birth during the First World War remembering the time American troops returned from Europe, to working as a WWII Whiz Kid military officer, to being the Ford Motor Company's president, to serving as Secretary of Defense for presidents Kennedy and Johnson (including his involvement in the Cuban Missile Crisis and the Vietnam War).
In a 2004 appearance at U.C. Berkeley, Errol Morris said his inspiration for the documentary derived
Flight of the Intruder is a 1991 film directed by John Milius, which is based on the novel of the same name by A-6 Intruder pilot Stephen Coonts. The film stars Danny Glover as Commander Frank 'Dooke' Camparelli, Willem Dafoe as Lieutenant Commander Virgil 'Tiger' Cole, and Brad Johnson as Lieutenant Jake 'Cool Hand' Grafton.
Lieutenant Jake "Cool Hand" Grafton and his bombardier/navigator (BN) and best friend Lieutenant Morgan "Morg" McPhearson are flying a Grumman A-6 Intruder over the Gulf of Tonkin towards North Vietnam. Morgan navigates their way in while Jake makes comments about him taking his work too seriously. Once calling "feet dry" and passing the coast, they hit their target, a suspected truck park which turns out to be trees. While flying back out over the Gulf of Tonkin, Morgan is shot in the neck by a Vietnamese peasant and Jake declares an emergency. Upon landing on the USS Independence (CV-62), his BN and friend is dead. Disturbed and covered in blood, Jake walks into a debriefing with Commander Frank Camparelli and the executive officer, Commander "Cowboy" Parker. After a brief exchange of what he could recall from his flight, Camparelli tells him to put Morgan's
The lead-up to the Battle of Kontum began in mid-1971, when North Vietnam realized that its victory at Operation Lam Son 719 meant it was ready for larger offensives that could end the war sooner. They planned three offensives for the spring of 1972; offensives that would make use of fourteen divisions and it would be the largest in the war.
The 1972 Nguyen Hue Campaign began with a massive attack on the Demilitarized Zone with 30,000 People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) soldiers and more than 200 tanks. Two thrusts of equivalent size, one towards Saigon and a third to the Central Highlands and provincial capital of Kontum began soon after. North Vietnam knew if they could capture Kontum and the Central Highlands, they could cut South Vietnam in half.
The Battle for Kontum would pit the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) 22nd and (later) the 23rd Divisions under the command of Lt. Gen. Ngo Dzu and later Maj. Gen. Nguyen Van Toan against the equivalent of three North Vietnamese Army divisions, the 320th and 2nd Divisions plus combat units of the 3rd PAVN Division, B-3 Front, and local Viet Cong forces under the command of Lt. Gen. Hoang Minh Thao.
There were two factors that
The Hanoi Hilton is a 1987 Vietnam War film which focuses on the experiences of American prisoners of war who were held in the infamous Hoa Lo Prison in Hanoi during the 1960s and 1970s and the story is told from their perspectives. It was directed by Lionel Chetwynd, and stars Michael Moriarty, Ken Wright, and Paul Le Mat.
The film portrays fictional characters, not specific American POWs. It earned less than $1 million in its initial theatrical release, but a Warner Bros. Home Entertainment VHS release gained a cult following, especially among veterans.
A DVD release of the film had been anticipated for some time in 2008, with the package to include a new interview with former POW and 2008 presidential candidate John McCain. However, the film's release was suspended by Warner Bros. due to McCain being the Republican Party nominee. The week following the November 4 general election, the DVD went forward into release.
A Rumor of War is a 1977 autobiography/ war memoir by Philip Caputo about his service in the United States Marine Corps (USMC) in the early years of American involvement in the Vietnam War.
In the foreword, the author states his purpose for writing this book. As he clearly states, this is not a history book, nor is it a historical accusation. The author states that his book is a story about war, based on a personal experience.
The book is divided into three parts. The first section, "The Splendid Little War", describes Lieutenant Philip Caputo's personal reasons for joining the USMC, the training that followed, and his eventual arrival to Vietnam. Lt. Caputo was a member of the 9th Expeditionary Brigade of the USMC, the first American regular troops unit sent to take part in the Vietnam War. He arrived on March 8, 1965, and his early experiences reminded him of the colonial wars portrayed by Rudyard Kipling. The 9th Expeditionary Brigade was deployed to Da Nang, formerly Tourane, on a "merely defensive" condition, primarily to set a perimeter around an airstrip that ensured arrival and departure of military goods and personnel. The first skirmishes against the North Vietnamese
The 1975 Spring Offensive (Vietnamese: Chiến dịch Mùa Xuân 1975) was a series of increasingly large-scale and ambitious offensive operations by the North Vietnam and the Viet Cong that began on 13 December 1974. The eventual goal of these operations was to defeat the armed forces and force the surrender of the government of the South Vietnam. After the initial success of what was to be a limited campaign in Phuoc Long Province, the North Vietnamese leadership increased the scope of the People's Army of Vietnam's offensive and quickly threatened the Central Highlands city of Buôn Ma Thuột.
The new offensive was different from the ill-fated Easter Offensive of 1972. The subsequent resignation of U.S. President Richard Nixon following the fallout of the Watergate scandal meant that the diplomatic promises of the disgraced former president would not be honored by the United States Congress. Decreases in American military aid, which had become the lifeblood of South Vietnam's armed forces, created material and psychological turmoil in an army steeped in the American way of war. Inability to cope with the situation and find alternative military methodologies contributed heavily to the
The United States Air Force deployed combat aircraft to Thailand from 1961 to 1975 during the Vietnam War. Today, USAF units train annually with other Asian Air Forces in Thailand. Royal Thai Air Force Bases are an important element in the Pentagon's "forward positioning" strategy.
During the Vietnam War, about 80% of all USAF air strikes over North Vietnam originated from air bases in Thailand. At its peak in 1969 a greater number of Airmen were serving in Thailand than were serving in South Vietnam.
Under Thailand's "gentleman's agreement" with the U.S., the bases were considered Royal Thai Air Force bases and were commanded by Thai officers. Thai air police controlled access to the bases; U.S. air police who helped them did carry guns. Command of the American units, however, remained with U.S. wing commanders and their Seventh Air Force/Thirteenth Air Force headquarters.
Out of the Thai bases flew the most extraordinary air-combat team that had ever been assembled. From Udorn, just 40 minutes by air from Hanoi, flew supersonic, unarmed RF-101 and RF-4C reconnaissance jets streaking over target areas immediately before and after a raid to photograph the damage so assessments of
American Power and the New Mandarins is a book by the US academic Noam Chomsky, largely written in 1968, published in 1969. It was his first political book and sets out in detail his opposition to the Vietnam War.
He develops the arguments, laid out in The Responsibility of Intellectuals, that the American intellectual and technical class, in universities and in government (the New Mandarins), bear major responsibility for the atrocities perpetrated by the United States in Vietnam.
Chomsky argues, however, that US policy in Vietnam was largely successful. In Chomsky's view US policy was to destroy the nationalist movements in the South Vietnamese peasantry rather than to defend South Vietnam from North Vietnamese aggression. He holds that the former was accomplished rather successfully even if at the expense of the latter.
His fundamental point on the New Mandarins is that we should not uncritically accept the claim that technocratic approaches are neutral and beneficial. Chomsky writes: 'Quite generally, what grounds are there for supposing that those whose claim to power is based on knowledge and technique will be more benign in their exercise of power than those whose claim is
Operation Lam Son 719 (Vietnamese: Chiến dịch Lam Sơn 719 or Chiến dịch đường 9 – Nam Lào) was a limited-objective offensive campaign conducted in southeastern portion of the Kingdom of Laos by the armed forces of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) between 8 February and 25 March 1971, during the Vietnam War. The United States provided logistical, aerial, and artillery support to the operation, but its ground forces were prohibited by law from entering Laotian territory. The objective of the campaign was the disruption of a possible future offensive by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), whose logistical system within Laos was known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail (the Truong Son Road to North Vietnam).
By launching such a spoiling attack against PAVN's long-established logistical system, the American and South Vietnamese high commands hoped to resolve several pressing issues. A quick victory in Laos would bolster the morale and confidence of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), which was already high in the wake of the successful Cambodian Campaign of 1970. It would also serve as proof positive that South Vietnamese forces could defend their nation in the face of the
Operation Hong Kil Dong was the largest South Korean operation of the Vietnam War. The 48-day-long operation was a major success as South Korean forces thwarted VPA/NLF infiltration into friendly areas. The results of the operation were a kill ratio of 24:1 in the Korean's reported: 638 Vietnamese to 26 South Koreans. 98 crew-served and 359 individual weapons were captured in the aftermath.
Bat*21 is a 1988 film directed by Peter Markle, and adapted from the book by William Charles Anderson. Set during the Vietnam War, the film is a dramatization based on the true, costly, and controversial rescue of a U.S. navigation officer from North Vietnam. The film stars Gene Hackman and Danny Glover.
During the last days of the Vietnam War, Lieutenant Colonel Iceal E. "Gene" Hambleton, United States Air Force, is the sole survivor of the crew of an EB-66 electronic warfare aircraft, which is downed by a surface to air missile over enemy territory. The plane, callsign Bat Two-One, was doing electronic scans preparatory to a major bombing strike.
Hambleton (Gene Hackman) makes radio contact with Birddog (Danny Glover), the pilot of a Cessna Skymaster, flying a Forward Air Control mission near where the EB-66 was destroyed. Birddog ( Captain Bartholomew Clark) becomes Hambleton's link to rescue.
Hambleton, an expert on electronic weapons systems, is known to the North Vietnamese, who begin an all-out search, attempting to capture him. Meanwhile, American forces begin an all-out attempt to rescue him.
Knowing that it is too dangerous for rescue aircraft to come to where he is, and
The Pony Express was the covert transportation of, and the provision of aerial support for, indigenous soldiers and material operating across the Laotian and North Vietnamese borders during the Vietnam War. It was provided by Sikorsky CH-3C helicopters of the US 20th Helicopter Squadron, the only USAF combat helicopter squadron in Vietnam, which had been transferred there in 1965 and was known as the "Pony Express".
The 20th Helicopter Squadron was formed at Eglin AFB, Florida in November 1965 under the command of Lt. Col Lawrence Cummings. Training was provided by the 4401st Helicopter Squadron, under the "PONY EXPRESS" Project. The pilots selected were the most experienced CH-3B/C pilots in the Air Force at the time since the CH-3B/C had been operational with the USAF for a very short period of time. After a month of training and checkout, the Squadron was deployed to South Vietnam in November 1965. The Squadron initially was stationed at Tan Son Nhut Air Base near Saigon. The CH-3C helicopters, which had been disassembled and flown to Viet Nam in C-133 aircraft, were then assembled and readied for duty. The Squadron was split into three flights; one stayed at Tan Son Nhut under
Word of Honor is an American television film released in 2003. It is based on the novel by the same name written in 1985 by Nelson DeMille. It stars Don Johnson, Jeanne Tripplehorn, Sharon Lawrence, John Heard and Arliss Howard.
18 years after fighting in Vietnam, an ex-Army officer is brought up for war crimes.
Operation Commando Hunt was a covert U.S. Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 aerial interdiction campaign that took place during the Vietnam War. The operation began on 11 November 1968 and ended on 29 March 1972. The objective of the campaign was to prevent the transit of People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) personnel and supplies on the logistical corridor known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail (the Truong Son Road to the North Vietnamese) that ran from the southwestern Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) through the southeastern portion of the Kingdom of Laos and into the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam).
Systematic U.S. aerial operations against the Ho Chi Minh Trail had begun on 14 December 1964 with Operation Barrel Roll. With the onset of Operation Rolling Thunder, the strategic aerial bombardment of North Vietnam in April 1965, the U.S. also expanded its interdiction effort in Laos by dividing the Barrel Roll area into two sections on 3 April. The former operation would continue in northeastern Laos while Operation Steel Tiger was initiated in the southern panhandle. The American headquarters in Saigon requested, and received, authorization to control bombing in
The Battle of the Iron Triangle took place on May 16, 1974, when the 9th Division of the Vietnam People's Army backed by a small contingent of tanks launched an attack on Rach Bap, took possession of An Dien and pushed south towards Phu Cuong.
The ARVN battled with NVA tanks on June 4 and inflicted heavy casualties on the NVA forces. Six weeks after the ARVN regrouped and reinforced they drove the NVA from its stronghold, Rach Bap. The ARVN retook Rach Bap on November 20 unopposed. No US ground forces took part in the 1974 Battle of the Iron Triangle, as most of them had already been withdrawn from the conflict-torn region due to the policy of Vietnamization undertaken by the Nixon Administration in 1969.
With government forces clinging only to a narrow bridge connecting Ben Cat and An Dien, MR3 commander Lieutenant General Pham Quoc Thuan deployed the 18th ARVN Division in a multipronged counterattack designed to recapture all of the lost positions by May 22. The 43d Infantry supported by the 322d Armored Task Force attacked from the south toward Rach Bap and Hill 82. Task Force 318 advanced from the east toward An Dien, while three battalions of the 7th Ranger Group struck from
The Battle of Lima Site 85, also called Battle of Phou Pha Thi, was fought as part of a military campaign waged during the Vietnam War and Laotian Civil War by the Vietnam People's Army (then known as NVA) and the Pathet Lao, against airmen of the United States Air Force 1st Combat Evaluation Group, elements of the Royal Laos Army and Royal Thai Border Patrol Police, and the Central Intelligence Agency-led Hmong Clandestine Army. The battle was fought on Phou Pha Thi mountain in Houaphanh Province, Laos, on 10 March 1968, and derives its name from the mountain top where it was fought, or from the designation of a landing strip 700 feet (210 m) in length in the valley below, and was the largest single ground combat loss of United States Air Force members during the Vietnam War.
During the Vietnam War and the Laotian Civil War, Phou Pha Thi mountain was an important strategic outpost which had served both sides at various stages of the conflict. In 1966, the United States Ambassador to Laos approved a plan by the United States Air Force (USAF) to construct a TACAN site on top of Phou Pha Thi, as at the time they lacked a navigation site with sufficient range to guide U.S. bombers
Bullet in the Head (simplified Chinese: 喋血街头; traditional Chinese: 喋血街頭) is a 1990 Hong Kong action film written, produced, edited and directed by John Woo (who played Police Inspector), starring Tony Leung, Jacky Cheung, Waise Lee and Simon Yam.
In 1967, Hong Kong, Ben, Paul, and Frank are childhood friends. They engage in all kinds of activities from racing bikes through the crowded city, to fighting other gangs. One day, Ben, the pseudo-leader of the group, proposes to his long-time girlfriend Jane. They have a wedding with all of their friends in attendance. In order to pay for the wedding, Frank gets a loan from Mr. Kwai, a loan-shark associated with the mob. Frank races back to the wedding, but is accosted by Ringo, the leader of another gang. Frank begs Ringo to let him pass, but Ringo demands the money and hits him with a bottle, cutting his head. Frank manages to escape the gang members with the money, and reaches the wedding in time. He laughs off questions about his lateness and claims the injury comes from tripping in the gutter.
That night, Ben sees Frank's mother kick him out of the house. He goes and meets with Frank in the alley and confronts him about his injury.
Nguyễn Văn Minh was a general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) during the Vietnam War. Minh entered military service during the First Indochina War in 1950 as an airborne officer serving in the French colonial forces. In November 1960, he supported a group of officers that staged an unsuccessful coup against President Ngo Dinh Diem. Minh was then dispatched to An Giang Province, in the Mekong Delta, and served as provincial chief until Diem's death in 1963.
The following year, he became deputy commander of the 21st ARVN Division in the IV Corps Tactical Zone. In 1965 Minh was promoted brigadier general and given command of the division. Upon the accidental death of the commander of III Corps, Lieutenant General Do Cao Tri during the Cambodian Incursion of 1970, Minh was promoted and became corps commander.
Although he had been an excellent divisional commander and was an able and energetic administrator, he was out of his depth when given an entire corps. In 1971, he commanded his unit during the Battle of Snuol.
Minh did manage to convince President Thieu that An Loc, not Tay Ninh, was the major communist objective during the third phase of the North Vietnamese Easter
Operation Linebacker II was a US Seventh Air Force and US Navy Task Force 77 aerial bombing campaign, conducted against targets in the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) during the final period of US involvement in the Vietnam War. The operation was conducted from 18–29 December 1972, leading to several of informal names such as "The December Raids" and "The Christmas Bombings". It saw the largest heavy bomber strikes launched by the US Air Force since the end of World War II. Linebacker II was a resumption of the Operation Linebacker bombings conducted from May to October, with the emphasis of the new campaign shifted to attacks by B-52 Stratofortress Heavy bombers rather than smaller tactical fighter aircraft.
On 8 October 1972, U.S. National Security Advisor Dr. Henry Kissinger and North Vietnamese Politburo member Le Duc Tho met in Paris. They were there to discuss new proposals by both nations, hoping to reach mutually agreeable terms for a peace settlement for the decade-old Vietnam war. Tho presented a new North Vietnamese plan which included proposals for a cease-fire, the withdrawal of American forces, and an exchange of prisoners of war. All three Vietnamese
Operation Speedy Express was a controversial United States military operation of the Vietnam War conducted in the Mekong Delta provinces Kien Hoa and Vinh Binh. The operation was launched to prevent NLF (Viet Cong) units from interfering with pacification efforts and to interdict lines of NLF communication and deny them the use of base areas.
In 1969 the 1st Brigade, 9th U.S. Infantry Division continued the operation in Dinh Tuong Province, using night ambush tactics while the 2nd Brigade continued its mission with the Mobile Riverine Force. Although engagements in the Operation Speedy Express were typically small, the 9th Infantry Division fought several sizeable engagements. The objective was summarized by a U.S army publication to take the "war to the enemy in the Delta and sever his supply lines from Cambodia".
The U.S. military used 8,000 infantrymen, 50 artillery pieces, 50 helicopters and extensive aerial bombardment. The United States Air Force carried out 3,381 tactical air strikes by fighter bombers.
The U.S. military claimed 10,889 enemy dead, with only 40 soldiers killed in this operation from the period of December 1968 to 31 May 1969 (a kill ratio of 272.2:1), but
Heart of Darkness is a novella, written by Joseph Conrad, that is presented in the form of a frame narrative (a story within a story). It was first published as a three-part serial, February, March, and April 1899, in Blackwood's Magazine (February 1899 was the magazine's 1000th issue: special edition). Then later, in 1902, Heart of Darkness was included in the book "Youth: a Narrative, and Two Other Stories" (published November 13, 1902, by William Blackwood). The volume consisted of Youth: a Narrative, Heart of Darkness, and The End of the Tether in that order, to loosely illustrate the three stages of life. For future editions of the book, in 1917 Conrad wrote an "Author's Note" where he discusses each of the three stories, and makes light commentary on the character Marlow - the narrator of the tales within the first two stories. He also mentions how Youth marks the first appearance of Marlow.
In Conrad's words, regarding Heart of Darkness: In a letter to Henry-Durand Darvay, dated April 10, 1902, Joseph Conrad wrote (French: translated below):
Then the following month, on May 31, 1902, in a letter to William Blackwood, Conrad remarks:
Through the years the story gained in
Casualties of War is a 1989 war drama directed by Brian De Palma, with a screenplay by David Rabe, based on the actual events of the incident on Hill 192 in 1966 during the Vietnam War. It starred Michael J. Fox and Sean Penn.
An article written by Daniel Lang for The New Yorker in 1969 was the movie's primary source.
This film was, in a way, Fox's third major dramatic role. He had previously starred in the dramas Light of Day and Bright Lights, Big City. John C. Reilly and John Leguizamo make their screen debuts in the film, and the latter would again star with Penn in another picture by De Palma, 1993's Carlito's Way.
The story is presented as a flashback of Max Eriksson (Michael J. Fox), a Vietnam veteran.
In November 1966, a squad of American soldiers is on patrol when they are suddenly attacked by the Viet Cong. The ground cracks under Eriksson while he walks above a Viet Cong tunnel, and he is stuck in the hole while mortar shells land near him. Unknown to him, a Viet Cong soldier in the tunnel below him prepares to silently kill him with a knife. Sergeant Tony Meserve (Sean Penn) hears Eriksson, pulls him out of the hole, and shoots the Viet Cong soldier dead. Eventually,
Operation Malheur I and Operation Malheur II were a series of search and destroy operations conducted by the 1st Brigade 101st Airborne Division operating as part of Task Force Oregon in Quang Ngai Province.
Operation Malheur I began on May 11, 1967 and continued until June 8, 1967. The operation began with airmobile assaults aimed at the 2nd Vietcong Regiment in Base Area 124 to the west of Đức Phổ District.
Operation Malheur II began on June 8 and continued until August 2, 1967. The operation began with an air assault against Base Area 123 and on June 9 with an air assault against into the area west of the Song Ve valley.
The operations mainly consisted of small-scale skirmishes and were successful in disrupting the VC/NVA, but failed to eradicate them. The VC/NVA were moving freely in the area again by the end of the year. U.S. forces also distributed in excess of 23 million leaflets in the area.
When the operations closed, the 101st reported 869 VC and NVA killed and 314 weapons captured, for the loss of 81 US killed. The United States Agency for International Development reported 6,400 civilian casualties in the province for 1967, though obviously not all of these could be
The Quiet American is an anti-war novel by British author Graham Greene, first published in United Kingdom in 1955 and in the United States in 1956. It was adapted into films in 1958 and 2002. The book draws on Greene's experiences as a war correspondent for The Times and Le Figaro in French Indochina 1951–1954. He was apparently inspired to write The Quiet American in October 1951 while driving back to Saigon from Ben Tre province. He was accompanied by an American aid worker who lectured him about finding a “third force in Vietnam”. Greene spent three years writing the novel, which foreshadowed US involvement in Vietnam long before it became publicly known. The book was the initial reason for Graham Greene being under constant surveillance by US intelligence agencies from the 1950s until his death in 1991, according to documents obtained in 2002 by The Guardian under the US Freedom of Information Act.
Thomas Fowler is a British journalist in his fifties who has been covering the French war in Vietnam for over two years. He meets a young American idealist named Alden Pyle, who lives his life and forms his opinions based on the books written by York Harding, with no real experience
The Siege of Plei Me was a battle during the Vietnam War, which led up to the Battle of Ia Drang. The repulsion of the North Vietnamese assault immediately set the stage for the offensive in Ia Drang.
Brigadier General Chu Huy Man of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) was tasked with drawing the U.S. Air Cavalry into battle, to learn about its fighting capabilities, and then circulate the information among the PAVN and Viet Cong (VC). To this end, Lt Col Hoang Phuong was tasked with debriefing PAVN commanders after battles. This was a dangerous mission but Chu Huy Man, an intelligence expert trained in Moscow, felt confident.
The camp at Plei Me, 40 km south of Pleiku city in the central highlands of Vietnam, was constructed in October 1963 by the United States Army Special Forces. In 1965 the camp was manned by around 350 Civilian Irregular Defense Group (CIDG) soldiers - local Montagnard mercenaries, many of whom had family just outside the base. The base served as a critical hub for U.S. Special Forces movement across the country.
General Man ordered the 33rd PAVN regiment to seize the camp at Plei Me at 1930 hours on 19 October 1965, while the 32nd regiment would move into
The Battle of Coral–Balmoral (12 May – 6 June 1968) was a series of actions fought during the Vietnam War between the 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF) and the North Vietnamese 7th Division and Viet Cong, 40 kilometres (25 mi) north-east of Saigon. Following the defeat of the communist Tet offensive in January and February, in late April two Australian infantry battalions—the 1st and 3rd Battalions, Royal Australian Regiment (3 RAR)—with supporting arms, were again deployed from their base at Nui Dat in Phuoc Tuy Province to positions astride infiltration routes leading to Saigon, in order to interdict renewed movement against the capital. Part of the wider allied Operation Toan Thang I, it was launched in response to intelligence reports of another impending communist offensive; however, the Australians experienced little fighting during this period. Meanwhile, the Viet Cong successfully penetrated the capital on 5 May, plunging Saigon into chaos during the May Offensive in an attempt to influence the upcoming Paris peace talks scheduled to begin on the 13th. During three days of intense fighting the attacks were repelled by US and South Vietnamese forces, and although another
William Childs Westmoreland (March 26, 1914 – July 18, 2005) was a United States Army General, who commanded US military operations in the Vietnam War at its peak (1964–68), during the Tet Offensive. He adopted a strategy of attrition against the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam and the North Vietnamese Army. He later served as U.S. Army Chief of Staff from 1968 to 1972.
William Westmoreland was born in Spartanburg County, South Carolina, to Eugenia Talley Childs and James Ripley Westmoreland. His upper-middle-class family was involved in the local banking and textile industries. William was an Eagle Scout at Troop 1 Boy Scouts and became an Eagle Scout at the age of 15, and recipient of the Distinguished Eagle Scout Award and Silver Buffalo from the Boy Scouts of America as a young adult. After spending a year at The Citadel in 1932 he was appointed to attend the West Point Military Academy. His motive for entering West Point was "to see the world." He was a member of a distinguished West Point class that also included Creighton Abrams and Benjamin O. Davis Jr.. Westmoreland graduated as first captain - the highest graduating rank - and received the Pershing Sword, which
The Ballad of Andy Crocker is a 1969 American made-for-television film which was first broadcast by ABC.
The film tells the story of a young man's struggle to reclaim his life after fighting in the Vietnam War. It approaches a surreal, allegorical tale, similar to The Swimmer, starring Burt Lancaster. Written by actor Stuart Margolin, the film is notable as being one of the very first films to deal with the subject matter of Vietnam veterans "coming home". It is also noted for its unusual casting, which placed a number of noted musical artists in key acting roles.
Lee Majors, in his first lead acting role, stars as Andy Crocker, a soldier who is wounded in a gun battle in Vietnam. Awarded the Purple Heart, Crocker is sent home to Dallas, Texas where he reunites with his parents (played by Pat Hingle and Claudia Bryar). Crocker says that all that kept him going during the trials of Vietnam was his dreams of running a motorcycle racing track and marrying his sweetheart, Lisa (Joey Heatherton).
Crocker, however, soon discovers that his friends and loved ones have moved on while he was in Vietnam. Lisa has married another man (her "Dear John" letter to Andy apparently never received),
Operation Bolo was a deception-based mission during the Vietnam War devised to lure fighter aircraft of the Vietnam People's Air Force (VPAF) -- Không Quân Nhân Dân Việt Nam -- into battle where the odds were stacked against the defenders. The mission was planned in response to North Vietnamese tactics during the Operation Rolling Thunder aerial-bombardment campaign wherein MiGs were used to attack heavily loaded fighter-bombers while circumventing their fighter escorts.
Bolo pitted the F-4 Phantom II multirole fighter against its rival, the Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-21 interceptor, and was considered to be one of the most successful combat ruses of all time, eventually prompting VPAF pilots and strategists, as well as Soviet tacticians, to re-evaluate the tactics and deployment of the MiG-21.
By the start of 1967, the F-4 Phantom II had been in operational service with the United States Air Force since 1964. The latest fighter in American service, the F-4 had powerful engines, excellent handling, and an air-to-air configuration of eight air-to-air missiles. However, the Phantom suffered from one critical armament weakness – the lack of an internal cannon, as its original conception as
Earle Gilmore "Bus" Wheeler, (January 13, 1908 – December 18, 1975) was a United States Army General who served as Chief of Staff of the United States Army (1962–1964) and then as Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (1964–1970), holding the latter position during the Vietnam War.
Earle Gilmore Wheeler was born on January 13, 1908 in Washington, D.C. to Dock Stone and Ida Gilmore. He was later adopted by Ida's second husband. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1932 and was commissioned into the infantry. After graduation he married Frances "Betty" Rogers Howell, whom he met at a society party in 1930. He served in the 29th Infantry from 1932 to 1936, then attended Infantry School in 1937. He served with the 15th Infantry Regiment, from 1937 to 1940, stationed in China 1937-38.
From 1940 to 1941, Wheeler was a mathematics instructor at West Point. Rising from battalion commander to more senior roles, he trained the newly activated 36th and 99th Infantry Divisions from 1941 to 1944, then went to Europe in November 1944 as second in command of the newly formed 63rd Infantry Division.
Wheeler served in senior staff positions in a variety of specialties, including
Operation Chenla I was an operation of the Vietnam War. The Cambodian armed forces launched the operation during late August 1970 with limited air support from the South Vietnamese army and air force. The operation was terminated in February 1971, after the Cambodian High Command made a decision to withdraw some units from Tang Kauk to protect Phnom Penh after Pochentong airbase was attacked. The objective of the operation was to reconnect Skoun and Kompong Cham along Route 7, which was repeatedly attacked by Communist forces.
Initially the Cambodian operation went as planned. Tang Kauk was retaken during early September with ease. The Cambodian military helped resettle refugees and set up local self-defense forces.
In response to Operation Chenla I, the North Vietnamese Army and Viet Cong launched a series of attacks on Cambodian positions on Route 7; the areas around Kompong Cham and Prey Totung were scenes of significant fighting during the closing months of 1970. As a result of pressure from the Viet Cong 9th Division, the Cambodian army couldn't advance beyond Tang Kauk.
