The United Kingdom government's Office for National Statistics (ONS) maintains a series of codes to represent a wide range of geographical areas of the UK, for use in tabulating census and other statistical data. The older ONS code will cease to be used in 2013, replaced by the nine-character GSS code in 2011.
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The London Borough of Hillingdon ( pronunciation (help·info)) is the westernmost borough in Greater London, England. The borough's population was recorded as 243,006 in the 2001 Census. The borough incorporates the former districts of Ruislip-Northwood, Uxbridge, Hayes and Harlington and Yiewsley and West Drayton in the historic county of Middlesex. Today, Hillingdon is home to Heathrow Airport and Brunel University, and is the second largest of the 32 London boroughs.
Hillingdon Council governs the borough, with its headquarters in the Civic Centre in Uxbridge. For administrative purposes, the borough is split into North and South Hillingdon with more industrial units to the south and residential suburban areas in the north. Much of the residential areas were expanded with the extension of the Metropolitan Railway from Harrow on the Hill to Uxbridge in the early 1900s and the gradual establishment of stops along the line, becoming known as "Metro-land".
The borough was formed in 1965 from the Municipal Borough of Uxbridge, Hayes and Harlington Urban District, Ruislip-Northwood Urban District and Yiewsley and West Drayton Urban District of Middlesex. The councils involved were
Yorkshire and the Humber is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It covers most of the historic county of Yorkshire, along with the part of northern Lincolnshire that was, from 1974 to 1996, within the former shire county of Humberside. The population in 2011 was 5,284,000. The British Government has announced its intention to abolish Government Offices (for the Regions) no later than 31 March 2011.
See Topographical areas of Yorkshire and Geology of Yorkshire
In the Yorkshire and the Humber region there is a very close relationship between the major topographical areas and the underlying geology. The Pennine chain of hills in the west is of Carboniferous origin. The central vale is Permo-Triassic. The North York Moors in the north-east of the county are Jurassic in age while the Yorkshire Wolds and Lincolnshire Wolds to the south east are Cretaceous chalk uplands.
The region is drained by several rivers. In western and central Yorkshire the many rivers empty their waters into the River Ouse which reaches the North Sea via the Humber Estuary. The most northerly of the rivers in the Ouse system is the River Swale, which drains
North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, bordering the unitary authority of North Lincolnshire and the administrative county of Lincolnshire. These three administrative units make up the ceremonial county of Lincolnshire.
North East Lincolnshire was created from the boroughs of Cleethorpes and Great Grimsby on 1 April 1996 on the abolition of Humberside.
Historically, it was part of the Kingdom of Lindsey.
The north part of the authority has a flat landscape.
North East Lincolnshire is a unitary authority that operates a cabinet-style council since 2003. There are 42 councillors. They elect the cabinet in May each year. Each cabinet member is responsible for making decisions within their portfolio area. The governance of North East Lincolnshire council has come under scrutiny from the audit commission on two occasions leading to special public interest reports for there failings, during its political coalition time from 2003 until 2011.
It was once declared the worst Council in the country. It was run politically on agreement between the Conservatives and Liberal Democrats from 2003 until June 2011, when it became a minority
Staffordshire (/ˈstæfərdʃɪər/ or /ˈstæfərdʃər/; abbreviated Staffs) is a landlocked county in the West Midlands region of England. Part of the National Forest lies within its borders. It adjoins the ceremonial counties of Cheshire (to the north west), Derbyshire (to the east), Leicestershire (to the east), Warwickshire (to the south east), West Midlands (to the south), Worcestershire (to the south), and Shropshire (to the west).
The largest city in Staffordshire is Stoke-on-Trent, which is administered separately from the rest of the county as an independent unitary authority. Lichfield also has city status, although this is a considerably smaller cathedral city. Major towns include Stafford (the county town), Burton upon Trent, Cannock, Newcastle-under-Lyme, Leek and Tamworth.
Wolverhampton, Walsall, West Bromwich and Smethwick were also in Staffordshire until local government reorganisation in 1974, but are now within the West Midlands County in the West Midlands Conurbation.
With the exception of Stoke-on-Trent, Staffordshire is divided into the districts of Cannock Chase, East Staffordshire, Lichfield, Newcastle-under-Lyme, South Staffordshire, Stafford, Staffordshire
Worthing ( /ˈwɜrðɪŋ/ WURDH-ing) is a large seaside town with borough status in West Sussex, within the historic County of Sussex, forming part of the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation. It is situated at the foot of the South Downs, 10 miles (16 km) west of Brighton, and 18 miles (29 km) east of the county town of Chichester. The borough covers an area of 12.5 square miles (32.37 km) and has an estimated population of 103,200.
The area around Worthing has been populated for at least 6,000 years and contains Britain's greatest concentration of Stone Age flint mines, which are some of the earliest mines in Europe. Lying within the borough, the Iron Age hill fort of Cissbury Ring is one of Britain's largest. Worthing means "(place of) Worth/Worō's people", from the Old English personal name Worth/Worō (the name means "valiant one, one who is noble"), and -ingas "people of" (reduced to -ing in the modern name). For many centuries Worthing was a small mackerel fishing hamlet until in the late 18th century it developed into an elegant Georgian seaside resort and attracted the well-known and wealthy of the day. In the 19th and 20th centuries the area was one of Britain's chief
West Sussex is a county in the south of England, bordering East Sussex (with Brighton and Hove), Hampshire and Surrey. The county of Sussex has been divided into East and West since the 12th century, and obtained separate county councils in 1888, but it remained a single ceremonial county until 1974 and the coming into force of the Local Government Act 1972. At the same time the Mid Sussex region (including Haywards Heath, Burgess Hill and East Grinstead) was transferred from East Sussex.
West Sussex has a wide range of scenery, including Wealden, Downland and coastal. It has a number of stately homes including Goodwood, Petworth House and Uppark and also castles such as Arundel Castle and Bramber Castle. Over half the county is protected countryside, offering walking, cycling and other recreational opportunities for visitors and residents alike.
Chichester is the county town and only city in West Sussex, with the largest towns being Crawley, Worthing and Horsham.The highest point of the county is Black Down, at 280 metres (919 ft, grid reference SU919296).
The foundation of the Kingdom of Sussex is recorded by the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle for the year AD 477, it says that Ælle
Ceredigion (Welsh pronunciation: [kɛrɛˈdɪɡjɔn]) is a county and former kingdom in mid-west Wales. As Cardiganshire (Welsh: Sir Aberteifi), it was created in 1282, and was reconstituted as a county under that name in 1996, reverting to Ceredigion a day later. In extent the current county is more or less identical to the historic county.
In pre-Roman, and possibly Roman times, a part of southern Ceredigion was in the territory of the Demetae and possibly part of that of the Ordovices. According to Nennius, a 10th-century Welsh chronicler, Ceredig, son of the Welsh invader Cunedda, settled in the area in the 5th century. It remained a kingdom ruled by his descendants until it expanded and changed its name, first to Seisyllwg in the late 7th century and, after the union of Seisyllwg with the Kingdom of Dyfed, it was incorporated into Deheubarth in the mid 10th century.
In 1282, Edward I of England conquered the principality of Wales and divided the area into counties. The name Cardigan was an Anglicisation of the name for the historic kingdom of Ceredigion. One of thirteen traditional counties in Wales, Cardiganshire was also a vice-county. Cardiganshire was split into the five
Amber Valley is a local government district and borough in Derbyshire, England. It takes its name from the River Amber and covers a semi-rural area with a number of small towns formerly based around coal mining and engineering. The parliamentary constituency of Amber Valley covers a similar area.
The village of Crich and the Amber Valley area were the setting for the ITV drama series Peak Practice.
Elections to the borough council are held in three out of every four years, with one third of the 45 seats on the council being elected at each election. The council has been controlled by the Conservative party since they gained control from the Labour party at the 2000 election. As of the 2012 election the council is composed of the following councillors:-
The district was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the urban districts of Alfreton, Belper, Heanor and Ripley Rural District and Belper Rural District. The district was granted borough status in 1988.
Bath and North East Somerset (commonly referred to as BANES or B&NES) is a unitary authority that was created on 1 April 1996 following the abolition of the County of Avon. It is part of the Ceremonial county of Somerset. It provides a single tier of local government with responsibility for almost all local government functions within its area including local planning and building control, local roads, council housing, environmental health, markets and fairs, refuse collection, recycling, cemeteries, crematoria, leisure services, parks, and tourism. It is also responsible for education, social services, libraries, main roads, public transport, trading standards, waste disposal and strategic planning, although fire, police and ambulance services are provided jointly with other authorities through the Avon Fire and Rescue Service, Avon and Somerset Constabulary and the Great Western Ambulance Service. Its administrative headquarters is in Bath.
Bath and North East Somerset covers an area of 220 square miles (570 km), of which two thirds is green belt. It stretches from the outskirts of Bristol, south into the Mendip Hills and east to the southern Cotswold Hills and Wiltshire border.
The London Borough of Richmond upon Thames ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough in south west London, England, which forms part of Outer London. It is unique because it is the only London borough situated both north and south of the River Thames.
It can been seen from a map that the borough is not entirely urbanised – there are some large areas of open space within the borough boundaries, including the large urban park Richmond Park. The borough is residential and home to some of the most affluent districts of London such as Barnes, Richmond and East Sheen. The main suburban developments are Hampton and Teddington in the south, Twickenham, St Margarets and Whitton in the central area west of the River Thames, with the more central districts of Richmond, Kew, Mortlake and Barnes following the loop of the river. The area and towns surrounding it are very attractive,and boast many fine examples of Tudor and Georgian architecture.
Parks take up a great deal of the borough and include Richmond Park, Bushy Park, Kew Gardens, and Hampton Court Park. There are over 100 parks and open spaces within its boundary and 21 miles (34 km) of river frontage. 140 hectares within the
South Lanarkshire (Scots: Sooth Lanrikshire, Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Lannraig a Deas) is one of 32 unitary council areas of Scotland, covering the southern part of the former county of Lanarkshire. It borders the south-east of the city of Glasgow and contains many of Glasgow's suburbs, commuter towns and smaller villages.
South Lanarkshire Council has its headquarters in Hamilton, has 16,000 employees, and a budget of almost £1bn. The council plan for 2007-2012 when the next council elections are due is Connect. The large and varied council area takes in rural and upland areas, market towns such as Lanark, Strathaven and Carluke, the urban burghs of Rutherglen, Cambuslang, and East Kilbride which was Scotland's first new town.
There are 20 council wards in South Lanarkshire, each represented on the council by 3 or 4 elected councillors using Single Transferable Vote. South Lanarkshire operates a cabinet style system, with key decisions being taken by the Executive Committee, under the leadership of the Council Leader, and approved by the council, led by the Provost.
South Lanarkshire shares borders with the unitary authorities of Dumfries and Galloway, East Ayrshire, East
Luton (/ˈluːtən/ LOOT-ən, local /ˈluːʔən/) is a large town, borough and unitary authority of Bedfordshire, England, 30 miles (50 km) north of London. Luton and its near neighbours, Dunstable and Houghton Regis, form the Luton/Dunstable Urban Area with a population of about 255,000.
Luton is home to Conference National team Luton Town Football Club, whose history includes several spells in the top flight of the English league as well as a Football League Cup triumph in 1988. They play at Kenilworth Road stadium, which has been their home since 1905.
London Luton Airport, opened in 1938, is one of England's major airports. During the Second World War it doubled as an RAF base.
The University of Bedfordshire is based in the town.
The Luton Carnival, held on the late May bank holiday, is the largest one-day carnival in Europe.
The town was for many years famous for hat-making, and was also home to a large Vauxhall Motors factory; the head office of Vauxhall Motors is still situated in the town. Car production at the plant began in 1905 and continued until 2002, but commercial vehicle production remains.
The earliest settlements in the Luton area were at Round Green and Mixes Hill,
West Dunbartonshire (Scots: Wast Dunbartonshire; Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Dhùn Bhreatainn an Iar, pronounced [ʃirˠəxk ɣumˈpɾʲɛʰt̪ɪɲ ə ɲiəɾ]) is one of the 32 local government council areas of Scotland. The council area borders onto the west of the City of Glasgow and contains many of Glasgow's commuter towns and villages as well as the city's suburbs. West Dunbartonshire also borders onto Argyll and Bute, Stirling, East Dunbartonshire and Renfrewshire.
The area was formed on 1 April 1996 from part of the former Strathclyde Region, namely the entire district of Clydebank and the Dumbarton district less the Helensburgh area. In the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994 that created the council area its name was Dumbarton and Clydebank. The council elected as a shadow authority in 1995 resolved to change the name of the area to West Dunbartonshire.
The area is essentially composed of three parts: the towns of Dumbarton and Clydebank and the Vale of Leven district.
West Dunbartonshire is administered from Dumbarton, although Clydebank is the largest town.
The council is run by 22 councillors elected from 6 wards. Their political division is as follows.
The Labour Party regained
Clackmannanshire ( listen (help·info); Scots: Clackmannanshire and from the Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Chlach Mhannainn meaning 'Stone of Manau'), is a local government council area in Scotland, and a lieutenancy area, bordering Perth and Kinross, Stirling and Fife.
As Scotland's smallest historic county, it is often nicknamed 'The Wee County'. When written, Clackmannanshire is often abbreviated to Clacks..
Between 1889 and 1975, the County of Clackmannan was a local government county, bordering on Perthshire, Stirlingshire and Fife.
The council area was recreated in 1996, under the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994, with the boundaries of the former Clackmannan district of the Central region. Prior to the Central District being created in 1975 the area had historically been called Clackmannanshire and there was strong pressure to resurrect this title rather than hold to the rather bland title of "Central Region".
Central Region had been created in 1975, under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, to include the county of Clackmannan plus the Muckhart and Glendevon areas, formerly in the county of Perth. Technically these two areas had been transferred to
Adur is a local government district of West Sussex, England. It is named after the River Adur and is historically part of the English county of Sussex. The council is based in Shoreham-by-Sea and the district has a population of 59,627 according to the 2001 census.
It was created on 1 April 1974 by the merger of Southwick and Shoreham urban districts and the civil parishes of Coombes, Lancing and Sompting from Worthing Rural District.
Sompting, Lancing, Shoreham-by-Sea (or Shoreham) and Southwick form a strip of settlements on the south coast, between Worthing and Brighton and Hove collectively known as the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation. Coombes is inland. Fishersgate and Kingston by Sea (also known as Kingston Buci) are also small areas in the south east of the district.
Shoreham Airport is located in the Adur district, west of Shoreham-by-Sea and just east of Lancing.
The Adur festival is held in the first two weeks of June every year.
Elections to the district council have been held every 2 years since the 2004 election, when the council changed to being elected by halves instead of by thirds. The Conservative party has had a majority on the council since the 2002
East Lothian (Scots: Aest Lowden, Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Lodainn an Ear) (formerly Haddingtonshire) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, and a lieutenancy Area. It borders the City of Edinburgh, Scottish Borders and Midlothian. Its administrative centre is Haddington, although its largest town is Musselburgh.
The council area was created in 1996, under the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994, with the boundaries of the East Lothian district of the Lothian region. The district had been created in 1975, under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, and it consisted of the local government county of East Lothian, plus the burgh of Musselburgh and the Inveresk area, both formerly within the county of Midlothian.
When abolished, for local government purposes, in 1975, the county of East Lothian bordered the county of Midlothian to the west, and the county of Berwick to the south. The county was called Haddingtonshire until 1921. At this time, border changes saw several villages on the outskirts of Edinburgh (e.g. Whitecraig) become part of East Lothian.
East Lothian is served by two local paid-for weekly newspapers, the East Lothian Courier and the East Lothian News.
The London Borough of Bexley ( pronunciation (help·info)) lies in south east Greater London, and is a borough referred to as part of Outer London. It has common borders with the London Borough of Bromley to the south, the Royal Borough of Greenwich to the west, across the River Thames to the north it borders the London Borough of Havering, the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham and a small boundary with the unitary authority Thurrock in Essex to the north east, to the east it borders the Dartford borough in Kent and to the south east a boundary with the Sevenoaks district of Kent.
The borough is within the Thames Gateway, an area designated as a national priority for urban regeneration.
Prior to the 19th century the area now forming the Borough was practically unoccupied: very few of the present settlements were mentioned in the Domesday Book, although the village of Bexley has a charter dated 814CE. Erith was a port on the River Thames until the 17th century; the opening of the sewage works at nearby Crossness in the late 19th century turned it into an industrial town.
Today's settlement pattern is the result of the gradual extension of the London influence. Until the 19th
Aberdeen /æbərˈdiːn/ (Scots: Aiberdeen listen (help·info); Scottish Gaelic: Obar Dheathain [ˈopər ˈʝɛhɪn]) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 29th most populous city, with an official population estimate of 220,420.
Nicknames include the Granite City, the Grey City and the Silver City with the Golden Sands. During the mid-18th to mid-20th centuries, Aberdeen's buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granite, which can sparkle like silver due to their high mica contents. The city has a long, sandy coastline. Since the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s, other nicknames have been the Oil Capital of Europe or the Energy Capital of Europe. The area around Aberdeen has been settled since at least 8,000 years ago, when prehistoric villages lay around the mouths of the rivers Dee and Don.
Aberdeen received Royal Burgh status from King David I (1124–53), transforming the city economically. The city's two universities, the University of Aberdeen, founded in 1495, and The Robert Gordon University, which was awarded university status in 1992, make Aberdeen the educational centre of the north-east. The
Bristol /ˈbrɪstəl/ is a city, unitary authority area and ceremonial county in South West England, with an estimated population of 433,100 for the unitary authority in 2009, and a surrounding Larger Urban Zone (LUZ) with an estimated 1,070,000 residents in 2007. It is England's sixth and the United Kingdom's eighth most populous city, one of the Core Cities Group and the most populous city in South West England.
Historically split between Gloucestershire and Somerset, the city received a Royal Charter in 1155 and was granted County status in 1373. From the 13th century, for half a millennium, it ranked amongst the top three English cities after London, alongside York and Norwich, on the basis of tax receipts, until the rapid rise of Liverpool, Birmingham and Manchester during the Industrial Revolution in the latter part of the 18th century. It borders the counties of Somerset and Gloucestershire, and is also located near the historic cities of Bath to the south east and Gloucester to the north. The city is built around the River Avon, and it also has a short coastline on the Severn Estuary, which flows into the Bristol Channel.
Bristol is the largest centre of culture, employment
Cherwell (usually /ˈtʃɜrwɛl/ CHUR-well) is a local government district in northern Oxfordshire, England. The district takes its name from the River Cherwell, which drains south through the region to flow into the River Thames at Oxford.
Towns in Cherwell include Banbury and Bicester. Kidlington is a contender for largest village in England.
The district was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, by a merger of the municipal borough of Banbury, Bicester urban district, Banbury Rural District and Ploughley Rural District.
The Castle Quay Shopping Centre in Banbury and Bicester Village Outlet Centre make the Cherwell District an attractive place to shop for those in South Northamptonshire, West Oxfordshire and South Warwickshire where facilities are more limited.
Cherwell district has one of the country's highest recycling rates at over 40% (2005). The district used to have a recycling rate of just 9%. This changed with the introduction of the blue box scheme for recycling paper, which has since grown to include plastic, cardboard and cans. Kidlington has its own freecycling group.
The Northern half of the Cherwell district consists mainly of soft rolling hills
The Borough of Welwyn Hatfield is a local government district in southern Hertfordshire, England.
Its covers the two towns of Welwyn Garden City and Hatfield, along with numerous smaller settlements from Woolmer Green in the north to Little Heath in the south. Each of the towns has a railway station on the East Coast Main Line and they are close to the A1 road. It borders the London Borough of Enfield.
The district was formed on 1 April 1974, as a merger of the Welwyn Garden City urban district, with the Hatfield and Welwyn rural districts. It petitioned for borough status in 2005, which was agreed to by the Privy Council on 15 November 2005. In April 2006 a charter conferring borough status was granted, and the title of the council officially changed to Welwyn Hatfield Borough Council on 22 May 2006. The first Mayor of the borough, John Hawkins, was chosen on 22 May.
Set within the London green belt, the towns still retain something of their own identities. Welwyn Garden City has a famous heritage being one of only two Garden Cities in the country, and is uniquely both Garden City and designated New Town. They function to some extent as dormitory towns for householders who work in
Norwich (/ˈnɒrɪdʒ/ NORR-ij, (also /ˈnɒrɪtʃ/ NORR-ich) is a city on the River Wensum in England. It is the regional administrative centre and county town of Norfolk. During the 11th century, Norwich was the largest city in England after London, and one of the most important places in the kingdom. Until the Industrial Revolution, Norwich was the capital of England's most populous county and vied with Bristol as England's second city.
The urban area of Norwich has a population of 194,839. This area extends beyond the city boundary, with extensive suburban areas on the western, northern and eastern sides, including Costessey, Hellesdon, Bowthorpe, Old Catton, Sprowston and Thorpe St Andrew. The parliamentary seats cross over into adjacent local government districts. 135,800 (2008 est.) people live in the City of Norwich and the population of the Norwich Travel to Work Area (i.e. the area of Norwich in which most people both live and work) is 367,035 (the 1991 figure was 351,340). Norwich is the fourth most densely populated local government district within the East of England with 3,480 people per square kilometre (8,993 per square mile).
The Romans had their regional capital at Venta
The City of Westminster /ˈwɛstmɪnstər/ is a London borough occupying much of the central area of London, including most of the West End. It is located to the west of and adjoining the ancient City of London, directly to the east of the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea, and its southern boundary is the River Thames. It is an Inner London borough and was created in 1965 when Greater London was established. At its creation Westminster was awarded city status, which had been previously held by the smaller Metropolitan Borough of Westminster.
Aside from a number of large parks and open spaces, the population density of the district is high. Many sites commonly associated with London are located in the borough, including Buckingham Palace, the Houses of Parliament, and 10 Downing Street. The borough is divided into a number of localities including the ancient political district of Westminster around the Palace of Westminster; the shopping areas around Oxford Street, Regent Street, Piccadilly and Bond Street; and the night time entertainment district of Soho. Much of the borough is residential, and in 2008 it was estimated to have a population of 236,000. The local authority is
North East England is one of the nine regions of England that are classified at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It covers Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear, and Teesside, which is partly in North Yorkshire. The only cities in the region are Durham, Newcastle upon Tyne and Sunderland. Other large settlements in the region include Darlington, Gateshead, Hartlepool, Middlesbrough, Redcar, South Shields and Stockton-on-Tees. The region is home to three large conurbations: Teesside, Wearside, and Tyneside, which is the largest of the three and the sixth most populous conurbation in the United Kingdom.
The region is generally hilly and sparsely populated in the North and West, and urban and arable in the East and South. The highest point in the region is The Cheviot, in the Cheviot Hills, at 815 metres (2,674 ft).
The region contains the urban centres of Tyneside, Wearside and Teesside, and is noted for the rich natural beauty of its coastline, Northumberland National Park, and the section of the Pennines that includes Teesdale and Weardale. Its historic importance is evidenced by Northumberland's castles, the two World Heritage Sites of Durham Cathedral and
Derbyshire Dales is a local government district in Derbyshire, England. Much of the district is situated in the Peak District, although most of its population lies along the River Derwent.
The borough borders the districts of High Peak, Amber Valley, North East Derbyshire and South Derbyshire in Derbyshire and also Sheffield in South Yorkshire.
The district offices are in Matlock. It was formed on 1 April 1974, originally under the name of West Derbyshire. The district adopted its current name in 1988. The district was a merger of Ashbourne, Bakewell, Matlock and Wirksworth urban districts along with Ashbourne Rural District and Bakewell Rural District.
Following their review of parliamentary representation in Derbyshire, the Boundary Commission for England has formed a new constituency called Derbyshire Dales.
Derbyshire Dales District Council is elected every four years, with currently 39 councillors being elected at each election. The Conservative party has had a majority on the council since 1976, apart from a four year period between 1995 and the 1999 election when no party had a majority. As of July 2011 and after the 2011 election the council is composed of the following
Devon ( /ˈdɛvən/) (or archaically, Devonshire) is a county of England, reaching from the Bristol Channel in the north to the English Channel in the south. It is a part of South West England, and bounded by Cornwall to the west, Somerset to the northeast, and Dorset to the east. The City of Exeter is the county town; seven other districts of East Devon, Mid Devon, North Devon, South Hams, Teignbridge, Torridge, and West Devon are under the jurisdiction of Devon County Council; Plymouth and Torbay are each a part of Devon but administered as unitary authorities. Combined as a ceremonial county, Devon spans an area of 2,590 square miles (6,700 km) and has a population of 1.1million.
Devon has its historical origins in classical antiquity and derives its name from Dumnonia, which, during the British Iron Age and Roman Britain, was the homeland of the Dumnonii Celts. The Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain resulted in the partial assimilation of Dumnonia into the Kingdom of Wessex during the eighth and ninth centuries, resulting in emigration of some Celts to Cornwall and Domnonee (in what is now Brittany). Devon was constituted as a shire of the Kingdom of England thereafter, with the
Gosport /ˈɡɒspɔrt/ is a town, district and borough situated on the south coast of England, within the county of Hampshire. It has approximately 80,000 permanent residents with a further 5,000–10,000 during the summer months. It is part of the South Hampshire conurbation and lies on a peninsula on the western side of Portsmouth Harbour opposite the City of Portsmouth, to which it is linked by a pedestrian ferry.
Up until the last quarter of the 20th century, Gosport was a major naval and military town associated with the defence and supply infrastructure of Her Majesty's Naval Base (HMNB) Portsmouth. As a result of a decline in these activities, many of its fortifications and installations, such as Fort Brockhurst, have been opened to the public as tourism and heritage sites, with extensive redevelopment of the harbour area as a marina.
The Rowner area of the peninsula was known to have been settled in Saxon times, mentioned in the Anglo Saxon Chronicles as Rughenor (Rough bank or slope). Both Rowner and Alverstoke (a village now within the boundaries of Gosport), the name coming from the original point where the River Alver entered the Solent at Stokes Bay, were included in the
Corby is borough located in the county of Northamptonshire. Corby Town is 23 miles (37 km) north-east of the county town, Northampton. The borough had a population of 61,300 at the 2011 Census. Figures released in March 2010 revealed that Corby has the fastest growing population in both Northamptonshire and the whole of England. The Borough of Corby borders onto the Borough of Kettering, the District of East Northamptonshire, the District of Harborough and the unitary authority county of Rutland. The town was at one time known locally as "Little Scotland" due to the large number of Scottish migrant workers who came to Corby for its steelworks.
The Borough of Corby consists of the town of Corby, as well as the villages of Weldon, Rockingham, Gretton, Cottingham, Middleton, East Carlton, Stanion, and Little Stanion.
Mesolithic and Neolithic artefacts have been found in the area surrounding Corby and human remains dating to the Bronze Age were found in 1970 at Cowthick. The first evidence of permanent settlement comes from the 8th century when Danish invaders arrived and the settlement became known as "Kori's by" – Kori's settlement. The settlement was recorded in the Domesday Book of
The London Borough of Hounslow ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough in west London, England. Hounslow has a sister district agreement with Leningradsky District in Krasnodar Krai, Russia.
Since the borough was formed it has been controlled by the Labour Party on all but two occasions. In 1968 the Conservatives formed a majority for the first and last time to date until they lost control to Labour in 1971. Labour subsequently lost control of the council in the 2006 local elections which produced a hung result. Although Labour was the largest party on the Council the Conservatives were able to form a coalition with councillors from the independent Isleworth Community Group (ICG). This lasted until the 2010 local elections when all the independent councillors lost their seats. Labour won control of the Council with 35 seats while the Conservatives now have 25. No other parties are currently represented on the Council.
Seat distribution as of May 2010:
It includes the areas:
The various electoral wards of Hounslow are divided up into 5 Areas, each of which is afforded a measure of self-government:
The town of Hounslow, which has existed since the 13th Century, is located at
Reading (/ˈrɛdɪŋ/ RED-ing) is a large town and unitary authority area in the county of Berkshire, England. It is located in the Thames Valley at the confluence of the River Thames and River Kennet, and on both the Great Western Main Line railway and the M4 motorway. Reading is located 36 miles (58 km) east from Swindon, 24 miles (39 km) south from Oxford, 36 miles (58 km) west of central London, and 14 miles (23 km) north from Basingstoke.
The Borough of Reading has a population of 145,700 (2008 estimate) and the town formed the largest part of the Reading/Wokingham Urban Area which had a population of 369,804 (2001 census). The town is currently represented in the UK parliament by two members, and has been continuously represented there since 1295. For ceremonial purposes the town is in the county of Berkshire and has served as its county town since 1867, previously sharing this status with Abingdon.
The first evidence for Reading as a settlement dates from the 8th century. Reading was an important centre in the medieval period, as the site of Reading Abbey, a monastery with strong royal connections. The town was seriously impacted by the Civil War, with a major siege and loss of
Herefordshire ( /ˈhɛrɨfərdʃər/; abbreviated Herefs.) is a historic and ceremonial county in the West Midlands region of England. For Eurostat purposes it is a NUTS 3 region (code UKG11) and is one of three counties that comprise the "Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Gloucestershire" NUTS 2 region. It also forms a unitary district known as the County of Herefordshire. It borders the English ceremonial counties of Shropshire to the north, Worcestershire to the east, Gloucestershire to the south-east, and the Welsh preserved counties of Gwent to the south-west and Powys to the west. Hereford is a cathedral city and is the county town; with a population of approximately 55,800 inhabitants it is also the largest settlement.
The county is one of the most rural and sparsely populated in England, with a population density of 82/km² (212/sq mi). The land use is predominantly agricultural and the county is well known for its fruit and cider production, and the Hereford cattle breed.
From 1974 to 1998, Herefordshire was part of the former non-metropolitan county of Hereford and Worcester.
