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Best Types of waste of All Time

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    1

    Inert waste

    Inert waste is waste which is neither chemically or biologically reactive and will not decompose. Examples of this are sand, drywall, and concrete. This has particular relevance to landfills as inert waste typically requires lower disposal fees than biodegradable waste or hazardous waste.
    7.33
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    Post-consumer waste

    Post-consumer waste is a waste type produced by the end consumer of a material stream; that is, where the waste-producing use did not involve the production of another product. Quite commonly, it is simply the garbage that individuals routinely discard, either in a waste receptacle or a dump, or by littering, incinerating, pouring down the drain, or washing into the gutter. Post-consumer waste is distinguished from pre-consumer waste, which is the reintroduction of manufacturing scrap (such as trimmings from paper production, defective aluminum cans, etc.) back into the manufacturing process. Pre-consumer waste is commonly used in manufacturing industries, and is often not considered recycling in the traditional sense. Post-consumer waste consists of: In many countries, such as the United States, there is no reasonable expectation of privacy in post-consumer waste once it leaves the consumer's home. Anyone can search it, including the police, and any incriminating evidence recovered can be used at trial. This doctrine was established in The California v. Greenwood case, in which the U.S. Supreme Court held that there is no common law expectation of privacy for discarded materials.
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    3
    Radioactive waste

    Radioactive waste

    Radioactive wastes are wastes that contain radioactive material. Radioactive wastes are usually by-products of nuclear power generation and other applications of nuclear fission or nuclear technology, such as research and medicine. Radioactive waste is hazardous to most forms of life and the environment, and is regulated by government agencies in order to protect human health and the environment. Radioactivity diminishes over time, so waste is typically isolated and stored for a period of time until it no longer poses a hazard. The period of time waste must be stored depends on the type of waste. Low-level waste with low levels of radioactivity per mass or volume (such as some common medical or industrial radioactive wastes) may need to be stored for only hours, days, or months, while high-level wastes (such as spent nuclear fuel or by-products of nuclear reprocessing) must be stored for thousands of years. Current major approaches to managing radioactive waste have been segregation and storage for short-lived wastes, near-surface disposal for low and some intermediate level wastes, and deep burial or transmutation for the long-lived, high-level wastes. A summary of the amounts of
    8.75
    4 votes
    4

    Uncontrolled waste

    Uncontrolled waste is a group of waste types that do not fall into either the controlled, special or hazardous waste categories, such as specific mining wastes and agricultural wastes.
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    6

    Greywater

    Greywater, or sullage, is wastewater generated from domestic activities such as laundry, dishwashing, and bathing, which can be recycled on-site for uses such as landscape irrigation and constructed wetlands. Greywater differs from water from the toilets which is designated sewage or blackwater to indicate it contains human waste. Greywater gets its name from its cloudy appearance and from its status as being between fresh, potable water (known as "white water") and sewage water ("black water"). In a household context, greywater is the leftover water from baths, showers, hand basins and washing machines only. Some definitions of greywater include water from the kitchen sink. Any water containing human waste is considered black water. Domestic wastewater is usually combined at the sewer, so that grey- and blackwaters are removed together using a shared sewerage system in a process called elimination. Sewage water can then be treated to limit pollution and health risks, before being returned to the environment at large. Most greywater ends up as effluent in rivers and oceans in this way. There are other alternatives to eliminating greywater that allow for efficient use; using it to
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    5 votes
    7

    Industrial waste

    Industrial waste is a type of waste produced by industrial activity, such as that of factories, mills and mines. It has existed since the outset of the industrial revolution. Much industrial waste is neither hazardous nor toxic, such as waste fibre produced by agriculture and logging. Penalties and fees are created as enforcement actions and to ensure that violating conditions are corrected in a timely manner to ensure consistent treatment of industrial dischargers; to eliminate economic advantages for violations; and to ensure that states recover expenses attributable to violations.
    6.00
    5 votes
    8

    Retail hazardous waste

    The term Retail hazardous waste refers to post-consumer waste which qualifies as hazardous waste when discarded. This may include consumer products sold for home care, personal care, automotive care, pest control and other purposes. Although U.S. state and federal regulations continue to permit homeowner disposal of these products into the solid waste stream, state agencies are becoming more stringent in enforcing existing hazardous waste regulations at the retail level. In Florida, and in other US states, responsibility for proper disposal of retail hazardous waste falls upon the generator. It cannot be disposed of through the typical solid waste stream, but must be transported in accordance with DOT and EPA (RCRA) regulations to a properly-permitted TSDRF (Treatment Storage Disposal and/or Recycling Facility). California has introduced an Electronic Waste Recycling Act. Similar regulations, such as the Waste Electrical and Electronic Equipment Directive are being introduced in the countries of the European Union.
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    3 votes
    9
    Spent nuclear fuel