South Vietnamese forces joined the Cambodian operation east of the Mekong River in December, allowing the
The Battle of Long Dinh was a battle of the Vietnam War that involved the People's Liberation Armed Forces (Việt Cộng/FNL) and the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). U.S. helicopter survelliance had spotted a large group of Viet Cong fighters assembling in a forest glade near Long Dinh. General Nguyễn Khánh immediately rushed his heavy infantry forces there, using APCs.
On February 26, 1964, three-thousand regular South Vietnamese soldiers encircled the PLAF 514th Battalion at Long Dinh. During the 8-hour battle, the South Vietnamese army avoided contact with the FNL, instead the ARVN commander relied on air and artillery strikes to inflict damage. As a result, the PLAF 514th Battalion was able to slip through the gaps and successfully withdraw from the area, using sniper teams to secure river crossings.
Due to the incompetence of the ARVN at this battle, General Nguyễn Khánh sacked five of his division commanders.
Diên Biên Phu (French for Điện Biên Phủ) is a 1992 film written and directed by French veteran Pierre Schoendoerffer. With its huge budget, all-star cast, and realistic war scenes produced with the cooperation of the French and Vietnamese armies, Dîen Bîen Phu is regarded by many as one of the more important war movies produced in French filmmaking history. It portrays the 55-day siege of Dien Bien Phu (1954), the last battle by the French Union's colonial army in the First Indochina War during the final days of French Indochina, which was soon after divided into North and South Vietnam. This was a prelude to the Second Indochina War, known in the United States as the Vietnam War.
The film was nominated for "Best Music Written for a Film" ("Meilleure musique") at the 1993 French César Awards. The Điện Biên Phủ original soundtrack was composed and partially performed by pianist Georges Delerue, featuring Japanese vocalist Marie Kobayashi. In 1994, at a commemoration of the 40th anniversary of the siege at Dien Bien Phu, director Schoendoerffer published a behind-the-scenes book called "Diên Biên Phu - De la Bataille au Film" (Dien Bien Phu: From the Battle to the Movie). In 2004,
Off Limits is a 1988 action-thriller film set during the Vietnam War starring Willem Dafoe and Gregory Hines and directed by Christopher Crowe. The term "off limits" referred to the area where the original crime took place, an area of Saigon off limits to military personnel. The name of the film was changed to Saigon or Saigon: Off Limits when it was released throughout the rest of the world.
The film marks Willem Dafoe's second Vietnam War movie. He was assisted in preparing for this role by Vietnam Veteran and former Counterintelligence Special Agent Ed Murphy. Dafoe had previously starred in Platoon and would go on to play roles in Born on the Fourth of July and Flight of the Intruder.
Although set during the war, the tale is more of a mystery than a story about the war. Sergeant First Class Buck McGriff (Willem Dafoe) and Sergeant First Class Albaby Perkins (Gregory Hines) are two joint services Criminal Investigation Division (CID) agents on duty in war torn Saigon. When a prostitute is found murdered they discover that the prime suspects are high ranking U.S. Army officers. As they investigate they find that there have a string of at least six murders in the last year, but
The Green Berets is a 1968 American war film featuring John Wayne, George Takei, David Janssen, Jim Hutton and Aldo Ray, nominally based on the eponymous 1965 book by Robin Moore, though the screenplay has little relation to the book.
Thematically, The Green Berets is strongly anti-communist and pro-Saigon. It was produced in 1968, at the height of American involvement in the Vietnam War, the same year as the Tet offensive against the largest cities in South Vietnam. John Wayne was prompted by the anti-war atmosphere and social discontent in the U.S. to make this film in countering that. He requested and obtained full military co-operation and matériel from President Johnson. To please the Pentagon who were attempting to prosecute Robin Moore for revealing classified information, Wayne bought Moore out for $35,000 and 5 percent of undefined profits of the film.
At Fort Bragg, cynical newspaper reporter George Beckworth (David Janssen) is at a Special Forces briefing about the American military involvement in the war in Vietnam. The briefing (at Gabriel Demonstration Area, named for SGT Jimmy Gabriel, first SF soldier killed in Vietnam) includes a demonstration and explanation of
The Battle of Tra Binh Dong was probably the most famous battle fought by the South Korean Marines during the Vietnam War. It was fought in the Tra Binh Dong village near the border of Cambodia in February 1967. The battle took place after a Viet Cong defector, former commander of a training camp, revealed that the North Vietnamese Army were planning an attack on the ROKMC's 11th Company. On February 14, the North Vietnamese 40th and 60th Battalions moved into their positions in the forest surrounding the perimeter of the South Korean 11th Company. The regular VPA battalions were also supported by one VC local force battalion from Quang Ngai. With their troops built up around the area, the Communist forces planned to cut all communication lines and wipe out the South Korean forces in the area.
At dawn on February 15, the battle began with the Viet Cong attempting to cut through the wires of the South Korean base. The South Korean marines were dug in and waiting with requests for air-support. But due to foggy weather, AC-47s couldn't commence attack on the Viet Cong, so they only had the artillery support. When the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong had penetrated Korean positions,
Nguyen Toon (Nguyễn Tuân) or "Colonel Toon" or "Tomb" was a mythical North Vietnamese fighter pilot and flying ace who allegedly shot down 13 American aircraft during the Vietnam War. According to legend, he was killed in action on May 10, 1972, by the U.S. Navy F-4 Phantom crew of pilot Lt. Randy "Duke" Cunningham and radar operator Lt.(jg) William "Irish" Driscoll.
Toon/Tomb's name arose during the latter part of the war, being known to U.S. Navy (if not Air Force) aviators. Photos of North Vietnamese MiG-17s and MiG-21s, most notably being a MiG-17 with the bort number 3020 (the same Mig-17 which was confirmed shot down on May 10, 1972 by Cunningham and Driscoll), as well as a MiG-21 with bort number 4326, each bearing numerous red victory stars, occasionally have been identified as his aircraft. However, it was normal practice in the Vietnamese People's Air Force to add victory stars to an aircraft for all claims made while flying that aircraft regardless of the pilot assigned to fly it. The photo of 4326 was captioned in a Vietnamese official magazine as having been flown by at least nine airman, six of whom received the title "Hero of the People's Armed Forces". The most
The Battle of July Two was a short engagement of the Vietnam War that took place along Route 561 between Gia Binh and An Kha, during Operation Buffalo.
Leading up to this battle, the North Vietnamese Army was reported to have moved back into the area northeast of Con Thien, so A and B Companies of the 1st Battalion 9th Marines "The Walking Dead Marines" were sent out to counter the North Vietnamese.
On the morning of July 2, 1967, the two companies made their way up north and secured a crossroad as their first objective. As they went further north, they made contact with the elements of the North Vietnamese 90th Regiment when sniper fire began to burst, enemy fire intensified as efforts were made by the 3rd Platoon to suppress it. The North Vietnamese Army, using mortar and small arms fire, caused heavy casualties on the A and B Companies and prevented them from linking up.
Airstrikes disrupted North Vietnamese attempts to "hug" the 1st platoon, allowing the 1st platoon and the battered 2nd platoon to link up. The 1st Battalion commander, LtCol Richard Schening, sent out a small rescue force involving the C and D Companies. Using helicopter and tank fire to disperse enemy troops, D
The Son Tay prison camp was a POW camp operated by North Vietnam near Son Tay town in the late 1960s through late 1970. About 65 captured US military personnel were held there during the middle of the Vietnam War.
On November 21, 1970, a force of 56 US commandos led by Col. Arthur 'Bull' Simons raided the Son Tay camp to rescue the estimated 70 to 80 prisoners, supported by 29 USAF aircraft and 92 flight crew on the direct raid and a total of 105 aircraft including supporting roles.
Prior to the raid, all 65 prisoners were moved to another camp about 15 miles away, apparently due to the proximity of the camp to a river thought likely to flood. US intelligence may have identified this the day before the raid, but the raid was sent anyway.
Three commando teams landed at the camp:
The raid succeeded completely at its technical objective of seizing control of the camp. There were no prisoners present to rescue, though.
26 minutes after the first helicopter intentionally crash landed, all US commandos were recovered and flying home.
One US soldier was wounded in the leg and one broke his ankle in the intentional crash landing.
An unknown number of North Vietnamese soldiers were killed
South Korea ( listen), officially the Republic of Korea (Hangul: 대한민국; Daehan Minguk listen), is a sovereign state in the southern part of the Korean Peninsula. The name "Korea" is derived from Goryeo, a dynasty which ruled in the Middle Ages. Its neighbors are China to the west, Japan to the east, and North Korea to the north. South Korea lies in the north temperate zone with a predominantly mountainous terrain. It covers a total area of 99,392 square kilometers and has a population of almost 50 million. The capital and largest city is Seoul, with a population of 9,794,304.
Archaeological findings show that the Korean Peninsula was occupied by the Lower Paleolithic period. Korean history begins with the founding of Gojoseon in 2333 BC by the legendary Dan-gun. Following the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea under Silla 668 AD, Korea went through the Goryeo Dynasty and Joseon Dynasty as one nation until the end of the Korean Empire in 1910, when it was annexed by Japan. After liberation and occupation by Soviet and U.S. forces at the end of World War II, the nation was divided into North and South Korea. The latter was established in 1948 as a democracy, though political
The Battle of An Lao occurred after the Viet Cong (VC) captured the district headquarters of An Lao, Binh Dinh, about 300 miles from Saigon. Viet Cong rebels launched an early morning surprise attack, attack squads scaling the fence and lobbing grenades to disable the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) machine gun positions ringing the base. A second wave of attackers infiltrated the base and took control. The Viet Cong were successful in repeatedly beating back large numbers of counterattacking ARVN troops, who rushed in by jeep and APC. Inserted by helicopter, a U.S. scout team engaged the VC at range of only 100 meters, inflicting significant casualties but proving unable to break the rebel grip on the headquarters.
The strength of the VC attack in northern Binh Dinh Province indicated the changing tactics of the VC, who were prepared to switch from small-scale guerrilla actions to mobile warfare.
The Battle of Nam Dong was fought on July 5 until the next day on in 1964, when the Viet Cong and PAVN attacked the Nam Dong CIDG camp in an attempt to overrun it.
Nam Dong is situated 32 miles west of Da Nang in a valley near the Laotian border; it was manned by South Vietnamese personnel with American and Australian advisers, and served as a major thorn in the side of local Vietcong militants.
The Viet Cong struck at the camp at 2:30 a.m. to achieve the element of surprise, and reached the outer perimeter where South Vietnamese special forces managed to hold out. The battle lasted for five hours when the Viet Cong decided to abort the mission, fleeing into the jungle at sunrise. At 9:45 a.m. six USMC helicopters arrived to extract the special forces. At the end of the battle, a total of 372 allies (12 American Green Berets, 300 South Vietnamese, and 60 Nung soldiers) held off deadly attacks against 900 NVA and Vietcong, often pinning Viet Cong groups in the narrow cliffs leading into the valley, where they were easily targeted by artillery.
Captain R. C. Donlon became the first American to be awarded the Medal of Honor in Vietnam for valiantly killing two Vietcong sappers and
Born on the Fourth of July is a 1989 American film adaptation of the best selling autobiography of the same name by Vietnam War veteran Ron Kovic.
Tom Cruise plays Kovic, in a performance that earned him his first Academy Award nomination. Oliver Stone (himself a Vietnam veteran) co-wrote the screenplay with Kovic, and also produced and directed the film. Stone wanted to film the movie in Vietnam, but because relations between the United States and Vietnam had not yet been normalized, it was instead filmed in the Philippines.
Born on the Fourth of July is considered part of Oliver Stone's "trilogy" of films about the Vietnam War—along with Platoon (1986) and Heaven & Earth (1993). The film was nominated for eight Academy Awards and won Academy Awards for Best Director and Best Film Editing. The film was a critical and commercial success, grossing more than $232,000,000 worldwide and winning two Academy Awards, four Golden Globe Awards and a Directors Guild of America Award.
The film begins with Ron Kovic's childhood during a summer in Massapequa, New York. He plays war in the woods, attends a Fourth of July parade, plays and wins at a local neighborhood baseball game, and watches
Operation Junction City was an 82-day military operation conducted by United States and Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam) forces begun on 22 February 1967 during the Vietnam War. It was the largest U.S. airborne operation since Operation Market Garden during World War II, the only major airborne operation of the Vietnam War, and one of the largest U.S. operations of the war.
The failure to gain surprise lay in discovery of the plans after NVA Col. Dinh Thi Van managed to place one of her agents in social circles that included ARVN Gen. Cao Van Vien and US Gen. William Westmoreland. That agent further reported one ARVN staff officer's comment of the early phase of the operation: "(The Viet Cong) seem like ghosts. All the six spearheads of our forces have been attacked while we don't know exactly where their main force is. Even in Bau Hai Vung that is considered to be a safe area, we lost one brigade. It's so strange." (Van, p. 237)
The Battle of Dong Xoai (Vietnamese: Trận Đồng Xoài) was a major battle fought during the Communist Summer Offensive of 1965 as part of the Vietnam War. The battle took place in Phuoc Long Province, South Vietnam, between June 9 and 13, 1965. In 1964, General Nguyen Khanh gained control of the South Vietnamese government after General Duong Van Minh was overthrown in a military coup. Even though General Khanh was able to gain control of the military junta, he failed to garner support from the civilian population when he implemented various laws which limited the freedoms of the South Vietnamese people. He then had a falling-out with the Catholic faction within his own government, when he became increasingly reliant on the Buddhist movement to hold on to power. Consequently on February 20, 1965, General Khanh was ousted from power and was forced to leave South Vietnam forever.
The political instability in Saigon gave North Vietnamese leaders in Hanoi an impetus to step up their military campaign in the south, because they believed the South Vietnamese government were able to survive because they still had a strong military to combat the growing influence of the Viet Cong. Thus, the
Operation Tailwind was a covert incursion into southeastern Laos during the Vietnam War, conducted between 11–13 September 1970. The purpose of the operation was to create a diversion for a Royal Lao Army offensive and to exert pressure on the occupation forces of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN). It involved a company-sized element of U.S. Army Special Forces and Montagnard commando (Hatchet Force) of the Military Assistance Command, Vietnam Studies and Observations Group (MACV-SOG or SOG).
Nearly 30 years later, Peter Arnett narrated a CNN/Time Magazine report produced by April Oliver, Jack Smith, Pam Hill, and others. The "Valley of Death" report claimed sarin nerve gas had been used, and other war crimes had been committed by U.S. forces during Tailwind, kicking off a controversy that ended in retraction of the claim by both news organizations and purging some staff members responsible for it.
During late 1970 the overall U.S.-supported military effort in the covert war in the Kingdom of Laos was foundering. Operation Gauntlet, a multi-battalion Royal Lao Army offensive that was to determine the fate of Paksong and the strategic Bolovens Plateau, was failing. A call went out
The attack on Camp Holloway occurred during the early hours of 7 February 1965, in the early stages of the Vietnam War. Camp Holloway was a helicopter facility constructed by the United States Army in 1962, to support the operations of Free World Military Forces in the Central Highlands of Vietnam.
In August 1964, the United States Navy reported they were attacked by torpedo boats of the North Vietnamese Navy in what became known as the Tonkin Gulf Incident. In response to the perceived aggression of Communist forces in Southeast Asia, the United States Congress passed the Tonkin Gulf Resolution which enabled U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson to deploy conventional military forces in the region to prevent further attacks by the North Vietnamese. Immediately after the Tonkin Gulf Resolution was passed, Johnson ordered the bombing of North Vietnamese Navy bases in retaliation for the reported attacks on U.S. Navy warships between 2 and 4 August 1964. However, the Viet Cong forces in South Vietnam were not deterred by the threat of U.S. retaliation.
Throughout 1964, the Viet Cong launched several attacks on U.S. military facilities in South Vietnam but Johnson did not start further
Nguyễn Cao Kỳ ( listen; 8 September 1930 – 23 July 2011) served as the chief of the Vietnam Air Force in the 1960s, before leading the nation as the prime minister of South Vietnam in a military junta from 1965 to 67. Then, until his retirement from politics in 1971, he served as vice president to bitter rival General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu, in a nominally civilian administration.
Born in northern Vietnam, Kỳ joined the Vietnamese National Army of the French-backed State of Vietnam and started as an infantry officer before the French sent him off for pilot training. After the French withdrew from Vietnam and the nation was partitioned, Kỳ moved up the ranks of the Vietnam Air Force to become its leader. In November 1963, Kỳ participated in the coup that deposed president Ngô Đình Diệm and resulted in Diệm's assassination.
In 1964 Kỳ became prominent in junta politics, regarded as part of a group of young, aggressive officers dubbed the Young Turks. Over the next two years, there were repeated coup attempts, many of which were successful, and Kỳ was a key player in supporting or defeating them. In September 1964, he helped put down a coup attempt by Generals Lâm Văn Phát and Dương Văn Đức
Operation Bribie (17–18 February 1967), also known as the Battle of Ap My An, was fought during the Vietnam War in Phuoc Tuy province between Australian forces from the 6th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (6 RAR) and two companies of Viet Cong from D445 Battalion, likely reinforced by North Vietnamese regulars. During the night of 16 February the Viet Cong attacked a South Vietnamese Regional Force compound at Lang Phuoc Hai, before withdrawing the following morning after heavy fighting with South Vietnamese forces. Two hours later a Viet Cong company was subsequently reported to have formed a tight perimeter in the rainforest 2 kilometres (1.2 mi) north of Lang Phuoc Hai, near the abandoned hamlet of Ap My An. In response the Australians mounted a quick reaction force operation. Considering that the Viet Cong would attempt to withdraw as they had during previous encounters, forces from 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF) would subsequently be inserted into blocking positions on the likely withdrawal route in an attempt to intercept and destroy them.
On the afternoon of 17 February 6 RAR deployed into the area north-west of Hoi My by American UH-1 Iroquois helicopters and M113
The Deer Hunter is a 1978 drama film directed and co-written by Michael Cimino about a trio of Russian American steel worker friends and their infantry service in the Vietnam War. The film stars Robert De Niro, Christopher Walken, John Savage, John Cazale, Meryl Streep and George Dzundza. The story takes place in Clairton, a small working class town on the Monongahela River south of Pittsburgh and then in Vietnam, somewhere in the woodland and in Saigon, during the Vietnam War.
The film was based in part on an unproduced screenplay called The Man Who Came to Play by Louis Garfinkle and Quinn K. Redeker about Las Vegas and Russian Roulette. Producer Michael Deeley, who bought the script, hired writer/director Michael Cimino who, with Deric Washburn, rewrote the script, taking the Russian Roulette element and placing it in the Vietnam War. The film went over-budget and over-schedule and ended up costing $15 million. The scenes of Russian roulette were highly controversial on release.
The film won five Academy Awards, including Best Picture and Best Director, and was named by the American Film Institute as the 53rd Greatest Movie of All Time on the 10th Anniversary Edition of the
The Battle of Hill 881 was a battle during the Vietnam War between the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN, or in US sources "North Vietnamese Army" or NVA) and United States Marines. Conducted in the I Corps Tactical Zone it became known as "the Hill Fights", involving Hill 881 North (16°41′26.5″N 106°39′34.5″E / 16.690694°N 106.659583°E / 16.690694; 106.659583), Hill 881 South (16°40′18″N 106°39′45.2″E / 16.67167°N 106.662556°E / 16.67167; 106.662556), and Hill 861 (16°40′36″N 106°41′13″E / 16.67667°N 106.68694°E / 16.67667; 106.68694). The 'hill' designation in this case actually refers to a "hill mass" or a collection of ridges and saddles, the numbers to the elevation the highest point of the hill masses in meters.
The first contact made with the NVA occurred on Hill 861 when 5 American Marine forward observers were ambushed in the bamboo, 4 of which were killed by gunfire.
After this contact, two companies of Marines advanced on Hill 861, encountering heavy fire from entrenched NVA positions. Constant mortar barrages on potential landing zones prevented evacuation of wounded and fog cut off most air support. Separated, burdened with wounded and dead (it is US Marine Corps
Operation Linebacker was the title of a U.S. Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 aerial interdiction campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 9 May to 23 October 1972, during the Vietnam War.
Its purpose was to halt or slow the transportation of supplies and materials for the Nguyen Hue Offensive (known in the West as the Easter Offensive), an invasion of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), by forces of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), that had been launched on 30 March. Linebacker was the first continuous bombing effort conducted against North Vietnam since the bombing halt instituted by President Lyndon B. Johnson in November 1968.
At noon on 30 March 1972, 30,000 North Vietnamese troops, supported by regiments of tanks and artillery, rolled southward across the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) that separated the two Vietnams. This three-division force caught the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and their American allies unprepared. The PAVN force struck the defensive positions of the Third ARVN Division and threw it into disarray. South Vietnamese forces then fell back, and a race began between both antagonists to the
The Anderson Platoon (French: La Section Anderson) is a documentary feature by Pierre Schoendoerffer about the Vietnam War. Two decades later, a sequel was released as Reminiscence.
In summer 1966, France Soir news magazine director and French public channel ORTF producer Pierre Lazareff proposed that war reporter and director Pierre Schoendoerffer complete his "unachieved" war documentary he did in 1954.
Back in May 1954, Schoendoerffer was covering the First Indochina War for the French army's cinematographic service SCA. At the siege of Dien Bien Phu he filmed the battle between the French Union forces and the Viet Minh but his reels were captured when he surrendered to the enemy.
After the departure of the French forces from Vietnam in 1956 the U.S. Army replaced it several years later and fighting soon flared again, the beginning of the Vietnam War.
Arguing that "the war was the same, the French only switching with the Americans", Lazareff convinced the French veteran to return to Vietnam as a kind of second chance to complete his war documentary.
The French war cameraman and First Indochina War veteran Schoendoerffer (38), already famous for his celebrated masterpiece The
A Rumor of War is a 1980 television miniseries, based on the 1977 autobiography by Philip Caputo about his service in the United States Marine Corps in the early years of American involvement in the Vietnam War. It was one of the earliest serious US works of television or film drama to be based on US combat experience in Southeast Asia.
The miniseries was filmed at Camp Pendleton and Churubusco Studios, Mexico with a cast featuring Brad Davis, Brian Dennehy, Keith Carradine, Michael O'Keefe, Stacy Keach, Lane Smith and Christopher Mitchum. The producers could not find enough Sikorsky HUS-1 helicopters so used UH-1 Huey helicopters instead.
The Battle of A Shau was waged in early 1966 during the Vietnam War between the North Vietnamese Army and the forces of the United States and South Vietnam. The battle began on March 9 and lasted until March 10 with the fall of the special forces camp of the same name. The battle was an outright victory for the North Vietnamese; it was nevertheless a costly battle that U.S. estimates suggest cost the attackers almost half of their force.
The A Shau Special Forces Camp was located in the A Shau Valley, about 30 miles (50 km) southwest of Huế in Thừa Thiên Province. It was strategically important for the North Vietnamese Army as a major infiltration route because it was adjacent to the Ho Chi Minh Trail. Defending the camp were 10 Green Berets and 210 South Vietnamese Civilian Irregular Defense Group, supported by Air Commando units equipped with vintage A-1 Skyraiders and AC-47 Spooky gunships.
The camp was routinely harassed by small Viet Cong formations leading up to the battle. Throughout February and March, platoon-sized troops from the camp were often sent out to conduct reconnaissance patrol and were prepared to destroy any suspected enemy position in the surrounding area. On
The Battle of Fire Support Base Ripcord was a 23 day battle between the U.S. Army 101st Airborne Division and the North Vietnamese Army from July 1, 1970 until July 23, 1970. It was the last major confrontation between United States ground forces and North Vietnam of the Vietnam War. Little was known about the battle until 1985, when the FSB Ripcord Association was founded. Three Medals of Honor and six Distinguished Service Crosses were awarded to participants for actions during the operations.
President Nixon secretly began the withdrawal of troops from Vietnam early in 1969. As the only full-strength division remaining in Vietnam in early 1970, the 101st Airborne Division was ordered to conduct the planned offensive Operation Texas Star near the A Shau Valley.
On March 12, 1970, the 3rd Brigade, 101st began rebuilding abandoned Fire Support Base Ripcord which relied, as with most remote bases at the time, on a helicopter lifeline to get supplies in and the personnel out. The firebase was to be used for a planned offensive by the 101st to destroy NVA supply bases in the mountains overlooking the valley. Located on the eastern edge of the valley, and taking place at the same time
The Battle of Hill 723 was a Vietnam War battle in the country of Laos, which was fought between the South Vietnamese Army and the Communist North Vietnamese Army (NVA). It took place from March 7 to March 16, 1971, during the South Vietnamese invasion of Laos. The result was a North Vietnamese Army victory. As the South Vietnamese Army approached Hill 723, moving along Route 9 on March 7, 1971, the North Vietnamese Army artillery opened fire and quickly pinned down the advancing South Vietnamese troops. The South Vietnamese Army (ARVN)’s 1st Infantry Division was trapped as the northern flank was closed and the main column was cut off. To no avail, the South Vietnamese High Command attempted to reinforce the 1st Infantry Division with the 2nd and 3rd Regiments. The result was that the South Vietnamese forces were almost completely annihilated.
Nguyễn Hồng Nhị was a MiG-21 fighter ace of the Vietnam People's Air Force's 921st Fighter Regiment. Eight kills have been attributed to him with three confirmed by the United States Air Force. However, it was common practice for American pilots to claim that they were downed by surface-to-air missiles or anti-aircraft guns, this being considered "less embarrassing" than losing in a dogfight
He successfully ejected on 1 August 1968 after being shot down by two Sidewinders from a US Navy VF-51 squadron F-8 Crusader.
The following kills are known to be credited to him by the VPAF:
Operation Cedar Falls was a military operation of the Vietnam War conducted primarily by US forces. The aim of this massive search and destroy operation was to eradicate the so-called "Iron Triangle", an area located in close proximity to Saigon which had become a major stronghold of the communist National Liberation Front (NLF) or Viet Cong. The operation began on January 8, 1967 and ended on January 28, 1967.
Operation Cedar Falls was the largest American ground operation of the Vietnam war : Two Army divisions, one infantry and one paratrooper brigade, as well as one armored cavalry regiment participated in the operation; altogether, Operation Cedar Falls involved 30,000 US and South Vietnamese troops. The Vietcong, however, chose to evade this massive military force by either fleeing across the border to Cambodia or hiding in a complex system of underground tunnels. Nevertheless, the allied forces uncovered and destroyed some of the tunnel complexes as well as large stockpiles of Vietcong supplies. In the course of the operation, so-called tunnel rats were introduced to infiltrate Vietcong tunnel systems.
In an attempt to permanently destroy the Iron Triangle as a Vietcong
Operation Hastings was an American military operation in the Vietnam War. The operation was a qualified success in that it pushed the North Vietnamese Army (NVA) forces back across the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ). As the NVA clearly did not feel constrained by the "demilitarized" nature of the DMZ, US military leadership ordered a steady build-up of U.S. Marines near the DMZ from 1966 to 1968.
During late June and early July 1966, Marine reconnaissance units operating south of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) had observed and engaged increased numbers of uniformed regular North Vietnamese Army (NVA) troops. On 6 July, troops of the ARVN 1st Division captured an NVA soldier near The Rockpile, he identified himself as being from the 812th Regiment of the 324B NVA Division and advised that the other Regiments of the Division had also moved into South Vietnam. On 9 July a lieutenant from the 812th Regiment surrendered in the same area and advised that the 324B Division's mission was to liberate Quang Tri Province..
Convinced that the NVA had moved across the DMZ in force, Major-General Wood B Kyle, Commanding General of the 3rd Marine Division recommended to General Lew Walt that the US
Some Kind of Hero is a 1982 film starring Richard Pryor as a returning Vietnam War veteran having trouble adjusting to civilian life. Soon he is involved in an organized crime heist. It was directed by Michael Pressman. Although James Kirkwood and Robert Boris are jointly credited with the screenplay, in fact the script was Boris’ rewrite of Kirkwood’s adaptation of his novel.
A Vietnam vet returns home from a prisoner of war camp and is greeted as a hero, but is quickly forgotten and soon discovers how tough survival is in his own country.
The movie gained mixed reviews.
The United States of America (commonly called the United States, the U.S., the USA, America, and the States) is a federal constitutional republic consisting of fifty states and a federal district. The country is situated mostly in central North America, where its forty-eight contiguous states and Washington, D.C., the capital district, lie between the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, bordered by Canada to the north and Mexico to the south. The state of Alaska is in the northwest of the continent, with Canada to the east and Russia to the west across the Bering Strait. The state of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific. The country also possesses several territories in the Pacific and Caribbean. At 3.79 million square miles (9.83 million km) and with over 314 million people, the United States is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area, and the third-largest by both land area and population. It is one of the world's most ethnically diverse and multicultural nations, the product of large-scale immigration from many countries.