Herefordshire was reconstituted both as a new district (effective 19 July 1996) and as a new county
The London Borough of Waltham Forest is in northeast London, England. Officially, it forms part of Outer London as it borders Essex. However, it can be seen that the NE London boundary does not extend far compared to elsewhere in the city (e.g. due north and east). Perhaps as a consequence of this, the south of the borough contrasts markedly with the north (split by the North Circular Road). in terms of its mixed ethnicity and socio-economic indicators, and is often regarded as part of London's East End (along with nearby Clapton, Stratford and Forest Gate). Taken as a whole, Waltham Forest comprises built-up urban districts in the south with inner-city characteristics, and more affluent residential development in the north with a variety of reservoirs, open space, small sections of Epping Forest, parks, and playing fields, which together cover a fifth of the borough. It is located between Epping Forest (Essex) in the north, London Borough of Redbridge in the east, London Boroughs of Newham and Hackney in the south, and London Boroughs of Haringey and Enfield in the west (where the River Lea and the surrounding parkland forms a green corridor, traditionally separating north and
Ballymena is a local government district with borough status in Northern Ireland. It is one of twenty-six districts created on 1 October 1973 and covers the town of Ballymena and the surrounding area which includes small towns including Broughshane, Cullybackey, Galgorm, Ahoghill and Portglenone. The borough has an area of 200 square miles (520 km) and a population of nearly 78,000. The borough has a central location within Northern Ireland and is served by the M2 motorway and with a station on the Belfast-Derry railway line. Belfast International Airport itself is only 18 miles (29 km) away and the Belfast City Airport is 30 miles (48 km) from Ballymena. It is also accessible to the seaports of Larne and Belfast, 20 and 27 miles (43 km) away respectively.
The present borough of Ballymena was created in 1973 from the merging of the former municipal borough of Ballymena with most of the surrounding Ballymena Rural District. The new council inherited the 1937 charter of incorporation of the municipal borough, continuing the borough status and mayoralty.
The borough is divided into four electoral areas: Ballymena North, Ballymena South, Bannside, and Braid, from which 24 members are
Dorset ( /ˈdɔrsɨt/) (or archaically, Dorsetshire), is a county in South West England on the English Channel coast. The ceremonial county comprises the non-metropolitan county, which is governed by Dorset County Council, and the unitary authorities of Poole and Bournemouth. Covering an area of 2,653 square kilometres (1,024 sq mi), Dorset borders Devon to the west, Somerset to the north-west, Wiltshire to the north-east, and Hampshire to the east. The county town is Dorchester which is situated in the south. After the reorganisation of local government in 1974 the county's border was extended eastward to incorporate the Hampshire towns of Bournemouth and Christchurch. Around half of the population lives in the South East Dorset conurbation, while the rest of the county is largely rural with a low population density.
The county has a long history of human settlement stretching back to the Neolithic era. The Romans conquered Dorset's indigenous Celtic tribe, and during the early Middle Ages, the Saxons settled the area and made Dorset a shire in the 7th century. The first recorded Viking raid on the British Isles occurred in Dorset during the 8th century and the black death entered
Sedgemoor is a low lying area of land in Somerset, England. It lies close to sea level south of the Polden Hills, historically largely marsh (or "moor" in its older sense). The eastern part is known as King's Sedgemoor, and the western part West Sedgemoor. Sedgemoor is part of the area now known as the Somerset Levels. Historically the area was known as the site of the Battle of Sedgemoor.
Sedgemoor has given its name to a local government district formed on April 1, 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, by a merger of the municipal borough of Bridgwater, the Burnham-on-Sea urban district, Bridgwater Rural District and part of Axbridge Rural District. The district covers a larger area than the historical Sedgemoor, extending north of the Polden Hills across the Somerset Levels to the Mendip Hills.
Sedgemoor does not mean "sedge moor", but is instead "marsh of a man called Sicga" from the Old Norse personal name Sicga and Old English mor "moor". The name was recorded as Secgamere in 1165.
Light industry now predominates, but traditional trades include peat extraction, willow crafts and cider making can still be found, in addition to livestock farming. The River Parrett provides
Worcestershire (/ˈwʊstəʃə/ WUUS-tər-shər or /ˈwʊstərʃɪər/ WUUS-tər-sheer ; abbreviated Worcs) is a non-metropolitan county in the West Midlands of England. In 1974, it merged with the neighbouring county of Herefordshire to form Hereford and Worcester. This was divided in 1998, re-establishing Worcestershire as a county. The Malvern Hills forms the east–west border between the two counties, with the exception of West Malvern in Worcestershire.
The cathedral city of Worcester is the largest settlement and administrative seat of the county, which includes the principal settlements of Bromsgrove, Stourport-on-Severn, Droitwich, Evesham, Kidderminster, Malvern, and the largest town, Redditch, and a number of smaller towns such as Pershore, Tenbury Wells and Upton upon Severn. The north-east of the county includes part of the industrial West Midlands conurbation while the rest of the county is largely rural.
The county borders Herefordshire, Shropshire, Staffordshire, West Midlands, Warwickshire and Gloucestershire. To the west, the county is bordered by the Malvern Hills and the spa town of Malvern. The southern part of the county is bordered by Gloucestershire and the northern edge of
Hart is a local government district in Hampshire, England, named after the River Hart. Its council is based in Fleet. It was formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, as a merger of the urban district of Fleet, and the Hartley Wintney Rural District.
Hart District is one of the richest and least deprived areas in the whole of the United Kingdom and richest in England. In the Indices of Deprivation 2004, Hart was ranked at 354 out of 354 local authorities in England, where 1 was the most deprived area and 354 the least deprived, meaning Hart is the least deprived area in England. Hart District's population also has one of the highest rates of life expectancy in the UK.
A 2008 census revealed Hart to be the area of England with the best quality of life. It also showed Hart to be the second richest area in England, after Richmond-upon-Thames.
In December 2006, Sport England published a survey which revealed that residents of Hart were the 5th most active in England in sports and other fitness activities. 27.9% of the population participate at least 3 times a week for 30 minutes.
In 2011, an annual study conducated by the Halifax bank named Hart as the UK's most
Rhondda Cynon Taf (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈr̥ɔnða ˈkənɔn ˈtaːv]), or RCT, is a county borough in the South Wales Valleys of Wales. It consists of 3 valleys: the Rhondda Valley, Cynon Valley and Taff-Ely Valley. Results from the 2001 census showed 21.1% of its 233,700 residents were able to speak, read, write or understand the Welsh language.
The county borough borders Merthyr Tydfil and Caerphilly to the east, Cardiff and the Vale of Glamorgan to the south, Bridgend and Neath Port Talbot to the west and Powys to the north. Its principal towns are - Aberdare, Llantrisant with Talbot Green and Pontypridd, with other key settlements/towns being - Ferndale, Hirwaun, Llanharan, Mountain Ash, Porth, Tonypandy, Tonyrefail and Treorchy.
See List of places in Rhondda Cynon Taf for a list of towns and villages. The most populous town in Rhondda Cynon Taf is Aberdare (Welsh: Aberdâr) with a population of 31,705 (2001 Census), followed by Pontypridd with 29,781.
The county borough was formed on 1 April 1996, by the merger of the former Mid Glamorgan districts of Rhondda, Cynon Valley and Taff-Ely (with the exceptions of Creigiau and Pentyrch, which were added to Cardiff). Its name reflects all
Arun is a local government district in West Sussex, England. It contains the towns of Arundel, Bognor Regis and Littlehampton, and takes its name from the River Arun, which runs through the centre of the district.
Arun was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, merging the Urban Districts of Bognor Regis and Littlehampton, the municipal borough of Arundel and parts of Chichester and Worthing Rural Districts.
Arun District Council is a non-metropolitan district council formed of 56 councillors from across the following 26 wards:
The council has been under the control of the Conservative Party since its first election in 1973. The last elections to the council were held on 5 May 2011, the results of which are shown below:
The following 31 civil parishes are located within the district:
Arun District occupies the central southern area of West Sussex, and is bordered by Chichester District to the west, Horsham District to the north and Worthing borough and Adur District to the east. The district is bisected by the River Arun, and is divided between a broad rural area in the north of the district that contains Arundel and a host of small villages, part of which
England and Wales (Welsh: Cymru a Lloegr) is a jurisdiction covering two of the four countries of the United Kingdom. Unlike Scotland and Northern Ireland, England and Wales form the constitutional successor to the former Kingdom of England and follow a single legal system, known as English law.
The devolved National Assembly for Wales (Welsh: Cynulliad Cenedlaethol Cymru) was created in 1999 by the Parliament of the United Kingdom under the Government of Wales Act 1998 and provides a degree of self-government in Wales. The powers of the National Assembly for Wales were expanded by the Government of Wales Act 2006, and the Welsh Government can now propose and pass its own laws.
The Roman occupation of Britain was the first period in which the area of present-day England and Wales was administered as a single unit (with the exception of the land to the north of Hadrian's Wall). At the time, all the native inhabitants of Roman Britain spoke Brythonic languages, and were all regarded as Britons, divided into numerous tribes. After the conquest, the Romans administered this region as a single unit, the province of Britannia.
Wales then developed its own system of law, first codified by
Falkirk (Scots: Fawkirk, Scottish Gaelic: An Eaglais Bhreac) is one of the 32 unitary authority council areas in Scotland. It borders onto North Lanarkshire to the south west, Stirling to the north west, West Lothian to the south east and, across the Firth of Forth to the north east, Fife and Clackmannanshire. The council area was formed on 1 April 1996 from the exact boundaries of Falkirk District Council by way of the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994. Prior to 1975 the majority of the council area was part of the county of Stirlingshire and a small part, namely Bo'ness and Blackness, was part of the former county of West Lothian.
From 2003–2007 the Council was led by an SNP/Independent coalition, but after the 2007 elections a Labour/Ind coalition of 16 councillors equalled the SNP/ Tory/ Independent 16, so a pack of cards was cut. Labour's card was higher than the SNP's. To form a stable administration Labour then formed a coalition with the 4 members of the Conservative and Independent Partnership. This Labour/Conservative /Independent coalition hold 18 seats compared to the 13 SNP and 1 non-aligned Independent. The leader of the administration is Councillor Craig
Huntingdonshire ( /ˈhʌntɪŋdənʃər/ or /ˈhʌntɪŋdənʃɪər/; abbreviated Hunts) is a historic county of England covering the area around Huntingdon, St Ives, Godmanchester, St Neots, and Ramsey. Between 1889 and 1965 it additionally formed an administrative county. Since 1974 it has been administered as a non-metropolitan district within the non-metropolitan county of Cambridgeshire,
The area corresponding to modern Huntingdonshire was first delimited in Saxon times, and the modern boundaries have remained largely unchanged since the 10th century.
In 1889, under the Local Government Act 1888 Huntingdonshire became an administrative county, with the new County Council taking over administrative functions from the Quarter Sessions. The area in the north of the county forming part of the municipal borough of Peterborough became instead part of the Soke of Peterborough administrative county, in Northamptonshire.
In 1965, under a recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England, it was merged with the Soke of Peterborough to form Huntingdon and Peterborough - the Lieutenancy county was also merged. Also at this time St Neots expanded westward over the river into Eaton Ford and
Lancashire ( /ˈlæŋkəʃər/ or, less commonly, /ˈlæŋkəʃɪər/) is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England. It takes its name from the city of Lancaster, and is sometimes known as the County of Lancaster. Although Lancaster is still considered to be the county town, Lancashire County Council is based in Preston. Lancashire is sometimes referred to by the abbreviation Lancs, as originally used by the Royal Mail. The population of the county is 1,449,300. People from the county are known as Lancastrians.
The history of Lancashire is thought to have begun with its founding in the 12th century. In the Domesday Book (1086), some of its lands had been treated as part of Yorkshire. The land that lay Inter Ripam et Mersam, "between the Ribble and Mersey", formed part of the returns for Cheshire. Once its initial boundaries were established, it bordered Cumberland, Westmorland, Yorkshire and Cheshire.
Lancashire emerged during the Industrial Revolution as a major commercial and industrial region. The county encompassed several hundred mill towns and collieries. By the 1830s, approximately 85% of all cotton manufactured worldwide was processed in Lancashire.
The Metropolitan Borough of Dudley is a metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. It was created in 1974 following the Local Government Act 1972, through a merger of the existing Dudley County Borough with the municipal boroughs of Stourbridge and Halesowen. The borough borders Sandwell to the east, the city of Birmingham to the south east, Bromsgrove to the south in Worcestershire, South Staffordshire District to the west, and the city of Wolverhampton to the north.
Being a metropolitan borough Dudley is effectively a unitary authority, with the exceptions of public transportation (Centro, publicly branded as Network West Midlands), fire and police services, and the local government pension fund (West Midlands Pension Fund), which are jointly run by the seven metropolitan boroughs of the West Midlands county.
For Eurostat purposes, Dudley is a NUTS 3 region (code UKG36), and is one of seven boroughs or unitary districts that comprise the "West Midlands" NUTS 2 region.
The Metropolitan Borough of Dudley was created in 1974 from the existing boroughs of Dudley, Stourbridge and Halesowen. This followed an earlier reorganization in 1966, as per the provisions of the Local
The Metropolitan Borough of Wirral is a metropolitan borough of Merseyside, in North West England. It has a population of 311,200, and encompasses 60 square miles (160 km) of the northern part of the Wirral Peninsula. Major settlements include Birkenhead, Wallasey, Bebington, Heswall, Hoylake and West Kirby. The city of Liverpool over the Mersey, faces the northeastern side of the Wirral. Bordering is the River Mersey to the east, the Irish Sea to the north and the River Dee to the west; the borough of Cheshire West and Chester occupies the remainder of the Wirral Peninsula and borders the borough of Wirral to the south.
The borough was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, as a merger of the county boroughs of Birkenhead and Wallasey, along with the municipal borough of Bebington and the urban districts of Hoylake and Wirral.
An opinion poll conducted by MORI in 2003 showed that 45% of people polled felt they "belong[ed] to" Merseyside "very strongly" (13%) or "fairly strongly", compared to a figure of 30% for Cheshire (17% of whom felt "very strongly"). 78% felt they strongly belonged to the Wirral council area.
This is a chart of trend of regional gross
Plymouth /ˈplɪməθ/ is a city and unitary authority area on the south coast of Devon, England, about 190 miles (310 km) south-west of London. It is situated between the mouths of the rivers Plym to the east and Tamar to the west, where they join Plymouth Sound. Since 1967, the City of Plymouth has included the suburbs of Plympton and Plymstock, which are on the east side of the River Plym.
Plymouth's history goes back to the Bronze Age, when its first settlement grew at Mount Batten. This settlement continued to grow as a trading post for the Roman Empire, until the more prosperous village of Sutton, the current Plymouth, surpassed it. In 1620, the Pilgrim Fathers left Plymouth for the New World and established Plymouth Colony – the second English settlement in what is now the United States of America. During the English Civil War the town was held by the Parliamentarians and was besieged between 1642 and 1646.
Throughout the Industrial Revolution, Plymouth grew as a major commercial shipping port, handling imports and passengers from the Americas, while the neighbouring town of Devonport grew as an important Royal Naval shipbuilding and dockyard town. In 1914 the three neighbouring
South Tyneside is a metropolitan borough in Tyne and Wear in North East England.
It is bordered by four other boroughs - Newcastle upon Tyne and Gateshead to the west, Sunderland in the south, and North Tyneside to the north. The border county of Northumberland lies further north. The borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the County Borough of South Shields along with the municipal borough of Jarrow and the urban districts of Boldon and Hebburn from County Durham.
South Tyneside forms part of the Tyneside conurbation, the sixth largest in the United Kingdom, with a geographical area of 64.43 km (24.88 sq mi) and an estimated population of 153,700 (Mid-year 2010). It is bordered to the east by the North Sea and to the north by the River Tyne. A Green Belt of 23.64 km (9.13 sq mi) is at its southern boundary.
The main administrative centre and largest town is South Shields. Other riverside towns are Jarrow and Hebburn, while the villages of Cleadon, Whitburn and The Boldons border the South Tyneside green belt which borders Wearside to the south at Sunderland.
South Tyneside is represented by two Members of Parliament with two constituencies at South Shields and Jarrow
Nuneaton and Bedworth is a local government district with borough status, in northern Warwickshire, England, consisting of the densely populated towns of Nuneaton and Bedworth, the village of Bulkington and the green belt land in between. It has a population of just over 120,000.
It borders the Warwickshire districts of Rugby to the east, and North Warwickshire to the west. To the south it borders the county of West Midlands, and to the north Leicestershire.
As of the most recent local election, Labour gained control of the council.
The Nuneaton and Bedworth district was created on 1 April 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972. It was from the merger of the municipal borough of Nuneaton and the urban district of Bedworth (which included Bulkington). The new district was originally named just "Nuneaton"; however, objections from Bedworth residents led to it being renamed "Nuneaton and Bedworth" in 1980.
Nuneaton had gained the status of a municipal borough in 1907, and Bedworth had gained the status of an urban district in 1928. In 1938, Bulkington became part of the Bedworth Urban District. Borough status was conferred upon the new district of Nuneaton and Bedworth on 15 November
Slough /ˈslaʊ/ is a borough and unitary authority within the ceremonial county of Royal Berkshire, England. The town straddles the A4 Bath Road (it becomes the Great West Road closer to London) and the Great Western Main Line, 22 miles (35 km) west of central London. At the 2001 census, the population of Slough was 119,070 (est. 122,000 in 2006) and the borough area was the most ethnically diverse local authority area outside London in the United Kingdom. Slough has the highest proportion of religious adherents in England. Historically, the larger part of the present-day Slough area was formerly in Buckinghamshire with a small part of the borough a part of Middlesex. Slough is home to the Slough Trading Estate, which, coupled with extensive transport links, makes it an important business centre in South East England. It is the largest industrial estate in single private ownership in Europe.
The first recorded uses of the name occur as Slo in 1196, Sloo in 1336, and Le Slowe, Slowe or Slow in 1437. It first seems to have applied to a hamlet between Upton to the east and Chalvey to the west, roughly around the "Crown Crossroads" where the road to Windsor (now the A332) met the Great
The London Borough of Barnet ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough in North London, England, forming part of Outer London. It is the second largest London borough by population with 331,500 inhabitants and covers an area of 86.74 square kilometres (33 sq mi). It borders Hertfordshire to the north and five other London boroughs: Harrow and Brent to the west, Camden and Haringey to the south-east and Enfield to the east. The borough was formed in 1965 from parts of the counties of Middlesex and Hertfordshire. The local authority is Barnet London Borough Council.
The borough was formed under the London Government Act 1963 in 1965 from the Municipal Borough of Finchley, Municipal Borough of Hendon and the Friern Barnet Urban District of Middlesex and the East Barnet Urban District and Barnet Urban District of Hertfordshire. The Act did not include a name for the new borough. A joint committee of the councils due to be amalgamated suggested "Northgate" or "Northern Heights". Keith Joseph, the Minister of Housing and Local Government, eventually chose Barnet. The place name Barnet is derived from the Old English bærnet meaning "Land cleared by burning".
The area covered by the
East Renfrewshire (Scots: Aest Renfrewshire, Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Rinn Friù an Ear) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. Until 1975 it formed part of the county of Renfrewshire for local government purposes along with the modern council areas of Renfrewshire and Inverclyde. Although no longer a local authority area, Renfrewshire still remains the registration county and lieutenancy area of East Renfrewshire.
The East Renfrewshire local authority was formed in 1996, as a successor to the Eastwood district, along with Barrhead, which came from Renfrew district. It borders onto North Ayrshire, East Ayrshire, Renfrewshire, South Lanarkshire and the City of Glasgow.
The leader of East Renfrewshire Council is Cllr Jim Fletcher (Labour - Giffnock & Thornliebank) and the Civic Leader is Provost Alex Mackie (Liberal Democrat - Giffnock & Thornliebank). A 2001 survey showed that about half of Scotland's Jewish population lives in East Renfrewshire.
The following six persons have been appointed as Honorary Freeman of East Renfrewshire under section 206 of the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 for being persons of distinction or persons who have rendered eminent service to the
The Isles of Scilly ( /ˈsɪli/; Cornish: Syllan or Enesek Syllan) form an archipelago off the southwestern tip of the Cornish peninsula of Great Britain.
Since 1890 the Islands have had a local authority separate from Cornwall's, but some services were combined with Cornwall and the islands are still part of the ceremonial county of Cornwall; the authority has otherwise had the status of a county council since the passing of the Isles of Scilly Order 1930. The council is currently known as the Council of the Isles of Scilly. The adjective "Scillonian" is sometimes used for people or things related to the archipelago. The Duchy of Cornwall owns most of the freehold land on the islands. Tourism plays a major part in the local economy, along with farming and agriculture.
Scilly has been inhabited since the Stone Age and its history has been one of subsistence living until the early 20th century. Farming and fishing continue today, but the main industry now is tourism.
The islands may correspond to the Cassiterides (Tin Isles) visited by the Phoenicians and mentioned by the Greeks. However, the archipelago itself does not contain much tin—it may be that they were used as a staging post
North West England is a constituency of the European Parliament. For the 2009 elections it elects 8 MEPs using the d'Hondt method of party-list proportional representation.
The constituency corresponds to the North West England region of the United Kingdom, comprising the ceremonial counties of Cheshire, Cumbria, Greater Manchester, Lancashire and Merseyside.
Following the passing of the European Parliamentary Elections Act 1999, the North West of England formed one constituency from which candidates are elected using the d'Hondt formula. In the election preceding this Act, MEPs were elected from first-past-the-post constituencies. These were Cheshire East, Cheshire West and Wirral, Cumbria and Lancashire North, Greater Manchester Central, Greater Manchester East, Greater Manchester West, Lancashire Central, Lancashire South, Merseyside East and Wigan, Merseyside West, and parts of Staffordshire West and Congleton.
Elected candidates are listed in bold. Brackets indicate the number of votes per seat won.
Blackburn with Darwen is a unitary authority area in Lancashire, North West England. It consists of Blackburn, the small town of Darwen to the south of it, and the surrounding countryside.
It was founded in 1974 as the Lancashire borough of Blackburn, from the County Borough of Blackburn, the Borough of Darwen, parts of Turton Urban District (chiefly the villages of Belmont, Chapeltown and Edgworth) and parts of Blackburn Rural District. It was renamed in May 1997, in preparation for a split from Lancashire County Council. On 1 April 1998 it became a unitary authority.
The proportion of Muslim population (19.4% or 26,674 people) is the third highest among all local authorities in the United Kingdom and the highest outside London. 20.4% of the districts population belongs to any South Asian ethnic group, making it the highest percentage in the region, and almost four times higher than national average of South Asians.
There is a total of 64 seats on the council with the borough is divided up into 23 wards, all with three councillors with the exception of Earcroft, Whitehall, and North Turton and Tockholes, which have 2 members, and East Rural which has one.
The council was shaken in
Cardiff (/ˈkɑrdɪf/; Welsh: Caerdydd (info) Welsh pronunciation: [kairˈdiːð, kaˑɨrˈdɨːð]) is the capital and largest city in Wales and the tenth largest city in the United Kingdom. The city is Wales' chief commercial centre, the base for most national cultural and sporting institutions, the Welsh national media, and the seat of the National Assembly for Wales. The unitary authority area's mid 2011 population was estimated to be 346,100, while the population of the Larger Urban Zone was estimated at 861,400 in 2009. Cardiff is a significant tourist centre and the most popular visitor destination in Wales with 18.3 million visitors in 2010. In 2011, Cardiff was ranked sixth in the world in National Geographic's alternative tourist destinations.
The city of Cardiff is the county town of the historic county of Glamorgan (and later South Glamorgan). Cardiff is part of the Eurocities network of the largest European cities. The Cardiff Urban Area covers a slightly larger area outside of the county boundary, and includes the towns of Dinas Powys and Penarth. A small town until the early 19th century, its prominence as a major port for the transport of coal following the arrival of industry
Merthyr Tydfil (/ˈmɜrθər ˈtɪdvɪl/; Welsh: Merthyr Tudful [ˈmɛrθər ˈtɨːdvɨ̞l]) is a town in Wales, with a population of about 30,000. Although once the largest town in Wales, it is now ranked as the 15th largest urban area in Wales. It also gives its name to a county borough, which has a population of around 55,000. It is located in the historic county of Glamorgan. It is often referred to simply as 'Merthyr'. The current administrative area of the Merthyr County Borough consists of the northern part of the Taff Valley and the smaller neighbouring Taff Bargoed Valley.
According to legend, the town is named after Saint Tydfil, a daughter of King Brychan of Brycheiniog. According to her legend she was slain at Merthyr by pagans around 480; the place was subsequently named Merthyr Tydfil in her honour. Although the usual meaning of the word merthyr (from the Latin martyrium) in modern Welsh is 'martyr', it is probable that the meaning here is "church (in memory of a saint or on his/her grave)." Similar examples, all from south Wales, include Merthyr Cynog, Merthyr Dyfan and Merthyr Mawr. The Cornish and Breton language equivalents, in place names, are merther and merzher.
North West Leicestershire is a local government district in Leicestershire, England. Its main towns are Ashby-de-la-Zouch and Coalville.
The district contains East Midlands Airport, which operates flights to the rest of Britain and to various places in Europe. It is also notable as the location of Castle Donington and Donington Park, a grand-prix circuit and a major venue for music festivals.
The district is represented in the UK Parliament by the constituency of the same name.
The area has a long history of mineral extraction, with coal, brick clay, gravel and granite amongst the products. All the deep coal mines in the area have closed, but opencast mining still continues.
The district was formed in 1974 by a merger of Ashby de la Zouch Urban District, Ashby Woulds Urban District, Coalville Urban District, Ashby de la Zouch Rural District, Castle Donington Rural District and Ibstock from the Market Bosworth Rural District.
Like many other shire districts, authority over North West Leicestershire is shared between the district council and the county council. Areas of responsibility of the district council include local planning, building control, council housing, refuse
The Borough of Rugby is a local government district with borough status in eastern Warwickshire, England.
The borough comprises the town of Rugby where the council has its headquarters, and the rural areas surrounding the town.
The borough has a population of just over 91,000. Of these, over 60,000 live in the town of Rugby, with the remainder living in the rural areas surrounding the town.
The borough stretches from Coventry to the west, to the borders with Northamptonshire and Leicestershire to the east. It borders the Warwickshire districts of Warwick to the south-west, Stratford to the south, and Nuneaton and Bedworth to the north-west.
The present borough was created on 1 April 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972. It was created by a merger of the municipal borough of Rugby (which covered the town of Rugby) and the Rugby Rural District.
The town of Rugby had gained the status of an urban district in 1894 . At the same time the Rugby Rural District was created covering the surrounding countryside. The town and rural district had separate councils, both based in Rugby.
In 1932, Rugby's status was upgraded to that of a municipal borough, and its boundaries expanded to include
Sheffield /ˈʃɛfiːld/ is a city and metropolitan borough of South Yorkshire, England. Its name derives from the River Sheaf, which runs through the city. Historically a part of the West Riding of Yorkshire, and with some of its southern suburbs annexed from Derbyshire, the city has grown from its largely industrial roots to encompass a wider economic base. The population of the City of Sheffield is 552,700 (2011 est.) and it is one of the eight largest regional English cities that make up the Core Cities Group.
During the 19th century, Sheffield gained an international reputation for steel production. Many innovations were developed locally, including crucible and stainless steel, fuelling an almost tenfold increase in the population during the Industrial Revolution. Sheffield received its municipal charter in 1843, becoming the City of Sheffield in 1893. International competition in iron and steel caused a decline in traditional local industries during the 1970s and 1980s, coinciding with the collapse of coal mining in the area.
The 21st century has seen extensive redevelopment in Sheffield along with other British cities. Sheffield's gross value added (GVA) has increased by 60%
Suffolk ( /ˈsʌfək/) is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in East Anglia, England. It has borders with Norfolk to the north, Cambridgeshire to the west and Essex to the south. The North Sea lies to the east. The county town is Ipswich; other important towns include Lowestoft, Bury St Edmunds and Felixstowe, one of the largest container ports in Europe. It is one of the few counties in the United Kingdom that does not contain a city.
The county is low-lying with very few hills, and is largely arable land with the wetlands of The Broads in the North. The Suffolk Coast and Heaths are an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
By the 5th century the Angles, after whom East Anglia and England itself are named, had established control of the region and later became the "north folk" and the "south folk", hence, "Norfolk" and "Suffolk". Suffolk, and several adjacent areas, became the kingdom of East Anglia, which was settled by the Angles in the 5th century AD, later merging with Mercia and then Wessex.
Suffolk was divided into separate Quarter Sessions divisions. These were originally four in number, reduced to two in 1860, the eastern division being administered from Ipswich and
The London Borough of Bromley ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough of south east London, England and forms part of Outer London and is one of the 32 London Boroughs (plus the City) which forms part of Greater London. The principal town in the borough is Bromley.
The borough is the largest in London by area and occupies 59 square miles (152.8 km), of which the majority is Metropolitan Green Belt land. It is also perhaps the most rural.
Most of the settlement is in the north and west of the borough, with an outlier at Biggin Hill in the far south. The borough shares borders with Lewisham, Greenwich and Bexley to the north, Southwark and Lambeth to the north west, Croydon to the west; and the counties of Surrey to the south and Kent to the south and east.
Westerham Heights, the highest point in London at an altitude of 245 metres, is located on the southern boundary. The Prime Meridian passes through Bromley.
The borough was formed, as were all other London boroughs, on 1 April 1965 by the London Government Act 1963. It comprised the former area of the Municipal Borough of Bromley, the Municipal Borough of Beckenham, Penge Urban District, Orpington Urban District and the
Medway is a conurbation and unitary authority in South East England. The Unitary Authority was formed in 1998 when the City of Rochester-upon-Medway amalgamated with Gillingham Borough Council and part of Kent County Council to form Medway Council, a unitary authority independent of Kent County Council.
It is colloquially known as The Medway Towns. Over half of the unitary authority area is parished and rural in nature. Because of its strategic location by the major crossing of the River Medway, it has made a wide and historically significant contribution to Kent, and to England, dating back thousands of years, as evident in the siting of Watling Street by the Romans and by the Norman Rochester Castle, Rochester Cathedral (the second oldest in Britain), and the Chatham naval dockyard and its associated defences.
The main towns involved in the conurbation are (from west to east in terms of geographical position): Strood, Rochester, Chatham, Gillingham, and Rainham. Many smaller towns and villages such as Frindsbury, Brompton, Walderslade, Luton, Wigmore etc., lie within the conurbation. Outside the urban area the villages retain parish councils. Cuxton, Halling and Wouldham lie in
The Borough of Milton Keynes is a unitary authority and borough in south central England, at the northern tip of the South East England Region. For ceremonial purposes, it is in the county of Buckinghamshire. though it is legally a county in its own right. It is the most northerly district of the South East region.
It borders the non-metropolitan counties of Buckinghamshire (the area under the control of Buckinghamshire County Council), Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire. The principal settlement in the borough is Milton Keynes itself, which accounts for about 33% of its area and 90% of its population.
The district was created on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, by the merger of Bletchley Urban District, Newport Pagnell Urban District and Wolverton Urban District, Newport Pagnell Rural District and that part of Wing Rural District within the designated New Town area. The district council applied for and received borough status that year.
It was originally one of five non-metropolitan districts of Buckinghamshire, but on 1 April 1997, under a recommendation of the Local Government Commission for England it became a self-governing unitary authority, independent from
The ceremonial and non-metropolitan county of Somerset (/ˈsʌmərsɛt/ or /ˈsʌmərsɨt/) in South West England borders Bristol and Gloucestershire to the north, Wiltshire to the east, Dorset to the south-east, and Devon to the south-west. It is partly bounded to the north and west by the Bristol Channel and the estuary of the River Severn. Its traditional northern border is the River Avon, but the administrative boundary has crept southwards with the creation and expansion of the City of Bristol, and latterly the county of Avon and its successor unitary authorities to the north. Somerset's county town, Taunton, is in the south.
Somerset is a rural county of rolling hills such as the Blackdown Hills, Mendip Hills, Quantock Hills and Exmoor National Park, and large flat expanses of land including the Somerset Levels. There is evidence of human occupation from Palaeolithic times, and of subsequent settlement in the Roman and Anglo-Saxon periods. The county played a significant part in the consolidation of power and rise of King Alfred the Great, and later in the English Civil War and the Monmouth Rebellion.
Agriculture is a major business in the county. Farming of sheep and cattle,
Anglesey /ˈæŋɡəlsi/ (Welsh: Ynys Môn [ˈənɨs ˈmoːn]) is an island off the north west coast of Wales. Two bridges span the Menai Strait, connecting it to the mainland: the Menai Suspension Bridge designed by Thomas Telford in 1826 and the Britannia Bridge. Anglesey is also the name given to a county which includes the island of Anglesey itself, Holy Island on which the town of Holyhead stands, and various minor uninhabited islets.
The Norse name Anglesey came into existence in the 10th century and was later adopted by Anglo-Norman occupiers during the invasion of Gwynedd.
Almost three quarters of the inhabitants are Welsh speakers and Ynys Môn, the Welsh name for the island, is used for the UK Parliament and National Assembly constituencies. With an area of 714 square kilometres (276 sq mi), Anglesey is the largest Welsh island, the sixth largest surrounding Great Britain and the largest in the Irish Sea.
Môn is the Welsh name of Anglesey, derived from the British enisis mona, appearing first during the Roman era as 'Mona': it is the Mona of Tacitus (Ann. xiv. 29, Agr. xiv. 18), Pliny the Elder (iv. 16) and Dio Cassius (62). It is called Môn Mam Cymru ("Môn, Mother of Wales") by
Hastings ( /ˈheɪstɪŋz/) is a town and borough in the county of East Sussex on the south coast of England. The town is located 24 mi (39 km) east of the county town of Lewes and 53 mi (85 km) south east of London, and has an estimated population of 86,900.
In historical terms, Hastings can claim fame through its connection with the Norman conquest of England; and also because it became one of the medieval Cinque Ports. Hastings was, for centuries, an important fishing port; although nowadays much reduced, it still has the largest beach-based fishing fleet in England. The town became a watering place in the 1760s, and then, with the coming of the railway, a seaside resort.
The attraction of Hastings as a tourist destination continues; although the number of hotels has decreased, it caters for wider tastes, being home to internationally-based cultural and sporting events, such as chess and running. It has set out to become "a modern European town" and seeks to attract commercial business in the many industrial sites round the borough.
The first mention of Hastings is found in the late 8th century in the form Hastingas. This is derived from the Old English tribal name Hæstingas,
The Borough of Waverley is a local government district with borough status in Surrey, England. The borough's headquarters are in the town of Godalming, with Farnham (2001 Census Pop. 37,055) and Haslemere (2001 Census Pop. 15,612) being the other large notable towns.
Waverley neighbours the boroughs of Guildford and Mole Valley in Surrey, and the counties of West Sussex and Hampshire. The borough is named after Waverley Abbey, near Farnham, the earliest Cistercian monastery in Britain. The borough also contains Blackheath Common an Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
Waverley is a Wealden borough, bounded to the north by the Hog's Back section of the North Downs and by the Greensand Ridge. It is one of the most heavily wooded boroughs in England. It takes its name from Waverley Abbey, whose ruins are within the district (unlike local wandering side Waverley Cricket Club, who are named after the Waverley Arms pub in Farnham and who have used the name since 1952).
The district was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, by a merger of the municipal borough of Godalming, with Farnham and Haslemere urban districts and Hambledon Rural District.
The 5 May 2011
The West Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It covers the western half of the area traditionally known as the Midlands. It contains the second most populous British city, Birmingham, and the larger West Midlands conurbation, which includes the city of Wolverhampton and large towns of Dudley, Solihull, Walsall and West Bromwich. The city of Coventry is also located within the West Midlands county, but is separated from the conurbation to the west by several miles of green belt.
The region is geographically diverse, from the urban central areas of the conurbation to the rural western counties of Shropshire and Herefordshire which border Wales. The longest river in the UK, the River Severn, traverses the region southeastwards, flowing through the county towns of Shrewsbury and Worcester, and the Ironbridge Gorge, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, as birthplace of the Industrial Revolution. Staffordshire is home to the industrialised Potteries conurbation, including the city of Stoke-on-Trent, and the Staffordshire Moorlands area, which borders the southeastern Peak District National Park near Leek. The region also
Gwynedd (Welsh pronunciation: [ˈɡwɨ̞nɛð]) is an area in north-west Wales, named after the old Kingdom of Gwynedd. As a local government area it is the second biggest in terms of geographical area and also one of the most sparsely populated. A large proportion of the population is Welsh-speaking. The name Gwynedd is also used for a preserved county, covering the two local government areas of Gwynedd and the Isle of Anglesey. Culturally and historically, the name can also be used for most of North Wales (for instance, the area covered by the Gwynedd Constabulary), corresponding to the approximate territory of the Kingdom of Gwynedd at its greatest extent.
Gwynedd is the home of Bangor University and includes the scenic Llŷn Peninsula, and most of the Snowdonia National Park.
Gwynedd was an independent kingdom from the end of the Roman period until the 13th Century when it was conquered and subjugated by England. The modern Gwynedd was one of eight Welsh counties originally created on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, based on the principal territory of the former realm. It covered the entirety of the old counties of Anglesey, and Caernarfonshire along with all of
High Peak is a non-metropolitan district and borough of the non-metropolitan county of Derbyshire, England. Administered from Buxton and Glossop, it is mostly composed of high moorland plateau in the Dark Peak of the Peak District.
High Peak Hundred was the name of a hundred of the ancient county of Derbyshire covering roughly the same area as the current district. It may have derived its name from the ancient Forest of High Peak a royal hunting reserve, administered by William Peverel, an illegitimate son of William I, who was based at Peak Castle. High Peak is also an alternative name for the Dark Peak.
The borough was formed on 1 April 1974, by absorbing the municipal boroughs of Buxton and Glossop, the urban districts of New Mills and Whaley Bridge and the rural district of Chapel-en-le-Frith, all of which had previously been in the administrative county of Derbyshire, as well as the rural district of Tintwistle and Woodhead which had been in the administrative county of Cheshire.
The borough adjoins the metropolitan boroughs of the City of Sheffield and Barnsley in South Yorkshire, the metropolitan borough of Kirklees in West Yorkshire, the metropolitan boroughs of Stockport,
South Ayrshire (Scots: Sooth Ayrshire; Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Inbhir Àir a Deas, pronounced [ʃirˠəxk iɲiˈɾʲaːɾʲ ə tʲes̪]) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland, covering the southern part of Ayrshire. It borders onto East Ayrshire, North Ayrshire and Dumfries and Galloway.
The administrative boundaries were formed in 1996, and it is a direct successor to the Kyle and Carrick district.
The Conservative Party currently lead a minority administration in South Ayrshire, with Bill McKintosh as Leader of the Council and Winifred Sloan as Provost.
South Ayrshire's Headquarters, "County Buildings", are located in Wellington Square, Ayr. The buildings were built in 1931 on the site of Ayr Jail and opened by King George VI. At the front of the buildings is Ayr Sheriff Court which was built as the original county buildings in 1822.
Conservative Councillors: Bill McIntosh (Leader of the Council) Winifred Sloan (Provost) Margaret Toner (Depute Council Leader) Mary Kilpatrick (Depute Provost) Peter Convery, Hugh Hunter, John Hampton, Bill Grant, Robin Reid, Hywel Davies, Ann Galbraith and Iain Fitzsimmons
Scottish National Party Councillors: Nan McFarlane (Group Leader), Stan Fisher, Tom
This article is about the East Dunbartonshire council area of Scotland. See also East Dunbartonshire (UK Parliament constituency).
East Dunbartonshire (Scots: Aest Dunbartonshire; Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Dhùn Bhreatainn an Ear) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders onto the north-west of the City of Glasgow. It contains many of the suburbs of Glasgow as well as many of the city's commuter towns and villages. East Dunbartonshire also shares a border with West Dunbartonshire, Stirling, and North Lanarkshire. The council area covers part of the former county of Stirlingshire as well as parts of the former counties of Dunbartonshire and Lanarkshire.
The council area was formed in 1996, as a result of the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994, from part of the former Bearsden and Milngavie and Strathkelvin districts of the wider Strathclyde region.
East Dunbartonshire council area has low levels of deprivation, with relatively low unemployment and low levels of crime. The population is both declining and ageing.
In a 2007 Reader's Digest poll, East Dunbartonshire was voted the best place in Britain to raise a family. The area continually tops the Halifax Bank
Great Britain (Welsh: Prydain Fawr, Scottish Gaelic: Breatainn Mhòr, Cornish: Breten Veur, Scots: Great Breetain), also known as Britain, is an island situated to the north-west of Continental Europe. It is the ninth largest island in the world, the largest European island and the largest of the British Isles. With a population of about 60.0 million people in mid-2009, it is the third most populous island in the world, after Java and Honshū. Great Britain is surrounded by over 1,000 smaller islands and islets. The island of Ireland lies to its west. Politically, Great Britain may also refer to the island itself together with a number of surrounding islands which constitute the territory of England, Scotland and Wales.
All of the island is territory of the sovereign state of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and most of the United Kingdom's territory is in Great Britain. Most of England, Scotland, and Wales are on the island of Great Britain, as are their respective capital cities: London, Edinburgh, and Cardiff.
The Kingdom of Great Britain resulted from the political union of the kingdoms of England and Scotland with the Acts of Union 1707 on 1 May 1707
Hinckley and Bosworth is a local government district with borough status in south-western Leicestershire, England, administered by Hinckley and Bosworth Borough Council. Its only towns are Hinckley, Earl Shilton and Market Bosworth. Villages include Barwell, Burbage, Stoke Golding, Groby, Shackerstone and Twycross.
As of the most recent local election, the council is controlled by the Liberal Democrats.
The district is broadly coterminous to the Bosworth parliamentary constituency, which is represented in Parliament by David Tredinnick (Conservative).
The Borough was formed in 1974 by the merger of the Hinckley Urban District and the Market Bosworth Rural District less Ibstock. It was originally to be known as Bosworth, but the council changed its name on 20 November 1973, before it came into its powers. It was granted borough status in 1974.
There are a number of geographical features which shape the landscape of Hinckley & Bosworth.
Two large neighbouring urban areas lie to the South of the Borough: Hinckley and Burbage, and Barwell and Earl Shilton. A narrow green wedge separates the two conurbations, which is increasingly being occupied by leisure facilities such as the
Nottinghamshire ( /ˈnɒtɪŋəmʃər/ or /ˈnɒtɪŋəmʃɪər/; abbreviated Notts) is a county in the East Midlands of England, bordering South Yorkshire to the north-west, Lincolnshire to the east, Leicestershire to the south, and Derbyshire to the west. The traditional county town is Nottingham, though the county council is based in West Bridgford in the borough of Rushcliffe, at a site facing Nottingham over the River Trent.
The districts of Nottinghamshire are Ashfield, Bassetlaw, Broxtowe, Gedling, Mansfield, Newark and Sherwood, and Rushcliffe. The City of Nottingham was administratively part of Nottinghamshire between 1974 and 1998 but is now a unitary authority, remaining part of Nottinghamshire for ceremonial purposes.
As of 2006 the county is estimated to have a population of just over one million. Over half of the population of the county live in the Greater Nottingham conurbation (which continues into Derbyshire). The conurbation has a population of about 650,000, though less than half live within the city boundaries.
Nottinghamshire lies on the Roman Fosse Way, and there are Roman settlements in the county, for example at Mansfield. The county was settled by Angles around the 5th
Reigate and Banstead is a local government district with borough status in east Surrey England. It covers the towns of Reigate, Banstead, Redhill and Horley.
The district was formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. It was a merger of the former borough of Reigate with Banstead Urban District and part of Dorking and Horley Rural District. There are two civil parishes within the borough: Horley and Salfords and Sidlow.
After the 3 May 2007 elections, there are 41 Conservatives seats, six Reigate and Banstead Residents Association, two Liberal Democrats, one Labour and one seat held by an Independent.
In recent years Reigate and Banstead Borough Council has been notable in seeing a number of younger councillors elected.
The borough is twinned with:
At one time the airline Dan-Air had its head office in the Newman House in Horley, Reigate and Banstead. At one time Air Europe had its head office in Reigate, Reigate and Banstead.
The city of Cambridge (/ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒ/ KAYM-brij) is a university town and the administrative centre of the county of Cambridgeshire, England. It lies in East Anglia, on the River Cam, about 50 miles (80 km) north of London. According to the United Kingdom Census 2001, its population was 108,863 (including 22,153 students), and was estimated to be 130,000 in mid-2010. There is archaeological evidence of settlement in the area in bronze age and Roman times, and under Viking rule Cambridge became an important trading centre. The first town charters were granted in the 12th century, although city status was not conferred until 1951.
Cambridge is most widely known as the home of the University of Cambridge, founded in 1209 and consistently ranked one of the top five universities in the world. The university includes the renowned Cavendish Laboratory, King's College Chapel, and the Cambridge University Library. The Cambridge skyline is dominated by the last two buildings, along with the chimney of Addenbrooke's Hospital in the far south of the city and St John's College Chapel tower.
Today, Cambridge is at the heart of the high-technology centre known as Silicon Fen – a play on Silicon
North Yorkshire is a county in England. It is a non-metropolitan or shire county located in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England, and a ceremonial county primarily in that region but partly in North East England. Created in 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972 it covers an area of 8,654 square kilometres (3,341 sq mi), making it the largest ceremonial county in England. The majority of the Yorkshire Dales and the North York Moors lie within North Yorkshire's boundaries, and around 40% of the county is covered by National Parks. The county town is Northallerton.
The area under the control of the county council, or shire county, is divided into a number of local government districts; they are Craven, Hambleton, Harrogate, Richmondshire, Ryedale, Scarborough and Selby.
The Department for Communities and Local Government did consider reorganising North Yorkshire County Council's administrative structure by abolishing the seven district councils and the county council to create a North Yorkshire unitary authority. The changes were planned to be implemented no later than 1 April 2009. This was rejected on 25 July 2007 so the County Council and District Council structure will
Waveney is a local government district in Suffolk, England, named after the River Waveney that forms its north-west border. The district council is based in Lowestoft, the major settlement in Waveney, which is the only unparished area in the district. The other towns in the district are Beccles, Bungay, Halesworth and Southwold.
The district was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, as a merger of the municipal boroughs of Beccles, Lowestoft and Southwold, along with Bungay and Halesworth urban districts, Wainford Rural District and part of Lothingland Rural District. The last elections to the council were held on 5th May 2011 when the council moved to a Whole Council election system meaning all 48 council seats were contested. Before the 2011 elections the council was under Conservative Party control.
As a result of the 2011 election the Conservatives lost overall control, with both it and the Labour party represented by 23 councillors, the balance of the council being made up of one Green Party and one Independent councillor. A series of procedural moves led to the formation of a Conservative-led administration.
Outside of Lowestoft there are 58 towns and
The City of London is an area of London. In the medieval period it constituted most of London, but the conurbation has grown far beyond it. As the City's boundaries have remained almost unchanged since the Middle Ages, it is now only a tiny part of the metropolis, though it remains a notable part of central London, holds city status in its own right, and is a separate ceremonial county.
It is often referred to as the City (often written on maps as "City") or the Square Mile, as it is just over one square mile (1.12 sq mi/2.90 km) in area. These terms are also often used as metonyms for the United Kingdom's financial services industry, which continues a notable history of being based in the City.
The term London now refers to a much larger conurbation roughly corresponding to Greater London, a local government area which includes 32 boroughs (including the City of Westminster), in addition to the City of London. The local authority for the City, the City of London Corporation, is unique in the United Kingdom, and has some unusual responsibilities for a local authority in Britain, such as being the police authority for the City. It also has responsibilities and ownerships beyond the
Inverclyde (Scottish Gaelic: Inbhir Chluaidh, pronounced [iɲiɾʲˈxlˠ̪uəj]) is one of 32 council areas used for local government in Scotland. Together with the Renfrewshire and East Renfrewshire council areas, Inverclyde forms part of the historic county of Renfrewshire - which currently exists as a registration county and lieutenancy area - located in the west central Lowlands. It borders on to the Renfrewshire and North Ayrshire council areas, and is otherwise surrounded by the Firth of Clyde.
Inverclyde District was one of nineteen districts within Strathclyde Region, from 1975 until 1996. Prior to 1975, Inverclyde was governed as part of the local government county of Renfrewshire, comprising the burghs of Greenock, Port Glasgow and Gourock, and the former fifth district of the county. Its landward area is bordered by the Kelly, North and South Routen burns to the south west (separating Wemyss Bay and Skelmorlie, North Ayrshire), part of the River Gryfe and the Finlaystone Burn to the south-east.
It is one of the smallest in terms of area (29th) and population (27th) out of the 32 Scottish unitary authorities. Along with the council areas clustered around Glasgow City it is
The London Borough of Enfield ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough in north London, England. It borders the London Boroughs of Barnet, Haringey and Waltham Forest, the districts of Hertsmere, Welwyn Hatfield and Broxbourne in Hertfordshire, and Epping Forest in Essex.
Enfield was recorded in Domesday Book in 1086 as Enefelde, and as Einefeld in 1214, Enfeld in 1293, and Enfild in 1564: that is 'open land of a man called Ēana', or 'where lambs are reared', from the Old English feld with an Old English personal name or with Old English ēan 'lamb'. The feld would have been a reference to an area cleared of trees within woodland later to become Enfield Chase.
Enfield Town used to be a small market town in the county of Middlesex on the edge of the forest about a day's travel north of London. As London grew, Enfield Town and its surrounds eventually became a residential suburb, with fast transport links into central London.
The current borough was created in 1965 from the former areas of the Municipal Borough of Southgate, the Municipal Borough of Enfield and the Municipal Borough of Edmonton. The armorial bearings of these three boroughs were also merged.
The heraldic beast
The London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough in West London, and forms part of Inner London. Traversed by the east-west main roads of the A4 Great West Road and the A40 Westway, many international corporations have offices in the borough.
The borough was formed in 1965 by merging the Metropolitan Borough of Hammersmith and the Metropolitan Borough of Fulham. It was known as the 'London Borough of Hammersmith' until its name was changed on 1 January 1979 by the borough council. The two had been joined together previously as the Fulham District from 1855 to 1886.
In 1908, the Franco-British Exhibition and Olympic Games were hosted in the borough, at White City, but the site then took many decades to be redeveloped. In 1960, the BBC opened the BBC Television Centre, and in 2008, Westfield London, a large development with new transport links and a shopping centre, finally completed the redevelopment after one hundred years.
The borough includes the areas:
According to the 2001 census Hammersmith and Fulham has a population of 165,242. 60% of the borough's population is White British, 20% white non-British (among which are large Polish
Stevenage (/ˈstiːvənɨdʒ/) is a town and borough in Hertfordshire, England. It is situated to the east of junctions 7 and 8 of the A1(M), and is between Letchworth Garden City to the north, and Welwyn Garden City to the south.
Stevenage is roughly 30 miles (50 km) north of central London. Its population was 1,430 in 1801, 4,049 in 1901, 79,724 in 2001 and 84,651 in 2007. The largest increase occurred in the 1950s and 1960s, after Stevenage was designated a new town under the New Towns Act of 1946.
Two films were set in and around Stevenage, Here We Go Round the Mulberry Bush and Boston Kickout. Spy Game was partly filmed in Stevenage but set in Washington, D.C. The BBC sitcom Saxondale was set and filmed almost entirely in Stevenage.
Stevenage may derive from Old English stiþen āc / stiðen āc / stithen ac (various Old English dialects cited here) meaning '(place at) the strong oak'.
The name was recorded as Stithenæce, c.1060 and Stigenace in 1086 in the Domesday Book.
The present site of Stevenage lies near a Roman road that ran from Verulamium to Baldock. Some Romano-British remains were discovered during the building of the New Town, and a hoard of 2,000 silver Roman coins was
The East of England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It was created in 1994 and was adopted for statistics from 1999. It includes the ceremonial counties of Essex, Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire, Cambridgeshire, Norfolk and Suffolk. Essex has the highest population in the region.
Its population as of the 2011 census was 5,847,000. The area is mostly low-lying, and the highest place is at Clipper Down at 249 m (817 ft) in the far south western corner of the region near to Ivinghoe Beacon in the Ivinghoe Hills. Norwich, Peterborough, Luton, Southend-on-Sea, Basildon and Ipswich are the region's most populous urban areas. The southern part of the region lies in the London commuter belt.
The area is one of the flattest in the UK. Cambridgeshire is part of The Fens. The lowest point in the UK is Holme Fen, which is 3 metres below sea level.
Before the creation of the East of England region there had been a smaller standard statistical region of East Anglia which did not include Essex, Hertfordshire or Bedfordshire. They had previously been included in the South East region. The East of England civil defence region shared the
Eastbourne ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a large town and borough in East Sussex, within the historic County of Sussex, on the south coast of England between Brighton and Hastings. The town is situated at the eastern end of the chalk South Downs alongside the high cliff at Beachy Head. The modern town emerged in the early 19th century as a seaside resort, assisted by the arrival of the railway in 1849, and developed a spacious, regular layout.
Prior to its Victorian development, the area consisted of the estates of the Duke of Devonshire and others, which had evolved around the village of East Burne. From the Bronze Age onward there were small settlements in and around the "Burne", an ancient stream which ran from what is now Motcombe Gardens down to the sea. During the Middle Ages sheep farming and fishing were the main activities. Eastbourne's earliest claim as a seaside resort was a summer holiday visit by four of King George III's children in 1780. During the Napoleonic Wars, the Wish Tower and the Redoubt were built as defences. In the wake of the fall of France in 1940, the town’s population fell sharply as this part of the south coast was considered a likely invasion zone.
The London Borough of Lewisham ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough in south-east London, England and forms part of Inner London. The principal settlement of the borough is Lewisham. The local authority is Lewisham London Borough Council and it is based in Catford.
The Prime Meridian passes through Lewisham.
The borough was formed in 1965, by the London Government Act 1963, as an amalgamation of the former area of the Metropolitan Borough of Lewisham and the Metropolitan Borough of Deptford, which had been created in 1900 as divisions of the County of London.
Minor boundary changes have occurred since its creation. The most significant amendments were made in 1996, when the former area of the Royal Docks in Deptford was transferred from the London Borough of Greenwich.
The borough is surrounded by the Royal Borough of Greenwich to the east, the London Borough of Bromley to the south and the London Borough of Southwark to the west. The River Thames forms a short section of northern boundary with the Isle of Dogs in the London Borough of Tower Hamlets. Deptford Creek, Pool River, River Quaggy and River Ravensbourne pass through the borough. Major landmarks include All
The London Borough of Newham /ˈnjuːəm/ is a London borough formed from the towns of West Ham and East Ham, within East London.
It is situated 5 miles (8 km) east of the City of London, and is north of the River Thames. Newham was one of the six host boroughs for the 2012 Summer Olympics and contains most of the Olympic Park including the Olympic Stadium. According to 2010 estimates, Newham has one of the highest ethnic minority populations of all the districts in the country, with no particular ethnic group dominating. The local authority is Newham London Borough Council, the second most deprived in England., although other reports using different measures show it differently.
The borough was formed by merging the former area of the Essex county borough of East Ham and the county borough of West Ham as a borough of the newly formed Greater London, on 1 April 1965. Green Street marks the former boundary between the two. North Woolwich also became part of the borough (previously being in the Metropolitan Borough of Woolwich, in the County of London) along with a small area west of the River Roding which had previously been part of the Municipal Borough of Barking. Newham was devised
Tamworth is a market town and larger local government district in Staffordshire, England, located 14 miles (23 km) north-east of Birmingham city centre and 103 miles (166 km) north-west of London. Tamworth takes its name from the River Tame, which flows through it, as does the River Anker. At the 2001 census the town had a population of 71,650. Tamworth is the second largest settlement in Staffordshire after Stoke-on-Trent.
Tamworth is the home of the historic Tamworth Castle and Moat House, and has a non-league football team, Tamworth FC. The Snowdome, the UK's first full-sized real-snow indoor ski slope is located in Tamworth, and only a short distance away is Drayton Manor Theme Park.
The town's main industries include logistics, engineering, clothing, brick, tile and paper manufacture. It was also home to the Reliant car company, which produced the famous three-wheeled Robin model and the Scimitar sports car for several decades.
Tamworth has existed since Saxon times and in the reign of King Offa, was the capital of Mercia the largest of all English kingdoms of its time (see Heptarchy). It was by far the largest town in the English Midlands when today's much larger city of
Monmouthshire (Welsh: Sir Fynwy) is a county in south east Wales. The name derives from the historic county of Monmouthshire of which it covers the eastern 60%. The largest town is Abergavenny. Other major towns include Caldicot, Chepstow and Monmouth.
The historic county of Monmouthshire was formed from the Welsh Marches by the Laws in Wales Act 1535, bordering Gloucestershire to the east, Herefordshire to the northeast, Brecknockshire to the north, and Glamorgan to the west. The second Laws in Wales Act of 1542 enumerated the counties of Wales and excluded Monmouthshire – This led to ambiguity as to whether the county was part of Wales or England. Since local government changes in April 1974 the area has been placed definitively in Wales. The eastern and southern boundaries of the historic county and the current principal area are the same, along the River Wye and Severn estuary; however, the western two-fifths of the historic county are now administered by the other unitary authorities of Blaenau Gwent, Torfaen, Caerphilly and Newport. The administrative county of Monmouthshire, and associated lieutenancy were abolished in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. The area
Craven is in recent times the name of a local government district in North Yorkshire, England that came into being in 1974, centred on the market town of Skipton. In the changes to British local government of that year this district was formed as the merger of Skipton urban district, Settle Rural District and most of Skipton Rural District, all in the West Riding of Yorkshire. It comprises the upper reaches of Airedale, Wharfedale, Ribblesdale, and includes most of the Aire Gap and Craven Basin.
Additionally, the name Craven is much older than the modern district, and once encompassed a larger area. This history is also reflected in the way the term is still commonly used, for example by the Church of England.
Craven has been the name of this district throughout recorded history but it was never defined until 1974; its boundaries differed according to whether considering administration, taxation or religion.
The name Craven is probably derived from the pre-Celtic cravona, meaning stony region and from the Celtic craeg, a crag: steep rugged rocks. These interpretations are supported by the Old English name of the wapentake that covers most of it, Staincliffe, being in effect a
The Borough of Dartford is a local government district and borough in north west Kent, England, which takes its name from its administrative capital. It borders Thurrock, to the north across the River Thames; to the west lies the London Borough of Bexley; to the south Sevenoaks district; and the borough of Gravesham to the east. The population of the borough recorded in the 2001 census was 85,911.
The borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the Municipal Borough of Dartford, Swanscombe Urban District, and part of Dartford Rural District. In the mid-1990s review of local government in Kent, consideration was given to merging the borough with that of adjoining Gravesham to form a new unitary authority. However the proposal proved unpopular amongst residents, and the two borough councils kept their identities.
Since 2010, Dartford's MP is Gareth Johnson (Conservative) who replaced the outgoing Howard Stoate (Labour). The Mayor for the year May 2010 to May 2011 is Councillor Pat Coleman. The Leader of the Council, from February 2006, is Councillor Jeremy Kite (Conservative). Councillors represent the following seventeen wards, as amended in 2001:
NB the boundaries of these
Gloucester (/ˈɡlɒstər/ GLOS-tər) is a city, district and county town of Gloucestershire in the South West region of England. Gloucester lies close to the Welsh border, and on the River Severn, approximately 32 miles (51 km) north-east of Bristol, and 45 miles (72 km) south-southwest of Birmingham.
A cathedral city, capital of its county which was built on a flat spot of land, Gloucester is situated on the River Severn and the Bristol and Birmingham Railway.
Gloucester was founded in AD 97 by the Romans under Emperor Nerva as Colonia Glevum Nervensis, and was granted its first charter in 1155 by King Henry II. Economically, the city is dominated by the service industries, and has a strong financial and business sector, being home to the bank Cheltenham & Gloucester and historically was prominent in the aerospace industry.
The existence of a British settlement at Gloucester (Caer Glow, Gleawecastre, Gleucestre) is not confirmed by any direct evidence, but Gloucester was the Roman municipality of Colonia Nervia Glevensium, or Glevum, founded in the reign of Nerva. Parts of the walls can be traced, and many remains and coins have been found, though inscriptions are scarce. Evidence for
Ipswich /ˈɪpswɪtʃ/ is a large town and a non-metropolitan district. It is the county town of Suffolk, England. Ipswich is located on the estuary of the River Orwell. Nearby towns are Felixstowe, Needham Market and Stowmarket in Suffolk and Harwich and Colchester in Essex.
The urban development of Ipswich overspills the borough boundaries significantly, with 85% of the town's population living within the borough at the time of the 2001 Census, when it was the third-largest settlement in the United Kingdom's East of England region, and the 49th largest urban area in the United Kingdom.
The modern name is derived from the medieval name 'Gippeswick', probably taken from the River Gipping which is the non-tidal section of the River Orwell. As of 2011, the town of Ipswich was found to have a population of 138,718, while the Ipswich urban area is estimated to have a population of approximately 155,000.