Paleoindians migrated from Asia to what is now the United States mainland around 15,000 years ago. The Native American population descendent from
The Buddhist Uprising of 1966 was a period of civil and military unrest in South Vietnam, largely focused in the I Corps area in the north of the country in central Vietnam. The area is a heartland of Vietnamese Buddhism and at the time, activist Buddhist monks and civilians were at the forefront of opposition to a series of military juntas that had been ruling the nation, as well as prominently questioning the escalation of the Vietnam War.
During the rule of the Catholic Ngo Dinh Diem, the discrimination against the majority Buddhist population generated the growth of Buddhist institutions as they sought to participate in national politics and gain better treatment. In 1965, after a series of military coups that followed the fall of the Diem regime in 1963, Air Marshal Nguyen Cao Ky and General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu finally established a stable junta, holding the positions of Prime Minister and figurehead Chief of State respectively. During that time, there were still much suspicion and tension between the Buddhist and Catholic factions in Vietnamese society.
The religious factor combined with a power struggle between Ky and General Nguyen Chanh Thi, the commander of I Corps, a
Combat Shock is a 1986 drama film written and directed by Buddy Giovinazzo and distributed by Troma Entertainment.
The plot of the film takes place in Staten Island, and follows an unemployed Vietnam veteran living in total poverty with his nagging wife, his deformed baby due to Ricky having been exposed to Agent Orange that the US was spraying as a defoliant over Vietnam, and junkie friends. Unable to get a job and surrounded by the depravity of urban life and crime, he begins to lose his grip on sanity. The ending is as extreme as it gets.
The film received mixed reviews when it was released. Film Threat's Christopher Curry praised the film for its gritty realism, and Troma president Lloyd Kaufman calls it one of the company's true "masterpieces"; however, shockcinemamagazine.com called it "one of the ugliest, nastiest, most depressing movies of the decade" (though the review itself was a positive one), and Videohound described the film as "relentlessly bleak... you won't find a more depressing film outside an art-house cinema".
Tagline: Fighting, killing, maiming... Agent Orange and the torture cages were the easy part!
The film begins with stock footage scenes of warfare in
Nguyễn Văn Trỗi (c. 1940 – 15 October 1964) was a Việt Cộng (National Liberation Front) bomber. He gained notoriety after being captured by the South Vietnamese while trying to assassinate United States Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara and future ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, Jr. who were visiting South Vietnam in May 1963.
Sentenced to death, Trỗi got a brief reprieve after Venezuela's revolutionary FALN kidnapped United States Air Force Lieutenant Colonel Michael Smolen: the group threatened to kill the American if Trỗi was executed. Smolen was eventually released unharmed, and Trỗi was shot by firing squad shortly thereafter in Chi Hoa Prison.
Trỗi became the first publicly executed member of the Viet Cong. His execution was filmed, and he remained defiant to the end. His last words before his execution in Saigon to correspondents were "You are journalists and so you must be well informed about what is happening. It is the Americans who have committed aggression on our country, it is they who have been killing our people with planes and bombs ... I have never acted against the will of my people. It is against the Americans that I have taken action." When a priest offered him
Operation Steel Tiger was a covert U.S. 2nd Air Division, later Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 aerial interdiction effort targeted against the infiltration of People's Army of Vietnam (PAV) men and material moving south from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam) through southeastern Laos to support their military effort in the Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam) during the Vietnam War.
The operation was initiated by the 2nd Air Division on 3 April 1965, continued under the direction of the Seventh Air Force when that headquarters was created on 1 April 1966, and was concluded on 11 November 1968 with the initiation of Operation Commando Hunt. The purpose of Steel Tiger was to impede the flow of men and materiel on the enemy logistical routes collectively known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail (the Truong Son Strategic Supply Route to the North Vietnamese).
Bombing of the trail system had begun on 14 December 1964 with the advent of Operation Barrel Roll. Due to increasing U.S. intelligence of the build-up of regimental-size PAVN units operating in South Vietnam, the increased American military presence in that country, and the initiation of
Platoon Leader is a 1988 Cannon Films film set in the Vietnam War and directed by Aaron Norris; it starred Michael Dudikoff and Michael DeLorenzo and was filmed in South Africa.
The film is about a newly commissioned infantry lieutenant who arrives in Vietnam to take over his first platoon. He finds he has to prove himself and earn the trust of the enlisted men if he is to lead them.
Lt. Jeffrey Knight, a new officer from West Point, is being airlifted to an outpost in Vietnam. When he arrives, he meets his platoon, a group of tough witted veterans of the war. Platoon Sergeant McNamara explains to Knight that the platoon does not need a leader that fallows the laws. He is frowned upon by his soldiers for his actions besides Pvt. Parker, the radio officer.
One patrol, Knight stumbles carelessly onto a trip mine and is nearly killed. Parker radios and evac and McNamara orders the troops to move to and LZ for extraction. A week later in and Army hospital, Major Flynn asks Knight if hes able to take command again and Knight agrees. He is airlifted back to his platoon's outpost and is not greeted by his men, who expected him not to come back. The soldiers return his stuff to his office
The Battle of Hamburger Hill was a battle of the Vietnam War that was fought by the United States and South Vietnam against North Vietnamese forces from May 10–20, 1969. Although the heavily fortified Hill 937 was of little strategic value, U.S. command ordered its capture by a frontal assault, only to abandon it soon thereafter. The action caused an outrage both in the American military and public.
The battle was primarily an infantry engagement, with the U.S. Airborne troops moving up the highly sloped hill against well entrenched troops. Attacks were repeatedly repelled by North Vietnamese Army (NVA) defenses, weather, friendly fire, and accidents. Nevertheless the Airborne troops took the hill through direct assault, causing extensive casualties to the NVA forces.
The battle took place on Dong Ap Bia (Ap Bia Mountain, Vietnamese: Đồi A Bia) in the rugged, jungle-shrouded mountains of South Vietnam, 1.2 miles (1.9 km) from the Laotian border. Rising from the floor of the western A Shau Valley, Ap Bia Mountain is a looming, solitary massif, unconnected to the ridges of the surrounding Annamite range. It dominates the northern valley, towering some 937 meters (3,074 ft) above sea
The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Russian: Сою́з Сове́тских Социалисти́ческих Респу́блик, tr. Soyuz Sovetskikh Sotsialisticheskikh Respublik) abbreviated to USSR (Russian: СССР, tr. SSSR) or the Soviet Union (Russian: Советский Союз, tr. Sovetsky Soyuz), was a constitutionally socialist state that existed between 1922 and 1991, ruled as a single-party state by the Communist Party with its capital as Moscow. A union of 15 subnational Soviet republics, its government and economy were highly centralised.
The Soviet Union had its roots in the Russian Revolution of 1917, which deposed Nicholas II, ending three hundred years of Romanov dynastic rule. The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, stormed the Winter Palace in Petrograd and overthrew the Provisional Government. The Russian Socialist Federative Soviet Republic was established and a civil war began. The Red Army entered several territories of the former Russian Empire and helped local communists seize power. In 1922, the Bolsheviks were victorious, forming the Soviet Union with the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian, Ukrainian and Byelorussian republics. Following Lenin's death in 1924, a troika collective leadership
The Boys in Company C, directed by Sidney J. Furie; starring Stan Shaw, Andrew Stevens (in his Golden Globe-nominated performance), Craig Wasson, Santos Morales and Michael Lembeck is a 1978 film about United States Marines in the Vietnam War. It was among the first Vietnam War films to appear after the Vietnam Era, and was the first role for R. Lee Ermey of Full Metal Jacket fame. Per Andrew Stevens on the DVD commentary he was discovered by the director Sidney J. Furie. It was a co-production of Golden Harvest and Columbia Pictures, the latter originally handling theatrical distribution. The movie was filmed in the Philippines.
The film is the first in Sidney J. Furie's Vietnam War trilogy along with 2001's Under Heavy Fire and 2006's The Veteran, somewhat similar to Oliver Stone and his Vietnam War trilogy with 1986's Platoon, 1989's Born on the Fourth of July and 1993's Heaven & Earth.
This war drama, which prefigures the similarly bifurcated Full Metal Jacket, follows the lives of five young Marine inductees from their training in boot camp in 1967 through a tour in Vietnam in 1968. Things quickly devolve into a hellish nightmare. Disheartened by futile combat, appalled by the
Apocalypse Now is a 1979 American epic war film set during the Vietnam War, directed and produced by Francis Ford Coppola and starring Marlon Brando, Robert Duvall, and Martin Sheen. The film follows the central character, U.S. Army special operations officer Captain Benjamin L. Willard (Sheen), of MACV-SOG, on a mission to kill the renegade and presumed insane Special Forces Colonel Walter E. Kurtz (Brando).
The screenplay by John Milius and Coppola came from Milius's idea of adapting Joseph Conrad's novella Heart of Darkness into the Vietnam War era. It also draws from Michael Herr's Dispatches, the film version of Conrad's Lord Jim (which shares the same character of Marlow with Heart of Darkness), and Werner Herzog's Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972). The film drew attention for its lengthy and troubled production. Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse documented Brando's showing up on the set overweight, Sheen's heart attack, and extreme weather destroying several expensive sets. The film's release was postponed several times while Coppola edited millions of feet of footage.
On the review aggregator website Rotten Tomatoes, Apocalypse Now has a 99% "Certified Fresh"
The First Battle of Saigon, fought during the Tet Offensive of the Vietnam War, was the coordinated attack by communist forces, including both the North Vietnamese Army and the Viet Cong, against Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam.
In 1968 the communists launched the Tet Offensive. They attacked South Vietnam from all sides, largely by undercover Vietcong guerrillas.
Saigon was the main focal point of this offensive, but a total takeover of the capital, by military units, was not intended or feasible. They rather had six main targets in the city which 35 battalions of Vietcong were to attack and capture: the headquarters of the ARVN, the Independence Palace, the US Embassy, Saigon, the Tan Son Nhut air base, the Long Binh Naval Headquarters, and the National Radio Station. Several reports, after the conflict, indicate that the leader of the Vietcong lived next door to the US Embassy.
The communists were able to assault Saigon because it was Tet (Vietnamese New Year) and this covered some of the sound of gunfire.This is because of the firecrackers going off.
Attacking from all sides of the capital Saigon, the North Vietnamese Army (NVA), and VC launched 35 battalions at Saigon.
Dr. Nguyễn Xuân Ngãi was born in South Vietnam. He is a Vietnamese American and serves as the Vice-Chairman of the People's Action Party of Vietnam.
He had served in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) as a young Medical Officer at Nguyen Van Hoc Hospital in Saigon.
During the Fall of Saigon, he was a Medical Officer. He chose to remain and protect his patients at the hospital in Saigon instead of trying to move to the US like others.
On April 30, 1975, he was imprisoned by the Communist Vietnamese government for three years and was released. He secretly left Vietnam and immigrated to the United States.
In 2002, he was invited by the Vietnamese government Public Health Ministry, to teach Vietnamese doctors the techniques of angioplasty and angiograms.
Dr. Nguyen Xuan Ngai's work was praised within the medical field in Vietnam and was reported by media networks throughout Vietnam. This alarmed the Vietnamese Communist when news spread throughout the media that Dr. Nguyen Xuan Ngai was also involved with an opposition organization known as the People's Action Party of Vietnam.
On March 1, 2002, Communist Police arrived at his hotel in Saigon and seized his passport, visa and
The Walking Dead is a 1936 American horror film directed by Michael Curtiz and starring Boris Karloff. Karloff plays a wrongly executed man who is restored to life by a scientist (Edmund Gwenn). It was distributed by Warner Bros. Pictures.
John Ellman (Boris Karloff) has been framed for murder by a gang of racketeers. He is unfairly tried and despite the fact that his innocence has been proven, he is sent to the electric chair and executed. Dr. Evan Beaumont (Edmund Gwenn) retrieves his dead body and revives it, as part of his experiments to reanimate a dead body and discover what happens to the soul after death.
Dr. Beaumont's use of a mechanical heart to revive the patient foreshadows modern medicine's mechanical heart to keep patients alive during surgery. Although John Ellman has no direct knowledge of anyone wishing to frame him for the murder before he is executed, he gains an innate sense of knowing those who are responsible after he is revived. Ellman takes no direct action against his framers; however, he seeks them out, wishing to know why they had him killed. Each dies a horrible death, and in the end it is their own guilt that causes their deaths.
Confronting the last
Apocalypse Now Redux is a 2001 extended version of Francis Ford Coppola's epic war film Apocalypse Now, which was originally released in 1979. Coppola, along with editor/long-time collaborator Walter Murch, added 49 minutes of scenes that had been cut out of the original film. It represents a significant re-edit of the original version.
The film contains several newly added sequences and alterations to the original film:
Francis Ford Coppola began production on the new cut with working-partner Kim Aubry. Coppola then tried to get Murch, who was reluctant at first. He thought it would be extremely difficult recutting a film which had taken two years to edit originally. He later changed his mind (after working on the reconstruction of Orson Welles' Touch of Evil). Coppola and Murch then examined several of the rough prints and dailies for the film. It was decided early on the editing of the film would be like editing a new film altogether. One such example was the new French Plantation sequence. The scenes were greatly edited to fit into the movie originally, only to be cut out in the end. When working again on the film, instead of using the (heavily edited) version, Murch decided to
The Battle of Ban Dong was a major battle of the Vietnam War that took place in Laos, involving the North and South Vietnamese armies. The battle lasted from February 8 to March 20, 1971.
Before Operation Lam Son 719 began, intelligence indicated that North Vietnam had permanently placed logistical units in the Ban Dong area, especially along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. The logistical units were supported by one regular division, with another one ready for rapid deployment. In order to capture Tchepone the district of Ban Dong had to be brought under South Vietnamese control.
The initial objective of Lam Son 719 was to capture Ban Dong and the surrounding areas, establish firebases and then find and destroy the enemy. Once the first phase of the operation is completed, the 1st ARVN Infantry Division and its supporting units would move on Tchephone. Again, they would set up strong points, sweep the occupied areas and then find and destroy the enemy.
In order to achieve their initial objectives, the Army of the Republic of Vietnam had a diversionery plan drawn up, the aim was to fool the North Vietnamese High Command in regards to South Vietnamese operations. During early February the
The Battle of Hiep Hoa was a minor battle of the Vietnam War. On the night of November 22, 1963, an estimated 500 FNL fighters overrun the Hiep Hoa Special Forces Camp, resulting in four American personnel MIA. South Vietnamese commando units and the American special operation forces resisted heavily using machine guns but were overwhelmed by the arrival of a NVA mortar unit. It was the first CIDG camp to be overrun during the war. Isaac Camacho, one of the four missing Americans, later became the first American to escape from a FNL POW camp.
The Battle of Phuoc Long was a decisive battle of the Vietnam War which began on December 12, 1974, and concluded on January 6, 1975. The battle involved the deployment of North Vietnam's 4th Army Corps for the first time, against determined units of the South Vietnamese Army in Phuoc Long, under the command of Lieutenant General Du Quoc Dong.
On December 12, 1974, the North Vietnamese 4th Army Corps launched their campaign against Phuoc Long aiming to achieve three key objectives. Firstly, North Vietnamese leaders wanted to test the reaction of the United States Government, to see if they would actually uphold former President Richard Nixon's promises of military retaliation against North Vietnam. Secondly, North Vietnamese field commanders wanted to test the combat readiness of the South Vietnamese Army. And thirdly, the North Vietnamese wanted to solve their logistical problems once and for all, by capturing the district of Phuoc Long and the important transportation routes around it.
The North Vietnamese campaign proved to be a major success, because the fall of Phuoc Long showed that the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War was truly over, especially when the
The Cambodian Campaign (also known as the Cambodian Incursion) was a series of military operations conducted in eastern Cambodia during mid-1970 by the United States (U.S.) and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam) during the Vietnam War. These invasions were a result of the policy of President Richard Nixon. A total of 13 major operations were conducted by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) between 29 April and 22 July and by U.S. forces between 1 May and 30 June.
The objective of the campaign was the defeat of the approximately 40,000 troops of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF, also known as Viet Cong) who were ensconced in the eastern border regions of Cambodia. Cambodia's official neutrality and military weakness made its territory effectively a safe zone where Vietnamese Communist forces could establish bases for operations over the border. With the U.S. shifting toward a policy of Vietnamization and withdrawal, the Nixon administration sought to shore up South Vietnam's security by eliminating the cross-border threat.
A change in the Cambodian government allowed a window of opportunity for the
Jacknife is a 1989 American film directed by David Jones and starring Robert De Niro, Ed Harris and Kathy Baker. The film focuses on a small, serious story, with emphasis on characterization and the complex tension between people in a close relationship. Stephen Metcalfe, upon whose play, Strange Snow (1982), the film was based, wrote the screenplay.
Joseph Megessey (known to most as Megs) is a Vietnam war veteran suffering post-Vietnam stress syndrome who is having trouble fitting in with society. He takes on the responsibility of drawing Dave, a fellow veteran now an alcoholic, out of his shell by coaxing him to enjoy life again, as well as urging him to face up to some of his darker memories.
Megs finds himself attracted to Dave's meek sister Martha, who lives with Dave and takes care of him. This attraction leads to a love affair, much to Dave's disapproval. Dave eventually vents his anger and frustration at a high school prom where Martha is a chaperone being accompanied by Megs. This leads to Dave finally facing his demons and acknowledging Megs and Martha for being there for him. Afterward, despite initially ending what was a promising romance, Megs returns to Martha.
The Khmer Rouge, (Khmer: ខ្មែរក្រហម Khmer Krahom) literally translated as Red Khmers, was the name given to the followers of the Communist Party of Kampuchea in Cambodia. It was formed in 1968 as an offshoot of the Vietnam People's Army from North Vietnam. It was the ruling party in Cambodia from 1975 to 1979, led by Pol Pot, Nuon Chea, Ieng Sary, Son Sen, and Khieu Samphan. Democratic Kampuchea was the name of the state as controlled by the government of the Khmer Rouge from 1975 to 1979.
This organization is remembered primarily for its policy of social engineering, which resulted in genocide. Its attempts at agricultural reform led to widespread famine, while its insistence on absolute self-sufficiency, even in the supply of medicine, led to the deaths of thousands from treatable diseases such as malaria. Arbitrary executions and torture carried out by its cadres against perceived subversive elements, or during purges of its own ranks between 1975 and 1978, are considered to have constituted genocide.
By 1979, the Khmer Rouge had fled the country, while the People's Republic of Kampuchea was being established. The governments-in-exile (including the Khmer Rouge) still had a seat
Operation Ivory Coast was a failed rescue mission conducted in North Vietnam during the Vietnam War by United States Special Operations Forces and other elements of the U.S. military.
On November 21, 1970, a joint United States Air Force/United States Army force commanded by Air Force Brigadier General LeRoy J. Manor and Army Colonel Arthur D. "Bull" Simons landed 56 U.S. Army Special Forces soldiers by helicopter in the Sơn Tây prison camp located only 23 miles (37 km) west of Hanoi, North Vietnam. The mission's objective was the recovery of 61 American prisoners of war thought to be held at the camp, situated in an area where 12,000 North Vietnamese troops were stationed within 5 miles (8.0 km). The mission failed when it was found during the raid that all the prisoners had been previously moved to another camp.
The specially selected raiders extensively trained and rehearsed the operation at Eglin Air Force Base, Florida, while planning and intelligence gathering continued from May 25 to November 20, 1970. Despite the absence of prisoners, the raid was executed with a high degree of success, incurring only two minor casualties and the loss of two aircraft, one of which had been
The Uncounted Enemy: A Vietnam Deception was a controversial television documentary aired as part of the CBS Reports series on January 23, 1982. The 90-minute program, produced by George Crile III and narrated by Mike Wallace, asserted that in 1967 intelligence officers under General William Westmoreland, the commander of Military Assistance Command, Vietnam, had manipulated intelligence estimates in order to show far fewer communist personnel in South Vietnam than there actually were, thereby creating the impression that the Vietnam War was being won.
In response, Westmoreland sued Crile, Wallace and CBS for libel. The trial, Westmoreland v. CBS, was approaching its end in 1985 when Westmoreland suddenly dropped his lawsuit, citing a statement by CBS that Westmoreland interpreted as an apology. CBS did not retract anything that had been said in the broadcast, but stated that it had "never intended to assert, and does not believe, that General Westmoreland was unpatriotic or disloyal in performing his duties as he saw them." CBS subsequently lost its libel insurance over the case. Additionally, serious, in-depth documentaries became produced far less frequently on CBS and the other
The Battle of Khe Sanh was conducted in northwestern Quang Tri Province, Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), between 21 January and 9 July 1968 during the Vietnam War. The combatants were elements of the United States (U.S.) III Marine Amphibious Force (III MAF), elements of the South Vietnamese Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) and two to three division-size elements of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN - also referred to as the North Vietnamese Army (NVA)). The American command in South Vietnam gave the defense of the base the nickname Operation Scotland.
The American command in Saigon initially believed that combat operations around the Khe Sanh Combat Base during the summer of 1967 were just part of a series of minor North Vietnamese offensives in the border regions. That appraisal was altered when it was discovered that PAVN was moving major forces into the area during the fall and winter. A build-up of Marine forces took place and actions around Khe Sanh commenced when the Marine base was isolated. During a series of desperate actions that lasted 77 days, Khe Sanh Combat Base (KSCB) and the hilltop outposts around it were under constant North Vietnamese ground,
Coming Home is a 1978 drama film directed by Hal Ashby and starring Jane Fonda, Jon Voight and Bruce Dern. The screenplay, written by Robert C. Jones, Waldo Salt, Nancy Dowd and Rudy Wurlitzer (uncredited), is based loosely on the novel of the same name by George Davis. The plot follows a love triangle among a young woman, her Marine husband and the paralyzed Vietnam War veteran she meets while her husband is overseas. Fonda and Voight won an Academy Award for their performances.
In the spring of 1968 in California, Sally (Jane Fonda), a loyal and conservative military wife, is married to Bob Hyde (Bruce Dern), a Captain in the United States Marine Corps who is sent over to Vietnam. As a dedicated military officer, Bob sees it primarily as an opportunity for progress. At first, Sally dreads being left alone, but after a while she feels liberated. Forced to find housing off the base she moves into a new apartment by the beach and buys a sports car. With nothing else to do, she decides to volunteer at a local veteran's hospital. This, in part, is motivated by her bohemian friend Vi Munson, whose brother Billy has come home after just two weeks in Vietnam with grave emotional problems
Nguyễn Văn Hinh (1915 – 2004), was appointed the Vietnamese National Army Chief of Staff by Emperor Bảo Đại. On November 8, 1954, after the First Indochina War he left South Vietnam in exile for France.
General Nguyễn Chí Thanh (1914 - July 7, 1967) was a North Vietnamese officer who was born in Thua Thien Province in Central Vietnam to a peasant family. His original name was Nguyễn Văn Vịnh. He joined the Indochinese Communist Party in the mid-1930s and apparently spent most of the Second World War in a French prison. He worked for the Party in Central Vietnam until his rise to the Politburo in 1951. During the First Indochina War Thanh was made a general of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN). From 1965 until his death he served as the leading strategist and military commander of COSVN, the southern headquarters of communist military and political operations within the Republic of Vietnam. In late 1967, he presented plans for what was to become the Tet Offensive to the Politburo, but died of a heart attack shortly after receiving permission to implement his plan.
North Vietnam was a communist state that ruled the northern half of Vietnam from 1954 until 1976. It was officially the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Dân chủ Cộng hòa), and was proclaimed by Ho Chi Minh in Hanoi in 1945. Vietnam was partitioned following the Geneva Conference at the end of the First Indochina War.
During World War II, Vietnam was a French colony under Japanese occupation. Soon after Japan surrendered in 1945, the DRV was proclaimed in Hanoi, government for the entire country. Viet Minh leader Hồ Chí Minh became head of the government while former emperor Bảo Đại became "supreme advisor." Non-communist figures were ousted from the DRV on October 30 and fled to the South. In November, the French reoccupied Hanoi and the French Indochina War followed. Bảo Đại became head of the Saigon government in 1949, which was then renamed the State of Vietnam. Following the Geneva Accords of 1954,Vietnam was partitioned at the 17th parallel. The DRV became the government of North Vietnam while the State of Vietnam retained control in the South.
The Geneva Accords provided that nationwide elections would be held in 1956. Although France and the Vietminh had
The Battle of Long Tan (18 August 1966) took place near the village of Long Tan, 27 kilometres (17 mi) north east of Vung Tau, in Phuoc Tuy Province, South Vietnam during the Vietnam War. The action was fought between Australian forces and Viet Cong and North Vietnamese Army units after the 108-man D Company, 6 RAR clashed with a force of over 2,000 men from the Viet Cong 275th Regiment, reinforced by at least one North Vietnamese battalion and elements of D445 Provincial Mobile Battalion. The 1st Australian Task Force (1 ATF) had arrived in South Vietnam between April and June 1966, constructing a base at Nui Dat. After two months 1 ATF had moved beyond the initial requirements of establishing a base and securing its immediate approaches, beginning operations to open the province. Meanwhile, in response to the growing threat posed by the Australians the 275th Regiment was ordered to move against Nui Dat. For several weeks prior Australian signals intelligence (SIGINT) had tracked a radio transmitter moving south to a position just north of Long Tan; however, aggressive patrolling failed to find the unit. At 02:43 on the night of 16/17 August Nui Dat was heavily bombarded by Viet
Vice Admiral David John Shackleton AO (born 2 March 1948) was a Vice Admiral of the Royal Australian Navy, and was Chief of Navy from 1999 to 2002.
David Shackleton joined the Navy from Adelaide, South Australia in 1966 under Supplementary List (Executive) Scheme, and saw service in Vietnam while qualifying as a seaman officer. He was given command of the destroyer escort HMAS Derwent in 1988, was the Maritime commander for the opposing forces during Exercise Kangaroo 1989, and reached the rank of Captain in 1989. He commanded the destroyer HMAS Brisbane from 1991 to 1992, and was promoted to Commodore in 1993.
He is a graduate of the RAN Staff College and the Joint Services Staff College, and has earned an MBA (Executive) from Monash University. He is a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Management and a Fellow of the Australian Institute of Company Directors.
He was promoted to Rear Admiral in 1998, and then Vice Admiral and Chief of Navy in 1999. He initiated various organisational changes across the Navy.
He was a senior Navy witness to the Senate Enquiry into the Children overboard affair. He was appointed as an Officer in the Order of Australia (AO) in 2000, and Commander
Full Metal Jacket is a 1987 war film produced, directed and co-written by Stanley Kubrick. It is an adaptation of the 1979 novel The Short-Timers by Gustav Hasford and stars Matthew Modine, Vincent D'Onofrio, R. Lee Ermey, Arliss Howard and Adam Baldwin. The film follows a platoon of U.S. Marines through their training and the experiences of two Marines of the platoon in the Tet Offensive during the Vietnam War. The film title refers to the full metal jacket bullet used by infantry riflemen.
The film received critical acclaim. It received an Academy Award nomination for Best Adapted Screenplay for Kubrick, Michael Herr and Gustav Hasford. In 2001, the American Film Institute placed Full Metal Jacket at #95 in their "AFI's 100 Years...100 Thrills" poll.
In 1967, during the Vietnam War, a group of new United States Marine Corps recruits arrives at Parris Island for basic training. After having their heads shaved, they meet their Senior Drill Instructor, Gunnery Sergeant Hartman (R. Lee Ermey). Hartman employs draconian tactics to turn the recruits into hardened Marines prepared for combat. Among the recruits are Privates "Joker" (Matthew Modine), "Cowboy" (Arliss Howard), and the
Operation Buffalo (July 2–15, 1967) was a major operation of the Vietnam War that took place in the southern half of the Demilitarized Zone, northeast of Con Thien. On July 2, Alpha and Bravo Companies, 1st Battalion 9th Marines were ambushed on highway 561, near a place called "The Market Place". Out of nearly 400 Marines, the two companies suffered 84 killed, 190 wounded and 9 missing (single worst day for Marines in Vietnam). Only 27 Marines from B/1/9 and about 90 from A/1/9 were fit for duty after the first day. It was the first time North Vietnamese Army used flamethrowers in combat against U.S. troops. B Company Headquarters was wiped out when a single NVA artillery round exploded within the command group. The company commander, two platoon leaders, the radio operator, forward observer and several others were killed. The operation ended on the 15 July with total casualties for the operation at 159 killed, 345 wounded and 9 missing for the Marines making it one of the bloodiest battles of the war. The Marine Corps claimed that the NVA suffered 1,290 known killed. 1st Lt Gatlin J. Howell and SSgt Leon R. Burns earned the Navy Cross for their actions during this battle.
Operation Niagara was a U.S. Seventh Air Force close air support campaign carried out from January through March 1968, during the Vietnam War. Its purpose was to serve as an aerial umbrella for the defense of the U.S. Marine Corps Combat Base on the Khe Sanh Plateau, in western Quang Tri Province of the Republic of Vietnam. The base was under siege by an estimated three-divisional force of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN).
During the last four months of 1967 a series of fierce border battles erupted in South Vietnam that cast a shadow on what had been a productive year for U.S. forces in Southeast Asia. Beginning in mid-September, PAVN began the continuous shelling of a Marine outpost located at Con Tien, near the Demilitarized Zone in northern Quang Tri Province. After an aerial onslaught dubbed Operation Neutralize, North Vietnamese pressure abated at the end of October. At the beginning of November, PAVN was discovered operating in force near the Special Forces outpost at Dak To, in the Central Highlands. After one month of intense fighting, the PAVN forces had faded back across the border.
In January 1968, the recently installed electronic sensors of Operation Muscle Shoals
China (/ˈtʃaɪnə/; Chinese: 中国; pinyin: Zhōngguó; see also Names of China), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is the world's most populous country, with a population of over 1.3 billion. Covering approximately 9.6 million square kilometres, the East Asian state is the world's second-largest country by land area, and the third- or fourth-largest by total area, depending on the definition of total area.
The People's Republic of China is a single-party state governed by the Communist Party of China. It exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four directly controlled municipalities (Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Chongqing), and two mostly self-governing special administrative regions (Hong Kong and Macau). Its capital city is Beijing. The PRC also claims Taiwan—which is controlled by the Republic of China (ROC), a separate political entity—as its 23rd province, a claim controversial due to the complex political status of Taiwan and the unresolved Chinese Civil War. The PRC government denies the legitimacy of the ROC.
China's landscape is vast and diverse, with forest steppes and the Gobi and Taklamakan deserts occupying the arid north and
Father Xmas is a 2001 short film from director Marie Rose and the American Film Institute's Directing Workshop for Women starring Dakota Fanning as six-year-old Clairee who learns from her older brother (Stephen Fanning) that Santa Claus is not real and that their father is fighting in the Vietnam War.
The FTA Tour ("Free The Army"), a play on the troop expression "Fuck The Army", which in turn was a play on the army slogan "Fun, Travel and Adventure") was an anti-Vietnam War road show designed as a response to Bob Hope's USO tour.
It was first organized in April 1970 by activist Fred Gardner, and actors Jane Fonda and Donald Sutherland.
The tour, referred to as "political vaudeville" by Fonda, visited military towns along the West Coast, with the goal of establishing a dialogue with soldiers about their upcoming deployments to Vietnam. Barbara Garson was also a contributor to the show.
The resulting dialogue was turned into a film called F.T.A., directed by Francine Parker, and released into theaters in 1972. Footage and discussion of the FTA Tour is included in the 2005 documentary film Sir! No Sir!.
Since then, the director of Sir! No Sir!, David Zeiger, has been involved in resurrecting the original documentary film F.T.A.. It was shown publicly in Los Angeles in early 2009 at the American Cinematheque with a panel that included two of the original performers in the show. F.T.A. also had its broadcast premiere on the Sundance Channel on February 23, 2009. The DVD of F.T.A. is
New Zealand /njuːˈzilənd/ new-ZEE-lənd, Māori: Aotearoa) is an island country located in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. The country geographically comprises two main landmasses ‒ that of the North and South Islands ‒ and numerous smaller islands. New Zealand is situated some 1,500 kilometres (900 mi) east of Australia across the Tasman Sea and roughly 1,000 kilometres (600 mi) south of the Pacific island nations of New Caledonia, Fiji, and Tonga. Because of its remoteness, it was one of the last lands to be settled by humans.
During its long isolation, New Zealand developed a distinctive biodiversity of both animal and plant life. Most notable are the large number of unique bird species, many of which became extinct after the arrival of humans and introduced mammals. With a mild maritime climate, the land was mostly covered in forest. The country's varied topography and its sharp mountain peaks owe much to the tectonic uplift of land and volcanic eruptions caused by the Pacific and Indo-Australian Plates clashing beneath the earth's surface.
Polynesians settled New Zealand in 1250–1300 CE and developed a distinctive Māori culture, and Europeans first made contact in 1642 CE. The
They Marched Into Sunlight: War and Peace, Vietnam and America, October 1967 is a book written by Pulitzer Prize winner and bestselling author David Maraniss, was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize for History in 2004 and won the J. Anthony Lukas Book Prize. It is also being made into a feature film by Universal Pictures, set for release in 2013.
The book centers around the Battle of Ong Thanh and a protest at the University of Wisconsin–Madison.
A 2005 documentary film, part of the PBS American Experience series was based on this book, titled Two Days in October. In the UK it was also broadcast by BBC Four as How Vietnam was Lost, as part of the channel's Storyville series.
Both Tom Hanks and Gary Goetzman have the rights for making a feature film version of Maraniss's book. Their production company Playtone is very interested in having Paul Greengrass (United 93, The Bourne Ultimatum) as director of the project besides re-writing J. Michael Straczynski's first draft. Universal Pictures is expecting to release the film in 2013.
White Badge is a 1992 South Korean war film directed by Jeong Ji-yeong based on the book White Badge: a novel of Korea by Ahn Junghyo.
It depicts the experience of South Korean soldiers who fought in the Vietnam War alongside American troops. White Badge follows the path of two South Korean soldiers as they struggle to deal with their experiences in the Vietnam War.
Kiju Han, a journalist, must face his memories of Vietnam as he writes a series of articles on the subject for his local newspaper. The articles attract a fellow veteran, Chinsu Pyon, who begins randomly appearing in Han's life. The film, through a series of flashbacks, depicts both the events in Vietnam and their aftermath in the lives of these two soldiers.
The Battle of Go Cong was a small battle during the Vietnam War. It took place on September 3, 1963, after the General Staff of the Viet Cong (National Liberation Front) called for "another Ap Bac" on South Vietnamese forces. The intent of the operation was to drive out the rebels who had survived the earlier Ap Bac engagement. The battle was won by American and South Vietnamese forces, after inflicting heavy casualties on the Viet Cong, using artillery to slaughter rebel fighters fleeing American special operation troops who ambushed them with intense sniper fire. It was later discovered that the 91 of the captured NLF troops were new recruits, and did not have weapons.
The Battle of Ong Thanh was fought on the morning of October 17, 1967, in Binh Duong Province, South Vietnam. During the first few months of 1967, the Viet Cong absorbed heavy losses as a result of large-scale search and destroy missions conducted by the United States Army, and it prompted North Vietnamese leaders to review their war strategy in South Vietnam. In light of the setbacks which North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces had experienced early in 1967, North Vietnamese General Tran Van Tra suggested that North Vietnamese and Viet Cong forces could still be victorious if they inflicted as much casualties as possible on U.S. military units, until America got tired and pulled out from Vietnam. Thus, towards mid-1967, the Viet Cong 7th and 9th Divisions returned to the battlefield again, with the objective of inflicting casualties on U.S. military formations in III Corps Tactical Zone. On June 12, the U.S. 1st Infantry Division launched Operation Billings to destroy elements of the Viet Cong 9th Division, which had built-up strength around northern Phuoc Vinh.
During that operation, American soldiers made only limited contact with the Viet Cong, but they claimed to have defeated
The Chicano Moratorium, formally known as the National Chicano Moratorium Committee, was a movement of Chicano anti-war activists that built a broad-based coalition of Mexican-American groups to organize opposition to the Vietnam War. Led by activists from local colleges and members of the "Brown Berets", a group with roots in the high school student movement that staged walkouts in 1968, the coalition peaked with an August 29, 1970 march in East Los Angeles that drew 30,000 demonstrators.
The Chicano Moratorium was a movement of Chicano activists that organized anti-Vietnam War demonstrations and activities in Mexican American communities throughout the Southwest and elsewhere from November 1969 through August 1971. "Our struggle is not in Vietnam but in the movement for social justice at home" was a key slogan of the movement. It was coordinated by the National Chicano Moratorium Committee (NCMC) and led largely by activists from the Chicano student movement and the Brown Beret organization.
The march took place at Laguna Park (now Ruben F. Salazar Park)
The committee organized its first demonstration on December 20, 1969, in East Los Angeles, with over 1,000 participants. The
Father Augustine Nguyễn Lạc Hóa (born ca. 1908 - died ca. 1989), a refugee Chinese Catholic priest in South Vietnam, led a militia called the Sea Swallows that carved out an anticommunist enclave in the Viet Cong's Ca Mau Peninsula stronghold. The "fighting priest" and his "village that refused to die" attracted admiring media stories, and in 1964 he received the Ramon Magsaysay Award in the Public Service category.
In January 1961, Edward Lansdale visited Father Hoa and Binh Hung. Back in Washington, he was surprised to find that President John F. Kennedy had taken a personal interest in his report on Hoa, and wanted it published in the Saturday Evening Post. It was, attributed to "an American officer." The town of Newburyport, Massachusetts adopted Binh Hung as a sister community, and the Post followed up with another story on Father Hoa. Other correspondents who took up the story of the Sea Swallows included Dickey Chapelle and Stan Atkinson, who remembered Father Hoa decades later as the "most unforgettable character" he met in his travels.
Father Hoa's success inspired others to join his Sea Swallows, including a company of "Nung tribesmen." Declassified documents would reveal
Nguyễn Văn Cốc (born 1943) is a former North Vietnamese MiG-21 PFL fighter ace of the Vietnamese People's Air Force's (also known as the North Vietnamese Air Force) 921st Fighter Regiment.
Coc was born in the Viet Yen district of the province of Bac Giang in French Indochina, north of Hanoi. When he was 5 years old, his father, Nguyen Van Bay, who was Chairman of the Viet Minh in the district, and his uncle, also a member of the Viet Minh, were killed by the French. Fearing further trouble with the French, his mother relocated the family, which led to him spending the rest of his childhood near Chu air base, which kindled an interest in aircraft.
He attended Ngo Si Lien school in Bac Giang and upon completion of his schooling, enlisted in the Quan Chung Khong Quan (Vietnamese People's Air Force, VPAF) in 1961 and underwent his initial training at Cat Bi Airbase in Haiphong. He subsequently spent four years undergoing pilot training in the Soviet Union at the Batajsk and Krasnodov Soviet Air Force bases. Of the 120 trainees who were dispatched in Nguyens’s draft to the Soviet Union, he was one of the seven who graduated as a MiG-17 pilot.
After a brief spell back in North Vietnam
South Vietnam was a state which governed southern Vietnam from Saigon during the years of 1955 to 1975. It received international recognition, primarily from democratic and anti-communist nations, as the Republic of Vietnam (Vietnamese: Việt Nam Cộng Hòa, French: République du Viêt Nam). The terms South Vietnam and North Vietnam became common usage in 1954 at the time of the Geneva Conference, which partitioned Vietnam into Viet-Minh and French zones at the 17th parallel. The United States was an ally of South Vietnam during the Vietnam War.
South Vietnam's origins can be traced to the French colony of Cochinchina, which consisted of the southern third of Vietnam and was a subdivision of French Indochina. After World War II, the Vietminh, led by Ho Chi Minh, proclaimed the establishment of a Communist nation in Hanoi. In 1949, non-communist Vietnamese politicians formed a rival government in Saigon led by former emperor Bao Dai. Bao Dai was deposed by Prime Minister Ngo Dinh Diem in 1955, who proclaimed himself president after a referendum. After Diem was deposed in a military coup in 1963, there was a series of short-lived military governments. General Nguyen Van Thieu led the
Thou Shalt Not Kill... Except (also known as Stryker's War) is an American low budget action / horror film, originally released in 1987. The film was written by Josh Becker and Scott Spiegel, with a story by Becker, actor Bruce Campbell, and Sheldon Lettich. Directed by Becker, the film is fairly obscure, but maintains a small following.
Having come home after half of his squadron was killed during the Vietnam War, Sergeant Jack Stryker (portrayed by Brian Schulz), given an honorable discharge due to his injuries, attempts to get his life back together. Finding himself reunited with an old girlfriend, Sally (Cheryl Hausen) and his war buddies, he feels he may have successfully re-established his life. However, this happiness is quickly cut short when a murderous cult led by an enigmatic but unnamed Charles Manson-like figure, portrayed by director and writer Sam Raimi, comes into town to continue their rampage.
After Sally is tortured and Stryker and his compatriots find the cult torturing police officers near his house, they arm themselves up and decide to, as the trailer puts it, "break the laws of both God (the title is a reference to one of the Biblical Ten Commandments) and
Tigerland is a 2000 war drama film directed by Joel Schumacher starring Colin Farrell in the role of Private Roland Bozz, and takes place in a training camp for soldiers to be sent to the Vietnam War.
Tigerland was the name of a U.S. Army training camp located at Fort Polk, Louisiana as part of the U.S. Army Advanced Infantry Training Center. The film's setting is loosely based on this training camp.
It is September 1971 and it is clear that the Vietnam War is lost. In the opinion of the average American soldier who came of age during the Peace movement of the 1960s, Vietnam was lost a long time ago. Roland Bozz (Colin Farrell), a draftee who is opposed to the war, is shown to be an unruly soldier with no respect for authority; he disobeys orders and talks back to his superiors. He quickly befriends another recruit, Jim Paxton (Matthew Davis), an aspiring writer who records his experiences in a personal journal. Unlike Bozz, Paxton volunteered for the Army. Upon reaching their post the company CO, Captain Saunders makes it clear that every soldier who passes through Fort Polk and Tigerland will be sent to Vietnam. He also states that any political views on the war are irrelevant at
The Battle of An Lộc was a major battle of the Vietnam War that lasted for 66 days and culminated in a decisive victory for South Vietnam. In many ways, the struggle for An Lộc in 1972 was an important battle of the war, as South Vietnamese forces halted the North Vietnamese advance towards Saigon.
An Lộc is the capital of Bình Phước Province located northwest of Military Region III. During North Vietnam's "Easter Offensive", officially known as the Nguyen Hue Offensive of 1972, An Lộc was at the centre of North Vietnamese strategy due to its location on QL-13 between Base Area 708 in Cambodia, and Saigon. To protect this important area the Republic of Vietnam had essentially one single division in Bình Phước Province, the ARVN 5th Division. During the battle the 5th ARVN division was outnumbered by a combined force of three North Vietnamese and Viet Cong divisions resulting in the most protracted conflict of the whole 1972 Easter Offensive.
On the same day that Loc Ninh—a small town 20 miles (32 km) north of An Loc on the border with Cambodia was assaulted the (NVA) PAVN 7th division launched an attack on Route 13 in an attempt to cut off An Loc from Saigon. To control route QL-13
Héroes de Otra Patria (in English, Heroes from Another Country, or sometimes credited as Heroes without a Cause) is a 1998 Puerto Rican film, written and directed by Iván Dariel Ortíz.
The film follows the lives of two Puerto Rican soldiers in the middle of the Vietnam War. After being sent on a reconnaissance mission, their squad is ambushed and they get lost in the jungle. Meanwhile, we see the struggles being suffered by their relatives after their departure from the island.
Tagline: Cuando usaron de arma la inocencia. (When they used innocence as a weapon.)
The film received an honorary mention at the Viña del Mar Festival in Chile.
Operation Dumbo Drop is a 1995 American comedy film directed by Simon Wincer that explores war, politics, and animal welfare. The storyline was conceived from a screenplay written by Gene Quintano and Jim Kouf; based on a true story as depicted by United States Army Major Jim Morris. The film stars Danny Glover and Ray Liotta as Green Berets during the Vietnam War in 1968, who attempt to transport an elephant through jungle terrain to a local South Vietnamese village which in turn helps American forces monitor Viet Cong activity. Actors Denis Leary, Doug E. Doug and Corin Nemec also star in principal roles. A joint collective effort to commit to the film's production was made by Interscope Communications and PolyGram Filmed Entertainment. As a backdrop for Vietnam, primary shooting and photography took place in Thailand.
It was commercially distributed by Walt Disney Pictures theatrically, and by Buena Vista Home Entertainment for home media.
Operation Dumbo Drop premiered in theaters nationwide in the United States on July 28, 1995 grossing $24,670,346 in domestic ticket receipts. The film was a moderate financial success after its theatrical run, but was generally met with
Operation Union was a military operation conducted by the United States Marine Corps during the Vietnam War. It was a search and destroy mission in the Que Son Valley carried out by the 1st Marine Regiment. The object of the operation was the 2nd Division of the People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN, often in US sources "North Vietnamese Army" or NVA). Launched on April 21, 1967 the operation ended May 16.
The Que Son Valley is located along the border of Quang Nam and Quang Tin provinces. During the Vietnam War it lay in the southern part of South Vietnam's I Corps Military Region.
Populous and rice-rich, the valley was viewed as one of the keys to controlling South Vietnam's five northern provinces by the communists and by early 1967 at least two regiments of the 2nd Division of the PAVN had been infiltrated into the area. The Que Son Valley was also recognized as strategically important by Military Assistance Command, Vietnam (MACV). The 5th Marine Regiment minus its 2nd Battalion, an experienced force that had fought in Vietnam since their arrival in the Summer of 1966, was assigned to the valley in 1967 to support the outnumbered Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) forces in the
The movement against the involvement of the United States in the Vietnam War began in the U.S. with demonstrations in 1964 and grew in strength in later years. The U.S. became polarized between those who advocated continued involvement in Vietnam, and those who wanted peace.
Many in the peace movement were students, mothers, or anti-establishment hippies, but there was also involvement from many other groups, including educators, clergy, academics, journalists, lawyers, physicians (such as Benjamin Spock and Justin Newlan), military veterans, and ordinary Americans. Expressions of opposition events ranged from peaceful nonviolent demonstrations to radical displays of violence.
Public support for the war decreased as the war waged on throughout the sixties and beginning part of the 1970s.
William L. Lunch and Peter W. Sperlich collected public opinion data measuring support for the war from 1965–1971. Support for the war was measured by a negative response to the question: "In view of developments since we entered the fighting in Vietnam, do you think the U.S. made a mistake sending troops to fight in Vietnam?" They found the following results.
After May 1971 Gallup stopped asking
The Laotian Civil War (1953–75) was fought between the Communist Pathet Lao (including many North Vietnamese of Lao ancestry) and the Royal Lao Government in which both the political rightists and leftists received heavy external support for a proxy war from the global Cold War superpowers. Among United States Central Intelligence Agency Special Activities Division US and Hmong veterans of the conflict, it is known as the Secret War.
The Kingdom of Laos was a covert theatre for battle for the other belligerents during the Vietnam War. The Franco–Lao Treaty of Amity and Association signed 22 October 1953, transferred remaining French powers – except control of military affairs – to the Royal Lao Government – which did not include any representatives from the Lao Issara anti-colonial armed nationalist movement — and otherwise establishing Laos as an independent member of the French Union.
The following years were marked by a rivalry between the neutralists under Prince Souvanna Phouma, the right wing under Prince Boun Oum of Champassak, and the left-wing Lao Patriotic Front under Prince Souphanouvong and future Prime Minister Kaysone Phomvihane. A number of attempts were made to
The Last Full Measure is a 2004 short film written and directed by Alexandra Kerry, daughter of U.S. Democratic Senator John Kerry. Set in 1973, during the Vietnam War, it explores the emotions of a nine-year-old girl awaiting her father's return from the war. The cast includes 24 stars Xander Berkeley and Reiko Aylesworth.
The title is drawn from the Gettysburg Address of President Abraham Lincoln.
Forrest Gump is a 1994 American epic comedy-drama romance film based on the 1986 novel of the same name by Winston Groom. The film was directed by Robert Zemeckis and starred Tom Hanks, Robin Wright, Gary Sinise and Sally Field. The story depicts several decades in the life of Forrest Gump, a naïve and slow-witted yet athletically prodigious native of Alabama who witnesses, and in some cases influences, some of the defining events of the latter half of the 20th century; more specifically, the period between Forrest's birth in 1945 and 1982.
The film differs substantially from Winston Groom's novel on which it is based, including Gump's personality and several events that were depicted. Filming took place in late 1993, mainly in Georgia, North Carolina, and South Carolina. Extensive visual effects were used to incorporate the protagonist into archived footage and to develop other scenes. A comprehensive soundtrack was featured in the film, using music intended to pinpoint specific time periods portrayed on screen. Its commercial release made it a top-selling soundtrack, selling over 8 million copies worldwide.
Released in the United States on July 6, 1994, Forrest Gump was well
Gardens of Stone is a 1987 film by Francis Ford Coppola, based on the novel of the same title by Nicholas Proffitt.
A drama, it stars James Caan, Anjelica Huston, James Earl Jones and D. B. Sweeney.
A hardened Korean and Vietnam War veteran, Sergeant First Class Clell Hazard (James Caan) would rather be an instructor at the U.S. Army School of Infantry, at Fort Benning, Georgia, to train soldiers for Vietnam but instead he is assigned by the Army to the 1st battalion 3d Infantry Regiment (The Old Guard) at Fort Myer, Virginia.
The Old Guard is U.S. Army's Honor Guard. It provides the ceremonial honor guard for the funerals of fallen soldiers and guards the Tomb of the Unknown Soldier at Arlington National Cemetery. Hazard calls them the "toy soldiers" and hates his job until Jackie Willow (D. B. Sweeney), the son of an old friend and fellow veteran, is assigned to his platoon and he sees an opportunity to make sure at least one man comes home alive.
Hazard tries to warn Willow about Vietnam but the young man sees it as his duty as a soldier to fight for his country, no matter what kind of war. Hazard hates how the war in Vietnam is being fought and feels that good soldiers are
The Battle of Gang Toi (8 November 1965) was fought during the Vietnam War between Australian troops and the Viet Cong. The battle was one of the first engagements between the two forces during the war and occurred when the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (1 RAR) struck a Viet Cong bunker system defended by Company 238 in the Gang Toi Hills, in northern Bien Hoa Province. It occurred during a major joint US-Australian operation codenamed Operation Hump, involving the US 173rd Airborne Brigade, to which 1 RAR was attached. During the latter part of the operation an Australian rifle company clashed with an entrenched company-sized Viet Cong force in well-prepared defensive positions. Meanwhile, an American paratroop battalion was also heavily engaged in fighting on the other side of the Song Dong Nai.
The Australians were unable to concentrate sufficient combat power to launch an assault on the position and consequently they were forced to withdraw after a fierce engagement during which both sides suffered a number of casualties, reluctantly leaving behind two men who had been shot and could not be recovered due to heavy machine-gun and rifle fire. Although they were most
The Battle of Kham Duc was a major battle of the Vietnam War (also known, in Vietnam, as the "American War"). The event occurred in Khâm Đức, Quảng Tín Province (now part of Quảng Nam Province, South Vietnam), between 10-12 May 1968. During the Tet Offensive of 1968, the Vietnam People's Army (PAVN) 2nd Division tried to capture Đà Nẵng but their attacks were quickly blunted by elements of the U.S. 1st Marine Division, the Americal Division, and the Korean Brigade that were guarding the city. North Vietnamese General Chu Huy Mân decided to disengage from the fight in the outskirts of the city, and pull the 2nd Division into the mountains where they could rest, rebuild, and prepare for the next major operation. Khâm Đức, a small district in the north of Quảng Tín, was chosen as the next target for the PAVN 2nd Division. Following the defeat of the North Vietnamese in Đà Nẵng, U.S. military intelligence agencies in I Corps Tactical Zone were confused by the movements of the North Vietnamese 2nd Division, because they could not track down the mysterious enemy unit.
During March and April, U.S. military intelligence began to detect elements of the PAVN 2nd Division moving towards Khâm
The Battle of Lộc Ninh was a major battle fought during the Easter Offensive during the Vietnam War, which took place in Bình Long Province, South Vietnam between 4–7 April 1972. Towards the end of 1971, North Vietnamese leaders decided to launch a major offensive against South Vietnam, with the objective of destroying Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) units and capturing as much territory as possible, in order to strengthen their bargaining position in the Paris Peace Accords. On 30 March 1972, two North Vietnamese Army divisions smashed through the Demilitarized Zone, marking the commencement of the Easter Offensive. They quickly overwhelmed South Vietnamese units in the I Corps Tactical Zone. With the rapid collapse of South Vietnamese forces in the northern provinces of South Vietnam, North Vietnamese and Việt Cộng forces began preparing for their next offensive, targeting Bình Long Province in the Mekong Delta region. On 4 April, the Việt Cộng's 5th Division opened their attack on Lộc Ninh, defended by the ARVN 9th Infantry Regiment. After three days of fighting, the vastly outnumbered South Vietnamese forces, though well supported by American air power, were forced to
Go Tell the Spartans is a 1978 American war film based on Daniel Ford's 1967 novel Incident at Muc Wa, about U.S. Army military advisors during the early part of the Vietnam War in 1964, a time when Ford was a correspondent in Vietnam for The Nation. It stars Burt Lancaster and was directed by Ted Post.
The film's title is from Simonides's epitaph to the three hundred soldiers who died fighting Persian invaders at Thermopylae, Greece: "Go tell the Spartans, stranger passing by, that here, obedient to their laws, we lie."
It's January 1964 in the period when American troops were euphemistically termed "military advisors" in Vietnam. Major Asa Barker (Burt Lancaster) has been given this command: a poorly-manned outpost named Muc Wa in rural Vietnam somewhere near the Da Nang to Phnom Penh (Cambodia) highway that a decade earlier had been the scene of a massacre of French soldiers during the First Indochina War. Barker is a weary infantry veteran in his third war (he served in the Pacific during World War II as well as in the Korean War), who provides veteran supervision to a cadre of advisors attached to a group of South Vietnamese who garrison the deserted village of Muc Wa.
The Gulf of Tonkin incident, or the USS Maddox incident, are the names given to two separate confrontations, one actual and one false, involving North Vietnam and the United States in the waters of the Gulf of Tonkin. On August 2, 1964, the destroyer USS Maddox, while performing a signals intelligence patrol as part of DESOTO operations, engaged three North Vietnamese Navy torpedo boats of the 135th Torpedo Squadron. A sea battle resulted, in which the Maddox expended over two hundred and eighty 3-inch and 5-inch shells, and in which four USN F-8 Crusader jet fighter bombers strafed the torpedo boats. One US aircraft was damaged, one 14.5 mm round hit the destroyer, three North Vietnamese torpedo boats were damaged, and four North Vietnamese sailors were killed and six were wounded; there were no U.S. casualties.
The second Tonkin Gulf incident was originally claimed by the U.S. National Security Agency to have occurred on August 4, 1964, as another sea battle, but instead may have involved "Tonkin Ghosts" (false radar images) and not actual NVN torpedo boat attacks.
The outcome of these two incidents was the passage by Congress of the Gulf of Tonkin Resolution, which granted
Nguyễn Hữu Có (c. 1925 – 3 July 2012) served in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, rising to the rank of General. He was prominent in several coups and juntas in the 1960s.
In 1963, Có came to prominence for his role in the November coup that deposed Vietnam's president, Ngô Đình Diệm, who was assassinated. Có's superior, General Tôn Thất Đính, moved him into command of the 7th Division to lock loyalist forces out of Saigon. Có was promoted to Brigadier General after the coup, and as South Vietnam was inflicted with a cycle of coups over the next two years, he became more prominent as other generals defeated one another in power struggles.
By 1965, Có was the Deputy Prime Minister and Defense Minister in a junta headed by Prime Minister and Air Marshal Nguyễn Cao Kỳ and General Nguyễn Văn Thiệu, the figurehead chief of state. Có came under increasing scrutiny for his exorbitant wealth and was widely seen as corrupt, while Kỳ viewed him as a political threat. In 1967 Kỳ fired Có when both men were overseas on diplomatic visits. Kỳ then organized military forces to prevent Có from flying back, effectively sending him into exile. Over time, Thiệu began to eclipse Kỳ in a power
Nguyễn Văn Lém (referred to as Captain Bảy Lốp) (died 1 February 1968 in Saigon) was a member of the Viet Cong who was summarily executed in Saigon during the Tet Offensive. The execution was captured on film by photojournalist Eddie Adams. The execution was explained at the time as being the consequence of Lém's suspected guerrilla activity and war crimes, and otherwise due to a general "wartime mentality." It was later learned that Lem was suspected of having murdered one of Gen. Loan's senior officers, and his entire family, during the Tet Offensive shortly before Gen. Loan summarily executed him on a busy Saigon street.
On the second day of Tet, amid fierce street fighting, Lém was captured and brought to Brigadier General Nguyen Ngoc Loan, then Chief of the Republic of Vietnam National Police. Using his personal sidearm, General Loan summarily executed Lém in front of AP photographer Eddie Adams and NBC television cameraman Vo Suu. The photograph and footage were broadcast worldwide, galvanizing the anti-war movement; Adams won a 1969 Pulitzer Prize for his photograph.
South Vietnamese sources said that Lém commanded a Vietcong death squad, which on that day had targeted South
Operation Barrel Roll was a covert U.S. Air Force 2nd Air Division (later the Seventh Air Force) and U.S. Navy Task Force 77, interdiction and close air support campaign conducted in the Kingdom of Laos between 14 December 1964 and 29 March 1973 concurrent with the Vietnam War.