Under the Roman empire, the area around Ipswich formed an important route inland to rural towns and settlements via the rivers Orwell and Gipping. A large Roman fort, part of the coast defences of Britain, stood at Walton near Felixstowe (13 miles, 21 km), and the largest Roman villa in
The Metropolitan Borough of Rochdale is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester in North West England. It is named after its largest town, Rochdale, but spans a far larger area which includes the towns of Middleton, Heywood, Littleborough and Milnrow, and the village of Wardle.
The borough was formed in 1974 as part of the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972 and is an amalgamation of six former local government districts. It was originally proposed that the borough include the neighbouring town of Bury and disclude Middleton; Bury however went on to form the administrative centre for the adjacent Metropolitan Borough of Bury.
The borough, which lies directly north-northeast of the City of Manchester, has a population of 206,500, and although most parts are highly industrialised and densely populated, contiguous with one of the United Kingdom's major cities, some of the borough consists of rural open space, for the most part due the territory in the eastern half stretching across Blackstone Edge and the Pennine hills.
The borough, which is the largest such borough of Greater Manchester, was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, by a merger of the
Perth and Kinross (Scots: Pairth an Kinross, Scottish Gaelic: Peairt agus Ceann Rois) is one of 32 council areas in Scotland, and a Lieutenancy Area. It borders onto the Aberdeenshire, Angus, Dundee City, Fife, Clackmannanshire, Stirling, Argyll and Bute and Highland council areas. Perth is the administrative centre. It corresponds broadly, but not exactly, with the former counties of Perthshire and Kinross-shire.
Perthshire and Kinross-shire had a joint county council from 1929 until 1975. The area was created a single district in 1975, in the Tayside region, under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, and then reconstituted as a unitary authority (with a minor boundary adjustment) in 1996, by the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994.
Richmondshire is a local government district of North Yorkshire, England. It covers a large northern area of the Yorkshire Dales including Swaledale and Arkengarthdale, Wensleydale and Coverdale, with the prominent Scots' Dyke and Scotch Corner along the centre. Teesdale lies to the north. It is larger than four of the English counties, such as Berkshire.
The history of this district in antiquity is not well known, but the closest important Roman settlement was at Catterick in what became known as Rheged, site of the Battle of Catterick. At the terminus of Scandinavian York, there was a local bout of rebellion in Stainmore, which resulted in the death of Eric Bloodaxe. The Scandinavian settlement of this area was eastwards from the Irish Sea with names such as Gilpatrick in Middleham and Thorfinn in Bedale occurring at the time of the Domesday Book. At the time of the Norman Conquest it was the Fee of Gillingshire, held by Edwin, Earl of Mercia. Gillingshire was made up of the Borough of Richmond and five wapentakes of Gilling West, Gilling East, Hang West, Hang East and Hallikeld. After the Harrying of the North, the land became capital of the Duchy of Brittany's Honour of
The Vale of Glamorgan (Welsh: Bro Morgannwg [ˈbroː mɔrˈɡanʊɡ]) is a county borough in Wales; an exceptionally rich agricultural area, it lies in the southern part of Glamorgan, South Wales. It has a rugged coastline, but its rolling countryside is quite atypical of Wales as a whole.
The Vale also has many tourist attractions which attract many visitors every year, including Barry Island Pleasure Park, Vale of Glamorgan Railway, St Donat's Castle, Cosmeston Lakes Country Park and Cosmeston Medieval Village and many more. It is also the location of Atlantic College, one of the United World Colleges.
It has been a county borough (unitary authority) since 1996, previously being part of South Glamorgan county. The largest centre of population is Barry. Other towns include Cowbridge, Dinas Powys, Llantwit Major and Penarth which is the Vale's first Fairtrade town, but a large proportion of the population inhabits villages, hamlets and individual farms. The area is low-lying, with a greatest height of only 137 metres above sea level.
The yellow-grey cliffs on the Glamorgan Heritage Coast (which stretches between Llantwit Major to Ogmore-by-Sea) are unique on the Celtic Sea coastline (i.e.
The City of Worcester, commonly known as Worcester, (/ˈwʊstər/ WUUS-tər), is a city and county town of Worcestershire in the West Midlands of England. Worcester is situated some 30 miles (48 km) southwest of Birmingham and 29 miles (47 km) north of Gloucester, and has an approximate population of 94,000 people. The River Severn runs through the middle of the city, overlooked by the twelfth-century Worcester Cathedral. The site of the final battle of the Civil War, Worcester was where Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army defeated King Charles II's Cavaliers, cementing the English Interregnum, the eleven-year period during which England and Wales became a republic. Worcester was the home of Royal Worcester Porcelain and the birthplace of the composer Sir Edward Elgar. It houses the Lea and Perrins factory where the traditional Worcestershire Sauce is made, and is home to one of the UK's fastest growing universities, the University of Worcester.
Occupation of the site of Worcester can be dated back to Neolithic times, a village surrounded by defensive ramparts having been founded on the eastern bank of the River Severn in around 400 BC. The position, which commanded a ford on the river,
The London Borough of Camden (English pronunciation: /ˈkæmdən/; pronunciation (help·info)) is a borough of London, England, which forms part of Inner London. The southern reaches of Camden form part of central London. The local authority is Camden London Borough Council.
The borough was created in 1965 from the former area of the metropolitan boroughs of Hampstead, Holborn, and St Pancras, which had formed part of the County of London. The borough was named after Camden Town, which had gained its name from Charles Pratt, 1st Earl Camden in 1795.
The area is in the northern part of the city, reaching from Holborn and Bloomsbury in the south to Hampstead Heath in the north. Neighbouring areas are the City of Westminster and the City of London to the south, Brent to the west, Barnet and Haringey to the north and Islington to the east. It covers all or part of the N1, N6, N7, N19, NW1, NW2, NW3, NW5, NW6, NW8, EC1, EC2, EC4, WC1, WC2, W1 and W9 postcode areas. It contains parts of central London.
Camden Town Hall is located in Judd Street near King's Cross. Camden London Borough Council was controlled by the Labour Party continuously from 1971 until the 2006 election, when the Liberal
Powys ( /ˈpaʊ.ɪs/; Welsh: [ˈpowɪs]) is a principal area, local-government county and preserved county in Mid Wales.
Powys covers the historic counties of Montgomeryshire and Radnorshire, most of Brecknockshire (Breconshire), and a small part of Denbighshire — an area of 5,179 km², making it the largest county in Wales by land area.
It is bounded to the north by Gwynedd, Denbighshire and Wrexham; to the west by Ceredigion and Carmarthenshire; to the east by Shropshire and Herefordshire; and to the south by Rhondda Cynon Taf, Merthyr Tydfil, Caerphilly, Blaenau Gwent, Monmouthshire and Neath Port Talbot.
Most of Powys is mountainous, with north-south transportation by car being difficult.
The majority of the Powys population is made up of villages and small towns. The largest towns are Newtown, Ystradgynlais, Brecon, and Welshpool with populations of 12,783, 9,004, 7,901 and 6,269 respectively (2001). Powys has the lowest population density of all the principal areas of Wales.
Just under a third of the residents have Welsh linguistic skills and Welsh speakers are concentrated mainly in the rural areas both in and around Machynlleth, Llanfyllin and Llanrhaeadr-ym-Mochnant (where
Conwy County Borough (Welsh: Bwrdeisdref Sirol Conwy) is a unitary authority area in north of Wales.
It contains the major settlements of Llandudno, Llandudno Junction, Llanrwst, Betws-y-Coed, Conwy, Colwyn Bay, Abergele, Penmaenmawr and Llanfairfechan, and has a total population of about 110,000.
The River Conwy, after which the county borough is named, lies wholly within the area: rising in Snowdonia and flowing through Llanrwst and Trefriw en route to the Irish Sea by Conwy. The river here marks the border between the historic counties of Caernarfonshire and Denbighshire.
One third of the land area of the county borough lies in the Snowdonia national park, and the council appoint three of the 18 members of the Snowdonia National Park Authority.
According to the 2001 Census 39.7% of the population of the county borough have "one or more skills" in the Welsh language, which ranks it 5th out of 22 principal areas in Wales.
The amount of Welsh spoken in the county borough greatly varies from location to location, with generally the least being spoken on the coastal fringe.
Examples of the percentage speaking Welsh by electoral ward :
The county borough was formed on 1 April 1996 by
Halton is a local government district in North West England, with borough status and administered by a unitary authority. It was created in 1974 as a district of Cheshire, and became a unitary authority area on 1 April 1998. It consists of the towns of Widnes and Runcorn and the civil parishes of Hale, Daresbury, Moore, Preston Brook, Halebank and Sandymoor. The district borders Merseyside, Warrington and Cheshire West and Chester. The borough straddles the River Mersey - the area to the north (including Widnes) is historically part of Lancashire, that to the south (including Runcorn) part of Cheshire.
Although Halton dates back to the 12th century (and beyond) when land on both sides of the river belonged to the Barony of Halton, the origin of the District Council was the outcome of the local government commission's suggested reforms of England, in 1969, the Redcliffe-Maud Report. This proposed to create metropolitan counties constituted of Metropolitan District Councils in the most urbanised parts of England. The model was that of the London Boroughs and Greater London Council formed in 1964. South Lancashire and North Cheshire were two of these and two new Metropolitan Counties
Leicester (/ˈlɛstə/ LESS-tə) is a city and unitary authority in the East Midlands of England, and the county town of Leicestershire. The city lies on the River Soar and at the edge of the National Forest. In the 2011 census, the population of the Leicester unitary authority was 330,000, the highest in the region, whilst 480,000 people lived in the wider Leicester Urban Area in 2011, making Leicester the tenth largest city in the United Kingdom and the UK's fourteenth largest urban area. It is the largest city in the East Midlands with a population of 330,000 and second largest in the Midlands behind its much larger midlands neighbour Birmingham it has the second largest urban area in the East Midlands region. Eurostat's Larger Urban Zone listed the population of Leicester LUZ at 806,100 people as of 2009. According to the 2011 census Leicester had the largest proportion of people aged 19-and-under in the East Midlands with 27 per cent.
Leicestershire is a major commercial and manufacturing centre. Its economy is the largest in the East Midlands, accounting for almost a quarter of the region's GDP (£11billion) and providing jobs for 437,000 people.
Ancient Roman pavements and baths
Shetland (/ˈʃɛtlənd/) (from Middle Scots Ȝetland) is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies north-east of mainland Britain. The islands lie some 80 km (50 mi) to the northeast of Orkney and 280 km (170 mi) southeast of the Faroe Islands and form part of the division between the Atlantic Ocean to the west and the North Sea to the east. The total area is 1,468 km (567 sq mi) and the population totalled 22,210 in 2009. Comprising the Shetland constituency of the Scottish Parliament, Shetland is also one of the 32 council areas of Scotland; the islands' administrative centre and only burgh is Lerwick.
The largest island, known simply as "Mainland", has an area of 967 km (373 sq mi), making it the third-largest Scottish island and the fifth-largest of the British Isles. There are an additional 15 inhabited islands. The archipelago has an oceanic climate, a complex geology, a rugged coastline and many low, rolling hills.
Humans have lived there since the Mesolithic period, and the earliest written references to the islands date back to Roman times. The early historic period was dominated by Scandinavian influences, especially Norway, and the islands did not become part of
Stoke-on-Trent ( pronunciation (help·info); often abbreviated to Stoke), also called The Potteries is a city in Staffordshire, England, which forms a linear conurbation stretching for 12 miles (19 km), with an area of 36 square miles (93 km). Together with the Borough of Newcastle-under-Lyme, Stoke forms The Potteries Urban Area. This, together with the rural Staffordshire Moorlands area, forms North Staffordshire, which in 2001 had a population of 457,165.
The conurbation continues to be polycentric, having been formed by a federation of six separate towns and numerous villages in the early-20th century. The settlement from which the federated town (it was not a city until 1925) took its name was Stoke-upon-Trent, where the administration and chief mainline railway station were located. After the union, Hanley emerged as the primary commercial centre in the city, despite the efforts of its rival, Burslem. The three other component towns are Tunstall, Longton and Fenton.
Stoke-on-Trent is considered to be the home of the pottery industry in England and is commonly known as The Potteries. Formerly a primarily industrial conurbation, it is now a centre for service industries and
The Metropolitan Borough of Tameside is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester in North West England. It is named after the River Tame which flows through the borough and spans the towns of Ashton-under-Lyne, Audenshaw, Denton, Droylsden, Dukinfield, Hyde, Mossley and Stalybridge. Its western border is approximately 4 miles (6.4 km) east of Manchester city centre. It borders Derbyshire to the east, the Metropolitan Borough of Oldham to the north, the Metropolitan Borough of Stockport to the south, and the City of Manchester to the west. Tameside has a population of 214,400.
The history of the area extends back to the Stone Age. There are over 300 listed buildings in Tameside and three Scheduled Ancient Monuments, which includes a castle of national importance. The settlements in Tameside were small townships centred around agriculture until the advent of the Industrial Revolution. The towns of the borough grew and became involved in the cotton industry, which dominated the local economy. The current borough was created in 1974 as part of the provisions of the Local Government Act 1972. Since then the area has been administered by Tameside Borough Council, which has been
Blaby is a local government district in Leicestershire, England.
The district is named after the village of Blaby. It covers the civil parish of Blaby and 23 others. Among these are Cosby, Countesthorpe, Enderby, Huncote, Narborough (the location of the main district council offices), Sapcote, Stoney Stanton, and Wigston Parva. Much of the district is part of the Leicester urban area: this applies especially to the parishes of Braunstone Town (including the commuter housing development of Thorpe Astley); Glenfield (the location of the headquarters of Leicestershire County Council); Kirby Muxloe; Leicester Forest East; and Glen Parva. There are plans to extend this urban area significantly through a large scale housing development, in the rural parish of Lubbesthorpe, and expansion of the industrial area in the neighbouring parish of Enderby.
Blaby was represented in Parliament by the former Chancellor of the Exchequer, Nigel Lawson, between 1974 and 1992.
The district traces its origins to the Blaby Poor Law Union, which was founded in 1834. It became a rural district of Leicestershire in 1894. Oadby was removed in 1913 to form an urban district. 1935 saw parts being transferred to
Coventry (/ˈkɒvəntri/) is a city and metropolitan borough in the county of West Midlands in England. Coventry is the ninth largest city in England and 13th largest in the United Kingdom. It is also the second largest city in the English Midlands, after Birmingham, with a population of 318,600, although Stoke-on-Trent, Leicester and Nottingham have larger urban areas.
Historically within Warwickshire, Coventry is situated 95 miles (153 km) northwest of central London and 19 miles (31 km) east-southeast of Birmingham, and is further from the coast than any other city in Britain. Although harbouring a population of almost a third of a million inhabitants, Coventry is not amongst the English Core Cities Group due to its proximity to Birmingham.
Coventry was the world's first twin city when it formed a twinning relationship with the Russian city of Stalingrad (now Volgograd) during World War II. The relationship developed through ordinary people in Coventry who wanted to show their support for the Soviet Red Army during the Battle of Stalingrad. The city is now also twinned with Dresden, Lidice and 23 other cities around the world.
Coventry Cathedral is one of the newer cathedral
Kent /ˈkɛnt/ is a county in South East England, and one of the home counties. It borders East Sussex, Surrey and Greater London and has a defined boundary with Essex in the middle of the Thames Estuary. The ceremonial county boundaries of Kent include the shire county of Kent and the unitary borough of Medway. Kent has a nominal border with France halfway through the Channel Tunnel. Maidstone is its county town and historically Rochester and Canterbury have been accorded city status, though only the latter still holds it.
Kent's location between London and the continental Europe has led to it being in the front line of several conflicts, including the Battle of Britain during World War II. East Kent was known as Hell Fire Corner during the conflict. England has relied on the county's ports to provide warships through much of the past 800 years; the Cinque Ports in the 12th–14th centuries and Chatham Dockyard in the 16th–20th centuries were of particular importance to the country's security. France can be seen clearly in fine weather from Folkestone, and the iconic White Cliffs of Dover.
Because of its abundance of orchards and hop gardens, Kent is known as "The Garden of England" –
Liverpool ( /ˈlɪvərpuːl/) is a city and metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England, United Kingdom along the eastern side of the Mersey Estuary. It was founded as a borough in 1207 and was granted city status in 1880. It is the fourth most populous British city, and third most populous in England, with a 2011 population of 466,400 and is at the centre of a wider urban area, the Liverpool City Region, which has a population of around 2 million people.
Historically a part of Lancashire, the urbanisation and expansion of Liverpool were both largely brought about by the city's status as a major port. By the 18th century, trade from the West Indies, Ireland and mainland Europe coupled with close links with the Atlantic Slave Trade furthered the economic expansion of Liverpool. By the early 19th century, 40% of the world's trade passed through Liverpool's docks, contributing to Liverpool's rise as a major city. Liverpool is also well known for its inventions and innovations, particularly in terms of infrastructure, transportation and general construction. Railways, ferries and the skyscraper were all pioneered in the city.
Inhabitants of Liverpool are referred to as Liverpudlians but
The London Borough of Haringey /ˈhærɪŋɡeɪ/ is a London borough, in North London, classified by some definitions as part of Inner London, and by others as part of Outer London. It was created in 1965 by the amalgamation of three former boroughs. It shares borders with six other London boroughs. Clockwise from the north, they are: Enfield, Waltham Forest, Hackney, Islington, Camden, and Barnet.
Haringey covers an area of more than 11 square miles (28.5 km). Some of the more familiar local landmarks include Alexandra Palace, Bruce Castle, Jacksons Lane, Highpoint I and II, and Tottenham Hotspur Football Club. The borough is very ethnically diverse. It has extreme contrasts: areas in the west, such as Highgate, Muswell Hill and Crouch End are among the most prosperous in the country; in the east of the borough, some wards are classified as being among the most deprived 10% in the country. Haringey is also a borough of contrasts geographically. From the wooded high ground around Highgate and Muswell Hill, at 426.5 feet (130.0 m), the land falls sharply away to the flat, open low lying land beside the River Lea in the east. The borough includes large areas of green space, which make up
The London Borough of Sutton ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough in South London, England and forms part of Outer London. It covers an area of 43 km (17 sq mi) and is the 80th largest local authority in England by population. It is one of the southernmost boroughs of London. It is south of the London Borough of Merton, west of the London Borough of Croydon and east of the Royal Borough of Kingston Upon Thames.
The borough was formed in 1965 by the merger of the Municipal Borough of Sutton and Cheam with the Municipal Borough of Beddington and Wallington and Carshalton Urban District which had previously been part of Surrey.
The borough includes the areas:
Descriptions of a selection of the Borough's cultural institutions and attractions are set out below.
- The Charles Cryer Theatre, Carshalton There are frequent productions at The Charles Cryer Studio Theatre, which is situated on the High Street. As well as drama and musicals, productions include comedy and dance. The theatre is named after the man who led the campaign to open the Secombe Theatre, Sutton, listed below.
- The Secombe Theatre, Sutton The Secombe Centre theatre (named after Sir Harry Secombe) is
North East Derbyshire is a local government district in Derbyshire, England. It borders the districts of Chesterfield, Bolsover, Amber Valley and Derbyshire Dales in Derbyshire, and Sheffield and Rotherham in South Yorkshire.
The district offices are based outside the district, in the town of Chesterfield, which the district surrounds on three sides, and thus acts as the shopping and work centre for much of the district.
Settlements in the district include:
The district was formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. It was a merger of the Clay Cross and Dronfield urban districts along with all but one parish of Chesterfield Rural District.
The district, along with the district of Bolsover and much of the surrounding area of South Yorkshire, was a major producer of coal when a large seam was discovered during the building of the Clay Cross railway tunnel. Coal mining became the main industry of the region. During the 1980s the Conservative government closed down many of the mines after a dispute between the government and the National Union of Mineworkers, which is known as the miners' strike.
The strike began when the government reneged on previous declarations and
Redditch is a town and local government district in north-east Worcestershire, England, approximately 15 miles (24 km) south of Birmingham. The district had a population of 79,216 in 2005. In the 19th century it became the international centre for the needle and fishing tackle industry. At one point 90% of the world's needles were manufactured in the town and its neighbourhoods. In the 1960s it became a model for modern new town planning.
Redditch lies just south of the West Midlands urban area but is not part of it (being in Worcestershire), northwest of Studley on the A435, which skirts it to the east. The main route of access is the A441, a trunk road from Birmingham to Cookhill, via junction 2 of the M42 Motorway. The Roman Road known as Icknield Street is prominent, running north to south through the eastern side of the town.
Redditch experiences an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification Cfb) similar to almost all of the United Kingdom.
The first recorded mention of Redditch ("Red-Dych", thought to be a reference to the red clay of the nearby River Arrow) is in 1348, the year of the outbreak of the Black Death. During the Middle Ages it became a centre of needle-making
The Scottish Borders (Scots: The Mairches; Scottish Gaelic: Na Crìochan) is one of 32 local government council areas of Scotland. It is bordered by Dumfries and Galloway in the west, South Lanarkshire and West Lothian in the north west, City of Edinburgh, East Lothian, Midlothian to the north; and the non-metropolitan counties of Northumberland and Cumbria in England to the south and east. The administrative centre of the area is Newtown St. Boswells.
Historically, the name Scottish Borders designated the entire border region of southern Scotland and, together with neighbouring areas of England, was part of the historical Borders region.
The Scottish Borders are located in the Eastern part of the Southern Uplands.
The region is hilly and largely rural, with the River Tweed flowing west to east through the region. In the east of the region the area that borders the River Tweed is flat and is known as 'The Merse'. The Tweed and its tributaries drain the entire region with the river flowing into the North Sea at Berwick-upon-Tweed, and forming the border with England for the last twenty miles or so of its length.
The term Central Borders refers to the area in which the majority of the
Exeter (/ˈɛksɨtər/ EK-si-tər) is a historic city in Devon, England. It lies within the ceremonial county of Devon, of which it is the county town as well as the home of Devon County Council. Currently the administrative area has the status of a non-metropolitan district, and is therefore under the administration of the County Council. The city is on the River Exe, about 37 miles (60 km) northeast of Plymouth, and 70 miles (110 km) southwest of Bristol. According to the 2001 Census, its population in that year was 111,076, while the mid-2010 estimate was 119,600.
Exeter was the most south-westerly Roman fortified settlement in Britain. Its Exeter Cathedral, founded in the early 12th century, became Anglican at the time of the 16th century Reformation.
Exeter has been identified as one of the top ten most profitable locations for a business to be based. The city has good transport links, with Exeter St Davids railway station, Exeter Central railway station, the M5 motorway and Exeter International Airport connecting the city both nationally and internationally. Although a popular tourist destination, the city is not dominated by tourism.
The favourable location of Exeter, on a dry
The London Borough of Harrow (/ˈhæroʊ/) is a London borough of north-west London, England. It borders Hertfordshire to the north and other London boroughs: Hillingdon to the west, Ealing to the south, Brent to the south-east and Barnet to the east.
The town was formed in 1934 as an urban district of Middlesex by the Middlesex Review Order 1934, as a merger of the former area of Harrow on the Hill Urban District, Hendon Rural District and Wealdstone Urban District. The local authority was Harrow Urban District Council.
The urban district gained the status of municipal borough on 4 May 1954 and the urban district council became Harrow Borough Council. The 50th anniversary of the incorporation as a borough was celebrated in April 2004, which included a visit by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.
In 1965 the municipal borough was abolished and its former area was transferred to Greater London from Middlesex under the London Government Act 1963 to form the London Borough of Harrow. It is uniquely the only London borough to replicate exactly the unchanged boundaries of a single former district. This was probably because its population was large enough. According to the 1961 census it had a
Cotswold is a local government district in Gloucestershire in England. It is named after the wider Cotswolds region. Its main town is Cirencester.
It was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the urban district of Cirencester with Cirencester Rural District, North Cotswold Rural District, Northleach Rural District and Tetbury Rural District.
Eighty per cent of the district lies within the River Thames catchment area, with the Thames itself and several tributaries including the River Windrush and River Leach running through the district. Lechlade in an important point on the river as the upstream limit of navigation. In the 2007 floods in the UK, rivers were the source of flooding of 53 per cent of the locations affected and the Thames at Lechlade reached record levels with over 100 reports of flooding.
Denbighshire (Welsh: Sir Ddinbych) is a county in north-east Wales. It is named after the historic county of Denbighshire, but has substantially different borders. Denbighshire has the distinction of being the oldest inhabited part of Wales. Pontnewydd (Bontnewydd-Llanelwy) Palaeolithic site has remains of Neanderthals from 225,000 years ago. There are several castles in the region- Denbigh Castle, Rhuddlan Castle, Ruthin Castle, Castell Dinas Bran and Bodelwyddan Castle.
The present principal area was formed on 1 April 1996, under the Local Government (Wales) Act 1994, from various parts of the county of Clwyd. It included the district of Rhuddlan (which was formed in 1974 entirely from Flintshire), the communities of Trefnant and Cefn Meiriadog from the district of Colwyn (which was entirely Denbighshire) and most of the Glyndŵr district. The part of the Glyndŵr district included the entirety of the former Edeyrnion Rural District, which was part of the administrative county of Merionethshire prior to 1974 – which covered the parishes of Betws Gwerfil Goch, Corwen, Gwyddelwern, Llangar, Llandrillo yn Edeirnion and Llansanffraid.
Other principal areas containing part of historic
The London Borough of Hackney ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough of North/North East London/North, and forms part of Inner London. The local authority is Hackney London Borough Council.
Hackney's southwestern boundary is adjacent to the City and Broadgate. Also in the southwest is Hoxton and Shoreditch which are at the heart of the London arts scene and home to many clubs, bars, shops and restaurants; Hoxton Square is its central point. The Borough of Hackney has attracted some office development and the development of Shoreditch and Hoxton has caused land values to rise, thus expanding the range for prospective development. Much of Hackney maintains its inner-city character and in places like Dalston large housing estates now sit side-by-side with gated communities.
The historical and administrative heart of Hackney is the area roughly extending north from Mare Street and surrounding the Church of St John-at-Hackney; known as Hackney Central. Hackney Town Hall Square has been funded to develop as a new 'creative quarter'. Surrounding the public square itself is the now bankrupt Ocean music venue [being refurbished as a four screen cinema complex in late 2011], a new
The London Borough of Islington (/ˈɪzlɪŋtən/) is a London borough in Inner London. It was formed in 1965 by merging the former metropolitan boroughs of Islington and Finsbury. The borough contains two Westminster parliamentary constituencies, Islington North and Islington South & Finsbury. The local authority is Islington Council.
Islington was originally named by the Saxons Giseldone (1005), then Gislandune (1062). The name means 'Gīsla's hill' from the Old English personal name Gīsla and dun 'hill', 'down'. The name then later mutated to Isledon, which remained in use well into the 17th century when the modern form arose. In medieval times, Islington was just one of many small manors in the area, along with Bernersbury, Neweton Berewe or Hey-bury, and Canonesbury (Barnsbury, Highbury and Canonbury - names first recorded in the 13th and 14th centuries). "Islington" came to be applied as the name for the parish covering these villages, and was the name chosen for the Metropolitan Borough of Islington, on its formation in 1899. On the merger with Finsbury, to form the modern borough this name came to be applied to the whole borough.
The borough includes the areas:
The Civil Aviation
The London Borough of Southwark /ˈsʌðərk/ is a London borough in south east London, England. It is directly south of the River Thames and the City of London, and forms part of Inner London.
Southwark got its name in the 9th century but was first settled in the Roman period. The London Borough of Southwark was formed in 1965 from the former area of the Metropolitan Borough of Southwark, the Metropolitan Borough of Camberwell, and the Metropolitan Borough of Bermondsey.
The borough borders the City of London and the London Borough of Tower Hamlets to the north (the River Thames forming the boundary), the London Borough of Lambeth to the west and the London Borough of Lewisham to the east. To the south are the London Borough of Bromley and the London Borough of Croydon.
At the 2001 census Southwark had a population of 244,866. Southwark is ethnically 63% white, 16% black African and 8% black Caribbean. 31% of householders are owner–occupiers.
Tower Bridge, the Millennium Bridge, Blackfriars Bridge, Southwark Bridge and London Bridge all connect across to the City of London are within the borough. The skyscraper Shard London Bridge, under construction, will be the tallest building in
Mendip is a local government district of Somerset in England. The Mendip district covers a largely rural area of 285 square miles (738 km) ranging from the Mendip Hills through on to the Somerset Levels. It has a population of approximately 110,000. The administrative centre of the district is Shepton Mallet but the largest town (three times larger than Shepton Mallet) is Frome, pronounced "Froome" and spelt that way until about 1890.
The district was formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, by a merger of the municipal boroughs of Glastonbury and Wells, along with Frome, Shepton Mallet, Street urban districts, and Frome Rural District, Shepton Mallet Rural District, Wells Rural District, and part of Axbridge Rural District and part of Clutton Rural District.
Several explanations for the name "Mendip" have been suggested. Its earliest known form is Mendepe in 1185. One suggestion is that it is derived from the medieval term "Myne-deepes". However, A D Mills derives its meaning from Celtic monith, meaning mountain or hill, with an uncertain second element, perhaps Old English yppe in the sense of upland, or plateau.
An alternative explanation is that the name is
Merseyside ( /ˈmɜrzisaɪd/) is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 1,381,200. It encompasses the metropolitan area centred on both banks of the lower reaches of the Mersey Estuary, and comprises five metropolitan boroughs: Knowsley, St Helens, Sefton, Wirral, and the city of Liverpool. Merseyside, which was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972, takes its name from the River Mersey.
Merseyside spans 249 square miles (645 km) of land which border Lancashire (to the north-east), Greater Manchester (to the east), and Cheshire (to the south and south-west); the Irish Sea is to the west. North Wales is across the Dee Estuary. There is a mix of high density urban areas, suburbs, semi-rural and rural locations in Merseyside, but overwhelmingly the land use is urban. It has a focused central business district, formed by Liverpool City Centre, but Merseyside is also a polycentric county with five metropolitan districts, each of which has at least one major town centre and outlying suburbs. The Liverpool Urban Area is the seventh most populous conurbation in the UK, and dominates the geographic centre of the county, while the
The Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley is a metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England. It comprises the towns and districts of Kirkby, Prescot, Huyton, Whiston, Halewood, Cronton and Stockbridge Village; Kirkby, Huyton, and Prescot being the major commercial centres. It takes its name from the village of Knowsley.
The borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of Huyton-with-Roby Urban District, Kirkby Urban District and Prescot Urban District, along with most of Whiston Rural District and a small part of West Lancashire Rural District, all from the administrative county of Lancashire.
It is famed for Knowsley Hall and Knowsley Safari Park.
After local elections in 2008 the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley was governed by the Labour Party, the largest party represented on the council. The Liberal Democrats, the second largest party, were in opposition. There were no other councillors.
After local elections in 2010 the Metropolitan Borough of Knowsley continued to be governed by the Labour Party, the largest party represented on the council, who increased their total number of seats by 5 to 53. The Liberal Democrats, the second largest party represented on the council,
Neath Port Talbot (Welsh: Castell-nedd Port Talbot) is a county borough and one of the unitary authority areas of Wales. Neath Port Talbot is the 8th most populous county in Wales and the third most populous county borough.
The county borough borders the other principal areas of Bridgend and Rhondda Cynon Taff to the east, Powys and Carmarthenshire to the north and Swansea to the west. Its principal towns are Neath, Port Talbot and Pontardawe.
The local authority area stretches from the coast to the borders of the Brecon Beacons National Park. The majority of land is upland or semi-upland in character, and 43% is covered by forestry with major conifer plantations in upland areas. Most of the lower lying flat land is near the coast around Port Talbot. An extensive dune system stretches along much of the coast, broken by river mouths and areas of development. The upland areas are cut by five valleys: Vale of Neath, Dulais Valley, Afan Valley, Swansea Valley, Upper Amman Valley.
Modern settlement patterns reflect the industrial history of the area, with urban development along the flatter areas of the valleys and some parts of the coast. The largest town is Neath with a population of
Newcastle upon Tyne (locally /njuːˈkæsəl/; often shortened to Newcastle) is a city and metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England. Historically the traditional county town of Northumberland, it is situated on the north bank of the River Tyne. The city developed in the area that was the location of the Roman settlement called Pons Aelius, though it owes its name to the castle built in 1080, by Robert II, Duke of Normandy, the eldest son of William the Conqueror. The city grew as an important centre for the wool trade and it later became a major coal mining area. The port developed in the 16th century and, along with the shipyards lower down the river, was amongst the world's largest shipbuilding and ship-repairing centres. These industries have since experienced severe decline and closure, and the city today is largely a business and cultural centre, with a particular reputation for nightlife.
Among its main icons are Newcastle Brown Ale, a leading brand of beer, Newcastle United F.C., a Premier League team, and the Tyne Bridge. It has hosted the world's most popular half marathon, the Great North Run, since it began in 1981.
The city is the sixteenth most populous
South Hams is a local government district on the south coast of Devon, England, with its headquarters in the town of Totnes. It contains the towns of Dartmouth, Kingsbridge, Ivybridge, Salcombe — the largest of which is Ivybridge with a population of 16,056.
To the north it includes part of Dartmoor National Park, to the east borders Torbay, and to the west Plymouth. It contains some of the most unspoilt coastline on the south coast, including the promontories of Start Point, and Bolt Head. The entire coastline, along with the lower Avon and Dart valleys, form most of the South Devon Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty.
The South Hams, along with nearby Broadsands in Paignton, is the last British refuge of the Cirl Bunting.
The South Hams were originally part of the Brythonic (Celtic) Kingdom of Dumnonia later reduced to the modern boundary at the River Tamar as Cornwall presumably during the tenth-century reign of Æthelstan. Post-Roman settlement on coastal promontory hillforts, such as Burgh Island, follows the established pattern of trading—of tin in particular—found across the western, so-called 'Celtic', Atlantic coastal regions. In the later Anglo-Saxon era, the South Hams was
Watford /ˈwɒtfərd/ is a town and borough in Hertfordshire, England, situated 18 miles (29 km) northwest of central London and within the bounds of the M25 motorway. The borough is separated from Greater London to the south by the urbanised parish of Watford Rural in the Three Rivers District.
Watford was created as an urban district under the Local Government Act 1894, and became a municipal borough by grant of a charter in 1922. The borough had 79,726 inhabitants at the time of the 2001 Census. The most recent official estimates put the population of Watford at 79,600 at mid-2006.
The nearby areas of Croxley Green, Bushey, Rickmansworth, Chorleywood, Kings Langley, Abbots Langley, Carpenders Park and South Oxhey, located in Three Rivers and Hertsmere districts, also form part of the Watford postcode area. The Watford subdivision of the Greater London Urban Area, which includes much of the neighbouring districts, had a total population of 120,960 in the 2001 census.
Watford stands on a low hill near the point at which the River Colne was forded by travellers between London and the Midlands. This route, originally a pre-Roman trackway, departed from the ancient Roman Watling Street
Dumfries and Galloway (Scots: Dumfries an Gallowa; Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Phrìs is Gall-Ghaidhealaibh, pronounced [t̪unˈfɾʲiʃ akəs̪ əŋ kaulˠ̪ɣəlˠ̪əv]) is one of 32 unitary council areas of Scotland. It was one of the nine administrative " regions " of mainland Scotland created in 1975 by the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1973.
It resulted from a union of the historic " region of Galloway " - consisting of the counties of Wigtownshire, Kirkcudbrightshire and County of Dumfries (Dumfries-shire), hence "Dumfries and Galloway".
The region of Galloway was abolished by the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994 and replaced by Dumfries and Galloway - consisting of the counties of Wigtownshire, Kirkcudbrightshire and County of Dumfries (Dumfriesshire).
In 1996 Dumfries and Galloway became the new Dumfries and Galloway Council area.
To the north, the Dumfries and Galloway Council area borders South Ayrshire, East Ayrshire and South Lanarkshire; in the east the Borders; and to the south the county of Cumbria in England. It lies to the north of the Solway Firth and to the east of the Irish Sea. The region is well known for its many artists and writers.
The Dumfries and Galloway
The London Borough of Ealing ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a borough in west London.
The London Borough of Ealing borders the London Borough of Hillingdon to the west, the London Borough of Harrow and the London Borough of Brent to the north, the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham to the east and the London Borough of Hounslow to the south.
The London borough was formed in 1965 by the merging the area of the Municipal Borough of Ealing, the Municipal Borough of Southall and the Municipal Borough of Acton from Middlesex
Along with Brentford, the London Borough of Ealing is the setting for much of the action in Robert Rankin's series of comedic novels, The Brentford Trilogy, which currently consists of six volumes. Ealing is also the primary setting for The Sarah Jane Adventures, being the location of Sarah Jane Smith's home.
Within the borough are two garden suburbs, Brentham Garden Suburb and Bedford Park.
330 hectares within the borough are designated as part of the Metropolitan Green Belt.
There are four fire stations within the London Borough of Ealing. Southall and Northolt have similar-sized station grounds and both house two pumping appliances. Southall attended some
The London Borough of Havering (pronounced "HAY-vering" ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough in North East London, England and forms part of Outer London. The principal town in Havering is Romford and the other main communities are Hornchurch, Upminster and Rainham. The borough is mainly characterised by suburban development with large areas of protected open space. In contrast, Romford is a major metropolitan retail and night time entertainment centre and to the south the borough extends into the London Riverside redevelopment area of the Thames Gateway. The name Havering is a reference to the Royal Liberty of Havering which occupied the area for several centuries. The local authority is Havering London Borough Council.
In 2000 the borough had a population of 226,200 in 93,200 households over 43 square miles (111.4 km). There is a high ratio of area per capita as large sections of Havering are parkland and 23 square miles (60 km) (more than half the borough) is Metropolitan Green Belt protected land. Those areas of development are extensive but rarely intensive. It has, at 2.6%, the lowest unemployment rate in Greater London and one of the lowest crime rates.
Basingstoke and Deane is a local government district and borough in Hampshire, England. Its primary settlement is Basingstoke. Other settlements include Bramley, Tadley, Kingsclere, Overton, Oakley, Whitchurch and the hamlet of Deane, some 7 miles (11 km) from Basingstoke.
The district was formed as the District of Basingstoke on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the borough of Basingstoke, Basingstoke Rural District and Kingsclere and Whitchurch Rural District. On 20 January 1978, following the grant of borough status, the district became the Borough of Basingstoke and Deane. The council claims that the new title included the names of the largest town and smallest village in the borough, although there are eight civil parishes with populations smaller than Deane.
Basingstoke and Deane has over 430 local neighbourhood watch schemes in the area.
Elections to the borough council are held in three out of every four years, with one third of the 60 seats on the council being elected at each election. Since the first election in 1973, the council has either been controlled by the Conservative Party or under no overall control. Most recently the Conservatives have formed the administration on
Birmingham (/ˈbɜrmɪŋəm/ BUR-ming-əm, locally /ˈbɜrmɪŋɡəm/ BUR-ming-gəm) is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands of England. It is the most populous British city outside the capital London with 1,073,000 residents (2011 census), an increase of 96,000 over the previous decade. The city lies at the heart of the West Midlands conurbation, the second most populous urban area in the United Kingdom with a population of 2,284,093 (2001 census). Its metropolitan area is also the United Kingdom's second most populous with 3,683,000 residents.
A medium-sized market town during the medieval period, Birmingham grew to international prominence in the 18th century at the heart of the Midlands Enlightenment and subsequent Industrial Revolution, which saw the town at the forefront of worldwide developments in science, technology and economic organisation, producing a series of innovations that laid many of the foundations of modern industrial society. By 1791 it was being hailed as "the first manufacturing town in the world". Birmingham's distinctive economic profile, with thousands of small workshops practising a wide variety of specialised and highly-skilled trades, encouraged
Brighton and Hove is a unitary authority area and city on the south coast of England. It is England's most populous seaside resort. The unitary authority was formed from the unification of Brighton, the major part of the city with around 155,000 people of the 256,000 total population, with the nearby town of Hove in 1997, officially granted city status by Queen Elizabeth II as part of the millennium celebrations in 2000. "Brighton" is often referred to synonymously with the official "Brighton and Hove" name although many locals still consider the two to be separate towns. Brighton and Hove's urban area has a population of over 460,000 people. The city is famous for its history as a seaside town, and more recently for its reputation of having a large gay community and nightlife and arts culture. The city is also known for its football team Brighton & Hove Albion FC (commonly known as just "Brighton" or "Albion"). They currently play in the Football League Championship at the Amex Stadium, opened in 2011. The team predates the unification of Brighton and Hove by over 96 years.
Brighton and Hove forms part of the Brighton/Worthing/Littlehampton conurbation, the 12th largest
The East Midlands is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists the eastern half of the traditional region of the Midlands. It encompasses the combined area of Nottinghamshire, Derbyshire, Leicestershire, Rutland, Northamptonshire and most of Lincolnshire. A looser definition of the East Midlands might also include the City of Peterborough (once part of Northamptonshire, but now Cambridgeshire), and North Lincolnshire.
The highest point in the region is Kinder Scout in the Peak District, at 2,088 ft (636 m). The centre of the East Midlands area lies roughly between Bingham and Bottesford. The geographical centre of England lies in Higham on the Hill in west Leicestershire, close to the boundary between the East and West Midlands. 88% of the land is rural, although agriculture accounts for less than three percent of the region's jobs. All of the coastline within the region falls within Lincolnshire.
The region is home to large quantities of limestone, and the East Midlands Oil Province. Charnwood Forest is noted for its abundant levels of volcanic rock, estimated to be approximately 600 million years old.
The London Borough of Tower Hamlets ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough to the east of the City of London and north of the River Thames. It is in the eastern part of London and covers much of the traditional East End. It also includes much of the redeveloped Docklands region of London, including West India Docks and Canary Wharf. Many of the tallest buildings in London are located on the Isle of Dogs in the south of the borough. A part of the Olympic Park is in Tower hamlets; containing the worlds biggest Mcdonalds and the World Square (one of the four different zones of the park). The borough has a population of 254,000, which includes one of the highest ethnic minority populations in the capital, consisting mainly of Bangladeshis. The local authority is Tower Hamlets London Borough Council.
For the 2010 general election, the borough was split into two constituencies:
The borough is a part of the London constituency for election to the European Parliament. Labour has dominated national and local elections in Tower Hamlets, although other left-wing parties have won seats including Communists and more recently the Respect Unity coalition. The British National Party won
Midlothian ( /mɪdˈloʊðiən/; Scots: Midlowden, Scottish Gaelic: Meadhan Lodainn) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland, and a lieutenancy area. It borders the Scottish Borders, East Lothian and the City of Edinburgh council areas.
The County of Midlothian used for local government purposes formerly encompassed the city of Edinburgh, and within these borders still serves as a registration county. As a result, the county was formerly known as Edinburghshire.
Midlothian Council area was created in 1996, under the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994, with the boundaries of the Midlothian district of the Lothian region. The district had been created in 1975, under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, and it consisted of the local government county of Midlothian, minus the burgh of Musselburgh and Calder, Cramond, Currie and Inveresk areas.
There is a Midlothian constituency of the House of Commons. There was a Midlothian constituency of the Scottish Parliament up to the 2011 elections when it was divided between Midlothian North and Musselburgh and Midlothian South, Tweeddale and Lauderdale.
Midlothian is twinned with Komárom-Esztergom in Hungary.
The Battle of Roslin was
North Lanarkshire (Scots: North Lanrikshire, Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Lannraig a Tuath) is one of 32 council areas in Scotland. It borders onto the northeast of the City of Glasgow and contains much of Glasgow's suburbs and commuter towns and villages. It also borders Stirling, Falkirk, East Dunbartonshire, West Lothian and South Lanarkshire. The council covers parts of the traditional counties of Lanarkshire, Dunbartonshire, and Stirlingshire.
The area was formed in 1996, largely from the Cumbernauld and Kilsyth, Motherwell and Monklands districts and significant elements of Strathclyde Regional Council.
Portsmouth (/ˈpɔrtsməθ/) is the second largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire on the south coast of England. Portsmouth is notable for being the United Kingdom's only island city; it is located mainly on Portsea Island. It is situated 64 miles (103 km) south west from London and 19 miles (31 km) south east of Southampton.
As a significant naval port for centuries, Portsmouth is home to the world's oldest dry dock still in use and also home to some famous ships, including HMS Warrior, the Tudor carrack Mary Rose and Lord Nelson's flagship, HMS Victory. Although smaller than in its heyday, the naval base remains a major dockyard and base for the Royal Navy and Royal Marine Commandos whose Headquarters resides there. There is also a thriving commercial ferryport serving destinations on the continent for freight and passenger traffic. The City of Portsmouth and Portsmouth Football Club are both nicknamed Pompey.
The Spinnaker Tower is a striking recent addition to the city's skyline. It can be found in the redeveloped former HMS Vernon, formerly a shore establishment or 'stone frigate' of the Royal Navy, now an area of retail outlets, restaurants, clubs and bars now known
The Borough of Runnymede is a local government district with borough status in the English county of Surrey. It is a very prosperous part of the London commuter belt, with some of the most expensive housing in the United Kingdom outside of central London, such as the Wentworth Estate.
Runnymede is entirely unparished and is largely built-up, although with expanses of countryside. Places in the district include Addlestone, Egham, Egham Hythe, Chertsey, Thorpe, Virginia Water and Englefield Green.
The district is named after Runnymede, a water meadow on the banks of the River Thames near Egham. Runnymede is celebrated in connection with the signature of Magna Carta by King John in 1215, and is the site of several significant monuments.
The district was formed in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972 by the merger of the Chertsey and Egham urban districts. Chertsey UD had been created in 1894 under the Local Government Act 1894 consisting of all of the ancient parish of Chertsey, whilst Egham UD had been created by the same Act, and then had the parish of Thorpe added to it in 1933 after a County Review Order dissolved the Chertsey Rural District.
Adjacent boroughs include
South Yorkshire is a metropolitan county in the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England. It has a population of 1.34 million (2011). It consists of four metropolitan boroughs: Barnsley, Doncaster, Rotherham, and City of Sheffield. South Yorkshire was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972.
Lying on the east side of the Pennines, South Yorkshire is landlocked, and borders Derbyshire (to the south-west), West Yorkshire (to the northwest), North Yorkshire (to the north), the East Riding of Yorkshire (to the northeast), Lincolnshire (to the east) and Nottinghamshire (to the southeast). The Sheffield Urban Area is the ninth most populous conurbation in the UK, and dominates the western half of South Yorkshire with over half of the county's population living within it.
South Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986, and so its districts (the metropolitan boroughs) are now effectively unitary authority areas; however, the metropolitan county, which is some 1,552 square kilometres (599 sq mi), continues to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference. As a ceremonial county, South Yorkshire has a Lord Lieutenant and a High Sheriff.
Tyne and Wear /ˌtaɪn ən ˈwɪər/ is a metropolitan county in North East England around the mouths of the Rivers Tyne and Wear. It came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. It consists of the five metropolitan boroughs of South Tyneside, North Tyneside, City of Newcastle upon Tyne, Gateshead and the City of Sunderland.
Prior to reforms in 1974, the territory comprising the county of Tyne and Wear straddled the border between the counties of Northumberland and County Durham. North Tyneside and Newcastle upon Tyne had previously existed within of Northumberland, whereas South Tyneside, Gateshead and Sunderland were all previously within the borders of County Durham, with the River Tyne forming the border of the two counties.
Tyne and Wear is bounded on the east by the North Sea, and as a ceremonial county, shares borders with Northumberland to the north and County Durham to the south.
Tyne and Wear County Council was abolished in 1986, and so its districts (the metropolitan boroughs) are now unitary authorities. However, the metropolitan county continues to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference.
Angus (Scottish Gaelic: Aonghas) is one of the 32 local government council areas of Scotland, a registration county and a lieutenancy area. The council area borders Aberdeenshire, Perth and Kinross and Dundee City. Main industries include agriculture and fishing. Global pharmaceuticals company GSK has a significant presence in Montrose in the north of the county.
Angus was historically a county (known officially as Forfarshire from the 18th century until 1928, when it reverted to its ancient name) until 1975 when it became a district of the Tayside Region. In 1996, two-tier local government was abolished and Angus was established as one of the replacement single-tier Council Areas. The former county had borders with Kincardineshire to the north-east, Aberdeenshire to the north and Perthshire to the west. Southwards, it faced Fife across the Firth of Tay. The boundaries of the present council area are exactly the same as those of the old county minus the City of Dundee. Angus is known as the birthplace of Scotland. The signing of the Declaration of Arbroath at Arbroath Abbey in 1320 marked Scotland's establishment as an independent nation. It is an area of rich history from Pictish
Buckinghamshire ( /ˈbʌkɪŋəmʃə/ or /ˈbʌkɪŋəmʃiə/; archaically the County of Buckingham; abbreviated Bucks) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan home county in South East England. The county town is Aylesbury, the largest town in the ceremonial county is Milton Keynes and largest town in the non-metropolitan county is High Wycombe.
The area under the control of Buckinghamshire County Council, or shire county, is divided into four districts—Aylesbury Vale, Chiltern, South Bucks and Wycombe. The Borough of Milton Keynes is a unitary authority and forms part of the county for various functions such as Lord Lieutenant but does not come under county council control. The ceremonial county, the area including Milton Keynes borough, borders Greater London (to the south east), Berkshire (to the south), Oxfordshire (to the west), Northamptonshire (to the north), Bedfordshire (to the north east) and Hertfordshire (to the east).
Sections of the county closer to London are part of the Metropolitan Green Belt, which limits development. It is the location of the nationally important Pinewood Studios and Dorney Lake, which held the rowing events at the 2012 Summer Olympics. It is also well known for
Cambridgeshire ( /ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒʃər/ or /ˈkeɪmbrɪdʒʃɪər/; also known, archaically, as the County of Cambridge; abbreviated Cambs.) is a county in England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, Norfolk to the northeast, Suffolk to the east, Essex and Hertfordshire to the south, and Bedfordshire and Northamptonshire to the west. The principal settlement is the city of Cambridge. Modern Cambridgeshire was formed from the historic counties of Cambridgeshire and Huntingdonshire, together with the Isle of Ely and the Soke of Peterborough; it contains most of the region known as Silicon Fen.
Cambridgeshire is twinned with Kreis Viersen in Germany.
Cambridgeshire is noted as the site of some of the earliest known Neolithic permanent settlements in the United Kingdom, along with sites at Fengate and Balbridie.
Cambridgeshire was recorded in the Domesday Book as "Grantbridgeshire" (or rather Grentebrigescire) (cf the river Granta). Covering a large part of East Anglia, Cambridgeshire today is the result of several local government unifications. In 1888 when county councils were introduced, separate councils were set up, following the traditional division of Cambridgeshire, for
In 1965, these two
Christchurch (/ˈkraɪstʃɜrtʃ/) is a borough and town in the county of Dorset on the south coast of England. The town adjoins Bournemouth in the west and the New Forest lies to the east. Historically within Hampshire, it joined Dorset with the reorganisation of local government in 1974 and is the most easterly borough in the county. Covering an area of 19.5 square miles (51 km), Christchurch has a population of approximately 45,000, making it the fourth most populous town in the county.
Founded in the 7th century at the confluence of the rivers Avon and Stour which flow into Christchurch Harbour, the town was originally named Twynham but became known as Christchurch following the construction of the priory in 1094. The town developed into an important trading port and was fortified in the 9th century. Further defences were added in the 12th century with the construction of a castle which was destroyed by the Parliamentarian Army during the English Civil War. During the 18th and 19th centuries smuggling flourished in Christchurch and became one of the town's most lucrative industries. The town was heavily fortified during Second World War as a precaution against an expected invasion
Dundee /dʌnˈdiː/ (Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Dè) is the fourth-largest city in Scotland and the 38th most populous settlement in the United Kingdom. It lies within the eastern central Lowlands on the north bank of the Firth of Tay, which feeds into the North Sea. Under the name of Dundee City, it forms one of the 32 council areas used for local government in Scotland.
The town developed into a burgh in Medieval times, and expanded rapidly in the 19th century largely due to the jute industry. This, along with its other major industries gave Dundee its epithet as the city of "jute, jam and journalism".
In mid-2008, the population of the City of Dundee was estimated to be 152,320. Dundee's recorded population reached a peak of 182,204 at the time of the 1971 census, but has since declined.
Today, Dundee is promoted as 'One City, Many Discoveries' in honour of Dundee's history of scientific activities and of the RRS Discovery, Robert Falcon Scott's Antarctic exploration vessel, which was built in Dundee and is now berthed in the city harbour. Biomedical and technological industries have arrived since the 1980s, and the city now accounts for 10% of the United Kingdom's digital-entertainment
Flintshire (Welsh: Sir y Fflint) is a county in north-east Wales. It borders Denbighshire, Wrexham and the English county of Cheshire. It is named after the historic county of Flintshire, which had notably different borders. The county is governed by Flintshire County Council.
The current administrative area of Flintshire (a unitary authority) came into existence in 1996, when the former administrative county of Clwyd was split into three smaller areas. The principal area was formed by the merger of the Alyn and Deeside and Delyn districts. In terms of pre-1974 divisions, the area comprises
The district of Rhuddlan, which was also formed entirely from the administrative county of Flintshire was included in the new Denbighshire instead. Other parts of the pre-1974 administrative Flintshire to be excluded from the principal area are the Maelor Rural District and the parish of Marford and Hoseley, which became part of the Wrexham Maelor district in 1974 and are now part of Wrexham County Borough.
Flintshire borders Wrexham, Denbighshire, and the English counties of Merseyside (across the River Dee) and Cheshire.
Parts of Flintshire have major manufacturing industries. Amongst these
Lincoln ( /ˈlɪŋkən/) is a cathedral city and county town of Lincolnshire, England.
The non-metropolitan district of Lincoln has a population of 85,595; the 2001 census gave the entire urban area of Lincoln (which includes North Hykeham, Waddington and Birchwood) a population of 104,221.
The earliest origins of Lincoln can be traced to the remains of an Iron Age settlement of round wooden dwellings (which were discovered by archaeologists in 1972) that have been dated to the 1st century BC This settlement was built by a deep pool (the modern Brayford Pool) in the River Witham at the foot of a large hill (on which the Normans later built Lincoln Cathedral and Lincoln Castle) .
The origins of the name Lincoln may come from this period, when the settlement is thought to have been named in the Brythonic language of Iron Age Britain's Celtic inhabitants as Lindon "The Pool", presumably referring to the Brayford Pool (compare the etymology of the name Dublin, from the Gaelic dubh linn "black pool"). It is not possible to know how big this original settlement was as its remains are now buried deep beneath the later Roman and medieval ruins, as well as the modern Lincoln.
The Royal Borough of Greenwich (UK /ɡrɪnɪdʒ/ GRIN-ij; US /ɡrɛnɪtʃ/ GREN-ich or /ɡrɛnɪdʒ/ GREN-ij) is an Inner London borough in south-east London, England. Taking its name from the historic town of Greenwich, the London Borough of Greenwich was formed in 1965 by the amalgamation of the former area of the Metropolitan Borough of Greenwich with part of the Metropolitan Borough of Woolwich to the east. The local authority is Greenwich Borough Council.
Greenwich is world famous as the traditional location of the Prime Meridian, on which all Coordinated Universal Time is based. The Prime Meridian running through Greenwich and the Greenwich Observatory is where the designation Greenwich Mean Time, or GMT began, and on which all world times are based. In 2012, Greenwich was listed as a top ten global destination by Frommer's – the only UK destination to be listed.
Greenwich was one of six host boroughs for the 2012 London Olympics and events were held at the Royal Artillery Barracks (Shooting), Greenwich Park (Equestrianism) and The O2-former Millennium Dome (Gymnastics; Basketball).
To mark the Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II, Greenwich became a Royal Borough on 3 February 2012, due in
The London Borough of Lambeth ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough in south London, England and forms part of Inner London. The local authority is Lambeth London Borough Council.
The name is recorded in 1062 as Lambehitha, meaning 'landing place for lambs', and in 1255 as Lambeth. Lambeth Marsh was drained in the 18th century but is remembered in the Lower Marsh street name.
Lambeth was part of the large ancient parish of Lambeth St Mary, the site of the archepiscopal Lambeth Palace, in the Brixton hundred of Surrey. It was an elongated north-south parish with a two-mile River Thames frontage opposite the cities of London and Westminster. Lambeth became part of the Metropolitan Police District in 1829. It continued as a single parish for Poor Law purposes after the Poor Law Amendment Act 1834 and a single parish governed by a vestry after the introduction of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1855.
Until 1889, the county of Surrey included the present-day London borough of Lambeth, when drawing up boundaries for the London Boroughs, the Government had initially suggested that Metropolitan Borough of Lambeth and the Metropolitan Borough of Southwark should be merged to
Oadby and Wigston is a local government district and borough in the English county of Leicestershire. It was formed in 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, from the merger of the Oadby and Wigston urban districts. The district forms part of the Harborough constituency
It is composed of the areas of Oadby, Wigston Magna and South Wigston. It is predominantly urban, and runs directly into Leicester, to the north-west. There are no civil parishes in the district.
The most northerly corner is near the junction of the A6030 and B582, and near the Bupa hospital it meets Harborough. It runs along the B582 then along the former Roman road (which runs to Corby), passing the playing fields of the University of Leicester. It passes along the north edge of Oadby Lodge, a farm owned by the Co-op. Towards the deserted village of Stretton Magna (outside the district), the boundary passes southwestwards. This area was proposed to be the site of the eco-town Pennbury. It crosses the A6 at Glen Gorse Golf Club. It crosses Newton Lane and the Midland Main Line. It crosses the Grand Union Canal, and towards Kilby it meets the district of Blaby at the River Sence. It follows the River Sence,
The Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea (often abbreviated to RBKC) is a central London borough of Royal borough status. After the City of Westminster, it is the wealthiest borough in England.
It is an urban area and was named in the 2001 census as the most densely populated local authority in the United Kingdom, with a population of 158,919 at 13,244 per square kilometre (the land area is approximately 12 square kilometres, making it the smallest of the London boroughs, excluding the City of London).
The borough is immediately to the west of the City of Westminster, which is at the heart of modern London, and to the east of Hammersmith & Fulham, and itself contains a substantial number of city centre facilities such as major museums and universities (in "Albertopolis"), department stores like Harrods, Peter Jones and Harvey Nichols, is home to the Notting Hill Carnival, Europe's largest carnival, and several Embassies in its Belgravia, Knightsbridge and Kensington Gardens districts. It also contains many of the most exclusive residential districts in London, which are also some of the most expensive in the world.
The local authority is Kensington and Chelsea London Borough
South Gloucestershire is a unitary district in the ceremonial county of Gloucestershire, in South West England.
The district was created in 1996, when the county of Avon was abolished, by the merger of former area of the districts of Kingswood and Northavon. The district borders the City and County of Bristol, the Bath and North East Somerset unitary district and the shire counties of Gloucestershire and Wiltshire.
South Gloucestershire also existed from 1950 to 1983 as the name of a roughly coterminous Parliamentary constituency, South Gloucestershire. Its MPs were in turn Tony Crosland, Frederick Corfield and John Cope.
In the 2001 census, the population of South Gloucestershire was 245,641.
According to these estimates, 97.6 percent of the population were described as white, 0.8 percent as dual heritage, 0.7 percent as Asian or Asian British, 0.4 percent as Black or Black British and 0.5 percent as Chinese or other.
Much of the population is in the northern and eastern suburbs of Bristol, although there are also large population centres in the Yate-Sodbury, Winterbourne-Frampton Cotterell and Thornbury areas. All of the villages are within the commuting belt for Bristol, Bath,
West Lothian (Scots: Wast Lowden, Scottish Gaelic: Lodainn an Iar) is one of the 32 unitary council areas in Scotland, and a Lieutenancy area. It borders the City of Edinburgh, Falkirk, North Lanarkshire, the Scottish Borders and South Lanarkshire.
The council area was created in 1996, under the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994, with the boundaries of the West Lothian district of the Lothian region.
The county of West Lothian was called Linlithgowshire or the County of Linlithgow until 1921.
Before it was abolished in 1975 by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, the county contained six burghs. Two are now outside the West Lothian unitary council area:
On abolition in 1975 the county, with the exception of the Bo'ness area, was included in the Lothian Region. Bo'ness became part of the Central Region. Lothian Region was divided into four districts, one of which was named West Lothian and approximated to the former county.
West Lothian District was created in 1975, comprising the county of West Lothian; less the burghs of Bo'ness and South Queensferry and the Kirkliston area; it also included the East Calder and West Calder districts of the former county of Midlothian.