The original purpose of the operation was to serve as a signal to the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to cease its support for the insurgency then taking place in the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). This action was taken within Laos due to the location of North Vietnam's expanding logistical corridor known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail (the Truong Son Road to the North Vietnamese), which ran from southwestern North Vietnam, through southeastern Laos, and into South Vietnam. The campaign then centered on the interdiction of that logistical system. Beginning during the same time frame (and expanding throughout the conflict) the operation became increasingly involved in providing close air support missions for Royal Lao Armed Forces, CIA-backed tribal mercenaries, and Thai "volunteers" in a covert ground war in northern and northeastern Laos. Barrel Roll and the "Secret Army" attempted to stem an
Operation Masher was a combined U.S., ARVN, and ROKA operation that began on January 28, 1966. The name "Operation Masher" was changed to "Operation White Wing", because the name was deemed too crude for 'nation-building'.
The mission was a search and destroy mission, and had little to do with nation-building. The operation was divided into four Phases.
Masher/White Wing lasted 42 days and ended on March 6. As many as 1,342 enemy soldiers had been killed by the 1st Cavalry Division (Airmobile) at the cost of 288 United States' troops killed and 990 wounded. The ARVN and ROKA forces killed an additional 808 enemy soldiers. The 3rd NVA Division was pronounced destroyed, but later was back in action elsewhere on the battlefield. Along with the operation Tay Vinh massacre and Go Dai massacre occurred.
The US Government summarized the amount of firepower deployed during Operation Masher/White wing. 1352 strikes coupled with 1126 fighter sorties unloaded 1.5 million pounds of bombs. 292,000 pounds of Napalm was also used and Operation Masher left over 1884 refugees. By 1967, the amount of Communists captured in Vietnam numbered 17,000 but there were over 1.2 million civilian refugees.
Operation Tiger Hound was a covert U.S. 2nd Air Division, later Seventh Air Force and U.S. Navy Task Force 77 aerial interdiction campaign conducted in southeastern Laos from 5 December 1965 till 11 November 1968, during the Vietnam War. The purpose of the operation was to interdict the flow of People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) supplies on the Ho Chi Minh Trail (the Truong Son Strategic Supply Route to the North Vietnamese) from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam), through southeastern Laos, and into the northern provinces of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). The missions were originally controlled by the 2d Air Division until that headquarters was superseded by the Seventh Air Force on 1 April 1966.
The geographic boundary of the operation was carved from the area of Laos already under bombardment under Operation Steel Tiger. This was done at the behest of the American commander in South Vietnam, General William C. Westmoreland, who saw the area of Laos that bordered the five northernmost provinces of South Vietnam as an extension of his area of operations. The U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff agreed. Unlike Operation Barrel Roll and Steel Tiger, however, the bombing
Peter John Badcoe VC (11 January 1934 – 7 April 1967) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces.
Badcoe was born as Peter John Badcock on 11 January 1934 in the Adelaide suburb of Malvern, South Australia, to Leslie Allen Badcock, a public servant, and his wife Gladys Mary Ann May (née Overton). He was educated at Adelaide Technical High School, before gaining employment as a clerk with the South Australian Public Service. Despite his father's opposition to the prospect, Badcock held ambitions to join the Australian Army; he did so in April 1952. He served for a period of seven weeks with the 16th National Service Training Battalion, prior to receiving acceptance as an officer cadet at the Officer Cadet School, Portsea on 15 June that year. Following six month's of training, Badcock graduated nineteenth in his course out of forty-nine cadets on 13 December and was commissioned as a second lieutenant into the Royal Australian Artillery. In his assessment of Badcock, Portsea's commandant noted that he was a "very keen and sound student" and would "make a capable
We Were Soldiers Once… And Young is a 1992 book by Lt. Gen. Harold G. Moore (Ret.) and war journalist Joseph L. Galloway about the Vietnam War. It focuses on the role of the First and Second Battalions of the 7th Cavalry Regiment in the Battle of the Ia Drang Valley, the United States' first large-unit battle of the Vietnam War; previous engagements involved small units and patrols (squad, platoon, and company sized units).
The book was a New York Times best-seller. David Halberstam called it "A stunning achievement - paper and words with the permanence of marble. I read it and thought of The Red Badge of Courage, the highest compliment I can think of." General H. Norman Schwarzkopf said "We Were Soldiers Once...and Young is a great book of military history, written the way military history should be written."
The book was adapted into the movie We Were Soldiers, directed by Randall Wallace and starring Mel Gibson as Moore. In the book, Moore complains that "Every damn Hollywood movie got it wrong"; Wallace has said he was inspired by this comment and became "determined to get it right this time."
The film's final version, though getting many of the facts of the book presented onto
Journey from the Fall (Vietnamese: Vượt Sóng) is a 2006 independent film by writer/director/editor Ham Tran, about the Vietnamese reeducation camp and boat people experience following the Fall of Saigon on April 30, 1975. This drama was released on March 23, 2007, by ImaginAsian to sold-out screenings. The film is notable for having been financed entirely by the Vietnamese American community.
The film traces the story of a family's struggle for survival in the aftermath of the Fall of Saigon on April 30, 1975 to North Vietnam's communist regime. After her South Vietnamese Army husband Long, is imprisoned in a North Vietnamese reeducation camp, Mai, her son Lai, and her mother-in-law escape Vietnam by boat in the hopes of starting a new life in Southern California. Believing his family is dead, Long gives up in the face of brutal conditions, while Mai struggles to keep her family from crumbling under the pressures of life in a new country. When Long learns his family is alive in America, he is reinvigorated and decides he must join them at any cost.
An early cut of the film was screened in April 2005 in sold-out one-day-only showings in Little Saigon, Washington, D.C., and San Jose
Missing in Action 2: The Beginning is a 1985 action/adventure film, and a prequel to Missing in Action, both of which star Chuck Norris. It was directed by Lance Hool and written by Steve Bing, Larry Levinson and Arthur Silver.
Missing in Action 2 was filmed at the same time as the first Missing in Action film, and was actually set to be released first before the producers changed their minds. It was followed by a sequel of its own, Braddock: Missing in Action III.
Ten years before freeing American POWs from a brutal General, Colonel James Braddock (Chuck Norris) was held in a North Vietnamese POW camp run by sadistic Colonel Yin (Soon-Teck Oh), who forces the POWs to grow opium for a French drug runner named Francois (Pierre Issot), and tries to get Braddock to admit to and sign a long list of war crimes. During his team's time in captivity, they are relentlessly subjected to various forms of humiliating torture, and Braddock being told that his wife has left him and has remarried. One of Braddock's comrades starts to suffer with malaria, and is injected with what they are told to be antibiotics. They later find out that he was in fact injected with a lethal dose of opium instead.
The Battle of Kampot was a major battle of the Vietnam War, also a part of the Cambodian Civil War. From February 26 to April 2, 1974, Cambodian government troops battled Khmer Rouge guerillas for the control of Kampot city.
The Khmer Rouge commenced their attack north of Kampot on February 26, pounding the city with 107mm rockets and 120mm mortars.
During the first week of fighting, elements of the Cambodian Army 12th and 68th Brigades abandoned their positions, while the 210th and 68th Battalions were deactivated after 300 soldiers deserted during the first day of the enemy onslaught. The desertions allowed the Khmer Rouge to capture the city water works, as a result, half of Kampot's inhabitants fled the city due to the dwindling water supply.
With support from the navy, air force and artillery units, the 12th and 20th Brigades of the Cambodian army counter-attacked the north-east. Rather than advance, the Cambodian government units developed a defensive posture as the Khmer Rouge's positions were strengthened. Between March 2-March 10 Kampot was further reinforced with six 105mm artillery pieces and two more battalions. On April 3, government defensive positions near Kampot
Good Morning, Vietnam is a 1987 American war-comedy film loosely based on the experiences of the AFRS radio DJ Adrian Cronauer. Set in the Saigon of 1965, during the Vietnam War the film stars Robin Williams as a radio DJ on Armed Forces Radio Service (AFRS), who proves hugely popular with the troops serving in South Vietnam, but infuriates his superiors with what they call his "irreverent tendency". The film is written by Mitch Markowitz and directed by Barry Levinson.
Most of Williams' humorous radio broadcasts were largely improvised. As a result, he was nominated for an Academy Award for Best Actor in a Leading Role. The film is number 100 on "AFI's 100 Years…100 Laughs".
In 1965, Airman Second Class Adrian Cronauer (Robin Williams), of the United States Air Force, arrives in Saigon from Crete to work as a DJ for the Armed Forces Radio Service there. Cronauer is greeted, and also befriended, by Private First Class Edward Montesquieu "Eddie" Garlick (Forest Whitaker). Cronauer's irreverence contrasts sharply with many staff members and soon rouses the ire of two of his superiors, Second Lieutenant Steven Hauk (Bruno Kirby) and Sergeant Major Phillip Dickerson (J. T. Walsh). Hauk
Corporal John Roland Burke (February 6, 1944—June 6, 1967) was a sniper in the United States Marine Corps. He was posthumously awarded the Navy Cross for his actions during the Vietnam War for which he was killed in action at Khe Sanh.
For extraordinary heroism while serving as a Sniper Team Leader with Headquarters and Service Company, First Battalion, 26th Marines, 3rd Marine Division (Reinforced), in the Republic of Vietnam on 6 June 1967. Assigned the mission of defending an outpost on Hill 950 at Khe Sanh, Quảng Trị Province, Corporal Burke's team was taken under attack by a numerically superior enemy force. During the initial assault, Corporal Burke was wounded by an enemy grenade. Ignoring his wound, he administered first aid to a severely wounded comrade and placed him in a relatively safe position, covering the wounded man with his own body to protect him from further injury. Heeding a call for help from outside the bunker, he unhesitatingly went to the aid of another Marine. While he and a companion were moving the man to the security of the bunker an enemy grenade exploded, knocking him and his comrade into the bunker. Although seriously wounded, he moved the wounded man
Nguyễn Hợp Đòan (1928–2002) was to be the last Mayor of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam and Province Chief of Gia Dinh Province, before the fall of Saigon that led to the reunification of Vietnam under the Communist party in 1975.
Born in Hai Duong Province in 1928 to Nguyen Thuc Vinh, a former Governor of Bac Can Province in French Indochina and what was then northern Vietnam. The senior Nguyen nearly captured Ho Chi Minh early in Ho's career. For his efforts, Ho's comrades tortured and killed Nguyen's mother. Fiercely anticommunist, the family fled South at the partitioning of the country following the Geneva Accords of 1954.
Nguyen attended the 4th class of the Vietnamese National Military Academy in Da Lat, the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College (USACGSC) and the U.S. Army War College (USAWC).
He served as Commanding Officer of 705th Battalion, Commanding Officer of 42nd Brigade, Commanding Officer of 14th Division and Chief of Staff of 9th Division. He also served as Chief of Staff of Vietnam's Rangers and Special Forces and participated in the Phoenix program. The program was designed to identify and "neutralize"—capture; induce to surrender; kill; or otherwise
The Philippines /ˈfɪlɨpiːnz/ FI-lə-peenz (Filipino: Pilipinas [ˌpɪlɪˈpinɐs]), officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas), is a sovereign state in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. To its north across the Luzon Strait lies Taiwan. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam. The Sulu Sea to the southwest lies between the country and the island of Borneo, and to the south the Celebes Sea separates it from other islands of Indonesia. It is bounded on the east by the Philippine Sea. Its location on the Pacific Ring of Fire and its tropical climate make the Philippines prone to earthquakes and typhoons but have also endowed the country with natural resources and made it one of the richest areas of biodiversity in the world. An archipelago comprising 7,107 islands, the Philippines is categorized broadly into three main geographical divisions: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. Its capital city is Manila.
With a population of more than 92 million people, the Philippines is the 7th most populated Asian country and the 12th most populated country in the world. An additional 12 million Filipinos live overseas. Multiple ethnicities and
84C MoPic (also known as 84 Charlie MoPic) is a 1988 American independent war film drama by Patrick Sheane Duncan.
The film is created as a mock-up documentary of a Long Range Reconnaissance Patrol (LRRP) mission during the Vietnam War. The point of view is from a camera following an LRRP team on a five-day patrol deep in "Indian Country" (territory controlled by the North Vietnamese). The cameraman is nicknamed "MoPic" by the team, because of his alphanumeric military occupational specialty, 84C20, Motion Picture Specialist. The supposedly routine mission, however, goes wrong and eventually turns into a struggle for survival.
The movie was filmed on low budget in Southern California. The film is one of the earlier examples of found footage, a style famously implemented by Blair Witch Project and Paranormal Activity.
The film received three nominations:
The Battle of Xa Cam My was a battle of the Vietnam War fought over two days from April 11–12, 1966. Originally planned as a U.S. search and destroy mission intended to lure out the "crack" Viet Cong D800 Battalion, Charlie Company soon found itself fighting for survival in the rubber plantations of Xa Cam My, approximately 42 miles (68 km) east of Saigon. During this battle 134 men of Charlie Company, 2nd Battalion, 16th Infantry, 1st Infantry Division were ambushed by the Viet Cong.
Operation Abilene was aimed at the local Viet Cong D800 Battalion, it involved units of the U.S. 1st Infantry Division, New Zealand artillery and the 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment.
Major General William E. DePuy, as commander of the 1st Infantry Division, planned to lure out the Viet Cong unit by using Charlie Company as a bait. Once the Viet Cong attacked the isolated company, DePuy planned to rush in other rifle companies to destroy the enemy.
The operation began on April 10, 1966, with soldiers of the 1st Infantry Division moving into positions between Saigon and Vung Tau in search of the elusive Viet Cong D800 Battalion. Unlike in previous operations, Charlie Company numbered only 134
Brian Leroy Buker (November 3, 1949 – April 5, 1970) was a United States Army soldier and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in the Vietnam War.
Buker was born on November 3, 1949, in Benton, Maine, the youngest of four sons of Opal Buker Clark. He grew up in Benton and graduated from Lawrence High School in nearby Fairfield in 1967. His brothers, Victor, Gerald, and Alan, also served in the Vietnam War.
Buker joined the Army from Bangor, Maine in 1968, and by April 5, 1970 was serving as a sergeant in Detachment B-55, 5th Special Forces Group, 1st Special Forces. On that day, he was acting as a platoon advisor for a Vietnamese mobile strike force company on a mission in Chau Doc Province, Republic of Vietnam. When his platoon came under intense fire, he single-handedly destroyed one enemy bunker, was seriously wounded, and then destroyed another bunker despite these wounds. He was killed later in the battle as he reorganized his soldiers.
For these actions, Buker was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor. He was one of three people from Maine to earn the medal in Vietnam, the others being Thomas J. McMahon and Donald
Don't Cry, It's Only Thunder (also known in Australia as Vietnam: Hell or Glory) is a 1982 film directed by Peter Werner and written by Paul G. Hensler, set in the Vietnam War.
The story centers around Brian Anderson (played by actor Dennis Christopher), a soldier who is only out for his own neck, who ends up drawn into taking care of orphans in a nearby orphanage, keeping a promise to a friend who was killed in action. At first, he views the task with a degree of annoyance, then slowly begins to warm up to the orphans, risking his life and his career to protect them. Robert Englund (pre-dating his more-well-known role of Freddy Krueger) played the role of Tripper. Susan Saint James played a doctor and the love interest to Brian Anderson.
Operation Chenla II was a major military operation conducted by the Cambodian military (then known as FANK) during the Cambodian Civil War. It began on August 20 and lasted until December 3, 1971.
During the days of Prince Norodom Sihanouk's rule in Cambodia in the 1960s, the North Vietnamese and their NLF (Viet Cong) allies were able to use base areas in Cambodian territory in order to provide logistical support for their combat troops within the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). In 1970, following the coup led by the pro-U.S General Lon Nol, the North Vietnamese aggressively expanded their control of northeastern Cambodia coming dangerously close to the capital Phnom Penh.
Initially, the small and poorly-equipped Cambodian Army was not up to the challenge, especially against the larger and more experienced NLF and North Vietnamese forces. However, by the summer of 1971, FANK had grown into a force of more than one-hundred thousand men with American and South Vietnamese assistance.
During the period between September 1970 and June 1971, FANK won its first victories after they successfully dislodged elements of the NLF's 9th Division along Route 13 and in some parts of the
Robert Charles Burke (November 7, 1949–May 17, 1968) was a United States Marine who posthumously received the Medal of Honor for heroism in Vietnam in May 1968.
Burke was born on November 7, 1949, in Monticello, Illinois. While still a student at Monticello High School, he enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve in Chicago, Illinois, March 17, 1967. Burke was discharged to enlist in the regular Marine Corps on May 16, 1967.
Upon completion of recruit training with the 1st Recruit Training Battalion, Recruit Training Regiment, Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San Diego, California, on July 20, 1967, he was transferred to the Marine Corps Base, Camp Pendleton, California. He completed individual combat training with Company Q, 2nd Battalion, 2nd Infantry Training Regiment, in August 1967, and was promoted to private first class on September 1, 1967. From September 1967 until January 1968, he was a student with the Motor Transport School, Student Company, Schools Battalion. This was followed by duty as a motor vehicle mechanic with Headquarters and Service Company, 5th Military Police Battalion, 5th Marine Division, Camp Pendleton.
In February 1968, he was transferred to the Republic of
Steven Logan Bennett (April 22, 1946 – June 29, 1972) of Palestine, Texas was a United States Air Force pilot who posthumously received the Medal of Honor for heroism during the Vietnam War on August 8, 1974.
Prior to entering the U.S. Air Force, Steven Bennett attended the University of Southwestern Louisiana (now University of Louisiana at Lafayette) in Lafayette, Louisiana; he graduated with a degree in Aerospace Engineering. He was in ROTC and received his private pilot's license in 1965. He entered the Air Force in August 1968, and earned his pilot wings at Webb AFB, Texas in 1969. In 1970, he completed B-52 bomber training course at Castle AFB, CA. He was stationed at Fairchild AFB, Washington. He flew B-52s out of Thailand for almost a year. He then transitioned to become a Forward Air Controller (FAC), and graduated from the FAC and fighter training courses at Cannon AFB, New Mexico, before reporting to Da Nang, Vietnam in April 1972. He had only been in combat for three months before his Medal of Honor mission and had also won the Air Medal with three oak leaf clusters. He was also awarded the Purple Heart and the Cheny Award.
His call-sign at DaNang was Covey 87. Bennett
We Were Soldiers is a 2002 war film that dramatizes the Battle of Ia Drang on November 14, 1965. The film was directed by Randall Wallace and stars Mel Gibson. It is based on the book We Were Soldiers Once… And Young by Lieutenant General (Ret.) Hal Moore and reporter Joseph L. Galloway, both of whom were at the battle.
A French unit is on patrol in Vietnam in 1954, during the final year of the First Indochina War. The unit is suddenly ambushed by North Vietnamese Army forces, who kill the officers and the unit is overrun. Nguyen Huu An orders the execution of all surviving French soldiers, to discourage further French involvement in Vietnam.
Eleven years later, the United States had entered the Vietnam War. U.S. Lieutenant Colonel Hal Moore is depicted as dedicated and deeply committed to training troops under his command. He is disquieted when his unit is re-flagged as the 7th Cavalry prior to deployment to Vietnam to being a battalion. Moore is also dismayed because President Lyndon B. Johnson has decreed that the war will be fought "on the cheap", without declaring it a national emergency. As a result, Moore believes he will be deprived of his oldest, best-trained soldiers (a
The East Sea Campaign was a naval operation which took place during the closing days of the Vietnam War in April 1975. Even though it had no significant impact on the final outcome of the war, the capture of the Truong Sa Islands (also known as the Spratly Islands) in the South China Sea (referred to by the Vietnamese as the East Sea), and other islands on the southeastern coast of Vietnam by the Vietnam People’s Navy and the Viet Cong helped the Socialist Republic of Vietnam assert its sovereignty over the various groups of islands after the reunification of the country in 1975. The North Vietnamese objective was to capture all the islands under the occupation of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), and it eventually ended in complete victory for the North Vietnamese military and their Viet Cong allies.
During the spring season of 1975, as units of the Vietnam People's Army were pushing toward Saigon as part of the Ho Chi Minh Campaign, the North Vietnamese High Command decided to capture all South Vietnamese-occupied islands located on the southeastern coast of Vietnam, and in the South China Sea. Subsequently, different units of the Vietnam People's Navy (North Vietnam's
The Easter Offensive, and also (Chiến dịch Xuân hè 1972 in Vietnamese) was a military campaign conducted by the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) against the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN, the regular army of South Vietnam) and the United States military between 30 March and 22 October 1972, during the Vietnam War. This conventional invasion (the largest offensive operation since 300,000 Chinese volunteers had crossed the Yalu River into North Korea during the Korean War) was a radical departure from previous North Vietnamese offensives. The offensive was not designed to win the war outright, but North Vietnam aimed to gain as much territory and destroy as many units of the ARVN as possible, to improve the North's negotiating position as the Paris Peace Accords drew toward a conclusion.
The US high command had been expecting an attack in 1972, but the size and ferocity of the assault caught the defenders off balance because the attackers struck on three fronts simultaneously with the bulk of the North Vietnamese army. This first attempt by the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) to invade the south since the Tet Offensive of 1968 became characterized by
Missing in Action is a 1984 action B-movie directed by Joseph Zito and starring Chuck Norris. It is set in the context of the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue. Colonel Braddock, who escaped a Vietnamese prisoner of war camp 10 years earlier, returns to Vietnam to find American soldiers listed as missing in action during the Vietnam War. The film was followed by a prequel, Missing in Action 2: The Beginning (1985) and a sequel, Braddock: Missing in Action III (1988).
The concept for the film originated from a story treatment, written by James Cameron in 1983, for the film Rambo: First Blood Part II that was floating around Hollywood at the time. This explains the similar plotlines between Rambo and MIA. Representatives from Cannon Group were "inspired" by Cameron's script and subsequently produced and released the first two Missing in Action films two months before the release of Rambo, in order to avoid copyright violation lawsuits.
Missing in Action 2 was filmed back to back with Missing in Action, and was actually set to be released first before the producers changed their minds. This explains crediting writers who created an original character for a film in the supposed first
Ronald Lawrence Kovic (born July 4, 1946) is an anti-war activist, veteran and writer who was paralyzed in the Vietnam War. He is best known as the author of the memoir Born on the Fourth of July, which was made into an Academy Award–winning movie directed by Oliver Stone, with Tom Cruise playing Kovic.
Kovic received the Golden Globe Award for Best Screenplay on January 20, 1990, exactly 22 years to the day that he was wounded in Vietnam. Ron Kovic was also nominated for an Academy Award for best screen play. Bruce Springsteen wrote the song "Shut Out The Light" after reading Kovic's memoir and then meeting him. Tom Paxton, the folk singer/political activist, wrote the song "Born on the Fourth of July", which is on his "New Songs from the Briarpatch" album. Academy Award winning actress Jane Fonda has stated that Ron Kovic's story was the inspiration for her film Coming Home.
Kovic was born in Ladysmith, Wisconsin, and was raised in Massapequa, New York, in a Roman Catholic household. His father was Croatian, his mother Irish. Inspired by President John F. Kennedy's "Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country" speech, he joined the United States
The Foot Shooting Party is a 1994 short film about conscription for the Vietnam War. It was written by Kenneth F. Carter and directed by Annette Haywood-Carter. Starring Leonardo DiCaprio, the film was made as part of a short-lived program at Touchstone Pictures that funded experimental short films and scripts. The film played two festivals and had several private screenings but was never released commercially. The film co-stars Jake Busey, Bradley Gregg and Michael Rapaport.
When the lead singer of an up-and-coming band (DiCaprio) is drafted, his bandmates gather to shoot him in the foot so that he can avoid being sent to Vietnam. Pulling the trigger is much harder than any of them expect.
The Battle of Binh Ba (6–8 June 1969), also known as Operation Hammer, was a hard fought, but one-sided, battle during the Vietnam War. The action occurred when Australian Army troops from the 5th Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment (5 RAR) fought a combined communist force of North Vietnamese Army and Viet Cong, including a company from the 33 NVA Regiment and elements of the Viet Cong D440 Provincial Mobile Battalion, in the village of Binh Ba, 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) north of Nui Dat in Phuoc Tuy Province. The battle was unusual in Australian combat experience in Vietnam as it involved fierce close-quarter house-to-house fighting. In response to communist attempts to capture Binh Ba the Australians assaulted the village with infantry, armour and helicopter gunships, routing the Viet Cong and largely destroying the village itself. Such battles were not the norm in Phuoc Tuy, however, and the heavy losses suffered by the communists forced them to temporarily leave the province. Although the Australians did encounter communist Main Force units in the years to come, the battle marked the end of such large-scale clashes, and ranks as one of the major Australian victories of the
Birdy is a 1984 American film directed by Alan Parker and starring Matthew Modine and Nicolas Cage. It is based on the novel of the same name by William Wharton.
Two teenagers, Birdy (Modine) and Al (Cage), become friends at school and serve in Vietnam. Birdy already has a disturbing fixation with birds and his Vietnam experiences push him over the edge: when he returns from the war, he is sent to a mental hospital for assessment and his friend Al stays with him to try to reach him before it's too late and he'll be separated from Birdy, leaving him alone and lost inside his mind. As the story develops, many flashback scenes show their life together as teenagers in 1960s America as well as their developing friendship and views of life.
The film's soundtrack was written and performed by Peter Gabriel. The music contains some adaptations of tracks on Gabriel's third and fourth albums. The music makes heavy use of the Fairlight CMI IIx music computer, which was one of the first sampling systems. Peter Gabriel was one of the first customers of the Fairlight CMI IIx.
The film received the Grand Prize of the Jury at the 1985 Cannes Film Festival. Roger Ebert gave the film four stars (out
Forrest Gump is a fictional character who first appears in the 1986 eponymous novel by Winston Groom. Forrest Gump also appeared on screen in the 1994 film of the same name directed by Robert Zemeckis. Gump was portrayed as a child by Michael Humphreys and portrayed as an adult by Tom Hanks, who won an Academy Award for the role. The portrayal of Forrest in the novel is notably different from the portrayal in the film. He later reappears in the 1995 novel Gump and Co. In 2008, Forrest Gump was named the 20th greatest movie character of all time by Empire magazine.
Gump was born near the small town of Greenbow, Alabama, on June 6, 1944 (the same day the Allied forces began Operation Overlord). His father was absent during his life; his mother said he was "on vacation". His mother named Forrest after Nathan Bedford Forrest, a noted Confederate general in the American Civil War and the first Grand Wizard of the Ku Klux Klan, who is supposedly related to Gump. She intended his name to be a reminder that "sometimes we all do things that, well, just don't make no sense."
Forrest was born with strong legs but a crooked spine. He was forced to wear leg braces which made walking difficult
If I Die in a Combat Zone, Box Me Up and Ship Me Home (sometimes printed as If I Die In A Combat Zone or incorrectly as If I Die in a Combat Zone, Box Me Up and Send Me Home) is an autobiographical account of Tim O'Brien's tour of duty in the Vietnam War. It was published in 1973 in the United States by Delacorte and in Great Britain by Calder and Boyars Ltd. It has subsequently been reprinted by multiple publishers under both titles, most commonly in the latter.
O'Brien takes the reader through a typical day in the life of a soldier in Vietnam. We are briefly introduced to a small number of fellow 'grunts' and the commanding officer of Alpha Company, the rifle company O'Brien was assigned to, one Captain Johansen. (Names and physical characteristics depicted in the book were changed.)
Rather than proceed chronologically, O'Brien takes the reader back to the beginning of his induction into the US Army. The reader learns about the author's home town, Worthington, Minnesota and to which O'Brien moved when he was 10 years old. We are led through his childhood, playing various army games, and learning about World War II from returned veterans and the Korean War which was taking place
Lieutenant General John Murray Sanderson AC (born 4 November 1940) is a former Governor of Western Australia and a former Chief of the Australian Army.
Born in Geraldton, Western Australia on 4 November 1940, John Sanderson completed his secondary education at Bunbury High School in 1957 before entering the Royal Military College, Duntroon in 1958. He graduated in 1961 and was commissioned into the Royal Australian Engineers in December 1961.
After completing a Fellowship Diploma in Civil Engineering at the Royal Melbourne Institute of Technology, John Sanderson had a series of regimental postings. These included second in command of 10 Field Squadron and Troop Commander and Construction Officer of 21 Construction Squadron on operational service in Sabah, Malaysia. He was promoted to Captain in 1965.
Following eighteen months as a Staff Officer in the Office of the Engineer in Chief, he was posted as the Exchange Instructor at the Royal School of Military Engineering, Chatterden UK from 1967–1969. He returned to Australia to command 23 Construction Squadron at Holsworthy prior to taking up command of 17 Construction Squadron in South Vietnam at the end of 1970.
Based on the novel of the same name by William L. Nagle, The Odd Angry Shot is a film following the experience of Australian soldiers during the Vietnam War. It traces the departure and tour of duty of an Australian Special Air Service Regiment reconnaissance team and avoids much of the political comment on Australia’s involvement in Vietnam; a theme that became more popular in the 1980s when Hollywood began to explore the rights and wrongs of the Vietnam War.
The film centres on the experiences of the soldiers away from the battle field, spending the bulk of their time playing cards, smoking, drinking beer, nursing their tinea, making jokes about masturbation and having some friendly competition with the American forces. The film also contains some small scale battle scenes. When the men return to Australia, they reflect on how both they and the general Australian society have changed.