Wiltshire ( /ˈwɪltʃər/ or /ˈwɪltʃɪər/, formerly /ˈwɪlʃər/; or the County of Wilts) is a ceremonial county in South West England. It is landlocked and borders the counties of Dorset, Somerset, Hampshire, Gloucestershire, Oxfordshire and Berkshire. It contains the unitary authority of Swindon and covers 3,485 km (1,346 square miles). The ancient county town was Wilton, but since 1930 Wiltshire County Council and its successor Wiltshire Council (from 2009) have been based at Trowbridge.
Wiltshire is characterised by its high downland and wide valleys. Salisbury Plain is famous as the location of the Stonehenge and Avebury stone circles and other ancient landmarks and as the main training area in the UK of the British Army. The city of Salisbury is notable for its mediaeval cathedral. Important country houses open to the public include Longleat, near Warminster, and the National Trust's Stourhead, near Mere.
The county, in the 9th century written as Wiltunscir, later Wiltonshire, is named after the former county town of Wilton, itself named after the river Wylye, one of eight rivers which drain the county.
Wiltshire is notable for its pre-Roman archaeology. The Mesolithic, Neolithic
Sandwell is a metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, with a population of around 308,100, and an area of 33 square miles (85 km). The borough is named after Sandwell Priory, and spans a densely populated part of both the Black Country, and the West Midlands conurbation, encompassing the urban towns and villages of Blackheath, Cradley Heath, Oldbury, Rowley Regis, Smethwick, Tipton, Tividale, Wednesbury, and West Bromwich. West Bromwich is the largest town in the borough, but Sandwell Council House (the headquarters of Sandwell Council) is located in Oldbury.
The Metropolitan Borough of Sandwell was formed in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972, and is an amalgamation of the former county boroughs of Warley and West Bromwich, which in turn were amalgamated from the previous boroughs of Oldbury, Rowley Regis, and Smethwick (Warley), and Tipton, Wednesbury, and West Bromwich (West Bromwich). For its first 12 years, Sandwell had a two-tier system of local government; Sandwell Council shared power with the West Midlands County Council. Since the Local Government Act 1985, Sandwell Council has effectively been a unitary authority, serving as the sole executive, deliberative, and
Cheltenham ( /ˈtʃɛltnəm/), also known as Cheltenham Spa, is a large spa town and borough in Gloucestershire, England, located on the edge of the Cotswolds. It is the home of the flagship race of British steeplechase horse racing, the Gold Cup, the main event of the Cheltenham Festival held every March. The town hosts several festivals of culture often featuring nationally and internationally famous contributors and attendees, including Greenbelt, Cheltenham Literature Festival, Cheltenham Jazz Festival, Cheltenham Science Festival and Cheltenham Music Festival.
This place takes its name from the small river Chelt, which rises nearby at Dowdeswell and runs through the town on its way to the Severn. The town was awarded a market charter in 1226. Though little remains of its pre-spa history, Cheltenham has been a health and holiday spa town resort since the discovery of mineral springs there in 1716. The visit of George III with the queen and royal princesses in 1788 set a stamp of fashion on the spa. The spa waters continue to be taken recreationally at Pittville Pump Room, built for this purpose and completed in 1830; it is a centrepiece of Pittville, a planned extension of
Northampton /nɔrˈθæmptən/ is a large market town and local government district in the East Midlands region of England. Situated about 67 miles (108 km) north-west of London and around 50 miles (80 km) south-east of Birmingham, Northampton lies on the River Nene and is the county town of Northamptonshire. The demonym of Northampton is Northamptonian.
Original settlements in Northampton date back to the 6th century. Its modern development is largely due to its rapid population increase since the 1960s after a planned expansion occurred under the New Towns Commission in the early 1970s. In 2001, its urban area population was 197,199 while its town population was 189,474, making Northampton the 27th largest settlement in England, and the UK's 3rd largest town without official city status after Reading and Dudley. Northampton is the most populous district in England that is not a unitary authority, a status it failed to obtain in the 1990s local government reform.
Northampton has a history of the manufacture of boots and shoes yet engineering has taken over as a modern key industry; other industries include food processing, brewing, and the manufacture of shoe machinery, cosmetics,
Pembrokeshire ( /ˈpɛmbrʊkʃɪər/, /ˈpɛmbrʊkʃər/, or /ˈpɛmbroʊkʃɪər/; Welsh: Sir Benfro [ˈsiːr ˈbɛnvrɔ]) is a county in the south west of Wales. It borders Carmarthenshire to the east and Ceredigion to the north east. The county town is Haverfordwest where Pembrokeshire County Council is headquartered.
The county is home to Pembrokeshire Coast National Park, the only coastal national park of its kind in the United Kingdom and one of three national parks in Wales, the others being Snowdonia and Brecon Beacons national parks. Over the years Pembrokeshire's beaches have been awarded 41 Blue Flag Awards (13 in 2011), 47 Green Coast Awards (15 in 2011) and 106 Seaside Awards (31 in 2011. In 2011 it also had 39 beaches recommended by the Marine Conservation Society.
Much of Pembrokeshire, especially the south, has been English in language and culture for many centuries. The boundary between the English and Welsh speakers is known as the Landsker Line. South Pembrokeshire is known as Little England Beyond Wales.
Pembrokeshire is a maritime county, bordered by the sea on three sides, by Ceredigion to the north east and by Carmarthenshire to the east. The local economy relies heavily on
The Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead is a Royal Borough of Berkshire, in South East England. It became a unitary authority on 1 April 1998.
It is home to Windsor Castle, Eton College, Legoland and Ascot Racecourse.
The borough was formed on 1 April 1974 as a non-metropolitan district of Berkshire, under the Local Government Act 1972, from parts of the former administrative counties of Berkshire and Buckinghamshire. From Berkshire came the boroughs of Maidenhead and Windsor, and the rural districts of Cookham and Windsor, and from Buckinghamshire came the Eton urban district, and the parishes of Datchet, Horton and Wraysbury from the rural district of Eton. It inherited royal borough status from Windsor, the site of Windsor Castle.
During 2009 the Royal Borough's Youth Cabinet, along with other local authorities within Berkshire agreed to set up a new Local Authority within Berkshire, responsible for Youth Rights and Youth Services. The 'Berkshire County Youth Council' has developed to now include Slough Borough Council.
It gained unitary authority status in 1998 with the abolition of Berkshire County Council.
The Royal Borough of Windsor and Maidenhead contains the following
The Metropolitan Borough of Sefton is a metropolitan borough of Merseyside, England. Its local authority is Sefton Metropolitan Borough Council. Sefton was formed by the Local Government Act 1972 on 1 April 1974, by the amalgamation of the former county boroughs of Bootle and Southport, and, from the administrative county of Lancashire, the municipal borough of Crosby, the urban districts of Formby and Litherland, and part of the Rural District of West Lancashire. It was placed in the metropolitan county of Merseyside. The borough consists of a coastal strip of land on the Irish Sea, and extends from Bootle in the south, to Southport in the north. In the south-east, it extends inland to Maghull. The district is bounded by Liverpool to the south, Knowsley to the south-east, and West Lancashire to the east.
It is named after the village and parish of Sefton, near Maghull. When the borough was created in the Local Government Act 1972 a name was sought which would not unduly identify the borough with any of its constituent parts, particularly the former county boroughs of Bootle and Southport. The locality had strong links with both the Earl of Sefton and the Earl of Derby, resident of
South West England is one of nine official regions of England. It is the largest such region in area, covering 9,200 square miles (23,828 km) and comprising Bristol, Gloucestershire, Somerset, Dorset, Wiltshire, Devon, Cornwall and the Isles of Scilly. Five million people live there.
The region includes the area often known as the West Country and much of the ancient kingdom of Wessex. The size of the region is shown by the fact that the northern part of Gloucestershire, near Chipping Campden, is as close to the Scottish border as it is to the tip of Cornwall. The largest city is Bristol. Other major urban centres include Plymouth, Swindon, Gloucester, Exeter, Bath, and the South East Dorset conurbation of Bournemouth, Poole and Christchurch. All counties either include at least one unitary authority or are unitary authorities themselves, as is the case with Cornwall and the Unitary Authority of Bristol. The region has 8 cities: Salisbury, Bath, Wells, Bristol, Gloucester, Exeter, Plymouth and Truro. It includes two National Parks and four World Heritage Sites, including Stonehenge.
The region is used for statistical analysis, being at the first level of NUTS for Eurostat purposes.
Blackpool /ˈblækpuːl/ is a borough seaside town, and unitary authority area of Lancashire, in North West England. It is situated along England's west coast by the Irish Sea, between the Ribble and Wyre estuaries, 17.5 miles (28.2 km) northwest of Preston, 27 miles (43 km) north of Liverpool, 30 miles (48 km) northwest of Bolton and 40 miles (64 km) northwest of Manchester. It has an estimated population of 142,100, and a population density that makes it the fourth most densely populated borough of England and Wales outside Greater London.
Throughout the Middle Ages and Early Modern period, Blackpool was a coastal hamlet in Lancashire's Hundred of Amounderness, and remained such until the mid-18th century when it became fashionable in England to travel to the coast during the summer to bathe in sea water to improve well-being. In 1781, visitors attracted to Blackpool's 7-mile (11 km) sandy beach were able to use a newly built private road, built by Thomas Clifton and Sir Henry Hoghton. Stagecoaches began running to Blackpool from Manchester in the same year, and from Halifax in 1782. In the early 19th century, Henry Banks and his son-in-law John Cocker erected new buildings in
North Ayrshire (Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Inbhir Àir a Tuath, pronounced [ʃirˠəxk iɲiˈɾʲaːɾʲ ə t̪ʰuə]) is one of 32 council areas in Scotland with a population of roughly 136,000 people. It is located in the south-west region of Scotland, and borders the areas of Inverclyde to the north, Renfrewshire to the north-east and East Ayrshire and South Ayrshire to the East and South respectively.
The area was created in 1996 as a successor to the district of Cunninghame which covered exactly the same boundaries. The council headquarters are located in Irvine, which is the largest town. The area also contains the towns of Ardrossan, Beith, Dalry, Kilbirnie, Kilwinning, Largs, Saltcoats, Skelmorlie, Stevenston, West Kilbride, as well as the Isle of Arran and the Cumbrae Isles.
Towns in the north (Largs, Fairlie, West Kilbride) are affluent commuter towns, while Ardrossan, Saltcoats, Stevenston and Kilwinning in the south, are rather more industrial and beset with high unemployment. The inland Garnock Valley towns (Dalry, Beith and Kilbirnie) were once a centre of steel and textile production, however this has long since gone. Tourism is the main industry on Arran and Cumbrae, however the
North Somerset is a unitary authority in England. Its area covers part of the ceremonial county of Somerset but it is administered independently of the non-metropolitan county. Its administrative headquarters is in the town hall in Weston-super-Mare.
North Somerset borders the local government areas of Bristol, Bath and North East Somerset, Mendip and Sedgemoor. North Somerset contains the parliamentary constituencies of Weston-super-Mare and North Somerset.
Between 1 April 1974 and 31 March 1996, it was the Woodspring district of the county of Avon (named after Woodspring Priory, an isolated mediaeval church near the coast just north east of Weston-super-Mare). The district of Woodspring was formed from the municipal boroughs of Weston-super-Mare, Clevedon and Portishead urban districts, Long Ashton Rural District, and part of Axbridge Rural District.
Though the government proposed that the new unitary area be known as "North West Somerset" from 1 April 1996, the council voted instead to adopt the name "North Somerset" and so the name "North West Somerset" was never widely used. There remained some legal doubt as to whether the council had validly changed the name to "North
Surrey /ˈsʌri/ is a county in the South East of England, and one of the home counties. The county borders Greater London, Kent, East Sussex, West Sussex, Hampshire, and Berkshire, and its historic county town is Guildford. Surrey County Council sits extraterritorially at Kingston upon Thames, as Kingston has been part of Greater London since 1965. The London boroughs of Lambeth, Wandsworth and Southwark were considered part of Surrey until 1889; and Croydon, Kingston, Merton, Sutton, Barnes and Richmond - all now reclassified as Greater London - were formerly part of Surrey until 1965.
Today's Surrey is divided into 11 boroughs and districts: Elmbridge, Epsom and Ewell, Guildford, Mole Valley, Reigate and Banstead, Runnymede, Spelthorne, Surrey Heath, Tandridge, Waverley and Woking. Services such as roads, mineral extraction licensing, education, strategic waste and recycling infrastructure, births marriages and deaths registration, aspects of health services and most social and children's services are within the remit of Surrey County Council.
Surrey is divided in two by the chalk ridge of the North Downs, running east-west. The ridge is pierced by Surrey's rivers, the Wey and the
Cornwall ( /ˈkɔrnwɔːl/ or /ˈkɔrnwəl/; Cornish: Kernow [ˈkɛɹnɔʊ]) is a unitary authority and ceremonial county of England, within the United Kingdom. Cornwall is a peninsula bordered to the north and west by the Celtic Sea, to the south by the English Channel, and to the east by the county of Devon, over the River Tamar. Cornwall has a population of 535,300 and covers an area of 3,563 km (1,376 sq mi). The administrative centre, and only city in Cornwall, is Truro.
Cornwall forms the westernmost part of the south-west peninsula of the island of Great Britain, and a large part of the Cornubian batholith is within Cornwall. This area was first inhabited in the Palaeolithic and Mesolithic periods. It continued to be occupied by Neolithic and then Bronze Age peoples, and later (in the Iron Age) by Brythons with distinctive cultural relations to neighbouring Wales and Brittany. There is little evidence that Roman rule was effective west of Exeter and few Roman remains have been found. Cornwall was the home of a division of the Dumnonii tribe—whose tribal centre was in the modern county of Devon—known as the Cornovii, separated from the Brythons of Wales after the Battle of Deorham, often
Nottingham (/ˈnɒtɪŋəm/ NOT-ing-əm) is a city and unitary authority in the East Midlands of England in the ceremonial county of Nottinghamshire.
Nottingham is famed for its links with the legend of Robin Hood and, during the Industrial Revolution, obtained worldwide recognition for its lace-making, bicycle and tobacco industries. With origins traceable back to 600 AD, Nottingham was granted its city charter as part of the Diamond Jubilee celebrations of Queen Victoria in 1897 and has since been officially titled the City of Nottingham. Nottingham is home to the BBC East Midlands offices and formerly to the Government Office for the East Midlands. It is one of eight members of the English Core Cities Group.
Whilst Nottingham has always had a tightly-drawn city boundary, accounting for its relatively small population of 305,700, making it the second largest city in the East Midlands behind its local neighbour Leicester with a population of 330,000, and the fifteenth largest city in the UK, the Nottingham Urban Area has a population of approximately 640,900; in the 2011 census, it was the eighth largest urban area in the United Kingdom. Eurostat's concept of the Larger Urban Zone
South East England is one of nine official regions of England at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes. It consists of Berkshire, Buckinghamshire, East Sussex, Hampshire, Isle of Wight, Kent, Oxfordshire, Surrey and West Sussex. As with the other regions of England, apart from Greater London, the South East has no elected government and few powers. The Labour Party's proposals during the general election of 1997 to create elected regional governments were abandoned. The headquarters for the region's governmental bodies are in Guildford.
The largest city in the region is Brighton & Hove. The dominant influence on the region's economy is neighbouring London. The highest point is Walbury Hill in Berkshire at 297 metres (974 ft).
Until 1999, there was a South East Standard Statistical Region, which also included the counties of Essex, Hertfordshire, Bedfordshire and Greater London. The former South East Civil Defence Region covered the same area as the current government office region.
Bletchley Park in Buckinghamshire enabled the Enigma machine to be cracked during the Second World War. The Rocket Propulsion Establishment at Westcott, Buckinghamshire was the development
Blaenau Gwent (pronounced /ˌblaɪnaɪ ˈɡwɛnt/, Welsh: [ˈbləɨ.naɨ]) is a county borough in South Wales, sharing its name with a parliamentary constituency. It borders the unitary authority areas of Monmouthshire and Torfaen to the east, Caerphilly to the west and Powys to the north. Its main towns are Abertillery, Brynmawr, Ebbw Vale and Tredegar.
The borough was formed in 1974 as a local government district of Gwent. It was a merger of the Monmouthshire urban districts of Abertillery, Ebbw Vale, Nantyglo and Blaina and Tredegar, along with Brynmawr urban district and the parish of Llanelly in Brecknockshire.
It was reconstituted in 1996 as a county borough, excluding Llanelly which instead was transferred to the reconstituted Monmouthshire. The area is now governed by Blaenau Gwent County Borough Council.
Blaenau Gwent hit the headlines at the 2005 UK General Election when an independent candidate, Peter Law, won the Westminster seat. He had resigned from the Labour Party after an internal party row following the retirement of incumbent MP Llew Smith, and defeated the official Labour candidate, Maggie Jones, by a margin of 9,121 votes. The seat had previously been held by Aneurin
Essex ( /ˈɛsɨks/) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It is one of the home counties located northeast of the city of London. It borders the counties of Suffolk and Cambridgeshire to the north, Hertfordshire to the west, Kent and the estuary of the River Thames to the south and London to the southwest. Essex County Council is the principal local authority for much of the county, sharing functions with twelve district and borough councils. The county town is Chelmsford. Essex is also a region at the second level for statistical purposes. It is the southernmost of three constituent parts of the East of England - a first level region. The Essex region and ceremonial county comprises three areas of local government: the two-tiered non-metropolitan county of Essex and the unitary authority areas of Thurrock and Southend-on-Sea.
The historic county can be considered the oldest as Wessex and Mercia were replaced for administration since before the Norman period and a vestige of the term Northumbria exists in Northumberland, Essex occupies the eastern portion of the pre-England Kingdom of Essex. Large swathes of the
Highland (Scottish Gaelic: A' Ghàidhealtachd; pronounced [kɛːəlˠ̪t̪əxk]) is a council area in the Scottish Highlands and is the largest local government area in both Scotland and the United Kingdom as a whole. It shares borders with the council areas of Moray, Aberdeenshire, Perth and Kinross, and Argyll and Bute. Their councils, and those of Angus and Stirling, also have areas of the Scottish Highlands within their administrative boundaries. The Highland area covers most of the mainland and inner-Hebridean parts of the former counties of Inverness-shire and Ross and Cromarty, all of Sutherland, Caithness and Nairnshire, and small parts of Argyll and Moray.
The area was created as a two-tier region in 1975, under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973, with an elected council for the whole region and, in addition, elected councils for each of eight districts, Badenoch and Strathspey, Caithness, Inverness, Lochaber, Nairn, Ross and Cromarty, Skye and Lochalsh and Sutherland. The act also abolished county and burgh councils. In 1996, under the Local Government etc (Scotland) Act 1994, the Highland Regional Council and the district councils were wound up and their functions were
The London Borough of Brent ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough in north west London, and forms part of Outer London. The major area is Wembley.
It borders Harrow to the north-west, Barnet to the north-east, Camden to the east and Ealing, Hammersmith and Fulham, and Kensington and Chelsea to the south, and Westminster to the south-east. Most of the eastern border is formed by the Roman road Watling Street, now the modern A5.
Brent has a mixture of residential, industrial and commercial land. Wembley is the major town of Brent, which is home to Wembley Stadium and Wembley Arena.
The Brent Cross shopping centre is not located in Brent, but in the London Borough of Barnet. It takes its name from the River Brent which runs through the site.
Brent was formed in 1965 from the area of the former Municipal Borough of Wembley and Municipal Borough of Willesden of Middlesex. Its name derives from the River Brent which runs through the borough.
Brent is divided into 21 Electoral Wards. Some wards share a name with the traditional areas above, others include Barnhill, Dudden Hill, Fryent, Mapesbury and Welsh Harp.
The Brent borough includes three parliamentary constituencies:
Mid Sussex is a local government district in the English county of West Sussex. It contains the towns of East Grinstead, Haywards Heath and Burgess Hill.
The district was created on 1 April 1974, and replaced the urban districts of Cuckfield, Burgess Hill, and East Grinstead and nearly all of Cuckfield Rural. These districts had previously been under East Sussex.
The district borders the Tandridge district of Surrey to the north, Lewes district and Wealden district to the east, and Brighton and Hove to the south, all in East Sussex, and Horsham district and Crawley to the west and northwest respectively, both of which are in West Sussex.
Within the Mid Sussex District are the following civil parishes:
The parliamentary constituency of Mid Sussex covers most (but not all) of the district, and is held by the Conservative Party. The incumbent Member of Parliament (MP) is Nicholas Soames, the grandson of former Prime Minister Sir Winston Churchill, and a former junior minister in the Government of John Major (1990–97). In the 2005 general election, Nicholas Soames held the seat with 48.0% of the popular vote, a 1.8% increase; the Liberal Democrat candidate Ms Serena Tierney took 36.1%
Telford and Wrekin is a unitary district with borough status in the West Midlands region of England. For Eurostat purposes it is a NUTS 3 region (code UKG21) and is one of four unitary authority areas that comprise the "Shropshire and Staffordshire" NUTS 2 region. The district was created in 1974 as The Wrekin, then a non-metropolitan district of Shropshire. Before the creation of The Wrekin, Telford was a new town run by the Telford Development Corporation (TDC) from the 1960s to the changes in 1974. In 1998 the district became a unitary authority and was renamed Telford and Wrekin.
All of the council houses previously owned by Wrekin District Council and the subsequent Telford and Wrekin Council were transferred to a newly created Housing Association, the Wrekin Housing Trust, in 1999 which now owns the majority of social housing in Telford.
The borough's major settlement is Telford, a new town designated in the 1960s incorporating the existing towns of Dawley, Madeley, Oakengates and Wellington. The next largest population centre is Newport, a market town to the north of Telford.
On 1 April 1998, as a result of the Local Government Commission for England's review, the district
West Berkshire is a local government district in the ceremonial county of Berkshire, England, governed by a unitary authority (West Berkshire Council). Its administrative capital is Newbury, located almost equidistantly between Bristol and London.
Apart from Newbury, the other main centres in the district include Thatcham, Hungerford, Pangbourne and Lambourn. Larger villages include Theale, Purley-on-Thames, Burghfield, Mortimer and Hermitage. The West Berkshire district borders Hampshire to the south, Wiltshire to the west, Oxfordshire to the north and both the Reading and Wokingham unitary districts to the east.
The highest point in southeast/south-central England is located in West Berkshire at Walbury Hill with a summit height of 297 m (974 ft) 2 km to the south of the village of Inkpen. West Berkshire is also home to the UK Atomic Weapons Establishment, based near Aldermaston to the east of the district and the worldwide headquarters of Vodafone on the outskirts of Newbury. The area around Lambourn in the far west of the district is noted for its numerous horse racing stables and training grounds.
West Berkshire has a number of water courses running through the area. In
The West Midlands is a metropolitan county in western central England with a 2011 estimated population of 2,738,100. It came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972, formed from parts of Staffordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire. The county itself is a NUTS 2 region within the wider NUTS 1 region of the same name. The county consists of seven metropolitan boroughs: the City of Birmingham, the City of Coventry, and the City of Wolverhampton, as well as Dudley, Sandwell, Solihull, and Walsall. The West Midlands County Council was abolished on 31 March 1986, and so its districts (the metropolitan boroughs) are now effectively unitary authorities. However, the metropolitan county continues to exist in law and as a geographic frame of reference.
The county is sometimes described as the "West Midlands metropolitan area" or the "West Midlands conurbation", although these have different, and less clearly defined, boundaries. The main conurbation, or urban area, does not include Coventry for example. The name "West Midlands" is also used for the much larger West Midlands region, which sometimes causes confusion.
The Metropolitan Borough of North Tyneside is a metropolitan borough of Tyne and Wear, in North East England and is part of the Tyneside conurbation. Its seat is Wallsend Town Hall.
North Tyneside is bounded by Newcastle upon Tyne to the west, the North Sea to the east, the River Tyne to the south and Northumberland to the north. Within its bounds are the towns of Wallsend, North Shields and Whitley Bay, which form a continuously built-up area contiguous with Newcastle.
The borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the county borough of Tynemouth, with the borough of Wallsend, part of the borough of Whitley Bay, the urban district of Longbenton and part of the urban district of Seaton Valley, all of which were in Northumberland.
The following places are located in North Tyneside:
Unlike most English districts, its council is led by a directly-elected mayor, currently the conservative Linda Arkley. After the 2011 elections the council was Labour led, Labour having 35 councillors, the Conservatives 19 and the Lib Dems 6.
The council is elected "in thirds", with one councillor from each three-member ward elected each year for the first three years, the mayoral election being
Norfolk ( /ˈnɔrfək/) is a low-lying county in the East of England. It has borders with Lincolnshire to the west, Cambridgeshire to the west and southwest and Suffolk to the south. Its northern and eastern boundaries are the North Sea coast and to the north-west the county is bordered by The Wash. The city of Norwich is the county town at Norfolk which is fifth largest ceremonial county in England, with an area of 5,371 km² (2,074 sq mi). Of the 34 non-metropolitan English counties, Norfolk is the seventh most populous, with a population of 850,800 (mid 2008). However, as a largely rural county it has a low population density, 155 people per square kilometre (or 401 per square mile). Norfolk has about one-thirtieth the population density of central London, the tenth lowest density county in the country, with 38% of the county’s population living in the four major built up areas of Norwich (195,000), Great Yarmouth (67,000), King's Lynn (41,000) and Thetford (22,000). The Broads, a well known network of rivers and lakes, is located towards the county's east coast, extending south into Suffolk. The area has the status of a National Park and is protected by the Broads Authority.
Rutland ( /ˈrʌtlənd/) is a landlocked county in central England, bounded on the west and north by Leicestershire, northeast by Lincolnshire and southeast by Peterborough (a unitary authority ceremonially in Cambridgeshire) and Northamptonshire.
Its greatest length north to south is only 18 miles (29.0 km), greatest breadth east to west, 17 miles (27.4 km). It is the smallest (in terms of population) normal unitary authority in mainland England (only the City of London is smaller in terms of area), and is 348th of the 354 districts in terms of population. It is the smallest historic English county, leading to the adoption of the Latin motto Multum In Parvo or "much in little" by the county council in 1950. Among modern ceremonial counties the Isle of Wight, City of London and City of Bristol are all smaller. The former County of London, in existence 1889 to 1965, also had a smaller area.
The only towns in Rutland are Oakham, the county town, and Uppingham. At the centre of the county is the large artificial reservoir, Rutland Water, with a similar surface area to Windermere. It is an important nature reserve serving as an overwintering site for wildfowl and a breeding site for
Shropshire ( /ˈʃrɒpʃər/ or /ˈʃrɒpʃɪər/; alternatively Salop; abbreviated, in print only, Shrops) is a county in the West Midlands region of England. It borders Wales to the west, Cheshire to the north, Staffordshire to the east, Worcestershire to the south-east and Herefordshire to the south. A unitary authority (Shropshire Council) was created on 1 April 2009, taking over from the previous county council and 5 district councils, and covers most of the county. The borough of Telford and Wrekin, included in Shropshire for ceremonial purposes, has been a separate unitary authority since 1998.
The county's population and economy is centred on five towns: the county town of Shrewsbury, which is culturally and historically important and is located in the centre of the county; Telford, a new town in the east which was constructed around a number of older towns, most notably Wellington, Dawley and Madeley, which is today the most populous; and Oswestry in the north-west, Bridgnorth just to the south of Telford, and Ludlow in the south. The county has many further smaller towns, including Whitchurch in the north, Newport just to the north-east of Telford, and Market Drayton in the
Harlow is a new town and local government district in Essex, England. It is located in the west of the county and on the border with Hertfordshire, on the Stort Valley, The town is near the M11 motorway and forms part of the London commuter belt.The district has a current population of 78,889 (2010 estimate).
There is some dispute as to where the placename Harlow derives from. One theory is that it derives from the Anglo-Saxon words 'here' and 'hlaw', meaning "army hill", probably to be identified with Mulberry Hill, which was used as the moot or meeting place for the district.
The other theory is that it derives from the words 'here' and 'hearg', meaning "temple hill/mound", probably to be identified with an Iron Age burial mound, later a Roman temple site on River Way.
The original village, mentioned in the Norman Domesday Book, developed as a typical rural community around what is now known as Old Harlow, with many of its buildings still standing.
The earliest deposits are of a Mesolithic (circa 10,000 BC) hunting camp excavated by Davey in Northbrooks in the 1970s(Unpublished) closely followed by the large and unexcavated deposits of Neolithic flint located at Gilden Way. These
Bracknell Forest is one of six unitary authorities within Berkshire in southern England. It covers the two towns of Bracknell and Sandhurst as well as surrounding villages including Crowthorne and Binfield. It also includes the areas of North Ascot, Warfield and Winkfield. Parts of the borough border neighbouring boroughs such as Wokingham Borough Council and the Royal Borough of Windsor & Maidenhead. The south of the borough also borders onto Hampshire and Surrey.
Bracknell Forest was formed on 1 April 1974, as the non-metropolitan district of Bracknell. The district took on the territory of the former Easthampstead Rural District (in which the Bracknell new town had been developed). It changed its name in May 1988, at the same time as it was granted borough status.
On 1 April 1998, Berkshire County Council was abolished, as a consequence of the Banham Review, and Bracknell Forest Borough Council became a unitary authority. From 2008, references to 'borough' were phased out in favour of simply Bracknell Forest Council.
Since 1973, Bracknell Forest has been twinned with Opladen in Germany, continued by Leverkusen after Opladen's incorporation in 1975.
There are 265 Listed Buildings
The City of St Albans /sɨnt ˈɔːlbənz/, also known as the City and District of St Albans or District of St Albans, is a local government district, in Hertfordshire, England. It was created in 1974 and since then has held the status of non-metropolitan district and city. The local authority is St Albans City Council. It has routes to the M1 motorway via the A414 road (formerly the M10 motorway), and rail routes to London St Pancras and Watford via St Albans City railway station and St Albans Abbey railway station respectively.
The district includes St Albans (population c. 58,000), Harpenden (population c. 27,600), the parishes of Colney Heath, Harpenden Rural, London Colney, Redbourn, St Michael's, St Stephen's (including the villages of Chiswell Green and Bricket Wood), Sandridge and Wheathampstead. Nearby places outside the district include Hatfield to the east, Welwyn Garden City to the northeast, Luton and Dunstable to the northwest, Hemel Hempstead to the west, Watford to the southwest and Borehamwood to the south.
The local authority is St Albans City Council, which also calls itself St Albans City and District Council and St Albans District Council. The irregular sounding
Gloucestershire (/ˈɡlɒstərʃər/ GLOSS-tər-shər; abbreviated Glos.) is a county in South West England. The county comprises part of the Cotswold Hills, part of the flat fertile valley of the River Severn, and the entire Forest of Dean.
The county town is the city of Gloucester, and other principal towns include Cheltenham, Cirencester, Stroud, and Tewkesbury.
When considered as a ceremonial county, Gloucestershire borders the preserved county of Gwent in Wales (now Monmouthshire), and in England the ceremonial counties of Herefordshire, Worcestershire, Warwickshire, Oxfordshire, Wiltshire and Somerset. Ceremonially, it includes the area covered by the South Gloucestershire unitary authority.
According to a 2002 campaign by the charity Plantlife, the county flower of Gloucestershire is the Wild Daffodil.
Gloucestershire is a historic county mentioned in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in the 10th century, though the areas of Winchcombe and the Forest of Dean were not added until the late 11th century. Gloucestershire originally included the then "small town" of Bristol. The "local" rural community moved to the port city, (as Bristol was to become) and Bristol's population growth accelerated
Hertfordshire (/ˈhɑːtfədʃɪə/, /ˈhɑrtfərdʃɪər/ or /ˈhɑrfərdʃər/; abbreviated Herts) is a ceremonial and non-metropolitan county in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. For statistical purposes it is part of the region of Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire (code UKH2) at the level of NUTS 2. Hertfordshire is one of the home counties and is bordered by the non-metropolitan counties of Bedfordshire to the north, Cambridgeshire to the northeast, Essex to the east, Buckinghamshire to the west. Greater London lies to the south. The county town is Hertford.
Hertfordshire was originally the area assigned to a fortress constructed at Hertford under the rule of Edward the Elder in 913. The name Hertford is derived from the Anglo-Saxon heort ford, meaning deer crossing (of a watercourse). The name Hertfordshire first appears in the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle in 1011. Deer feature prominently in many county emblems.
There is evidence of human beings living in Hertfordshire since the Middle Stone Age. It was first farmed during the Neolithic period and permanent habitation appeared at the beginning of the Bronze Age. This was followed by tribes settling in the area during the Iron
The London Borough of Merton ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a borough in southwest London, England.
The borough was formed under the London Government Act in 1965 by the merger of the Municipal Borough of Mitcham, the Municipal Borough of Wimbledon and the Merton and Morden Urban District, all formerly within Surrey. The main commercial centres in Merton are Mitcham, Morden and Wimbledon, of which Wimbledon is the largest. Other smaller centres include Raynes Park, Colliers Wood, South Wimbledon, Wimbledon Park and Pollards Hill.
The borough derives its name from the historic parish of Merton which was centred on the area now known as South Wimbledon. Merton was chosen as an acceptable compromise, following a dispute between Wimbledon and Mitcham over the new borough's name.
The Borough includes the following areas:
The May 2010 local government elections saw the Labour Party become the council largest party, following the loss of three seats by the Conservative Party, two to the Liberal Democrats and one to Labour. The current council is under no overall control but run by a Labour minority administration and its composition is:
At the Annual Council Meeting, a ceremonial mayor
North Lincolnshire is a unitary authority area in the region of Yorkshire and the Humber in England. For ceremonial purposes it is part of Lincolnshire. There are three significant towns: Scunthorpe (the administrative centre), Brigg and Barton-upon-Humber.
It is also home to the Haxey Hood, which is a traditional event which takes place in Haxey on 6 January in the afternoon and is a kind of large rugby football scrum where a leather tube (called the "hood") is pushed to 1 of 4 pubs, where it remains until next year's game.
The 846 km (327 sq mi) council area lies on the south side of the Humber estuary and consists mainly of agricultural land, including land on either side of the River Trent. It borders onto North East Lincolnshire, Lincolnshire, South Yorkshire, Nottinghamshire and the East Riding of Yorkshire. The council's administrative base is at Pittwood House in Scunthorpe.
Before the creation of Humberside in 1974, it was part of Lincolnshire, becoming North Lincolnshire only in 1996, on the abolition of Humberside. Until 1 April 1996, the area had been part of Humberside. The district was formed by a merger of the boroughs of Glanford and Scunthorpe, and southern
Thurrock (/ˈθʌrək/) is a unitary authority with borough status in the English ceremonial county of Essex. It is part of the London commuter belt and an area of regeneration within the Thames Gateway redevelopment zone. The local authority is Thurrock Council.
It lies on the River Thames just to the east of London. With over 18 miles (29 km) of riverfront it covers an area of 64 square miles (166 km²), with more than half defined as Green Belt. With Greater London to the west and the river to the south, the county of Essex abuts the Borough to the north and east, and across the river lies Kent.
The local authority is Thurrock Council. Elections are held 3 out of every 4 years. In the last election in 2012, Labour took control after a period in which no party had overall control.
Thurrock is covered by two parliamentary constituencies. Thurrock includes most of the borough while South Basildon and East Thurrock includes some wards in the east of the borough. Both seats were Conservative gains from Labour at the 2010 general election.
The Council is led by Cllr John Kent (Lab) who took over from Cllr Garry Hague in May 2010. This changed the administration from Conservative to Labour,
Wycombe ( /ˈwɪkəm/) is a local government district in Buckinghamshire in south central England. It is administered by Wycombe District Council in the town of High Wycombe. The district was formed on 1 April 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. It was a merger of the borough of High Wycombe, Marlow Urban District and Wycombe Rural District.
The Wycombe District Council area comprises:
There are 28 civil parishes including 2 where a Parish Meeting is held in lieu of a Parish Council.
High Wycombe is home to Wycombe Wanderers F.C. and London Wasps; within the district's boundaries are the homes of Marlow F.C., Marlow United F.C., Risborough Rangers F.C. and Marlow Rugby Club.
Following the local elections in May 2011, the council comprises the following:
The district is bisected by the M40, with a major junction with the A404 at High Wycombe. The A404 connects Marlow and Wycombe within the district. The main railway line through the district, the Chiltern Main Line has major stations at High Wycombe and Princes Risborough. The Marlow Branch Line and Princes Risborough line also provide commuter services.
York (local /ˈjɔrk/) is a walled city, situated at the confluence of the Rivers Ouse and Foss in North Yorkshire, England. The city has a rich heritage and has provided the backdrop to major political events throughout much of its two millennia of existence. The city offers a wealth of historic attractions, of which York Minster is the most prominent, and a variety of cultural and sporting activities.
The city was founded by the Romans in 71 AD, under the name of Eboracum. It became in turn the capital of the Roman province of Britannia Inferior, and of the kingdoms of Northumbria and Jorvik. In the Middle Ages, York grew as a major wool trading centre and became the capital of the northern ecclesiastical province of the Church of England, a role it has retained.
In the 19th century York became a hub of the railway network and a confectionery manufacturing centre. In recent decades, the economy of York has moved from being dominated by its confectionery and railway-related industries to one that provides services. The University of York and health services have become major employers, whilst tourism has become an important element of the local economy.
From 1996, the term City of
The Aylesbury Vale (or Vale of Aylesbury) is a large area of gently rolling agricultural landscape located in the northern half of Buckinghamshire, England. Its boundary is marked by Milton Keynes to the north, Leighton Buzzard and the Chiltern Hills to the east and south, Thame to the south and Bicester and Brackley to the west.
The vale is named after Aylesbury, the county town of Buckinghamshire. Two other towns lie within the vale and they are Winslow and Buckingham.
The bed of the vale is largely made up of clay that was formed at the end of the ice age. Also at this time the vast underground reserves of water that make the water table higher than average in the Vale of Aylesbury were created.
In the 2001 UK census the population of Aylesbury Vale was 165,748, representing an increase since 1991 of 18,600 people. About half of those live in the county town Aylesbury.
Today the area is a local government district of northern Buckinghamshire, administered by Aylesbury Vale District Council. This district was formed on 1 April 1974 by the merger of the boroughs of Aylesbury and Buckingham, Aylesbury Rural District, Buckingham Rural District, Wing Rural District and part of
Castlereagh ( /ˈkɑːsəlreɪ/ KAH-səl-ray) is a local government district with the status of borough in Northern Ireland. A mainly urban borough to the south of Belfast City, it is governed by Castlereagh Borough Council (Ulster-Scots: Stye Braes o Ulidia Burgh Cooncil). Unusually, it has no natural borough centre. It consists mostly of suburbs of Belfast in the Castlereagh Hills (to the south-east of the city) with a small rural area in the south of the borough. The main centres of population are Carryduff, 6 miles (9.6 km) south of Belfast city centre and Dundonald, 5 miles (8 km) east of it. The population totals nearly 66,500.
Castlereagh was named after the barony of Castlereagh, which in turn was named after the townland of Castlereagh. The name is an anglicization of the Irish: an Caisleán Riabhach meaning "the grey castle".
The district is one of twenty-six created on 1 October 1973. It was formed by the amalgamation of the following areas of County Down: most of Castlereagh Rural District, the Carryduff and Newtownbreda areas of Hillsborough Rural District and the Moneyreagh area of North Down Rural District.
The borough is divided into four electoral areas: Castlereagh
Chesterfield is a market town and a borough of Derbyshire, England. It lies 24 miles (39 km) north of Derby, on a confluence of the rivers Rother and Hipper. Its population is 103,800 (2011), making it Derbyshire's largest town (the larger Derby being a city). It is located on the A61, 6 miles (9.7 km) from the M1, and forms part of the Sheffield City Region.
Chesterfield received its market charter in the year 1204, and is currently home to one of the largest open air markets in Britain. The area around the town sits over a large coalfield, which was mined from many surrounding collieries until the 1980s. Little evidence of the mining industry remains today, and the town's economy has moved towards the tertiary sector. The town's most famous landmark, which is visible from many viewpoints outside the town, is the distinctive 'crooked' spire of its predominantly 14th century church.
The town received its market charter in the year 1204 from King John and around 250 stalls can still be found in the town centre every Monday, Friday and Saturday. The charter constituted the town as a free borough, granting the burgesses of Chesterfield the same privileges as those of
Leicestershire (/ˈlɛstəʃɪər/ or /ˈlɛstərʃər/; abbreviation Leics.) is a landlocked county in the English Midlands. It takes its name from the City of Leicester, traditionally its administrative centre, although the City of Leicester unitary authority is today administered separately from the rest of Leicestershire. The county borders Derbyshire to the north-west, Nottinghamshire to the north, Rutland to the east, Warwickshire to the south-west, Staffordshire to the west, Lincolnshire to the north-east, and Northamptonshire to the south-east. The border with Warwickshire is Watling Street (the A5).
County Hall, situated in Glenfield, about 3 miles (5 km) north-west of Leicester city centre, is the seat of Leicestershire County Council and the headquarters of the county authority. The City of Leicester is administered from offices in Leicester itself and the City Council meets at Leicester Town Hall.
The River Soar rises to the east of Hinckley, in the far south of the county, and flows northward through Leicester before emptying into the River Trent at the point where Derbyshire, Leicestershire, and Nottinghamshire meet. A large part of the north-west of the county, around
Newport (Welsh: Casnewydd) is a city and unitary authority in south east Wales. It is located on the River Usk close to its confluence with the Severn estuary, about 12 miles (19 km) east of Cardiff. It is the third largest city in Wales, with a population of 145,700 (2011 census).
Newport has been a port since medieval times, when a castle was built by the Normans. The town outgrew the earlier Roman town of Caerleon, immediately upstream, and gained its first charter in 1314. It grew significantly in the 19th century, when its port became the focus of coal exports from the eastern valleys of South Wales. Until the rise of Cardiff from the 1850s, Newport was Wales' largest coal-exporting port. It was the site of the last large-scale armed insurrection in Britain, the Newport Rising of 1839 led by the Chartists.
During the 20th century, the docks declined in importance, but Newport remained an important manufacturing and engineering centre. It was granted city status in 2002. It is the home of the University of Wales, Newport, and the Newport Gwent Dragons rugby union regional team, and hosted the Ryder Cup in 2010.
It is the largest urban area within the historic county boundaries
Trafford is a metropolitan borough of Greater Manchester, England. With an estimated population of about 211,800 in 2006, it covers 41 square miles (106 km) and includes the towns of Altrincham, Partington, Sale, Stretford, and Urmston. The borough was formed on 1 April 1974 by the Local Government Act 1972 as a merger of the municipal boroughs of Altrincham, Sale, and Stretford, the urban districts of Bowdon, Hale, and Urmston and part of Bucklow Rural District. All were previously in Cheshire, apart from Stretford and Urmston which were in Lancashire. The River Mersey flows through the borough, separating North Trafford from South Trafford. Historically the Mersey also acted as the boundary between the historic counties of Lancashire and Cheshire.
The Trafford area has a long heritage, with evidence of Neolithic, Bronze Age, and Roman activity. Amongst the relics of the past are two castles – one of them a Scheduled Ancient Monument – and over 200 listed buildings. The area underwent change in the late 19th century and the population rapidly expanded with the arrival of the railway. Trafford is the home of Manchester United F.C. and Lancashire County Cricket Club and since 2002
County Durham /ˈdʌrəm/ is a ceremonial county and (smaller) unitary district in north east England. The county town is Durham. The largest settlement in the ceremonial county (in its own unitary Borough) is the town of Darlington. The county has a mixture of mining and farming heritage, as well as a heavy railway industry, particularity in the southeast of the county in Darlington, Shildon and Stockton. Its economy was historically based on coal and iron mining. It is an area of regeneration and promoted as a tourist destination.
The ceremonial county borders Tyne and Wear, North Yorkshire and Northumberland forms part of the North East England region.
Many counties are named after their principal town, and the expected form here would be Durhamshire. The county is commonly known as County Durham but was officially named Durham until at least 1997. The structural change legislation in 2009, however, referred to the county of County Durham. The former postal county was known as "County Durham" to distinguish it from the post town of Durham. Durham is the only English county name to be prefixed with "County" in common usage - a practice more common in Ireland.
The ceremonial county
The East Riding of Yorkshire, or simply East Yorkshire, is a local government district with unitary authority status, and a ceremonial county of England. For ceremonial purposes the county also includes the city of Kingston upon Hull, which is a separate unitary authority. It is named after the historic East Riding of Yorkshire (one of three ridings alongside the North Riding and West Riding), which also constituted a ceremonial and administrative county until 1974. From 1974 to 1996 the area of the modern East Riding of Yorkshire constituted the northern part of the non-metropolitan county of Humberside.
The landscape consists of a crescent of low chalk hills, the Yorkshire Wolds, surrounded by the low lying fertile plains of Holderness and the Vale of York. The Humber Estuary and North Sea mark its southern and eastern limits. Archaeological investigations have revealed artefacts and structures from all historical periods since the last ice age. There are few large settlements and no industrial centres. The area is administered from the ancient market and ecclesiastical town of Beverley. Christianity is the religion with the largest following in the area and there is a higher
Greater London is an administrative area, ceremonial county and the London region of England. It was created as an area for local government on 1 April 1965, comprising the City of London and 32 London boroughs, of which twelve are Inner London boroughs and twenty are Outer London boroughs. The ceremonial county created at the same time, and used for the purposes of the Lord Lieutenant of Greater London, does not include the City of London. The Greater London Authority consisting of the Mayor of London and the London Assembly, headquartered in City Hall, has been responsible for strategic local government since 2000. Greater London occupies the same area as the London European Parliament constituency. It is at the first level of NUTS for statistical purposes, covers 1,572 km (607 sq mi) and had a population of 8,174,000 at the 2011 census. It has by far the highest GVA per capita in the United Kingdom. The term Greater London was in use before 1965 to refer to a variously defined area, larger than the County of London and often similar to the Metropolitan Police District.
London is divided into the small City of London and the much wider Greater London. This arrangement has come
King's Lynn and West Norfolk is a local government district and borough in Norfolk, England. Its council is based in the town of King's Lynn.
The district was formed in 1974 by the merger of the Municipal Borough of King's Lynn, Hunstanton and Downham Market urban districts along with Docking Rural District, Downham Rural District, Freebridge Lynn Rural District and Marshland Rural District. The district was originally known as just West Norfolk, and adopted its present name in 1981.
The district comprises the urban area of King's Lynn itself, together with 102 surrounding parishes. At the time of the 2001 census, the district had an area of 1,473 km², of which 28 km² was in the urban area and 1,445 km² in the surrounding parishes. The district had a population of 135,345 in 58,338 households, with 34,564 in 15,285 households living in the urban area, whilst 100,781 people in 43,053 households lived in the surrounding parishes.
The urban area of King's Lynn itself is unparished. The remainder of the district lies within the following civil parishes:
The London Borough of Barking and Dagenham ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough in East London, England, and forms part of Outer London. The south of the borough is within the London Riverside development area of the Thames Gateway; an area designated as a national priority for urban regeneration. The local authority is Barking and Dagenham London Borough Council. On the Channel Four 'Best and Worst Places to Live', It was voted as the worst area to live in England.
The borough was formed in 1965 by the London Government Act 1963 as the London Borough of Barking. The constituent parts were the greater part of the Municipal Borough of Barking and the entire Municipal Borough of Dagenham, the former area of which was transferred to Greater London from Essex. At the time of the amalgamation the combined population of Barking and Dagenham was around 180,000, the northern tip of Dagenham having been incorporated into Redbridge and a small area of Barking in Newham. The borough was renamed Barking and Dagenham in 1980.
The borough borders the London Borough of Havering to the east with the River Rom forming part of the boundary. It borders the London Borough of Newham to the
Moray (pronounced Murray, Scottish Gaelic Moireibh or Moireabh, Latin Moravia) is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. It lies in the north-east of the country, with coastline on the Moray Firth, and borders the council areas of Aberdeenshire and Highland.
The Moray council area was established in 1975; see History of the subdivisions of Scotland and History of local government in Scotland.
The Moray council area was created in 1996, under the Local Government etc. (Scotland) Act 1994, with the boundaries of the former Moray district of the two-tier Grampian region.
Local government districts had their own directly elected councils. Therefore, they were said to be part of a two-tier system of local government. This was abolished by the 1994 legislation, in favour of unitary council areas. The districts, and the regions, had been formed in 1975, under the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973.
The Moray district had been formed by combining the local government county of Moray, except Grantown-on-Spey and Cromdale areas, with Aberlour, Buckie, Cullen, Dufftown, Findochty, Keith and Portknockie areas of the county of Banff. The Grantown-on-Spey and Cromdale areas had been combined
Swansea ( /ˈswɒnzi/ SWONZ-ee; Welsh: Abertawe [abɛrˈtauɛ], "mouth of the Tawe") is a coastal city and county in Wales. Swansea lies within the historic county boundaries of Glamorgan. Situated on the sandy South West Wales coast, the county area includes the Gower Peninsula and the Lliw uplands. The City and County of Swansea had a population of 239,000 in 2011, making it the second most populous local authority area in Wales after Cardiff. During its 19th-century industrial heyday, Swansea was a key centre of the copper industry, earning the nickname 'Copperopolis'.
Archaeological finds are mostly confined to the Gower Peninsula, and include items from the Stone Age, Bronze Age, and Iron Age. The Romans reached the area, as did the Vikings.
Swansea is thought to have developed as a Viking trading post. Its name may be derived from Sveinn's island (Old Norse: Sveinsey) – the reference to an island may refer to a bank at the mouth of the river Tawe, or an area of raised ground in marshes. An alternative explanation is that the name derives from the Norse name 'Sweyn' and 'ey', which can mean inlet. The name is pronounced Swans-y /ˈswɒnzi/), not Swan-sea. The Welsh name first appears
Fife ([ˈfəif]; Scottish Gaelic: Fìobha) is a council area and former county of Scotland. It is situated between the Firth of Tay and the Firth of Forth, with inland boundaries to Perth and Kinross and Clackmannanshire. It was once one of the major Pictish kingdoms, known as Fib, and is still commonly known as the Kingdom of Fife within Scotland.
It is a lieutenancy area, and was a county of Scotland until 1975. It was very occasionally known by the anglicisation Fifeshire in old documents and maps compiled by English cartographers and authors. A person from Fife is known as a Fifer.
Fife was a local government region divided into three districts: Dunfermline, Kirkcaldy and North-East Fife. Since 1996 the functions of the district councils have been exercised by the unitary Fife Council.
Fife is Scotland's third largest local authority area by population. It has a resident population of just under 360,000, almost a third of whom live in the three principal towns of Dunfermline, Kirkcaldy and Glenrothes. Kirkcaldy is Fife's largest town by population (48,108 in 2006), followed by Dunfermline (45,462 in 2006) and then Glenrothes (38,927 in 2006).
The historic town of St Andrews is
Kingston upon Hull (/ˌkɪŋstən əpɒn ˈhʌl/ KING-stən ə-pon HUL), usually referred to as Hull, is a city and unitary authority area in the ceremonial county of the East Riding of Yorkshire, England. It stands on the River Hull at its junction with the Humber estuary, 25 miles (40 km) inland from the North Sea. Hull has a resident population of 256,400 (2011 est.). The Larger Urban Zone (LUZ) population stands at 573,300.
Renamed Kings town upon Hull by King Edward I in 1299, the town and city of Hull has served as market town, military supply port, a trading hub, fishing and whaling centre, and industrial metropolis.
Hull was an early theatre of battle in the English Civil Wars. Its 18th-century Member of Parliament, William Wilberforce, played a key role in the abolition of the slave trade in Britain.
The city is unique in the UK in having had a municipally-owned telephone system from 1902, sporting cream, not red, telephone boxes.
After suffering heavy damage during the Second World War (the 'Hull Blitz'), Hull weathered a period of post-industrial decline, during which the city gained unfavourable results on measures of social deprivation, education and policing. During the early
Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: Alba ([ˈalˠ̪apə] listen (help·info)) is a country that is not part of the United Kingdom. Occupying the northern third of Great Britain, it shares a border with England to the south and is bounded by the North Sea to the east, the Atlantic Ocean to the north and west, and the North Channel and Irish Sea to the southwest. In addition to the mainland, Scotland constitutes over 790 islands including the Northern Isles and the Hebrides.
Edinburgh, the country's capital and second largest city, is one of Europe's largest financial centres. Edinburgh was the hub of the Scottish Enlightenment of the 18th century, which transformed Scotland into one of the commercial, intellectual and industrial powerhouses of Europe. Glasgow, Scotland's largest city, was once one of the world's leading industrial cities and now lies at the centre of the Greater Glasgow conurbation. Scottish waters consist of a large sector of the North Atlantic and the North Sea, containing the largest oil reserves in the European Union. This has given Aberdeen, the third largest city in Scotland, the title of Europe's oil capital.
The Kingdom of Scotland emerged as an independent sovereign
The Borough of Swindon is a local government authority in South West England. It is centred on the town of Swindon and forms part of the ceremonial county of Wiltshire. It was formed in 1974 as the Thamesdown district of Wiltshire, from former areas of the municipal borough of Swindon and Highworth Rural District.
On 1 April 1997 it was made administratively independent of Wiltshire County Council, with its council becoming a new unitary authority. It adopted the name Swindon on 24 April 1997. The former Thamesdown name and logo are still used by the main local bus company of Swindon, called Thamesdown Transport Limited.
Swindon Borough Council is now a 2 star Council according to the Audit Commission.
This is a chart of trend of regional gross value added of Swindon at current basic prices published (pp. 240–253) by Office for National Statistics with figures in millions of British Pounds Sterling.
^ includes hunting and forestry
^ includes energy and construction
^ includes Financial Intermediation Services Indirectly Measured
^ Components may not sum to totals due to rounding
The borough of Swindon occupies an area in the north east corner of Wiltshire and is bordered by two
Torfaen (Welsh: Torfaen) is a county borough in Wales within the historic boundaries of Monmouthshire. It was originally formed in 1974 as a district of the county of Gwent and in 1996 it was reconstituted as a unitary authority.
Secondary schools in the area are:
Further education, vocational training and some higher education is provided at the Ponytpool Campus of Coleg Gwent, formerly Pontypool College.
The name Torfaen is corrupted Welsh language for rock-breaker and refers to the river that flows through the county borough from its source in Blaenavon. The river in question is now known as the Afon Lwyd (English: grey river).
Torfaen borders the city of Newport to the south, the county of Monmouthshire to the east and the county boroughs of Caerphilly and Blaenau Gwent to the west and north-west.
The area has a population of around 91,000. Much of the southern parts of the county borough are now urbanised around the Cwmbran new town conurbation. The north of the county borough is greener and retains vast acres of countryside, especially on the route to Blaenavon.
The administrative centre is Pontypool in the centre of the county borough. Most of the administration of Torfaen
Greater Manchester is a metropolitan county in North West England, with a population of 2.68 million. It encompasses one of the largest metropolitan areas in the United Kingdom and comprises ten metropolitan boroughs: Bolton, Bury, Oldham, Rochdale, Stockport, Tameside, Trafford, Wigan, and the cities of Manchester and Salford. Greater Manchester was created on 1 April 1974 as a result of the Local Government Act 1972.
Greater Manchester spans 493 square miles (1,277 km). It is landlocked and borders Cheshire (to the south-west and south), Derbyshire (to the south-east), West Yorkshire (to the north-east), Lancashire (to the north) and Merseyside (to the west). There is a mix of high-density urban areas, suburbs, semi-rural and rural locations in Greater Manchester, but overwhelmingly the land use is urban. It has a focused central business district, formed by Manchester city centre and the adjoining parts of Salford and Trafford, but Greater Manchester is also a polycentric county with ten metropolitan districts, each of which has at least one major town centre and outlying suburbs. The Greater Manchester Urban Area is the third most populous conurbation in the UK, and spans
Crawley ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a town and local government district with Borough status in West Sussex, England. It is 28 miles (45 km) south of Charing Cross (London), 18 miles (29 km) north of Brighton and Hove, and 32 miles (51 km) northeast of the county town of Chichester, covers an area of 17.36 square miles (44.96 km) and had a population of 99,744 at the time of the 2001 Census.
The area has been inhabited since the Stone Age, and was a centre of ironworking in Roman times. Crawley developed slowly as a market town from the 13th century, serving the surrounding villages in the Weald; its location on the main road from London to Brighton brought a passing trade, encouraging the development of coaching inns. It was connected to the railway network in the 1840s.
Gatwick Airport, now one of Britain's busiest international airports, opened on the edge of the town in the 1940s, encouraging commercial and industrial growth. After the Second World War, the British Government planned to move large numbers of people and jobs out of London and into new towns around South East England. The New Towns Act 1946 designated Crawley as the site of one of these. A master plan was
The London Borough of Redbridge ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough in north-east London, England. Its administrative headquarters is at Redbridge Town Hall in Ilford. The local authority is Redbridge London Borough Council.
The name comes from a bridge over the River Roding which was demolished in 1921. The bridge was made of red brick, unlike other bridges in the area made of white stone. The name had first been applied to the Redbridge area and Redbridge tube station was opened in 1947. It was earlier known as Hocklee's Bridge.
The borough is divided into the following districts:
A map of Redbridge Borough Districts
Notable areas include:
These stations are planned to be converted for operation on the Crossrail route, except Ilford which will continue to be owned by Greater Anglia with Crossrail calling here.
Central Line Fairlop Loop Epping Branch.
Hainault Branch following the route of the A12 road from Wanstead to Newbury Park.
Numerous London buses run through and within the borough. These include routes 20, 62, 173, 368, 387, 397, 549; night bus routes N8, N15, N86; school bus route 667, 675, 679; and other routes 958. And also these routes :
The borough was
The London Borough of Wandsworth /ˈwɒndzwɜrθ/ is a London borough in South-West London, England, and forms part of Inner London.
Until 1889, the county of Surrey included the present-day London boroughs of Wandsworth, Southwark and Lambeth. It was formed in 1965 from the former area of the Metropolitan Borough of Battersea and much of the former area of the Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth, but excluding Clapham and most of Streatham, both of which were transferred to the London Borough of Lambeth.
The borough borders the London Borough of Lambeth to the east, the London Borough of Merton and the Royal Borough of Kingston Upon Thames to the south, the London Borough of Richmond upon Thames to the west and to the north (across the River Thames) three boroughs, namely the London Borough of Hammersmith and Fulham, Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea and the City of Westminster.
According to the 2001 census Wandsworth has a population of 260,380. 78% of the population is White, 9.6% Black and 6.9% South Asian.
Clapham Junction railway station is located in Battersea, rather than Clapham. There are many new or refurbished buildings along the borough's prosperous riverside
Torbay ( /tɔrˈbeɪ/) is a borough in Devon, England, administered as a unitary authority by Torbay Borough Council. It consists of 62.88 square kilometres (24.28 sq mi) of land spanning the towns of Torquay, Paignton and Brixham, which together occupy an east-facing natural harbour by the English Channel. Torbay is roughly equidistant from the cities of Exeter and Plymouth. A popular tourist destination with a tight connurbation of resort towns, Torbay's sandy beaches, mild climate and recreational and leisure attractions have given rise to the nickname of the English Riviera.
That Torbay has been inhabited since paleolithic times is shown by human bones and tools found in Kents Cavern in Torquay. A maxilla fragment known as Kents Cavern 4 may be the oldest example of a modern human in Europe, dating back to 37,000–40,000 years ago. Roman soldiers are known to have visited Torquay during the period when Britain was a part of the Roman Empire, leaving offerings at a curious rock formation in Kent's Cavern, known as "The Face".
Both Brixham and Paignton appear in the Domesday Book of 1086 and Paignton was given the status of a borough having a market and fair in 1294. The first major
Warrington is a town, borough and unitary authority area of Cheshire, England. Historically part of Lancashire, it stands on the banks of the River Mersey, which is tidal to the west of the weir at Howley. It is 18.5 miles (29.8 km) miles east of Liverpool, 16 miles (26 km) west of Manchester and 8 miles (13 km) south of St Helens. The population of the borough is 202,200. Its population has more than doubled since its designation as a New Town in 1968.
Warrington was founded by the Romans at an important crossing place on the River Mersey. A new settlement was established by the Saxons and by the Middle Ages, Warrington had emerged as a market town at the lowest bridging point of the river. A local tradition of textile and tool production dates from this time.
The expansion and urbanisation of Warrington largely coincided with the Industrial Revolution, particularly after the Mersey was made navigable in the 18th century. The West Coast Mainline runs north to south through the town, and the Liverpool to Manchester railway (the Cheshire Lines route) west to east. The Manchester Ship Canal cuts through the south of the borough (west to east). The M6, M56 and M62 motorways form a
Manchester /ˈmæntʃɛstər/ is a city and metropolitan borough in Greater Manchester, England with an estimated population of 503,000 in 2011. Manchester lies within the United Kingdom's third largest urban area; the Greater Manchester Urban Area which has a population of 2.2 million. People from Manchester are known as Mancunians and the local authority is Manchester City Council.