The movie was filmed at the Australian Army's Jungle Warfare Training Centre in Canungra, Queensland. During the Vietnam War, all Australian soldiers - including draftees - who were to be deployed to Vietnam went through four weeks' specialized training in Canungra.
The Iroquois ('Huey') helicopters
Going Back is Bruce Campbell's second feature film, produced shortly after The Evil Dead and released in 1983. The film had been extremely rare to acquire for a number of years, due to contract disputes between the director, producer, and the bankrupt original distributor. It was finally re-released on DVD in October 2006. The DVD release features an additional audio commentary track by Campbell, director Ron Teachworth, and cinematographer John Prusak.
In 1964, two high school friends, Brice (Bruce Campbell) and Cleveland (Christopher Howe), leave their suburban neighborhood near Detroit, Michigan to hitch-hike their way to the countryside before going off to college. They are befriended by a lonely farmer, Jack Bodell (Perry Mallette), who offers them a place to stay. As days pass, Cleveland helps Jack around the farm and finds in him the father figure he lacks, while Brice falls in love with a local girl named Cindy (Susan Waderlow-Yamasaki). Four years later, Brice and Cleveland meet up in their senior year of college and decide to "go back" to Jack's farm, where they find much has changed in just a few years.
Lieutenant General Ngô Quang Trưởng (13 December 1929 — 22 January 2007) was an officer in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). Trưởng gained his commission in the Vietnamese National Army in 1954 and moved up the ranks over the next decade, mostly in the Airborne Brigade. In 1966, Trưởng commanded a division for the first time after he was given command of the 1st Division after helping to quell the Buddhist Uprising. He rebuilt the unit after this divisive period and used it to repel the communists and reclaimed the imperial citadel of Huế after weeks of bitter street fighting during the Tết Offensive. In 1970, Trưởng was given command of IV Corps in the Mekong Delta and improved the situation there to such an extent that he allowed some of his forces to be redeployed to other parts of the country that were finding the communist pressure difficult.
In 1972, he was made the commander of I Corps after incompetent leadership by General Hoàng Xuân Lãm resulted in a South Vietnamese collapse in the face of the Easter Offensive, a massive conventional invasion by North Vietnam. He stabilized the ARVN forces before turning back the communists. In 1975, the communists attacked
Operation Igloo White was a covert United States Air Force electronic warfare operation conducted from late January 1968 until February 1973, during the Vietnam War. This state-of-the-art operation utilized electronic sensors, computers, and communications relay aircraft in an attempt to automate intelligence collection. The system would then assist in the direction of strike aircraft to their targets. The objective of those attacks was the logistical system of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) that snaked through southeastern Laos and was known as the Ho Chi Minh Trail (the Truong Son Road to the North Vietnamese).
Igloo White was rushed into service during the Battle of Khe Sanh and successfully passed its first operational test. Combined with Operation Commando Hunt in 1969, the system served as the keystone of the U.S. aerial interdiction effort of the Vietnam War.
Costing between $1 and $1.7 billion dollars to design and build (and another billion dollars per year to operate over the five-year life of the operation) and possessing and controlling some of the most sophisticated technology in the Southeast Asia theater, Igloo White still remains in question as to its
Rayene Stewart "Ray" Simpson VC, DCM (16 February 1926 – 18 October 1978) was an Australian recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest award for gallantry "in the face of the enemy" that can be awarded to members of the British and Commonwealth armed forces.
Simpson was born in Chippendale, New South Wales and educated first at Carlingford Public School, Carlingford, New South Wales, and later Taree, New South Wales.
Simpson joined the Second Australian Imperial Force, 41st/2nd Infantry Battalion, a militia battalion that served as a holding unit for soldiers under 19 years of age, on 15 March 1944. With this battalion he was posted to Cowra as part of the Prisoner of War camp garrison after the Cowra breakout. He was subsequently posted to the 2/3rd Pioneer Battalion.
Demobilized in January 1947, Simpson spent four years working in various jobs, before re-enlisting in 1951 for service in the Korean War with the 3rd Battalion, The Royal Australian Regiment. He was promoted to lance corporal on 30 November 1951 and again to corporal on 21 January 1953. During this period he married Shoko Sakai, a Japanese citizen, on 5 March 1952.
Simpson was posted to the 2nd Battalion, The Royal
Major General Alan Bishop Stretton AO CBE (born on 30 September 1922) is a former senior Australian Army officer.
Stretton began his military career serving with the 2/9th Battalion after graduating from the Royal Military College, Duntroon during the Second World War. Following this he came to public prominence through his work in the cleanup efforts at Darwin in the aftermath of Cyclone Tracy. He was jointly named the 1975 Australian of the Year, with Sir John Cornforth.
He is a former Deputy Director of the Joint Intelligence Organization and member of the National Intelligence Committee.
In August 2004 he publicly criticised the Australian Government's policy of involvement with the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, in an open letter in which he stated:
In 1946 and 1947 he played 16 games of Australian rules football in the Victorian Football League with St Kilda, after arriving at the club from Duntroon. At the start of the 1946 season he was listed as a new recruit on both Melbourne and St Kilda's lists.
The Battle of Ban Me Thuot was a decisive battle of the Vietnam War which led to the complete destruction of South Vietnam's II Corps Tactical Zone. The battle was part of a larger North Vietnamese military operation known as Campaign 275 to capture the Tay Nguyen region, known in the West as the Vietnamese Central Highlands.
In March 1975 the Vietnam People's Army (VPA) 4th Corps staged a large-scale offensive, known as Campaign 275, with the aim of capturing the Central Highlands from the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) in order to kick-start the first stage of the Ho Chi Minh Campaign. Within ten days, the North Vietnamese destroyed most South Vietnamese military formations in II Corps Tactical Zone, exposing the severe weaknesses of the South Vietnamese Army. For South Vietnam, the defeat at Ban Me Thuot and the disastrous evacuation from the Central Highlands came about as a result of two major mistakes. Firstly, in the days leading up to the assault on Ban Me Thuot, ARVN Major General Pham Van Phu repeatedly ignored intelligence which showed the presence of several North Vietnamese combat divisions around the district. Secondly, President Nguyen Van Thieu's strategy to
The Battle of Lang Vei began on the evening of February 6 and concluded during the early hours of 7 February 1968, in Quảng Trị Province, South Vietnam. Towards the end of 1967 the 198th Tank Battalion, Vietnam People's Army (VPA) 203rd Armored Regiment, received instructions from the North Vietnamese Ministry of Defence to reinforce the 304th Division as part of the Route 9-Khe Sanh Campaign. After an arduous journey down the Ho Chi Minh Trail in January 1968, the 198th Tank Battalion linked up with the 304th Division for a major offensive along Highway 9, which stretched from the Laotian border through to Quảng Trị Province. On 23 January, the VPA 24th Regiment attacked the small Laotian outpost at Bane Houei Sane, under the control of the Royal Laos Army BV-33 ‘Elephant’ Battalion.
In that battle the 198th Tank Battalion failed to reach the battle on time because its tank crews struggled to navigate their tank equipment through the rough local terrain. However, as soon as the PT-76 tanks of the 198th Tank Battalion turned up at Bane Houei Sane, the Laotian soldiers and their families panicked and retreated into South Vietnam. After Bane Houei Sane was captured, the 24th Regiment
Dead Presidents is a 1995 American crime film written by Michael Henry Brown and also written, produced and directed by the Hughes brothers (Albert and Allen Hughes), starring Larenz Tate, Keith David, Chris Tucker, Freddy Rodriguez, N'Bushe Wright and Bokeem Woodbine. The film chronicles the life of Anthony Curtis, focusing on his teenage years as a high school graduate and his experiences during the Vietnam War. As he returns to his hometown in The Bronx, Curtis finds himself struggling to support himself and his family, eventually turning to a life of crime.
Dead Presidents is based partly on the real life experiences of Haywood T. Kirkland, whose true story was detailed in the book Bloods: An Oral History of the Vietnam War by Black Veterans by Wallace Terry. Certain characters from the film are based on real acquaintances of Kirkland, who served time in prison after committing robbery in facepaint.
In the spring of 1969, Anthony Curtis (Larenz Tate) is about to graduate from high school. However, Anthony is not going to college, but needing to get away from home to find himself, he enlists in the U.S. Marine Corps shortly after graduation. He is sent to Vietnam, leaving behind
John Gary Gertsch (September 29, 1944 or 1945 – July 19, 1969) was a United States Army soldier and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in the Vietnam War.
John G. Gertsch went to high school in Sheffield Area Middle/Senior High School (SAMSHS) in Sheffield, Pennsylvania. Gertsch joined the Army from Buffalo, New York in 1965, and by July 15, 1969 was serving as a Staff Sergeant in Company E, 1st Battalion, 327th Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division. During a series of engagements on that day and the four following days, in the A Shau Valley of the Republic of Vietnam, Gertsch commanded his platoon after their leader was wounded and repeatedly exposed himself to enemy fire to rescue wounded soldiers and attack the enemy. Mortally wounded on July 19, he was posthumously awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions.
Gertsch, aged 23 or 24 at his death, was buried in North Side Catholic Cemetery, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania.
Staff Sergeant Gertsch's official Medal of Honor citation reads:
S/Sgt. Gertsch distinguished himself while serving as a platoon sergeant and platoon leader during combat operations in the A Shau
Joseph Xavier Grant (March 28, 1940 – November 13, 1966) was a United States Army officer and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in the Vietnam War.
Grant joined the Army from Boston, Massachusetts in 1958, and by November 13, 1966 was serving as a first lieutenant in Company A, 1st Battalion, 14th Infantry Regiment, 25th Infantry Division. During a firefight on that day in the Republic of Vietnam, Grant organized his group's defense and repeatedly exposed himself to enemy fire to rescue wounded soldiers, despite being wounded himself, before he was killed in a mortar attack. He was posthumously promoted to captain and, on January 29, 1968, issued the Medal of Honor for his actions during the battle.
He is survived by his wife Bok Soon Grant. Grant, aged 26 at his death, was buried in Arlington National Cemetery, Arlington County, Virginia.
Captain Grant's official Medal of Honor citation reads:
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Company A was participating in a search and destroy operation when the leading platoon made contact with the enemy
Nguyễn Hữu An (October 1, 1926 – April 9, 1995) was a general in the Vietnamese People's Army.
An was born in the Truong Yen Commune of the Hoa Lư District, Ninh Binh, Vietnam. He joined the People's Army of Vietnam in September 1945.
In the First Indochina War, An took part in several decisive battles. He participated in the battles of Bong Lau Pass and Lung Phay in 1949. The following year he took part in the Border Campaign, he was commander of Battalion 251- a key battalion of Regiment 174 (Cao Bac Lang Regiment), attacking and eliminating Dong Khe military post, which seized initial victory of the Campaign. He successively held titles of battalion commander, regiment deputy commander of victorious battles in Binh Lieu, Vĩnh Phúc, and Moc Chau. In the Battle of Dien Bien Phu, he was commander of Regiment 174 of Division 316, and three times took offensive attacks on Hill A1 (Éliane). On May 7, 1954 Regiment 174, under his command, completely eliminated the entrenched fortification of Hill A1, opening offensive lines into Muong Thanh field to put an end to the battle of Dien Bien Phu.
In the Vietnam War, An commanded North Vietnamese forces in the Battle of Ia Drang. In 1974 he
The Battle of Hue during 1968 (also called the Siege of Hue), was one of the bloodiest and longest battles of the Vietnam War (1959–1975). The Army of the Republic of Vietnam and three understrength U.S. Marine Corps battalions attacked and defeated more than 10,000 entrenched People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and Vietcong forces.
With the beginning of the Tet Offensive on January 30, 1968, the Vietnamese lunar New Year, large conventional American forces had been committed to combat upon Vietnamese soil for almost three years. Highway One passed through Hue and over the Perfume River (the river ran through the city dividing it into northern and southern areas), creating an important supply line from the coastal city of Da Nang to the DMZ for the Allied forces. Hue was also a base for United States Navy supply boats. The city, considering its value and its distance from the DMZ (only 50 kilometres (31 mi)), should have been well-defended, fortified, and prepared for any communist attack.
However, the city had few fortifications and was poorly defended. The South Vietnamese Army and U.S. Army forces were completely unprepared when the North Vietnamese army and Viet Cong failed to
The Battle of Song Be was a major action between the National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (Viet Cong) and Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) in May 1965.
Planned as a major show of force against the ARVN forces, the NLF attempted to capture the fortified capital of Phuoc Long province, Song Be. Perhaps to their surprise, ARVN forces in the area rallied and re-took the town by the end of the second day of combat. Several additional days of chasing the NLF forces involved proved fruitless, as they escaped.
A series of political and military setbacks starting as early as 1962 had been gradually eroding the combat effectiveness of the ARVN forces, originally more than a match for the VC with their United States supplied helicopters and armored personnel carriers. The NLF forces had been left to train in relative safety and had developed new tactics and been supplied with new weapons that upset the balance of power. By 1964 ARVN morale was collapsing and the NLF was in nominal control of much of the countryside. To capatalize on this, the NLF was planning ever-larger operations.
On April 16, 1965, the U.S. Special Forces SF B-34 Detachment was sent to Song Be to
Distant Thunder is a 1988 American drama film directed by Rick Rosenthal and starring John Lithgow and Ralph Macchio.
The film tells the story of troubled Vietnam war veteran Mark Lambert (John Lithgow), who, upon returning home from the war, alienates his wife and child by deserting them and moving away into the remote wilderness of Washington state.
After 10 years of living off the land and suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder, Mark Lambert decides to rejoin civilized society and find his now teenage son, who is living in Illinois. As an estranged father and recluse, Mark Lambert quickly finds himself unprepared for the changes that he must face.
This film was well received by movie critics. Roger Ebert commenting on this film said "Lithgow's performance is at the heart of the movie, and at the heart of his work is the way he smokes a cigarette or avoids looking anyone in the eye."
The movie was not a box office success.
The Fall of Saigon (or Liberation of Saigon) was the capture of Saigon, the capital of South Vietnam, by the People's Army of Vietnam and the National Liberation Front on April 30, 1975. The event marked the end of the Vietnam War and the start of a transition period leading to the formal reunification of Vietnam into a communist state.
North Vietnamese forces under the command of the Senior General Văn Tiến Dũng began their final attack on Saigon, which was commanded by General Nguyen Van Toan on April 29, with a heavy artillery bombardment. This bombardment at the Tân Sơn Nhứt Airport killed the last two American servicemen that died in Vietnam, Charles McMahon and Darwin Judge. By the afternoon of the next day, North Vietnamese troops had occupied the important points within the city and raised their flag over the South Vietnamese presidential palace. South Vietnam capitulated shortly after. The city was renamed Ho Chi Minh City, after communist leader Ho Chi Minh. The fall of the city was preceded by the evacuation of almost all the American civilian and military personnel in Saigon, along with tens of thousands of South Vietnamese civilians associated with the southern regime.
Hamburger Hill is a 1987 American war film about the actual assault of the U.S. Army's 3rd Battalion, 187th Infantry Regiment, part of the 3rd Brigade, 101st Airborne Division 'Screaming Eagles', on a well-fortified position, including trenchworks and bunkers, of the North Vietnamese Army on Ap Bia Mountain near the Laotian border. American military records of the battle refer to the mountain as 'Hill 937', its map designation having been derived from its being 937 meters high.
Written by James Carabatsos and directed by John Irvin, the film starred Dylan McDermott, Steven Weber, Courtney B. Vance, Don Cheadle and Michael Boatman. The novelization was written by William Pelfrey. Set in May 1969 during the Vietnam War, the movie was produced by RKO Pictures and distributed by Paramount Pictures. The Animals' song "We Gotta Get out of This Place", is featured in the film.
The series of assaults (which resulted in heavy casualties to both the American and North Vietnamese forces) commenced on May 10, 1969, with the hill finally being taken on May 20.
The film portrays fighting, combat, courage, camaraderie and dedication to the mission among troops. It also brings up painful questions
Colonel Ngô Thế Linh (born 6 December 1928, Ha Tinh Province, Vietnam, French Indochina – died 25 February 1999) was a Colonel in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN), South Vietnam. He was the first Commander of Coastal Security Service (CSS). He was the commander of South Vietnam's Special Forces.
Linh graduated from Thủ Đức Military Infantry Officer Academy, Class Number 3 (in 1952) with General Nguyễn Khoa Nam. During the next twenty three years of service, he held key positions in Presidential Liaisons Services, Strategic Technical Directorate of the South Vietnamese Army. He was in charge of many important clandestine missions by land, by air and by sea to North Vietnam.
After the fall of Saigon in April 1975, Colonel Ngô came to the United States with his family. They resided in San Jose, California. He died on 25 February 1999, aged 70.
His grandfather, Prime Minister Giao Hoang, was in charge of ruling Vietnam for six months while Emperor Hàm Nghi was sent away and was under arrest by the French. Prime Minister Hoang resigned his post and retired early because he disagreed with the French Indochinese policy.
A cousin was Cardinal François Xavier Nguyễn Văn Thuận of
What began as a military aid program by the United States in 1950 to assist the French in subduing communist rebels in French Indochina, became, by 1965 an all-out war between South Vietnam and North Vietnam in which the United States was deeply involved. The United States Air Force was deployed to South Vietnam as part of this effort.
Throughout the war in Vietnam, subordinate USAF commands there operated under the jurisdiction of United States Pacific Air Forces in Hawaii.
What began as a small US military assistance program to South Vietnam, grew into a wider regional conflict. American efforts focused on four major areas of combat: South Vietnam, North Vietnam, Laos and Cambodia.
The first USAF personnel assigned to South Vietnam arrived in August 1950, when the United States established Military Assistance Advisory Group, Vietnam (MAAG-V), with headquarters in Saigon. To enable military supplies and equipment to be transferred, the US signed a Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement on 23 December 1950 with France, Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos. Indochina, being a French colony at the time meant that American aid went first to the French forces in Vietnam, with limited aid to the
The Vietnam War was a Cold War-era military conflict that occurred in Vietnam, Laos, and Cambodia from 1 November 1955 to the fall of Saigon on 30 April 1975. This war followed the First Indochina War and was fought between North Vietnam, supported by its communist allies, and the government of South Vietnam, supported by the United States and other anti-communist countries. The Viet Cong (also known as the National Liberation Front, or NLF), a lightly armed South Vietnamese communist common front directed by the North, largely fought a guerrilla war against anti-communist forces in the region. The Vietnam People's Army (North Vietnamese Army) engaged in a more conventional war, at times committing large units into battle. U.S. and South Vietnamese forces relied on air superiority and overwhelming firepower to conduct search and destroy operations, involving ground forces, artillery, and airstrikes.
The U.S. government viewed involvement in the war as a way to prevent a communist takeover of South Vietnam as part of their wider strategy of containment. The North Vietnamese government and Viet Cong viewed the conflict as a colonial war, fought initially against France, backed by the
The Battle of Snuol was a major battle of the Vietnam War, conducted by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam as part of Operation Toàn Thắng TT02. The battle lasted from January 5 to May 30, 1971.
In 1970 the joint South Vietnamese and U.S Cambodian Incursion was viewed as an overall success after allied troops successfully captured a huge enemy cache consisting of food and weapon supplies. Although relatively little contact was made during the operation, the Viet Cong and North Vietnamese troops were forced to move deeper into Cambodian territory.
One year following the incursion, General Nguyễn Văn Hiếu and General Do Cao Tri made a plan to go back inside Cambodian territory to find and destroy the Viet Cong. According to General Hieu's plan, instead of searching for the enemy the ARVN would use one regiment and try luring out and trap the Viet Cong once they come out to attack. South Vietnamese commanders called this the "luring the tiger down the mountain tactic".
In order to carry out their mission, South Vietnam was ready to commit the ARVN 5th Division, as well as the 18th and 25th Divisions just in case if the Viet Cong would come out in force.
Prior to the luring operation,
Operation Menu was the codename of a covert United States Strategic Air Command (SAC) bombing campaign conducted in eastern Cambodia and Laos from 18 March 1969 until 26 May 1970, during the Vietnam War. The targets of these attacks were sanctuaries and Base Areas of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and forces of the Viet Cong, which utilized them for resupply, training, and resting between campaigns across the border in the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam). The effects of the bombing campaign are disputed by historians.
An official United States Air Force record of US bombing activity over Indochina from 1964 to 1973 was declassified by US president Bill Clinton in 2000. The report gives details of the extent of the bombing of Cambodia, as well as of Laos and Vietnam. According to the data, the Air Force began bombing the rural regions of Cambodia along its South Vietnam border in 1965 under the Johnson administration. This was four years earlier than previously believed. The Menu bombings were an escalation of these air attacks. Nixon authorized the use of long-range B-52 bombers to carpet bomb the region.
From the onset of hostilities in South Vietnam and the Kingdom of
Peter Matthew Guenette (January 4, 1948 – May 18, 1968) was a United States Army soldier and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in the Vietnam War.
Guenette joined the Army from Albany, New York in 1967, and by May 18, 1968 was serving as a specialist four in Company D, 2d Battalion (Airborne), 506th Infantry Regiment, 101st Airborne Division (Airmobile). During a firefight on that day, in Quan Tan Uyen Province, Republic of Vietnam, Guenette smothered the blast of a hand grenade with his body, sacrificing his life to protect those around him.
Guenette, aged 20 at his death, was buried at Saint Johns Cemetery in his birth city of Troy, New York.
Specialist Guenette's official Medal of Honor citation reads:
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Sp4c. Guenette distinguished himself while serving as a machine gunner with Company D, during combat operations. While Sp4c. Guenette's platoon was sweeping a suspected enemy base camp, it came under light harassing fire from a well equipped and firmly entrenched squad of North Vietnamese Army regulars which
The Best and the Brightest (1972) is an account by journalist David Halberstam of the origins of the Vietnam War published by Random House. The focus of the book is on the foreign policy crafted by the academics and intellectuals who were in John F. Kennedy's administration, and the consequences of those policies in Vietnam.
Halberstam's book offers a great deal of detail on how the decisions were made in the Kennedy and Johnson administrations that led to the war, focusing on a period from 1960 to 1965 but also covering earlier and later years up to the publication year of the book.
Many influential factors are examined in the book:
The book shows that the gradual escalation initially allowed the Johnson Administration to avoid negative publicity and criticism from Congress and avoid a direct war against the Chinese, but it also lessened the likelihood of either victory or withdrawal.
The title may have come from a line by Percy Bysshe Shelley in his work "To Jane: The Invitation" (1822):
Shelley's line may have originated from English bishop and hymn writer Reginald Heber in his 1811 work, "Hymns. Epiphany":
A still earlier, and more pertinent, use of the phrase is in the letter
The Battle of Ap Bac was a major battle fought on January 3, 1963, during the Vietnam War. It was fought in Dinh Tuong Province (now part of Tiền Giang Province), South Vietnam. On December 28, 1962, U.S. intelligence detected the presence of a radio transmitter along with a sizable force of National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam (NLF/Viet Cong) soldiers, reported to number around 120 in the hamlet of Ap Tan Thoi in Dinh Tuong Province, home of the ARVN 7th Infantry Division. To destroy the NLF, the South Vietnamese and their American advisers planned to attack Ap Tan Thoi from three directions by using two provincial Civil Guard battalions and elements of the 11th Infantry Regiment, ARVN 7th Infantry Division. The infantry units would be supported by artillery, M-113 armored personnel carriers and helicopters.
On the morning of January 2, 1963, the South Vietnamese Civil Guards spearheaded the attack by marching toward Ap Tan Thoi from the south. However, when they reached the hamlet of Ap Bac, which is situated southeast of Ap Tan Thoi, they were immediately pinned down by elements of the Viet Cong 261st Battalion. Shortly afterwards, three companies of the 11th
Leslie Allen Bellrichard (December 4, 1941 – May 20, 1967) was a United States Army soldier and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in the Vietnam War.
Bellrichard joined the Army from Oakland, California, and by May 20, 1967 was serving as a private first class in Company C, 1st Battalion, 8th Infantry Regiment, 4th Infantry Division. During a firefight on that day, in Kontum Province, Republic of Vietnam, he was preparing to throw a hand grenade when a nearby explosion caused him to drop the activated device. Bellrichard smothered the blast of the grenade with his body, sacrificing himself to protect those around him.
Bellrichard, aged 25 at his death, was buried at Oak Hill Cemetery in his birth city of Janesville, Wisconsin. Leaves behind his wife Shirley Jean (France) Bellrichard, age 22.
In 2004 the City of Janesville renamed the Crosby-Willard Bridge over the Rock River the Bellrichard Bridge.
Private Bellrichard's official Medal of Honor citation reads:
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. Acting as a fire team leader with Company C, during
Operation Rolling Thunder was the title of a gradual and sustained US 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), US Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) aerial bombardment campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 2 November 1968, during the Vietnam War.
The four objectives of the operation (which evolved over time) were to boost the sagging morale of the Saigon regime in the Republic of Vietnam, to persuade North Vietnam to cease its support for the communist insurgency in South Vietnam without actually taking any ground forces into communist North Vietnam, to destroy North Vietnam's transportation system, industrial base, and air defenses, and to cease the flow of men and material into South Vietnam. Attainment of these objectives was made difficult by both the restraints imposed upon the U.S and its allies by Cold War exigencies and by the military aid and assistance received by North Vietnam from its communist allies, the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China (PRC).
The operation became the most intense air/ground battle waged during the Cold War period; indeed, it was the most difficult such
Phoumi Nosavan (Lao: ພູມີ ໜໍ່ສະຫວັນ; Chinese: 富米诺萨万/ 富米諾薩萬; pinyin: fùmĭ nuòSàwàn) (1920-1985) was a Lao military and political figure of the Vietnam War (Second Indochina War). Nosavan was of Chinese descent.
Backed by the CIA and the Programs Evaluation Office, Phoumi, then a colonel, became a cabinet minister in the right-wing government of the Kingdom of Laos in February 1959 and a general several months later.
Shortly after Kong Le's neutralist coup, he sought help from Sarit Dhanarajata to establish a competing capital in Savannakhet. He attacked Vientiane on September 18 but the neutralists with the help of the Pathet Lao and the Soviets, repulsed the attack. A tripartite coalition government was formed between neutralists, communists and rightists on November 18, 1960. On December 8, Souvanna Phouma relieved Kong Le from his command, but the next day Kong Le deposed Souvanna Phouma (who went to Cambodia) and the leftist minister Quinim Pholsena was appointed premiere. On December 13, Phoumi began the Battle of Vientiane and victorious, installed Boun Oum as premier.
In 1961, John F. Kennedy's administration opted for a neutralist coalition rather than risk an armed
The Short-Timers is a 1979 semi-autobiographical novel by American U.S. Marine Corps veteran Gustav Hasford, about his experience in the Vietnam War. It was later adapted into the 1987 film Full Metal Jacket by Hasford, Michael Herr, and Stanley Kubrick. Hasford's 1990 novel The Phantom Blooper was a sequel to The Short-Timers.
The book is divided into three sections, written in completely different styles of prose.
"The Spirit of the Bayonet" chronicles Pvt. James T. "Joker" Davis' days in the Marine Corps boot camp, where a drill instructor (Gunnery Sergeant Gerheim) breaks the men's spirits and then rebuilds them as brutal killers. Here, Joker befriends two privates nicknamed "Cowboy" and "Gomer Pyle". The latter, whose real name is Leonard Pratt, earns the wrath of both Gerheim and the rest of the platoon through his ineptitude and weak character. Though he eventually shows great improvement and wins honors at graduation, the constant abuse has unbalanced his mind. In a final act of madness, he kills Gerheim and then himself in front of the whole platoon.
This section is written in a very simple, savage style.
"Body Count" shows some of Joker's life as a war correspondent for
The First Battle of Quảng Trị resulted in the first major victory for the North Vietnamese Army during the Nguyen Hue Offensive of 1972.
The province of Quảng Trị was a major battle ground for the opposing forces during the Vietnam War. As South Vietnamese soldiers were gradually replacing their American counterparts, North Vietnam's General Văn Tiến Dũng was preparing to engage three of his divisions in the province.
Just months before the battle, the Army of the Republic of Vietnam deployed its newly formed 3rd Division to the areas along the Vietnamese Demilitarized Zone to take over former U.S bases. North Vietnamese forces deployed against the inexperienced ARVN 3rd Division included the North Vietnamese 304th, 308th and 324B Divisions.
The battle for Quảng Trị began on March 30 with preparatory artillery barrages on the key areas of the province. Meanwhile, infantry assaults supported by tanks overran outposts and firebases. The lightning speed of Communist attacks on those positions delivered a great shock to the soldiers of the ARVN, who were largely unprepared for the onslaught.
In 1972 Camp Carroll at 16°46′35.3″N 106°55′20.1″E / 16.776472°N 106.92225°E / 16.776472;
Cayo is a Puerto Rican film released in 2005. It was directed by Vicente Juarbe and written by Ineabelle Sánchez and Pedro Muñiz. The film also stars Roselyn Sanchez.