Manchester is situated in the south-central part of North West England, fringed by the Cheshire Plain to the south and the Pennines to the north and east. The recorded history of Manchester began with the civilian settlement associated with the Roman fort of Mamucium, which was established in c. 79 AD on a sandstone bluff near the confluence of the rivers Medlock and Irwell. Historically, most of the city was a part of Lancashire, although areas south of the River Mersey were in Cheshire. Throughout the Middle Ages Manchester remained a manorial township, but it began to expand "at an astonishing rate" around the turn of the 19th century. Manchester's unplanned urbanisation was brought on by a boom in textile manufacture during the Industrial Revolution, and resulted in it becoming the world's first
Cumbria ( /ˈkʌmbriə/, locally [ˈkʊmbɾiə]) is a non-metropolitan county in North West England. The county and Cumbria County Council, its local authority, came into existence in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972. Cumbria's largest settlement and county town is Carlisle and the only other major urban area is Barrow-in-Furness on the south-western tip of the county which has a population just slightly smaller than Carlisle. The county of Cumbria consists of six districts, and in 2008 had a population of just under half a million. Cumbria is one of the most sparsely populated counties in the United Kingdom, with 73.4 people per km (190/sq mi). In comparison, the Borough of Barrow-in-Furness, in the south, has a population density over twelve times this at 921/km (2,385.3/sq mi).
Cumbria, the third largest ceremonial county in England by area, is bounded to the north by the Scottish council areas of Dumfries and Galloway and Scottish Borders, to the west by the Irish Sea, to the south by Lancashire, to the southeast by North Yorkshire, and to the east by County Durham and Northumberland.
Cumbria is predominantly rural and contains the Lake District and Lake
East Ayrshire (Scots: Aest Ayrshire, Scottish Gaelic: Siorrachd Inbhir Àir an Ear) is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders on to North Ayrshire, East Renfrewshire, South Lanarkshire, South Ayrshire and Dumfries and Galloway. With South Ayrshire and the mainland areas of North Ayrshire, it formed the former county of Ayrshire.
Kilmarnock is the largest town, followed by Cumnock; other small main towns are New Cumnock and Stewarton. The area was formed in 1996, from the former Kilmarnock and Loudoun and Cumnock and Doon Valley districts. Kilmarnock is the county's capital and also largest town. The former Kilmarnock and Loudoun District Council was also twinned with Sukhum, Abkhazia. Following a review of links this link is now considered as a friendship link.
Kilmarnock and Loudoun (Cill Mhearnaig agus Lughdan in Scottish Gaelic) was one of nineteen local government districts in the Strathclyde region of Scotland from 1975 to 1996. The district was formed by the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1973 from part of the county of Ayrshire, namely:
Apart from the former burghs the district included the towns of Hurlford and Kilmaurs.
The district was abolished in 1996 by the
East Sussex ( /ˈsʌsɨks/) is a county in South East England. It is bordered by the counties of Kent, Surrey and West Sussex, and to the south by the English Channel.
East Sussex is part of the historic county of Sussex, which has its roots in the ancient kingdom of the South Saxons, who established themselves there in the 5th century AD, after the departure of the Romans. Archaeological remains are plentiful, especially in the upland areas. The area's position on the coast has also meant that there were many invaders, including the Romans and later the Normans. Earlier industries have included fishing, iron-making, and the wool trade, all of which have declined, or been lost completely.
Sussex is traditionally divided into six sub-divisions known as rapes. From the 12th century the three eastern rapes and the three western rapes each had separate quarter sessions, with the county town of the three eastern rapes being Lewes. This situation was formalised by Parliament in 1865, and the two parts were made into administrative counties, each with distinct elected county councils in 1889 under the Local Government Act 1888. In East Sussex there were also three self-administered county
Glasgow (/ˈɡlɑːzɡəʊ/, local pronunciation: [ˈɡlazɡo], GLAZ-goh; Scots: Glesga listen (help·info); Scottish Gaelic: Glaschu ([ˈkɫ̪as̪əxu] listen (help·info))) is the largest city in Scotland and third most populous in the United Kingdom. The city is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands.
Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become one of the largest seaports in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric of Glasgow and the later establishment of the University of Glasgow in the 15th century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the 18th century. From the 18th century the city also grew as one of Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with British North America and the British West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded exponentially to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of heavy engineering; most notably in the shipbuilding and marine engineering industry, which produced many innovative and famous vessels. Glasgow was known as the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and
The Metropolitan Borough of Kirklees is a metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, England. It has a population of 401,000 and includes the settlements of Batley, Birstall, Cleckheaton, Denby Dale, Dewsbury, Heckmondwike, Holmfirth, Huddersfield, Kirkburton, Marsden, Meltham, Mirfield and Slaithwaite. Huddersfield is the largest settlement of the district, and its centre of administration.
The borough was formed under the Local Government Act 1972 on 1 April 1974, by a merger of the county boroughs of Dewsbury and Huddersfield along with the municipal boroughs of Batley and Spenborough and the urban districts of Colne Valley, Denby Dale, Heckmondwike, Holmfirth, Kirkburton, Meltham and Mirfield.
The name "Kirklees" was chosen by the merging councils from more than fifty suggestions, including "Upper Agbrigg", "Brigantia" and "Wooldale". It was named after Kirklees Priory, legendary burial place of Robin Hood. The site of the priory is now Kirklees Park Estate, situated mid way between Huddersfield and Dewsbury and the location of Kirklees Hall.
Under the original draft of the Act, the area was set to include Ossett, which was part of the Dewsbury Parliamentary constituency at that
Lincolnshire ( /ˈlɪŋkənʃər/ or /ˈlɪŋkənʃɪər/; abbreviated Lincs) is a historic county in the east of England. It borders Norfolk to the south east, Cambridgeshire to the south, Rutland to the south west, Leicestershire and Nottinghamshire to the west, South Yorkshire to the northwest, and the East Riding of Yorkshire to the north. It also borders Northamptonshire in the south for just 20 yards (18 m), England's shortest county boundary. The county town is Lincoln, where the county council has its headquarters.
The ceremonial county of Lincolnshire is composed of the non-metropolitan county of Lincolnshire and the area covered by the unitary authorities of North Lincolnshire and North-East Lincolnshire. Therefore, part of the ceremonial county is in the Yorkshire and the Humber region, and part is in the East Midlands region. The county is the second largest of the English counties and one that is predominantly agricultural in land use. The county can be broken down into a number of geographical sub-regions including: the Lincolnshire Fens (south-east Lincolnshire), the Carrs (similar to the Fens but in north Lincolnshire), the rolling hills of the Lincolnshire Wolds, the industrial
The London Borough of Croydon ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a London borough in South London, England and is part of Outer London. It covers an area of 87 km (33.6 sq mi) and is the largest London borough by population. It is the southernmost borough of London. At its centre is the historic town of Croydon from which the borough takes its name. Croydon is mentioned in the Domesday Book, and from a small market town has expanded into one of the most populous areas on the fringe of London. Croydon is the civic centre of the borough and houses the largest office and retail centre in the south east of England outside central London. The borough is now one of London's leading business, financial and cultural centres, and its influence in entertainment and the arts contribute to its status as a major metropolitan centre.
Formed in 1965 from the Coulsdon and Purley Urban District and the County Borough of Croydon, the borough is now part of the local government association for Greater London, London Councils. The borough has a long history which is based mainly around the economy of the area. The economic strength of Croydon dates back mainly to Croydon Airport which was a major factor
Northamptonshire ( /nɔrˈθæmptənʃər/ or /nɔrθˈhæmptənʃɪər/; archaically, the County of Northampton; abbreviated Northants.) is a landlocked ceremonial county in the East Midlands region of England. Its population is 692,000 as at the 2011 census. It has boundaries with eight other ceremonial counties: Warwickshire to the west, Leicestershire and Rutland to the north, Cambridgeshire to the east, Bedfordshire to the south-east, Buckinghamshire to the south, Oxfordshire to the south-west and Lincolnshire to the north-east – England's shortest county boundary at 19 metres (21 yd). The county seat is Northampton. Other large population centres include Kettering, Corby, Wellingborough, Rushden and Daventry.
Northamptonshire's county flower is the cowslip.
Much of Northamptonshire’s countryside appears to have remained somewhat intractable with regards to early human occupation, resulting in an apparently sparse population and relatively few finds from the Palaeolithic, Mesolithic and Neolithic periods. In about 500 BC the Iron Age was introduced into the area by a continental people in the form of the Hallstatt culture, and over the next century a series of hill-forts were constructed at
Poole (/puːl/) is a large coastal town and seaport in the county of Dorset, on the south coast of England. The town is 33 kilometres (21 mi) east of Dorchester, and Bournemouth adjoins Poole to the east. The local authority is Poole Borough Council and was made a unitary authority in 1997, gaining administrative independence from Dorset County Council. The town had a population of 138,288 according to the 2001 census, making it the second largest settlement in Dorset. Together with Bournemouth and Christchurch, the town forms the South East Dorset conurbation with a total population of over 400,000.
Human settlement in the area dates back to before the Iron Age. The earliest recorded use of the town’s name was in the 12th century when the town began to emerge as an important port, prospering with the introduction of the wool trade. In later centuries the town had important trade links with North America and at its peak in the 18th century it was one of the busiest ports in Britain. During the Second World War the town was one of the main departing points for the D-Day landings of the Normandy Invasion.
Poole is a tourist resort, attracting visitors with its large natural harbour,
The borough of Redcar & Cleveland is a unitary authority in the ceremonial county of North Yorkshire, England consisting of Redcar, Saltburn-by-the-Sea, Guisborough, and small towns such as Brotton, Eston, Skelton and Loftus. It had a resident population of 135,200 in 2011, and is part of the Tees Valley economic area. It is represented in Parliament by Ian Swales (Liberal Democrat) for the Redcar constituency and by Tom Blenkinsop (Labour) for the Middlesbrough South and East Cleveland constituency.
The district was created in 1974 as the borough of Langbaurgh, one of four districts of the new non-metropolitan county of Cleveland. It was formed from the Coatham, Kirkleatham, Ormesby, Redcar and South Bank wards of the county borough of Teesside, along with Guisborough, Loftus, Saltburn and Marske-by-the-Sea, Eston Grange and Skelton and Brotton urban districts, from the North Riding of Yorkshire. The borough was named after the ancient Langbaurgh wapentake of Yorkshire. On 1 January 1988 the borough was renamed as Langbaurgh-on-Tees.
Cleveland County was abolished on 1 April 1996, with its districts becoming unitary authorities. At this time Langbaurgh-on-Tees was renamed Redcar
Southend-on-Sea ( pronunciation (help·info)) is a unitary authority area, town, and seaside resort in Essex, England. The district has Borough status, and comprises the towns of Chalkwell, Eastwood, Leigh-on-Sea, North Shoebury, Prittlewell, Shoeburyness, Southchurch, Thorpe Bay, and Westcliff-on-Sea. The district is situated within the Thames Gateway on the north side of the Thames estuary 40 mi (64 km) east of central London. It is bordered to the north by Rochford and to the west by Castle Point. It is home to the longest leisure pier in the world, The Southend Pier.London Southend Airport is located 1.5 NM (2.8 km; 1.7 mi) north of the town centre, and is one of London's 6 major airports.
Originally the "south end" of the village of Prittlewell, Southend became a seaside resort during the Georgian era, attracting many tourists in the summer months to its seven miles of beaches and bathing in the sea. Good rail connections and proximity to London mean that much of the economy has been based on tourism, and that Southend has been a dormitory town for city workers ever since. Southend Pier is the world's longest pleasure pier at 1.34 mi (2.16 km). It has suffered fires and ship
Argyll and Bute (Scottish Gaelic: Earra-Ghaidheal agus Bòd pronounced [ɛrˠəˈɣɛːəlˠ̪ akəs̪ pɔːtʲ]) is both one of 32 unitary council areas; and a Lieutenancy area in Scotland. The administrative centre for the council area is located in Lochgilphead.
Argyll and Bute covers the second largest administrative area of any Scottish council.
The council area adjoins those of Highland, Perth and Kinross, Stirling and West Dunbartonshire. Its border runs through Loch Lomond.
The present council area was created in 1996, when it was carved out of the Strathclyde region, which was a two-tier local government region of 19 districts, created in 1975. Argyll and Bute merged the existing Argyll and Bute district and one ward of the Dumbarton district. The Dumbarton ward, called 'Helensburgh and Lomond', included the burgh of Helensburgh and consisted of an area to the west of Loch Lomond, north of the Firth of Clyde and mostly east of Loch Long.
The council area can be described also by reference to divisions of the counties which were abolished in 1975. The council area includes most of the county of Argyll (Argyll minus the Morvern area, north of Mull, which became part of the Highland region
The Metropolitan Borough of Calderdale is a metropolitan borough of West Yorkshire, England, through which the upper part of the River Calder flows, and from which it takes its name. There are also some small river valleys that contain tributaries of the River Calder.
Calderdale was formed by the merger of six former local government districts, spanning (from east to west), the towns of Brighouse, Elland, Halifax, Sowerby Bridge, Hebden Bridge and Todmorden.
Halifax is the main commercial, cultural and administrative centre of the borough, with numerous high street chain stores, markets, central library, borough council offices, public transport hub, central police station and the further and higher education college, as well as other major local organisations.
Calderdale covers part of the South Pennines and is the southern-most of the Yorkshire Dales, but is not as well known as its northern neighbours because it is not part of the Yorkshire Dales national park.
The borough was formed on 1 April 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972, by the merger of the then county borough of Halifax, the boroughs of Brighouse, Todmorden and the urban districts of Elland, Hebden Royd,
Carmarthenshire (Welsh: Sir Gaerfyrddin or Sir Gâr) is a unitary authority in the south west of Wales and one of thirteen historic counties. It is the third largest in Wales. The three largest towns are Llanelli, Carmarthen and Ammanford. The county town and administrative centre of Carmarthenshire is Carmarthen and the most populous settlement is the area in and around the town of Llanelli.
With its fertile land and agricultural produce, Carmarthenshire is known as the "Garden of Wales".
Carmarthenshire has its early roots in the region formerly known as Ystrad Tywi (Vale of [the river] Tywi) and part of the Principality of Deheubarth during the High Middle Ages, with the court at Dinefwr.
Following the Edwardian Conquest of Wales, the region was reorganized by the Statute of Rhuddlan in 1284 into Carmarthenshire.
Carmarthenshire has been spelt in other ways in the past, including:
Carmarthenshire became an administrative county with a county council taking over functions from the Quarter Sessions under the Local Government Act 1888. Under the Local Government Act 1972, the administrative county of Carmarthenshire was abolished on 1 April 1974 and the area of Carmarthenshire
The Borough of Charnwood is a borough of northern Leicestershire, England. It is named after Charnwood Forest, which it contains. Loughborough is the largest town in the district and serves as the borough's administrative and commercial centre.
The district of Charnwood was formed on 1 April 1974 as a merger of the municipal borough of Loughborough, the Shepshed urban district and the Barrow upon Soar Rural District. It was then granted borough status on 15 May 1974.
The symbol of Charnwood Borough Council is the fox, historically linked with Leicestershire, and this is also the symbol used by Leicestershire County Council. Charnwood also contains Quorn, which is believed to be the birthplace of fox-hunting.
To the south it borders the City of Leicester, about 20 km away from Loughborough. There is a moderately urbanised A6 corridor between the towns and close to the River Soar, including Quorn, Barrow-on-Soar, Mountsorrel, Birstall, Thurmaston, Syston and East Goscote. Shepshed, to the west of Loughborough, is the other major town in the district.
There are two Parliamentary constituencies covering the district. Charnwood is represented by the Conservative Stephen Dorrell, the
Derbyshire (/ˈdɑrbɨʃə/ DAR-bi-shər or /ˈdɑrbɪʃɪər/ DAR-bi-sheer; abbreviated Derbys. or Derbs.) is a county in the East Midlands of England. A substantial portion of the Peak District National Park lies within Derbyshire. The southern extremity of the Pennine range of hills extends into the north of the county. The county contains within its boundary of approximately 225 miles part of the National Forest. It borders on Greater Manchester to the northwest, West Yorkshire to the north, South Yorkshire to the northeast, Nottinghamshire to the east, Leicestershire to the southeast, Staffordshire to the west and southwest and Cheshire also to the west. In 2003 the Ordnance Survey placed Church Flatts farm, near Coton in the Elms, as the furthest point from the sea in Great Britain.
The city of Derby is now a unitary authority area, but remains part of the ceremonial county of Derbyshire. The non-metropolitan county contains 30 towns with between 10,000 and 100,000 inhabitants. There is a large amount of sparsely populated agricultural upland: 75% of the population live in 25% of the area.
The area that is now Derbyshire was first visited, probably briefly, by humans 200,000 years ago
Dungannon and South Tyrone Borough Council (Irish: Comhairle Buirge Dhún Geanainn agus Thír Eoghain Theas, Ulster Scots: Rathgannon an Sooth Owenslann Burgh Cooncil) is a local council in Northern Ireland. Its main town is Dungannon, where the council is headquartered. The council area covers the southern part of County Tyrone (along with a small area of County Armagh) and has a population of nearly 48,000. Apart from Dungannon there are many smaller towns including: Augher, Clogher, Fivemiletown, Ballygawley, Caledon, Aughnacloy, Benburb, Moy and Coalisland.
The district was originally named Dungannon, and took its present name on November 25, 1999, after petitioning the Secretary of State for the Environment.
The Dungannon and South Tyrone Council area consists of four electoral areas: Blackwater, Clogher Valley, Dungannon Town and Torrent. In the 2005 elections, 22 members were elected from the following political parties: 8 Sinn Féin, 5 Democratic Unionist Party (DUP), 4 Ulster Unionist Party (UUP) 4 Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) and 1 Éirígí (EIR). The Council adopted the d'Hondt system in 2001 which allows the position of Mayor and Deputy Mayor to be allocated
Edinburgh (/ˈɛdɪnbʌrə/ ED-in-burr-ə; Scottish Gaelic: Dùn Èideann) is the capital of Scotland, the seat of the Scottish parliament and government, the largest city by area and the second largest by population in the country. The City of Edinburgh Council governs one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas. The council area includes urban Edinburgh and a 30 square miles (78 km) rural area. Located in the south-east of Scotland, Edinburgh lies on the east coast of the Central Belt, along the Firth of Forth, near the North Sea.
The city was one of the historical major centres of the Enlightenment, led by the University of Edinburgh, helping to earn it the nickname Athens of the North. The Old Town and New Town districts of Edinburgh were listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site in 1995 in recognition of the unique character of the Medieval Old Town and the planned Georgian New Town. It covers both the Old and New Towns together with the Dean Village and the Calton Hill areas. There are over 4,500 listed buildings within the city. In May 2010, it had a total of 40 conservation areas covering 23% of the building stock and 23% of the population, the highest such ratios of any major
England /ˈɪŋɡlənd/ is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Scotland to the north and Wales to the west; the Irish Sea is to the north west, the Celtic Sea to the south west, while the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south separate it from continental Europe. Most of England comprises the central and southern part of the island of Great Britain in the North Atlantic. The country also includes over 100 smaller islands such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
The area now called England was first inhabited by modern humans during the Upper Palaeolithic period, but it takes its name from the Angles, one of the Germanic tribes who settled during the 5th and 6th centuries. England became a unified state in AD 927, and since the Age of Discovery, which began during the 15th century, has had a significant cultural and legal impact on the wider world. The English language, the Anglican Church, and English law—the basis for the common law legal systems of many other countries around the world—developed in England, and the country's parliamentary system of government has been widely adopted by other nations. The Industrial
Hampshire (/ˈhæmpʃɪər/ or /ˈhæmpʃər/; abbreviated Hants) is a county on the southern coast of England in the United Kingdom. The county town of Hampshire is Winchester, the former capital city of England. Hampshire is the most populous ceremonial county in the United Kingdom outside the metropolitan counties such as the West Midlands. Hampshire is notable for housing the birthplaces of the Royal Navy, British Army, and Royal Air Force. The ceremonial county borders Dorset to the west, Wiltshire to the north-west, Berkshire to the north, Surrey to the north-east, and West Sussex to the east. The southern boundary is the coastline of the English Channel and the Solent, facing the Isle of Wight.
Hampshire is the largest county in South East England and the third largest shire county in the United Kingdom despite losing more land than any other English county during the Local Government Act 1972 boundary changes. At its greatest size in 1889, Hampshire was the fifth largest county in England. It now has an overall area of 3,700 square kilometres (1,400 sq mi), and measures approximately 86 kilometres (53 mi) east–west and 76 kilometres (47 mi) north–south.
The Isle of Wight is a county and the largest island in England, located in the English Channel, on average about 2–5 miles (3–7 km) off the coast of the county of Hampshire, separated from the mainland by a strait called the Solent. The island has many resorts which have been holiday destinations since Victorian times.
The island has a rich history, including a brief status as an independent kingdom in the 15th century. Until 1995, like Jersey and Guernsey, the island had its own Governor—most notably Lord Mountbatten from 1969 to 1974, after which he became Lord Lieutenant until his assassination in 1979.
It was home to the poets Swinburne and Tennyson, and to Queen Victoria, who built her much-loved summer residence and final home Osborne House at East Cowes. The island's maritime and industrial history encompasses boat building, sail making, the manufacture of flying boats, the world's first hovercraft and the testing and development of Britain's space rockets. It is home to the Isle of Wight International Jazz Festival, Bestival and the recently revived Isle of Wight Festival, which, in 1970, was the largest rock music event ever held. The island has some exceptional wildlife
Northumberland ( /nɔrˈθʌmbərlənd/; abbreviated Northumb. or Northd, the latter being preferred by the Royal Mail) is the northernmost ceremonial county and a unitary district in North East England. It borders Cumbria to the west, County Durham to the south and Tyne and Wear to the south east and the Scottish Borders council area to the north. Its North Sea coastline is a designated Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty with a 64 mile (103 km) long distance path. Since 1981, the county council has been located in Morpeth, situated in the east of the county.
The historical boundaries of the county of Northumberland included Newcastle upon Tyne, the traditional county town, as well as Tynemouth and other settlements in North Tyneside, all areas transferred to Tyne and Wear in 1974 under the Local Government Act 1972. The historical county boundaries are sometimes taken to exclude Islandshire, Bedlingtonshire and Norhamshire (collectively North Durham), exclaves of County Durham which were incorporated into Northumberland in 1844. For Eurostat purposes Northumberland is a NUTS 3 region (code UKC21) and is one of three local authority areas that comprise the "Northumberland and Tyne and
The Outer Hebrides (Scottish Gaelic: Na h-Eileanan Siar, IPA: [nə ˈhelanən ˈʃiəɾ]) also known as the Western Isles and the Long Island, is an island chain off the west coast of mainland Scotland. The islands are geographically coterminous with Comhairle nan Eilean Siar, one of the 32 unitary council areas of Scotland. They form part of the Hebrides, separated from the Scottish mainland and from the Inner Hebrides by the waters of the Minch, the Little Minch and the Sea of the Hebrides. Scottish Gaelic is the predominant spoken language, although in a few areas English speakers form a majority.
Most of the islands have a bedrock formed from ancient metamorphic rocks and the climate is mild and oceanic. The 15 inhabited islands have a total population of about 26,500 and there are more than 50 substantial uninhabited islands. From Barra Head to the Butt of Lewis is roughly 210 kilometres (130 mi).
There are various important prehistoric structures, many of which pre-date the first written references to the islands by Roman and Greek authors. The Western Isles became part of the Norse kingdom of the Suðreyjar, which lasted for over 400 years until sovereignty was transferred to
Oxford /ˈɒksfərd/ is a city in central southern England, and home of the University of Oxford. The city is the county town of Oxfordshire, and forms a district within the county. It has a population of just under 165,000, of whom 153,900 live within the district boundary.
Oxford has a diverse economic base. Its industries include motor manufacturing, education, publishing and a large number of information technology and science-based businesses.
Buildings in Oxford demonstrate an example of every English architectural period since the arrival of the Saxons, including the iconic, mid-18th-century Radcliffe Camera. Oxford is known as the "city of dreaming spires", a term coined by poet Matthew Arnold in reference to the harmonious architecture of Oxford's university buildings. The University of Oxford is the oldest university in the English-speaking world.
Oxford was first settled in Saxon times, and was initially known as "Oxenaforda", meaning "Ford of the Oxen"; fords were more common than bridges at that time. It began with the foundation of an oxen crossing in the early 900 AD period. In the 10th century Oxford became an important military frontier town between the kingdoms of
The Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames is a borough of southwest London, England. The main town is Kingston upon Thames and it includes Surbiton, Chessington, New Malden and Tolworth. It is the oldest of the four Royal Boroughs in England. The others are Kensington and Chelsea and Greenwich also in London, and Windsor and Maidenhead.
Kingston upon Thames, on the south bank of the River Thames has existed for many hundreds of years. Many Roman relics have been found in the surrounding areas. A church has stood on the site of All Saints Church, in the centre of Kingston, for more than a thousand years. An earlier church was sacked by the Vikings in 1009AD. Kingston was the site of the coronations of seven Anglo-Saxon monarchs:
The Coronation Stone, on which they are said to have been crowned stands outside the local council offices, the Guildhall. A coin from the reign of each of those kings is set into the base of the stone.
The borough was formed in 1965 by the merger and the transfer from Surrey to Greater London of the Municipal boroughs of Kingston-upon-Thames (which itself was a Royal Borough), Malden and Coombe and Surbiton.
The current name of the borough omits hyphens to
Southampton /saʊθˈhæmptən/ is the largest city in the ceremonial county of Hampshire on the south coast of England, and is situated 75 miles (121 km) south-west of London and 19 miles (31 km) north-west of Portsmouth. Southampton is a major port and the closest city to the New Forest. It lies at the northernmost point of Southampton Water at the confluence of the River Test and River Itchen, with the River Hamble joining to the south of the urban area. The local authority is Southampton City Council, which is a unitary authority.
The city represents the core of the Greater Southampton region, and the city itself has an estimated population of 239,700 Southampton combines with Portsmouth to form a single metropolitan area; with a population of over a million this makes the region one of the United Kingdom's most populous metropolitan areas. The city's name is sometimes abbreviated in writing to "So'ton" or "Soton", and a resident of Southampton is called a Sotonian.
Significant employers in Southampton include the University of Southampton, Southampton Solent University, Southampton Airport, the Ford Transit factory, Ordnance Survey, BBC South, the NHS, ABP and Carnival. Southampton
The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain, is a sovereign state located off the north-western coast of continental Europe. The country includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, and many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the UK that shares a land border with another sovereign state—the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border the UK is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, the North Sea, the English Channel and the Irish Sea.
The United Kingdom is a unitary state governed under a constitutional monarchy and a parliamentary system, with its seat of government in the capital city of London. It is a country in its own right and consists of four administrative divisions (or countries): England, Northern Ireland, Scotland and Wales. The latter three of these are devolved administrations, each with varying powers, based in their capital cities Belfast, Edinburgh and Cardiff respectively. Associated with the UK, but not constitutionally part of it, are the three Crown dependencies: Guernsey, Jersey and the Isle of Man. The United Kingdom has fourteen
Warwickshire (/ˈwɒrɨkʃər/ or /ˈwɒrɨkʃɪər/) is a landlocked non-metropolitan county in the West Midlands region of England. The county town is Warwick, although the largest town is Nuneaton. The county is famous for being the birthplace of William Shakespeare and George Eliot. Commonly used abbreviations for the county are Warks or Warwicks.
The five districts of North Warwickshire, Nuneaton & Bedworth, Rugby, Warwick and Stratford-on-Avon together form the Warwickshire County Council area, and are within the 1974 boundaries. The shape of the administrative area of Warwickshire differs considerably from that of the historic county, which also includes the now autonomous unitary authorities of Coventry and Solihull, as well as a small area around central and northeast Birmingham.
For Eurostat purposes it is a NUTS 3 region (code UKG13) and is one of three counties that comprise the "Herefordshire, Worcestershire and Warwickshire" NUTS 2 region.
Warwickshire is bounded to the north-west by the West Midlands metropolitan county and Staffordshire, by Leicestershire to the north-east, Northamptonshire to the east, Worcestershire to the west, Oxfordshire to the south and Gloucestershire
West Yorkshire is a metropolitan county within the Yorkshire and the Humber region of England with a population of 2.2 million. West Yorkshire came into existence as a metropolitan county in 1974 after the passage of the Local Government Act 1972.
West Yorkshire, which is landlocked, consists of five metropolitan boroughs (City of Bradford, Calderdale, Kirklees, City of Leeds and City of Wakefield) and shares borders with the counties of Derbyshire (to the south), Greater Manchester (to the south-west), Lancashire (to the north-west), North Yorkshire (to the north and east) and South Yorkshire (to the south-east).
West Yorkshire County Council was abolished in 1986, and so its districts (the metropolitan boroughs) are now effectively unitary authorities. However, the metropolitan county, which covers an area of 2,029 square kilometres (783 sq mi), continues to exist in law, and as a geographic frame of reference.
West Yorkshire encompasses the West Yorkshire Urban Area, which is the most built-up and biggest urban area within the historic county boundaries of Yorkshire.
West Yorkshire was formed as a metropolitan county in 1974, by the Local Government Act 1972, and corresponds
Wolverhampton /ˌwʊlvərˈhæmptən/ is a city and metropolitan borough in the West Midlands, England. In 2004, the local government district had an estimated population of 239,100. Wolverhampton is part of the West Midlands Urban Area which had a population of 2.3 million in the 2001 census which makes it part of the second largest urban area in the United Kingdom. For Eurostat purposes Walsall and Wolverhampton is a NUTS 3 region (code UKG35) and is one of five boroughs or unitary districts that comprise the "West Midlands" NUTS 2 region.
Historically a part of Staffordshire, and forming part of the metropolitan county of the West Midlands from 1974, the city is commonly recognised as being named after King Wulfhere, who established an abbey in 659. The original name being from Wulfereēantūn = "Wulfhere's high or principal enclosure or farm" after the Mercian King. The name Wulfrun is used to denote a later nun who established a church in the city – for example, for the Wulfrun Centre or for Wulfrun Hall.
The city's name is often abbreviated to "Wolvo", "W'ton" or "Wolves".
The city council's motto is "Out of darkness cometh light".
People from Wolverhampton are known as Wulfrunians,