The film follows the life of Iván, a former Vietnam War veteran (who later becomes a New York City Police officer) who returns to his childhood home island of Culebra in Puerto Rico, after he is diagnosed with cancer. Married to his longtime love, Julia, he tries to reconnect with his former best friend, Kike, who has estranged himself from the couple after Julia broke his heart and married Iván instead.
Expendable, renamed from Gamma Squad for its premiere on June 14, 2004, is a film by Catman Do Films that was directed by Nathaniel Barker and Eliot Lash; it is an independent film. In 2006, it was deemed "culturally, historically, or aesthetically significant" by the United States Library of Congress and selected for preservation in the National Film Registry.
The movie Gamma Squad tells the story of an elite squad of soldiers in the U.S. army called, incidentally, "Gamma Squad". After discovering that two vital outposts have been taken by the enemy (who is never specified), General Somers tells General Conner that he is going to send in a rescue mission for the men still alive at the outposts, but that he cannot risk his best men for the mission (presumably squadrons Alpha and Beta, though only Alpha is referenced during the film). He thus decides to send in Gamma Squad. General Conner says to Somers in protest that it is a suicide mission, to which General Somers replies that he is aware. He reasons that by going in, "they'll be dubbed heroes. More heroes means more support; more support, more recruits." He also comments that by the time they arrive, there'll be no one left to
Captain James Albert Graham (August 25, 1940-June 2, 1967) was a United States Marine who was posthumously awarded the highest U.S. military honor — the Medal of Honor for his heroism and sacrifice of life in June 1967, during the Vietnam War.
James Albert Graham was born on August 25, 1940, in the Pittsburgh suburb of Wilkinsburg, Pennsylvania. He attended high school in Brandywine, Maryland. In June 1963, He received a B.A. degree in Mathematics upon graduation from Teachers College in Frostburg, Maryland. He is seen in a photo and written about in the book "Not Going Home Alone" by James J. Kirschke.
Prior to enlisting in the regular Marine Corps, he was a member of the U.S. Army (1955–57), the District of Columbia National Guard (1959–61), the U.S. Army Reserve (1961), and the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve (1961–63). He was discharged from the Marine Corps Reserve to accept a regular appointment in the Marine Corps, September 30, 1963.
He then attended the Officers Candidate School, Marine Corps Schools, Quantico, Virginia, and was commissioned a second lieutenant on November 1, 1963.
After completing Officer Candidate School in December, 2dLt Graham commenced naval air basic
Operation Starlite was the first major offensive regimental size action conducted by a purely U.S. military unit during the Vietnam War. The operation was launched based on intelligence provided by Major General Nguyen Chanh Thi, the commander of the South Vietnamese forces in northern I Corps area. Lieutenant General Lewis W. Walt devised a plan to launch a pre-emptive strike against the Viet Cong regiment to nullify the threat on the vital Chu Lai base and ensure its powerful communication tower remained intact.
The operation was conducted as a combined arms assault involving ground, air and naval units. U.S. Marines were deployed by helicopter insertion into the designated landing zone while an amphibious landing was used to deploy other Marines.
The operation was originally called Satellite, but a power blackout led to a clerical error and a clerk working by candlelight typed "Starlite" instead.
The operation was launched on D-Day August 18, 1965, involving 5,500 Marines. Regimental 2nd Battalion 4th Marines (2/4), 1st Battalion, 7th Marines (1/7) and 3rd Battalion 3rd Marines (3/3), and 3rd Battalion 7th Marines (3/7) the SLF - permission was granted by Admiral Sharp to use
The Battle of Prey Veng was part of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam's (ARVN) campaign in Cambodia. It took place in Prey Veng on June 15, 1970, where ARVN and Cambodian troops battled the Vietnam People's Army and Vietcong forces. It ended with an anti-communist victory.
Bowman S. John (1989) The Vietnam War: Day by Day. Bison Group, London. ISBN 0-7924-5087-6
Air America is a 1990 American action comedy film directed by Roger Spottiswoode, starring Mel Gibson and Robert Downey Jr. as Air America pilots, during the Vietnam War, flying missions in Laos. The protagonists discover their planes are used by other government agents to smuggle heroin; and then, they must avoid being made patsies in a frame-up.
The plot is adapted from Christopher Robbins' 1979 non-fiction book, chronicling the CIA financed airline during the Vietnam War to transport weapons and supplies within Laos and other areas of Indochina subsequent to the North Vietnamese invasion of Laos. The publicity for the film—advertised as a light-hearted buddy movie—implied a tone that differs greatly with the tone of the actual film, which includes such serious themes as an anti-war political spin, focus on the opium trade, and a negative portrayal of Royal Laotian General Vang Pao (played by actor Burt Kwouk as "General Lu Soong").
In late 1969, Billy Covington (Downey) works as a helicopter traffic pilot for a Los Angeles radio station, and the FAA suspends his pilot's license after breaking several safety regulations on the job. His piloting skills, bravery and disregard for
The Battle of Ba Gia was a major battle that marked the beginning of the National Liberation Front's Summer Offensive of 1965, during the early phases of the Vietnam War, which is known in Vietnam as the American War. The battle took place in Quang Ngai Province, South Vietnam, between May 28–31, 1965.
Following the victory of Communist forces in the Battle of Binh Gia earlier in the year, the North Vietnamese leadership in Hanoi decided to intensify their war effort in order to defeat the American-backed Government of South Vietnam. The North Vietnamese war effort received a major boost in the first half of 1965, when the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China stepped up the delivery of military aid, which included the deployment of military specialists and other personnel to train North Vietnam's armed forces. The North Vietnamese decision to intensify the war culminated in the Summer Offensive of 1965, which aimed to destroy the regular divisions of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) in large-scale battles, and pin down the elite units of the ARVN strategic reserve. In Quang Ngai Province, South Vietnam, the National Liberation Front (commonly known as the Viet
The Battle of Xuan Loc (Vietnamese: Trận Xuân Lộc) was the last major battle of the Vietnam War. The battle was fought between April 9–21, 1975, and ended when the town of Xuan Loc was captured by the North Vietnamese 4th Army Corps.
From the beginning of 1975, North Vietnam’s military forces swept through the northern provinces of South Vietnam virtually unopposed. In the Central Highlands, South Vietnam’s II Corps Tactical Zone was completely destroyed, whilst attempting to evacuate to the Mekong Delta region. In the cities of Hue and Da Nang, South Vietnamese soldiers simply melted away without putting up resistance. The devastating defeats suffered by the Army of the Republic of Vietnam prompted South Vietnam’s National Assembly to question President Nguyen Van Thieu’s handling of the war, thereby placing him under tremendous pressure to resign.
In the last-ditch effort to save South Vietnam, President Nguyen Van Thieu ordered his last military units, namely the ARVN 18th Infantry Division "The Super Men", to hold Xuan Loc at all cost. The North Vietnamese 4th Army Corps, on the other hand, was ordered to capture Xuan Loc in order to open the gateway to Saigon. Over a period of
Battle of Đức Cơ was a major engagement between the North Vietnamese 5th Battalion of the 33rd Regiment and the South Korean 3rd Battalion of the 1st Cavalry Regiment on August 9, 1966. The battle resulted from North Vietnamese attempts to infiltrate Đức Cơ from Cambodia.
On the night of August 9, the reinforced North Vietnamese 5th Battalion attacked a Korean tactical base in Đức Cơ, when the airborne were alerted to prevent the Defeated North Vietnamese regiments, trying to retreat back into Cambodia. During several hours of fighting the outnumbered South Koreans defeated their enemies who left more than one hundred bodies on the field. On the same day, meanwhile, USAF jet fighters opened fire on a pair of South Vietnamese villages, which they mistakenly believed were Vietcong camps. The resulting attack left 63 people dead and at least 100 more injured.
In Country is a 1989 American drama film produced and directed by Norman Jewison, starring Bruce Willis and Emily Lloyd. The screenplay by Frank Pierson and Cynthia Cidre was based on the novel by Bobbie Ann Mason. The original music score was composed by James Horner. Willis earned a best supporting actor Golden Globe nomination for his role.
Recent high school graduate Samantha Hughes, 17, lives in fictional Hopewell, Kentucky with her uncle Emmett Smith, a laid-back Vietnam veteran with post-traumatic stress disorder. Samantha's father, Dwayne, was killed in Vietnam at 21 after marrying and impregnating Samantha's mother, Irene. Samantha finds some old photographs, medals, and letters of her father, and becomes obsessed with finding out more about him.
Irene, who has moved to Lexington, Kentucky with her second husband, wants Samantha to move in with them and go to college. But Samantha would rather stay with Emmett and try to find out more about her father. Her mother is no help, as she tells Samantha, "Honey, I married him a month before he left for the war. He was 19. I hardly even remember him." Finally, Samantha, Emmett and her grandmother visit the Vietnam Veterans
Operation Delaware was a military operation of the Vietnam War in the A Shau Valley. The A Shau Valley was an important corridor for moving supplies into South Vietnam and used as staging area for attacks. American and South Vietnamese had not been present in the area since the Battle of A Shau, when a Special Forces camp located there was overrun.
The operation started with B-52 bombing of anti-aircraft positions. Troops of the 1st Cavalry Division, the 101st Airborne Division, the 3rd Regiment of the ARVN 1st Division, and the 3rd ARVN Airborne Task Force were inserted into the north and south of the valley by helicopter. Poor weather and anti-aircraft fire made flying very dangerous.
US and ARVN troops quickly found caches of ammunition, rice, and other supplies. The forces inserted in the north and south, as well as east of the valley, started moving towards each other to sweep the valley of opposition and uncover all supply caches. The abandoned A Luoi airstrip was captured to allow resupply by aircraft. The first cargo aircraft, a C-7 Caribou, landed on 2 May. After further improvements to the airstrip, the first C-130 Hercules could land on 4 May.
US and ARVN forces
The Second Battle of Quang Tri began on June 28 and lasted 81 days until September 16, 1972, when the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) defeated the North Vietnamese at the ancient citadel of Quảng Trị (Vietnamese: Thành cổ Quảng Trị) and recaptured most of the province.
To achieve victory, the Army of the Republic of Vietnam, backed by the United States Army, shelled more than 80,000 tons of ordnance, the destructive capacity equivalent to almost six Hiroshima-size atomic bombs.
Thailand ( /ˈtaɪlænd/ TY-land or /ˈtaɪlənd/; Thai: ประเทศไทย, RTGS: Prathet Thai), officially the Kingdom of Thailand (Thai: ราชอาณาจักรไทย, RTGS: Ratcha Anachak Thai; IPA: [râːt.tɕʰā ʔāːnāːtɕàk tʰāj] ( listen)), formerly known as Siam (Thai: สยาม; RTGS: Sayam), is a country located at the centre of the Indochina peninsula in Southeast Asia. It is bordered to the north by Burma and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Burma. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India in the Andaman Sea to the southwest.
The country is a constitutional monarchy, headed by King Rama IX, the ninth king of the House of Chakri, who, having reigned since 1946, is the world's longest-serving head of state and the longest-reigning monarch in Thai history. The king of Thailand is titled Head of State, Head of the Armed Forces, the Upholder of the Buddhist religion, and the Defender of all Faiths.
Thailand is the world's 51st-largest country in terms of total area, with an area of approximately 513,000 km (198,000 sq mi), and is
Nguyễn Văn Toàn (October 6, 1932 -) was born in Huế and served as a general in the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN).
Toan graduated from the Dalat Military Academy in 1952 and became an armor officer.
Lieutenant Colonel Toan was relieved of command of the 5th Armored Squadron when his retreating armored elements killed over two dozen South Vietnamese Rangers. He returned to political favor when the officer that relieved him, General Nguyen Chanh Thi, was exiled for his unpopular political views. From 1968 to 1972, Toan served as a brigadier general commanding of the 2nd Infantry Division until being promoted to lieutenant general and becoming assistant operations officer and armor commander in the I Corps Tactical Zone.
During the initial phases of the North Vietnamese Nguyen Hue Offensive in March 1972 (called the Easter Offensive in the West), Toan performed well, especially in the defense of Dong Ha, but he fell under the same cloud as his commander, Lieutenant General Hoang Xuan Lam, when the ARVN defense in I Corps collapsed. It was at this point that Toan's political connections again became paramount when he was moved south to take command of II Corps after the
Platoon is a 1986 American war film written and directed by Oliver Stone and stars Tom Berenger, Willem Dafoe and Charlie Sheen. It is the first of Stone's Vietnam War trilogy, followed by 1989's Born on the Fourth of July and 1993's Heaven & Earth.
Stone wrote the story based upon his experiences as a U.S. infantryman in Vietnam to counter the vision of the war portrayed in John Wayne's The Green Berets. The film won the Academy Award for Best Picture of 1986. In 2007, the American Film Institute placed Platoon at #83 in their "AFI's 100 Years... 100 Movies" poll. British television channel Channel 4 voted Platoon as the 6th greatest war film ever made, behind Full Metal Jacket and ahead of A Bridge Too Far.
In 1967, Chris Taylor (Charlie Sheen) has dropped out of college and volunteered for combat duty in Vietnam. Assigned to Bravo Company, near the Cambodian border, he is worn down by the exhausting conditions and his enthusiasm for the war wanes. One night his unit is set upon by a group of North Vietnamese Army (NVA) soldiers, who retreat after a brief gunfight. New recruit Gardner is killed while another soldier, Tex, is maimed by friendly fire from a grenade thrown by
1969 is a 1988 drama film starring Robert Downey, Jr., Kiefer Sutherland, and Winona Ryder. It was written and directed by Ernest Thompson. The original music score is composed by Michael Small. The film deals with the Vietnam War and the resulting social tensions between those who support and oppose the war in small-town America.
In 1969, two best friends, Ralph Karr (Robert Downey, Jr.) and Scott Denny (Kiefer Sutherland) are college students from a stuffy, upper-middle class suburban town in Maryland. The film begins with Ralph and Scott hitchhiking from their college to their hometown on Easter weekend. The boys finally arrive on Easter morning and shout their greetings across the glen to their family during a lakeside Easter Sunrise service, much to the amusement of Ralph's younger sister Beth (Winona Ryder) and mother Ev (Joanna Cassidy) and embarrassment of Scott's mother Jessie (Mariette Hartley) and father Cliff (Bruce Dern). Tensions quickly begin to brew when they find out that Scott's brother Alden has enlisted; Scott and Ralph are outspoken in their opposition to the Vietnam War, which alienates Scott from his father. Alden doesn't want his father to see how worried he
Alfredo Cantu "Freddy" Gonzalez (May 23, 1946–February 4, 1968) was a United States Marine Corps sergeant who posthumously received the Medal of Honor for service in the Battle of Huế during the Vietnam War.
Gonzalez was born on May 23, 1946, in Edinburg, Texas, the only child of mother Dolia Gonzalez. He graduated from Lamar Grammar School in 1955, and from Edinburg High School in 1965. Despite his small size, weighing only 135 pounds (61 kg), he was an All-District football player in high school.
He enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve from San Antonio, Texas, on June 3, 1965, but was discharged and enlisted in the regular Marine Corps a month later, on July 6. He completed recruit training at Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego, California, the following September, and individual combat training at Camp Pendleton, California, that October.
He then became a rifleman with Headquarters and Service Company, 1st Reconnaissance Battalion, 1st Marine Division, and served in that capacity until January 1966. Promoted to Private First Class on January 1, he served a one year tour of duty in Vietnam as a rifleman and squad leader with Company L, 3rd Battalion, 4th Marines, 3rd
The Viet Cong (Vietnamese: Việt cộng, listen), or National Liberation Front (NLF), was a political organization and army in South Vietnam and Cambodia that fought the United States and South Vietnamese governments during the Vietnam War (1959–1975), and emerged on the winning side. It had both guerrilla and regular army units, as well as a network of cadres who organized peasants in the territory it controlled. Many soldiers were recruited in South Vietnam, but others were attached to the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN), the regular North Vietnamese army. During the war, communists and anti-war spokesmen insisted the Viet Cong was an insurgency indigenous to the South, while the U.S. and South Vietnamese governments portrayed the group as a tool of Hanoi. This allowed writers to distinguish northern communists from the southern communists. However, as it turned out, northerners and southerners were always under the same command structure.
Southern Vietnamese communists established the National Liberation Front in 1960 to encourage the participation of non-communists in the insurgency. Many of the Viet Cong's core members were "regroupees," southern Vietminh who had resettled in
Nam's Angels is a 1970 action film, that was filmed in the Philippines. This film was directed by Jack Starrett. This film was originally released with the title, The Losers.
The plot involves a gang of Hells Angels type bikers called "The Devil's Advocates" involved in the Vietnam war. They are sent to the Cambodian jungle on Yamaha bikes in order to rescue an American diplomat/CIA Agent (Starrett).
The biker gang is led by Link (William Smith), a Vietnam veteran and the brother of an Army Major (Dan Kemp) who has recruited them. His gang consists of Duke (Adam Roarke) also a Vietnam veteran, Limpy (Paul Koslo), Speed (Eugene Cornelius), and another Vietnam veteran Dirty Denny (Houston Savage who was killed in a road accident not long after completing the film). They are under the orders of Army Captain Jackson (Bernie Hamilton).
The gang modifies their motorcycles in a garage run by Vic Diaz. They weld armour plating with submachine guns on the handlebars. Limpy drives a three-wheeler modified from a Harley-Davidson frame with a Volkswagen rear end that is armed with heavy .50 calibre machine guns and a multiple rocket launcher from a helicopter. In order to open fire on enemy
Operation Patio was a covert aerial interdiction effort conducted by the U.S. Seventh Air Force in Cambodia from 24–29 April 1970 during the Vietnam War. It served as a tactical adjunct to the heavier B-52 Stratofortress bombing missions being carried out in Operation Menu.
On 18 March 1970, Cambodia's chief of state, Prince Norodom Sihanouk, was overthrown by the National Assembly led by the pro-American Defense Minister, General Lon Nol). The government (after negotiating with the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam) had promptly demanded the removal of all People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN) troops from its territory. The deadline was set for 13 March. These forces had occupied the eastern border region contiguous with the Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam) for the previous ten years. These border sanctuaries and Base Areas were of strategic significance to the North Vietnamese effort in South Vietnam, however, and they were not going to give them up without a fight.
General Creighton Abrams, U.S. commander in Saigon was pleased by the turn of events in Cambodia. Although Lon Nol had not immediately attacked PAVN, he was much more amenable to the U.S. than
Vice Admiral Russell Edward Shalders, AO, CSC, RAN (born 8 September 1951) is a retired admiral of the Royal Australian Navy. He served as Vice Chief of the Australian Defence Force from 2002 to 2005, and as Chief of Navy from 2005 to 2008.
Shalders joined the Royal Australian Naval College at Jervis Bay from Victoria in 1967. After sea training he undertook Operations and Weapons courses in the United Kingdom. On returning to Australia, he was posted as Executive Officer (2nd in command) of the patrol boat HMAS Ardent, then joined HMAS Vendetta, before he assumed command of the Papua New Guinea Defence Force patrol boat Samarai
He then served as Divisional Officer at the RAN College in 1976, and then in HMAS Perth prior to Principal Warfare Officer training in the UK in 1978. He returned as Operations and Anti-Submarine Warfare (ASW) Officer aboard HMAS Vendetta, then was an officer's posting officer in Canberra.
After promotion to lieutenant commander in 1981, he completed the Naval Staff Course for International Officers at the Naval War College, Newport, Rhode Island and then undertook Advanced Warfare Officer training in the UK, specialising in anti-submarine warfare. He
A Better Tomorrow 3: Love & Death in Saigon (Chinese: 英雄本色3-夕陽之歌; pinyin: Yīngxióng běnsè sān – xīyáng zhī gē; Jyutping: Jing1hung4 bun2sik1 saam – zik6joeng4 zi1 go1) is a 1989 Hong Kong action film co-produced and directed by Tsui Hark. It is a loosely-based prequel to John Woo's A Better Tomorrow, though it was released after A Better Tomorrow 2.
The film was directed by Tsui Hark, the producer behind the first two films in the series. John Woo wrote a screenplay for a third installment, but he never got to direct it due to having had artistic differences with Tsui Hark during the filming of the second film. Instead, the original screenplay later became Bullet in the Head. The two films have many parallels, most notably, both being set in the Vietnam War.
The film stars Chow Yun-fat, who reprises his role of Mark Gor from the first film, Tony Leung Ka-fai and Anita Mui. Set during the Vietnam War, it sets up the story of how Mark became the character he was in the original film. The second part of the title Love & Death in Saigon (夕陽之歌 or Song of the Setting Sun in Chinese) is also the title song for this movie, sung by the late Anita Mui, who was also the leading lady in this
The Battle of Kompong Speu began on June 12, 1970 when the combined forces of the South Vietnamese and Cambodian Armies fought to recapture the provincial capital of Kompong Speu. The town was captured by Communist forces on June 13 but was retaken by allied forces on June 16.
The Kingdom of Laos was a sovereign state from 1953 until December 1975, when Pathet Lao overthrew the government and created the Lao People's Democratic Republic. Given self-rule in 1949 as part of a federation with the rest of French Indochina, the 1953 Franco-Lao Treaty finally established a sovereign, independent Laos, but did not stipulate who would rule the country. In the years that followed, three groups led by the so called Three Princes, contended for power: the neutralists under Prince Souvanna Phouma, the right-wing party under Prince Boun Oum of Champassak, and the left-wing, Vietnamese-backed Lao Patriotic Front (now called the Pathet Lao) under Prince Souphanouvong and future Prime Minister Kaysone Phomvihane.
The Kingdom of Laos was officially proclaimed when France gave semi-automny in 1949 and then full independence in 1953.
Following the Franco-Lao Treaty of 1953, which gave Laos independence, the Royal Lao Government took control of the country. This treaty established a constitutional monarchy, with Sisavang Vong as King and Prince Souvanna Phouma as Prime Minister.
Many attempts were made by the Three Princes and King Sisavang Vatthana to establish a coalition
Operation Dewey Canyon was the last major offensive by the United States Marine Corps during the Vietnam War. It took place from January 22 through March 18, 1969 and involved a sweep of the North Vietnamese Army (NVA)-dominated A Shau Valley by the 9th Marine Regiment reinforced by elements of the 3rd Marine Regiment.
The 56 days of combat were a tactical success but did not stop the overall flow of North Vietnamese men and matériel into South Vietnam. The 9th Marine Regiment and attached units were awarded the Army Presidential Unit Citation for their actions in Operation Dewey Canyon.
Prior to the launching of the operation, U.S. Marine infantry units in the northern I Corps region had been tied to their combat bases along the South Vietnam border as part of the McNamara Line. This "line" was a combination of infantry units and ground sensors devised to stop North Vietnamese infiltration into South Vietnam along the Ho Chi Minh Trail. When Lt. Gen. Raymond G. Davis took command of the 3rd Marine Division, he ordered Marine units to move out of their combat bases and engage the enemy. He had noted that the manning of the bases and the defensive posture they developed was contrary
Operation Hump was a search and destroy operation initiated on 8 November 1965 by the 173rd Airborne Brigade, in an area about 17.5 miles (28.2 km) north of Bien Hoa. The 1st Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment deployed south of the Dong Nai River while the 1st Battalion, 503rd Infantry, conducted a helicopter assault on an LZ northwest of the Dong Nai and Song Be Rivers. The objective was to drive out Viet Cong fighters who had taken position in several key hills. Little contact was made through 7 November, when B and C Companies settled into a night defensive position southeast of Hill 65, a triple-canopy jungled hill.
At about 0600 on the morning of 8 November C Company began a move northwest toward Hill 65, while B Company moved northeast toward Hill 78. Shortly before 0800, C Company was engaged by a sizable enemy force well dug in to the southern face of Hill 65, armed with machine guns and shotguns. At 0845, B Company was directed to wheel in place and proceed toward Hill 65 with the intention of relieving C Company, often relying on their bayonets to repel daring close range attacks by small bands of masked Viet Cong fighters.
B Company reached the foot of Hill 65 at about
R-Point (알 포인트) is a 2004 Korean horror film written and directed by Kong Su-chang and starring Gam Wu-seong and Son Byung-ho. It is set in 1972 Vietnam, during the Vietnam War. However, most of the movie was shot in Cambodia. Bokor Hill Station plays a prominent part of the movie, in this case doubling as a colonial French plantation.
On 07 January 1972, the South Korean base in Nah-Trang, Vietnam, receives a radio transmission from a missing platoon presumed dead. The high-command assigns the veteran and decorated Lieutenant Choi Tae-in to lead a squad with eight other soldiers and rescue the missing soldiers from the R-Point. When they arrive in the location, they have a shooting and defeat a Vietnamese woman with a machine gun in a trench. Later, they find a tombstone telling that one hundred years ago, Chinese killed Vietnamese, dropped them in a lake and built a temple over the place, being a sacred location to the Vietnamese. While chasing the missing soldiers, weird things happen with the rescue team.
Before the film was released, filmmakers conducted various viral marketings to promote the film. The official website, www.rpoint.com, carried several fictional articles such
Rescue Dawn is a 2007 war drama film directed by Werner Herzog, based on an adapted screenplay written from his acclaimed 1997 documentary, Little Dieter Needs to Fly. The film stars Christian Bale, and is based on the true story of German-American pilot Dieter Dengler, who was shot down and captured by villagers sympathetic to the Pathet Lao during an American military campaign in the Vietnam War. Steve Zahn, Jeremy Davies, Pat Healy and Toby Huss also have principal roles. The film project, which had initially come together during 2004, began shooting in Thailand in August 2005. Executive producers were Freddy Braidy, Jimmy De Brabant, Michael Dounaev and Gerald Green among others.
The film was made by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Gibraltar Films and Thema Production. It was distributed by Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer theatrically in the U.S., and by Pathé Distribution, Hopscotch Films and Central Film GmbH in foreign markets. In home media format, the film was distributed by MGM Home Entertainment. It was originally scheduled to be released by MGM in December 2006, but was held back for limited release in the United States until 2007, with the full release on July 27 following a limited release
The Thanh Hóa Bridge (Vietnamese: Cầu Hàm Rồng, Hàm Rồng Bridge), spanning the Song Ma river, is situated 3 miles (4.8 km) northeast of Thanh Hóa ( listen), the capital of Thanh Hoa province in Vietnam. The Vietnamese gave it the nickname Hàm Rồng (Dragon's jaw). In 1965 during the Vietnam war, it was the objective of many attacks by US Air Force and US Navy aircraft which would fail to destroy the bridge until 1972. In their first air combat, a small force of seemingly mismatched MiG-17s inflicted significant losses on much larger and more advanced American F-105 Thunderchief and F-8 Crusader fighters at a cost of 3 of their own, with an F-100 Super Sabre claiming the first probable American kill of the conflict. This would lead to significant changes in American tactics, training and fighter design, and a return to dogfighting in air combat doctrine. Eventually, in 1972, the bridge was destroyed by A-7 Corsair bombers using laser-guided bombs and conventional bombs.
Originally built by the French during the colonial era in Vietnam, the Thanh Hoa bridge was sabotaged by the Viet Minh in 1945. From 1957, the Vietnamese started rebuilding it.
It was a grey metallic construction,
The Ninth Configuration, (also known as Twinkle, Twinkle, "Killer" Kane) is a 1980 American film directed by William Peter Blatty. The film is based on Blatty's novel, The Ninth Configuration (1978) which was itself a reworking of an earlier version of the novel, first published in 1966 as Twinkle, Twinkle, "Killer" Kane! The initial 1966 publication of the novel featured an exclamation mark at the end of the title, while all subsequent publications saw it removed.
The first half of the film has the predominant tone and style of a comic farce. In the second half, the film becomes darker as it delves deeper into its central issues of human suffering, sacrifice and faith. The film also frequently blurs the line between the sane and the insane.
Billy Cutshaw, a former astronaut who fell into madness, lives in a large castle that is actually an insane asylum for military personnel. Meanwhile, Colonel Kane, a former member of a United States Marine Corps special unit, is being driven to the castle for treatment. On the way there, they pass a pickup truck that is loaded with members of a biker gang, and in the pickup is an old man tied to a chair. (This introduces the bikers, who play a
Uncommon Valor is a 1983 action/war film written by Joe Gayton and directed by Ted Kotcheff, about a Marine officer who puts together a team to try to rescue his son, who he believes is among those still held in Laos after the Vietnam War. The film stars Gene Hackman, Fred Ward, Reb Brown, Robert Stack, Michael Dudikoff, and in an early screen appearance, Patrick Swayze.
Taking place in the early 1980s and set in the context of the Vietnam War POW/MIA issue, retired Marine Colonel Jason Rhodes (Gene Hackman) is obsessed with finding his son Frank, listed as "Missing In Action" since 1972. After ten years of searching Southeast Asia and turning up several leads, Rhodes believes that Frank is still alive and being kept in Laos as a prisoner of war.
After petitioning the United States government for help, but receiving none, Colonel Rhodes brings together a disparate group of Vietnam War veterans, including some who were a part of Frank's platoon: Wilkes (Fred Ward), a "tunnel rat" who suffers from PTSD; "Blaster," a demolitions expert (Reb Brown); and "Sailor," a mental case with a heart of gold (Randall "Tex" Cobb). Additionally, two helicopter pilots, Distinguished Flying Cross
Operation Quyet Thang 202 was a 1964 Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) operation carried out with US support. ARVN commandos were transported by U.S. helicopters behind entrenched Viet Cong positions, attacking them with shoulder fired rockets and flame throwers. Sniper teams then tracked the fleeing rebels and engaged them.
The one month-long operation ended with heavy damages to the People's Liberation Armed Forces's (Viet Cong) communication line that linked Do Xa with other National Liberation Front controlled provinces, and forced a critical regrouping of the estimated nine hundred remaining Viet Cong fighters there.
The Battle of Bình Gia (Vietnamese: Trận Bình Giã), which was part of a larger communist campaign, was conducted by the Viet Cong from December 28, 1964, to January 1, 1965, during the Vietnam War in Bình Giã (Vietnamese: Bình Giã). The battle took place in Phước Tuy Province (now part of Ba Ria-Vung Tau Province), South Vietnam.
The year of 1964 marked a decisive turning point in the Vietnam War. Following the ousting of President Ngo Dinh Diem in 1963, South Vietnam’s top army generals continued to vie with each other for control of the country’s military-dominated government instead of combating the emerging forces of the National Liberation Front, also known as the Viet Cong. The fragility of the South Vietnamese government was reflected on the battlefield, where its military experienced great setbacks against the National Liberation Front. Taking advantage of Saigon’s political instability, Communist leaders in Hanoi began preparing for war. Even though key members of North Vietnam’s Politburo disagreed on the best strategy to reunite their country, they ultimately went ahead to prepare for armed struggle against South Vietnam and their American supporters.
Towards the end of
The Battle of Cha La was a battle of the Vietnam War. The assault by Viet Cong forces was one in a series of attacks since the battle of Ap Bac back in January, in an attempt to recover momentum lost from the battle and its ensuing skirmishes.
The Viet Cong attacked what it called a vital weapons depot in Cha La (Vietnamese: Chà Là), Ca Mau Province. The ARVN defenders suffered more than four-hundred casualties as the Viet Cong pounded the base with a deluge of mortar and heavy machine gun fire. The US lost 18 aircraft and helicopters as they rushed in rescue the base providing close air support which left them vulnerable to Viet Cong machine positions. The siege was only broken after Viet Cong rebels withdrew after Americans severed their supply lines using pin point artillery fire to collapse in the walls of a narrow jungle canyon.
The Battle of FSB Mary Ann occurred when Viet Cong sappers attacked the U.S. firebase located in Quang Tin province, South Vietnam early on the morning of 28 March 1971.
Fire support base (FSB) Mary Ann was located to interdict movement of enemy troops and materiel down the K-7 Corridor and Dak Rose Trail (branches of the Ho Chi Minh Trail running from Laos to the coast of South Vietnam). Originally intended to be a temporary base, it evolved into a more permanent location garrisoned by at least one company of U.S. ground forces. The base was manned by 231 American soldiers at the time of the attack.
The firebase was scheduled to be handed over to the South Vietnamese Army when the 1st Battalion, 46th Infantry Regiment (1-46th Inf) moved to the north. Twenty-one Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) soldiers from Battery B, 22nd Field Artillery, along with two 105mm howitzers, were on Mary Ann to support ARVN operations to the south.
For months leading up to the attack the level of enemy activity in the area had been low and contacts were infrequent. The lack of significant recent engagements, along with preparations to turn the FSB over to ARVN units, had given the U.S. soldiers
The Battle of Ia Drang was the first major battle between regulars of the United States Army and regulars of the People's Army of Vietnam (PAVN / NVA) of North Vietnam during the Vietnam War. The two-part battle took place between November 14 and November 18, 1965, at two landing zones (LZs) northwest of Plei Me in the Central Highlands of South Vietnam (approximately 35 miles south-west of Pleiku) as part of the U.S. airmobile offensive codenamed Operation Silver Bayonet. The battle derives its name from the Drang River which runs through the valley northwest of Plei Me, in which the engagement took place. "Ia" means "river" in the local Montagnard language.
Representing the American forces were elements of the 3rd Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division: the 1st Battalion and 2nd Battalion of the 7th Cavalry Regiment, and the 2nd Battalion, 5th Cavalry Regiment of the United States Army, facing elements of the B3 Front of the PAVN (including the 304 Division) and Viet Cong. The battle involved close air support by U.S. aircraft and a strategic bombing strike by the B-52s. The initial Vietnamese assault against the landing 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry at LZ X-Ray was repulsed after two days
Creighton Williams Abrams Jr. (September 15, 1914 – September 4, 1974) was a general in the United States Army who commanded military operations in the Vietnam War from 1968–72 which saw U.S. troop strength in Vietnam fall from a peak of 543,000 to 49,000. He served as Chief of Staff of the United States Army from 1972 until shortly before his death in 1974. In honor of Abrams, the U.S. Army named the XM1 main battle tank the M1 Abrams. The IG Farben building was also named after him from 1975 to 1995.
Creighton Williams Abrams Jr. graduated from West Point in 1936 and served with the 1st Cavalry Division from 1936 to 1940, being promoted to first lieutenant in 1939 and temporary captain in 1940.
Abrams became an armor officer early in the development of that branch and served as a tank company commander in the 1st Armored Division in 1940.
During World War II, he served with the 4th Armored Division, initially as regimental adjutant (June 1941 - June 1942) then as a battalion commander (July 1942 - March 1943), and regiment executive officer (March 1943 - September 1943) with the US 37th Armor Regiment. A reorganization of the division created a new battalion, the 37th Tank
Heaven & Earth is a 1993 war film directed and written by Oliver Stone, and starring Tommy Lee Jones, Haing S. Ngor, Joan Chen, and Hiep Thi Le. It is the third film in Stone's Vietnam War trilogy, which also included Platoon (1986) and Born on the Fourth of July (1989).
The film was based on the books, When Heaven and Earth Changed Places and Child of War, Woman of Peace, which Le Ly Hayslip wrote about her experiences during and after the Vietnam War.
Le Ly Hayslip is a girl growing up in a Vietnamese village. Her life changes when the communist insurgents show up in the village to first fight the forces of France and then the United States. During the American involvement, Le Ly is captured and tortured by South Vietnamese government troops, and later raped by the Viet Cong because they suspect that she is a traitor. After the rape, her relationship with her village is destroyed, and she and her family are forced to move.
Her family moves to Saigon and she is employed by a family there. The master of the household misleads her into believing that he genuinely cares for her, and she falls for him and gets pregnant by him. The master's wife becomes enraged and Le Ly's whole family
Jacob's Ladder is a 1990 psychological thriller/psychological horror film directed by Adrian Lyne, based on a screenplay by Bruce Joel Rubin.
Jacob Singer is a U.S. soldier deployed in the Mekong Delta during the Vietnam War. When the story begins, in 1971, helicopters are passing overhead, carrying supplies for what seems to be preparations for a Viet Cong offensive. Without any warning, Jacob's unit comes under heavy fire. The soldiers try to take cover but begin to exhibit strange behavior for no apparent reason. Jacob attempts to escape the unexplained insanity, only to be stabbed with a bayonet by an unseen attacker.
The film then shifts back and forth from Vietnam to Jacob's memories (and hallucinations) of his son Gabe and ex-wife Sarah, and to his present (set in 1975) relationship with a woman named Jezzie while working as a mailman in Brooklyn, New York City. During this latter period, Jacob faces several threats to his life and experiences grotesque hallucinations. It is also revealed that his son Gabe was hit by a car and killed before Jacob went to Vietnam.
At a key moment, Jacob's friend and chiropractor, Louis, cites the 14th century Christian mystic Meister
During the 1960s the United States military worked hard to interdict the movement of men and materiel along the Ho Chi Minh trail. Decidedly lacking in the ability to accurately strike at night or in adverse weather, the United States Air Force decided to initiate a crash development project in 1966: Operation Shed Light. The North Vietnamese were experts in the use of weather and darkness to conceal their movement, and understanding the superiority of American air power put their skills immediately to good use. US forces seeking to impede the steady flow of supplies attempted to locate largely static targets during the day with poor results.
The United States Air Force, focused toward nuclear weapons and delivery of such munitions against static strategic targets had spent little effort in expanding its tactical capabilities since the end of the World War II. Operation Shed Light sought to rectify this by bringing together improved tactics and technology. The programs were subsequently centered on improved communication and navigation aids for all-weather and night flying, sensor equipment for seeing through clouds, foliage, and darkness, improved equipment and methods for target
Across the Universe is a 2007 musical romantic drama film directed by Julie Taymor, produced by Revolution Studios, and distributed by Columbia Pictures. The film's plot is centered around songs by The Beatles. The script is based on an original story credited to Taymor, Dick Clement and Ian La Frenais. It incorporates 34 compositions originally written by members of The Beatles.
The film stars Evan Rachel Wood, Jim Sturgess, Joe Anderson and T. V. Carpio, and introduces Dana Fuchs and Martin Luther McCoy as actors. Cameo appearances are made by Bono, Eddie Izzard, Joe Cocker, Salma Hayek amongst others.
Opening to mixed reviews, Across the Universe was nominated for both a Golden Globe and an Academy Award. Two members of the supporting cast, Carol Woods and Timothy T. Mitchum, performed as part of a special Beatles tribute at the 50th Grammy Awards.
Jude (Jim Sturgess), a young shipyard worker from Liverpool, enlists in the Merchant Navy and jumps ship in New Jersey hoping to find his American G.I. father, whom he has never met ("Girl", "All My Loving"). Meanwhile, Lucy Carrigan (Evan Rachel Wood) worries about her boyfriend Daniel (Spencer Liff) who is headed for service in the
Australia (/əˈstreɪljə/ ə-STRAYL-yə or /ɒˈstreɪlɪə/ or /ɒˈstreɪljə/ o-STRAYL-yə), officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous smaller islands. It is the world's sixth-largest country by total area. Neighbouring countries include Indonesia, East Timor and Papua New Guinea to the north; the Solomon Islands, Vanuatu and New Caledonia to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east.
For at least 40,000 years before European settlement in the late 18th century, Australia was inhabited by indigenous Australians, who belonged to one or more of roughly 250 language groups. After discovery by Dutch explorers in 1606, Australia's eastern half was claimed by Great Britain in 1770 and settled through penal transportation to the colony of New South Wales from 26 January 1788. The population grew steadily in subsequent decades; the continent was explored and an additional five self-governing Crown Colonies were established.
On 1 January 1901, the six colonies federated, forming the Commonwealth of Australia. Since Federation, Australia has maintained a stable liberal democratic political
Missing in Action 3:Braddock is a 1988 action/adventure film, and a sequel to Missing in Action, following the second film, Missing in Action 2: The Beginning, which was a prequel. It is the third and final film in the Missing in Action Trilogy. The film stars Chuck Norris, who co-wrote the screenplay with James Bruner. The film was directed by Norris' brother, Aaron Norris.
Colonel James Braddock (Chuck Norris), Vietnam veteran, had believed his Asian wife Lin Tan Cang (Miki Kim) to be dead since the war, but he hears from a missionary, Reverend Polanski (Yehuda Efroni), that Lin is not only alive, but has a 12-year-old son named Van Tan Cang (Roland Harrah III), who is Braddock's son.
At first, Braddock does not believe it, but when cold-blooded CIA boss Littlejohn (Jack Rader) tells Braddock to disregard that information, that's when Braddock knows it's true. Braddock heads back into Vietnam through Parachute deployment and with the help of an Australian C-47 pilot. After parachute descent, Braddock outruns Vietnamese Navy Patrol Boats with a Jet-Powered speedboat.
Reverend Polanski leads Braddock to Lin and Van. Attempting to flee the country, Braddock, Lin, and Van are
Bruce Alan Grandstaff (June 2, 1934 – May 18, 1967) was a United States Army soldier and a recipient of the United States military's highest decoration—the Medal of Honor—for his actions in the Vietnam War.
Grandstaff joined the Army from his birth city of Spokane, Washington in 1954, and by May 18, 1967 was a Sergeant First Class serving as a platoon sergeant in Company B, 1st Battalion, 8th Infantry Regiment, 4th Infantry Division. During a firefight on that day, in Pleiku Province, Republic of Vietnam, Grandstaff showed conspicuous leadership before being fatally wounded.
Grandstaff, aged 32 at his death, was buried at Greenwood Memorial Terrace in his hometown of Spokane, Washington.
Platoon Sergeant Grandstaff's official Medal of Honor citation reads:
For conspicuous gallantry and intrepidity in action at the risk of his life above and beyond the call of duty. P/Sgt. Grandstaff distinguished himself while leading the Weapons Platoon, Company B, on a reconnaissance mission near the Cambodian border. His platoon was advancing through intermittent enemy contact when it was struck by heavy small arms and automatic weapons fire from 3 sides. As he established a defensive perimeter,
The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted the forces of the Communist Party of Kampuchea (known as the Khmer Rouge) and their allies the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) and the Viet Cong against the government forces of Cambodia (after October 1970, the Khmer Republic), which were supported by the United States (U.S.) and the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam).
The struggle was exacerbated by the influence and actions of the allies of the two warring sides. People's Army of Vietnam (North Vietnamese Army) involvement was designed to protect its Base Areas and sanctuaries in eastern Cambodia, without which the prosecution of its military effort in South Vietnam would have been more difficult. Then following the Cambodian coup of 1970, the North Vietnamese Army's attempt to overrun the entire country in March–April 1970 plunged Cambodia into civil war. The U.S. was motivated by the desire to buy time for its withdrawal from Southeast Asia, to protect its ally in South Vietnam, and to prevent the spread of communism to Cambodia. American and both South and North Vietnamese forces directly participated (at one time or another) in the fighting. The central
Hair is a 1979 American musical war comedy-drama and a film adaptation of the 1968 Broadway musical of the same name about a Vietnam war draftee who meets and befriends a tribe of long-haired hippies on his way to the army induction center. The hippies introduce him to their environment of marijuana, LSD, unorthodox relationships and draft dodging.
The film was directed by Miloš Forman, who was nominated for a César Award for his work on the film. Cast members include Treat Williams, John Savage, Beverly D'Angelo, Don Dacus, Annie Golden, Dorsey Wright, Nell Carter, Cheryl Barnes, Richard Bright, Ellen Foley, Charlotte Rae. Dance scenes were choreographed by Twyla Tharp and performed by the Twyla Tharp Dance Foundation. The film was nominated for Golden Globe Awards for Best Motion Picture – Musical or Comedy New Star of the Year in a Motion Picture (for Williams).
A young farm boy from Oklahoma named Claude Hooper Bukowski (John Savage) heads to New York City to enter the Army and serve in the Vietnam War. In Central Park, he meets a troupe of free-spirited hippies led by George Berger (Treat Williams), a young man who introduces him to debutante Sheila Franklin (Beverly D'Angelo)
Lieutenant Colonel Iceal E. "Gene" Hambleton, USAF (November 16, 1918 – September 19, 2004) was a United States Air Force navigator and electronic warfare officer who was shot down over South Vietnam during the 1972 Easter Offensive. He was aboard an EB-66 aircraft whose call sign was Bat 21. As the ranking navigator/EWO on the aircraft, he was seated immediately behind the pilot, giving him the call sign "Bat 21 Bravo". He survived for 11½ days behind enemy lines until he was retrieved in a daring ground operation. His rescue was the longest and most costly search and rescue mission during the Vietnam War. He received the Silver Star, the Distinguished Flying Cross, the Air Medal, the Meritorious Service Medal and a Purple Heart for his actions during this mission.
Hambleton served in the U.S. Army Air Forces during the last years of World War II without seeing any combat. Released from active duty at the end of the war, he retained a Reserve commission and was recalled back to active duty by the U.S. Air Force during the 1950s. During the Korean War, he flew 43 sorties as navigator in a B-29 Superfortress. He then worked during the 1960s on various USAF ballistic missile projects
Jedh Colby Barker (June 20, 1945 – September 21, 1967) was a United States Marine Corps Lance Corporal who posthumously received the Medal of Honor for heroism during the Vietnam War in September 1967.
Jedh Barker was born on June 20, 1945, in Franklin, New Hampshire. At the age of six, he moved with his parents to Park Ridge, New Jersey, where he graduated from grammar school in 1960, and from Park Ridge High School in 1964, where he was captain of the football and baseball teams. He attended Fairleigh Dickinson University, East Rutherford, New Jersey, and then Northeast Missouri State Teachers College in Kirksville, Missouri until May 1966. While at Northeast, he was a member of the Bulldogs football team.
On June 20, 1966, he enlisted in the U.S. Marine Corps Reserve. He was a member of the Special Volunteer Reserve, 1st Marine Corps District, New York, New York, until discharged to enlist in the regular Marine Corps on October 5, 1966.
After completion of recruit training at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island, South Carolina, in December 1966, he underwent individual combat training and weapons special training with the 2nd Infantry Training Battalion, 1st Infantry
The Mayaguez incident between the Khmer Rouge and the United States from May 12–15, 1975, was the last official battle of the Vietnam War. The names of the Americans killed, as well as those of three Marines who were left behind on the island of Koh Tang after the battle and who were subsequently executed by the Khmer Rouge, are the last names on the Vietnam Veterans Memorial. The merchant ship's crew, whose seizure at sea had prompted the U.S. attack, had been released in good health, unknown to the U.S. Marines or the U.S. command of the operation, before the Marines attacked. It was the only known engagement between U.S. ground forces and the Khmer Rouge.
The crisis began on the afternoon of May 12, 1975, as the American container ship SS Mayaguez passed near Poulo Wai island en route to Sattahip, Thailand in recognized international sea lanes claimed as territorial waters by Cambodia. At 14:18, a Khmer Rouge naval forces "Swift Boat" was sighted approaching the Mayaguez. The Khmer Rouge fired across the bow of the Mayaguez and when Captain Charles T. Miller ordered the engine room to slow down to maneuvering speed to avoid the machine-gun fire, the Khmer Rouge then fired a
The Democratic People's Republic of Korea (Chosŏn'gŭl: 조선민주주의인민공화국), abbreviated to DPRK or PRK, and commonly referred to as North Korea ( listen), is a country in East Asia, located in the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. Its capital is Pyongyang, the country's largest city by both land area and population. The Amnok River and the Tumen River together form the international border between North Korea and the People's Republic of China. A small section of the Tumen River is also located along the border between North Korea and the Russian Federation, technically following the river's thalweg. The Korean Demilitarized Zone serves as the boundary between North Korea and South Korea.
The Korean peninsula was governed by the Korean Empire from the late 19th century to the early 20th century, until it was annexed by the Empire of Japan in 1910. Following the surrender of Japan at the end of World War II, Japanese rule was brought to an end. The Korean peninsula was divided into two occupied zones in 1945, with the northern half of the peninsula occupied by the Soviet Union and the southern half by the United States. A United Nations–supervised election held in 1948 led to the
Operation Attleboro was a search and destroy operation by the 196th Light Infantry Brigade. The operation was named after Attleboro, Massachusetts, where the brigade had been formed. Operation Attleboro turned out to be the largest series of air mobile operations to date and involved all or elements of the 196th Light Infantry Brigade, 25th Division 1st Infantry Division, a brigade of the 4th Division, as well as numerous Army of the Republic of Vietnam and Regional Forces/Popular Forces and Nungs. In the end, the operation became a Corps operation commanded by II Field Forces. U.S. military spokesmen claimed that the most significant result of Operation Attleboro was the severe blow struck against the communists' supply system.
This operation was divided into two phases. Initial fighting was light. In late October, U.S. forces consisting of the 196th and the 1st Battalion of the 27th Infantry Regiment encountered the 9th Viet Cong Division, resulting in a major three-day battle. Fighting was then taken over by the 1st Infantry Division. The most significant fighting occurred when Viet Cong forces assaulted the U.S. perimeter at Suoi Da on November 8th. The assault was defeated by
Operation Chopper occurred on January 12, 1962 and was the first time US forces participated in major combat in the Vietnam War.
In December 1961, the USNS docked in Saigon with 82 US Army Piasecki H-21 helicopters. A little more than 12 days later, Operation Chopper commenced.
The helicopters transported over 1,000 South Vietnamese paratroopers for an assault on a suspected NLF stronghold 10 miles west of Saigon. The NLF were surprised and soundly defeated, but they gained valuable combat experience they would later use with great effect against US troops. The paratroopers also captured a sought-after underground radio transmitter.
This operation heralded a new era of air mobility for the U.S. Army, which had been slowly growing as a concept since the Army formed twelve helicopter battalions in 1952 as a result of the Korean War. These new battalions eventually formed a sort of modern day cavalry for the Army.
Operation Jefferson Glenn ran from September 5, 1970 to October 6, 1971 and was the last major operation in which U.S. ground forces participated in Vietnam. It was the final major offensive in which the 101st Airborne Division fought. This was a joint military operation combining forces of the 101st Airborne and the 1st Infantry Division of the Army of the Republic of Vietnam (ARVN). The purpose of this operation was to shield critical installations in Huế and Da Nang by patrolling communist rocket belts along the edge of the mountains. President Richard Nixon had begun his Vietnamization program in the summer of 1969; the objective was to increase the combat capability of the South Vietnamese forces so that they could assume responsibility for the war against the Viet Cong and the North Vietnamese forces as U.S. combat units were withdrawn and sent home. Shortly after the completion of Jefferson Glenn, the 101st Airborne began preparations to depart South Vietnam and subsequently began redeployment to the United States in March 1972. There were 2,026 known enemy casualties.
The Pathet Lao (Lao ປະເທດລາວ, "Lao Nation") was a communist political movement and organization in Laos, formed in the mid-20th century. The group was ultimately successful in assuming political power after the Laotian Civil War. The Pathet Lao were always closely associated with Vietnamese communists. During the civil war, it was effectively organized, equipped and even led by the army of North Vietnam.
The Pathet Lao were the Laotian equivalent of North Vietnam's Vietnam People's Army, South Vietnam's Viet Minh and later Viet Cong, and Cambodia's Khmer Rouge. Eventually, the term became the generic name for Laotian communists.
The political movement of the Pathet Lao was called first the Lao People's Party (1955–1972) and later the Lao People's Revolutionary Party (1972–present).
Key Pathet Lao leaders include Prince Souphanouvong, Kaysone Phomvihane, Phoumi Vongvichit, Nouhak Phoumsavanh and Khamtay Siphandone.
The organization can trace its roots from the Second World War just as the Khmer Issarak in Cambodia and the Viet Minh & Vietnam People's Army in Vietnam did in the war as well. It's original name has been forgotten but in 1950 it was renamed the Pathet Lao, when it was
Rolling Thunder is a 1977 film starring William Devane and Tommy Lee Jones. The film was directed by John Flynn. The screenplay was by Paul Schrader and Heywood Gould.
In 1973, Major Charles Rane (Devane) returns home to a small Texas town with his friend, Sergeant First Class Johnny Vohden (Jones), after spending seven years as a POW in Hanoi. He finds a home very different from the one he left when he meets his wife Janet (Lisa Blake Richards), his son Mark (Jordan Gerler), and local policeman Cliff (Lawrason Driscoll), waiting to drive him home. Rane soon realizes that his son doesn't remember him, and that Cliff seems overly familiar with Janet and Mark. Janet admits that she has become engaged to Cliff and has no plans to break it off, despite still having feelings for Rane. Rane stoically accepts this, but privately reacts by self-imposing the same institutionalized daily regime he had in captivity.
The town is intent on giving Rane a hero's homecoming, and at a grand celebration, he is presented with a red Cadillac and 2,555 silver dollars - one for every day he was a captive plus one for luck - by the 'Texas belle' Linda Forchet (Linda Haynes), who has worn his ID bracelet
Taiwan /ˈtaɪˈwɑːn/ TY-WAHN (Chinese: 臺灣 or 台灣; pinyin: Táiwān; see below), officially the Republic of China (ROC; Chinese: 中華民國; pinyin: Zhōnghuá Mínguó), is a state in East Asia. Originally based in mainland China, the Republic of China now governs the island of Taiwan (formerly known as Formosa), which makes up over 99% of its territory, as well as Penghu, Kinmen, Matsu, and other minor islands. Neighboring states include the People's Republic of China to the west, Japan to the east and northeast, and the Philippines to the south. Taipei is the political capital as well as the island's economic and cultural center. New Taipei is the most populous city.
The earliest evidence of Taiwan being inhabited is from the late Paleolithic era. The island of Taiwan was mainly inhabited by Taiwanese aborigines before being explored, and later colonized by European powers including Dutch and Spanish in the 17th century. The first Han Chinese polity on Taiwan began in 1662 when Koxinga's troops expelled Dutch forces and established the Kingdom of Tungning. The island was subsequently conquered by the Qing Dynasty in 1683. Following Japan's victory over the Qing Dynasty in the first
Second Lieutenant Terrence Collinson Graves (6 July 1945–16 February 1968) was a United States Marine who posthumously received the Medal of Honor for "outstanding courage, superb leadership and indomitable fighting spirit" in Vietnam on 16 February 1968. He was killed in action at the end of this day of intense fighting.
Terrence Graves was born on 6 July 1945, in Corpus Christi, Texas, and grew up in Groton, New York. He graduated from Edmeston Central High School, Edmeston, New York, in 1963, and from Miami University, Oxford, Ohio, with a B.A. degree on 19 April 1967.
During his school years, he was a senior patrol leader of the Boy Scouts of America and President of the Methodist Youth Fellowship. Graves was battalion commander of his NROTC unit and a member of Beta Theta Pi fraternity while attending Miami University.
In 1967, Graves was commissioned a Marine Corps second lieutenant upon graduation from Miami University. He completed The Basic School, Marine Corps Schools, Quantico, Virginia, in November 1967.
In December 1967, he arrived in the Republic of Vietnam, where he was assigned duty as a platoon commander of "Team Box Score", 3rd Force Reconnaissance Company, 3rd
The Tet Offensive was a military campaign during the Vietnam War that was launched on January 30, 1968 by forces of the People's Army of Vietnam against the forces of the Republic of Vietnam (South Vietnam), the United States, and their allies. The purpose of the offensive was to utilize the element of surprise and strike military and civilian command and control centers throughout South Vietnam, during a period when no attacks were supposed to take place.
The operations are referred to as the Tet Offensive because there was a prior agreement to "cease fire" during the Tet Lunar New Year celebrations. Both North and South Vietnam announced on national radio broadcasts that there would be a two-day cease-fire during the holiday. The Viet Cong, or National Liberation Front (NLF) broke the agreement and launched an attack campaign that began during the early morning hours of 30 January 1968, on Tết Nguyên Đán. In Vietnamese, the offensive is called Cuộc Tổng tiến công và nổi dậy ("General Offensive and Uprising"), or Tết Mậu Thân (Tet, year of the monkey).
The NLF launched a wave of attacks on the morning of 30 January in the I and II Corps Tactical Zones of South Vietnam. This early
The Quiet American is a 2002 film adaptation of Graham Greene's bestselling novel of the same name. It was directed by Phillip Noyce and starred Michael Caine, Brendan Fraser, and Do Thi Hai Yen.
The 2002 version of The Quiet American, in contrast to the 1958 version, depicted Greene's original ending and treatment of the principal American character, Pyle. Like the novel, the film illustrates Pyle's moral culpability in fostering intrigue within the South Vietnamese government. Going beyond Greene's original work, the film used a montage ending with superimposed images of American soldiers from the intervening decades of the Vietnam War.
Miramax had paid $5.5 million for the rights to distribute the film in North America and some other territories, and this film went on to gross US$12.9 million in limited theatrical release in the United States. Michael Caine was nominated for the Oscar as Best Actor.
Set in the early 1950s in Saigon, Vietnam, during the end of the First Indochina War, on one level The Quiet American is a love story about the triangle that develops between Thomas Fowler, a British journalist in his fifties; a young American idealist, supposedly an aid worker,
The War at Home is a 1996 motion picture starring Emilio Estevez, Kathy Bates, and Martin Sheen. Estevez also directed the film and also served as co-producer.
Estevez plays Jeremy Collier, a returning Vietnam War hero whose experiences leave him unable to adjust to the quiet realities of small town life. The film discusses the hidden costs of war on those who fight.
Sheen plays Bob Collier, Jeremy's father. He expects his son to go back to his life as it was, without understanding the problems of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD).
Kathy Bates plays Estevez's mother, Maurine, who treats Jeremy "like he's a 10-year-old", and seems to think he should forget about his war experiences.
His sister Karen, played by actress Kimberly Williams, is more understanding of his readjustment problems, but their father doesn't want her to help her brother.
This is portrayed in the movie when the family's Thanksgiving celebration occurs and Jeremy refuses to put on his "nice" clothes and instead decides to wear his combat uniform and medal. The film climaxes at the conclusion of the Thanksgiving celebration when Jeremy pulls his semi-automatic handgun on his father and his family, explaining