    Spent nuclear fuel

    Spent nuclear fuel, occasionally called used nuclear fuel, is nuclear fuel that has been irradiated in a nuclear reactor (usually at a nuclear power plant). It is no longer useful in sustaining a nuclear reaction in an ordinary thermal reactor. See Large, John H: Radioactive Decay Characteristics of Irradiated Nuclear Fuels, January 2006. Spent low enriched uranium nuclear fuel is an example of a nanomaterial. In the oxide fuel, intense temperature gradients exist which cause fission products to migrate. The zirconium tends to move to the centre of the fuel pellet where the temperature is highest, while the lower-boiling fission products move to the edge of the pellet. The pellet is likely to contain lots of small bubble-like pores which form during use; the fission xenon migrates to these voids. Some of this xenon will then decay to form caesium, hence many of these bubbles contain a large concentration of Cs. In the case of the MOX the xenon tended to diffuse out of the plutonium-rich areas of the fuel, and it was then trapped in the surrounding uranium dioxide. The neodymium tended to not be mobile. Also metallic particles of an alloy of Mo-Tc-Ru-Pd tend to form in the fuel.
    8.33
    3 votes
    10
    Food waste

    Food waste

    Food waste or food loss is food that is discarded or lost uneaten. As of 2011, 1.3 billion tons of food, about one third of the global food production, are lost or wasted annually. Loss and wastage occurs on all steps in the food supply chain. In low-income countries, most loss occurs during production, while in developed countries much food – about 100 kilograms (220 lb) per person and year – is wasted at the consumption stage. The definition of waste is a contended subject, often defined on a situational basis, and this also applies to food waste. Professional bodies, including international organizations, state governments and secretariats may use their own definitions. Definitions of food waste vary, among other things, in what food waste consists of, how it is produced, and where or what it is discarded from or generated by. Definitions also vary because certain groups do not consider (or have traditionally not considered) food waste to be a waste material, due to its applications. Some definitions of what food waste consists of are based on other waste definitions (e.g. agricultural waste) and which materials do not meet their definitions. A 2011 study by the Swedish
    7.67
    3 votes
    11
    Sludge

    Sludge

    Sludge refers to the residual, semi-solid material left from industrial wastewater, or sewage treatment processes. It can also refer to the settled suspension obtained from conventional drinking water treatment, and numerous other industrial processes. The term is also sometimes used as a generic term for solids separated from suspension in a liquid; this 'soupy' material usually contains significant quantities of 'interstitial' water (between the solid particles). When fresh sewage or wastewater is added to a settling tank, approximately 50% of the suspended solid matter will settle out in an hour and a half. This collection of solids is known as raw sludge or primary solids and is said to be "fresh" before anaerobic processes become active. The sludge will become putrescent in a short time once anaerobic bacteria take over, and must be removed from the sedimentation tank before this happens. This is accomplished in one of two ways. In an Imhoff tank, fresh sludge is passed through a slot to the lower story or digestion chamber where it is decomposed by anaerobic bacteria, resulting in liquefaction and reduced volume of the sludge. After digesting for an extended period, the
    7.67
    3 votes
    12
    7.33
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    13
    Fly ash

    Fly ash

    Fly ash is one of the residues generated in combustion, and comprises the fine particles that rise with the flue gases. Ash which does not rise is termed bottom ash. In an industrial context, fly ash usually refers to ash produced during combustion of coal. Fly ash is generally captured by electrostatic precipitators or other particle filtration equipment before the flue gases reach the chimneys of coal-fired power plants, and together with bottom ash removed from the bottom of the furnace is in this case jointly known as coal ash. Depending upon the source and makeup of the coal being burned, the components of fly ash vary considerably, but all fly ash includes substantial amounts of silicon dioxide (SiO2) (both amorphous and crystalline) and calcium oxide (CaO), both being endemic ingredients in many coal-bearing rock strata. Toxic constituents depend upon the specific coal bed makeup, but may include one or more of the following elements or substances in quantities from trace amounts to several percent: arsenic, beryllium, boron, cadmium, chromium, chromium VI, cobalt, lead, manganese, mercury, molybdenum, selenium, strontium, thallium, and vanadium, along with dioxins and PAH
    7.00
    3 votes
    14

    Controlled waste

    Controlled waste is waste that is subject to legislative control in either its handling or its disposal. As a legal term, Controlled waste applies exclusively to the UK but the concept is enshrined in laws of many other countries. The types of waste covered includes domestic, commercial and industrial waste. They are regulated because of their toxicity, their hazardous nature or their capability to do harm to human health or the environment either now or at some time in the future. A prime concern is the effects of biodegradation or biochemical degradation and the by-products produced.
    6.67
    3 votes
    15

    Household Hazardous Waste

    Household hazardous waste (HHW), sometimes called retail hazardous waste, is post-consumer waste which qualifies as hazardous waste when discarded. It includes household chemicals and other substances for which the owner no longer has a use, such as consumer products sold for home care, personal care, automotive care, pest control and other purposes. These products exhibit many of the same dangerous characteristics as fully regulated hazardous waste due to their potential for reactivity, ignitability, corrosivity, toxicity, or persistence. Examples include drain cleaners, oil paint, motor oil, antifreeze, fuel, poisons, pesticides, herbicides and rodenticides, fluorescent lamps, lamp ballasts, smoke detectors, medical waste, some types of cleaning chemicals, and consumer electronics (such as televisions, computers, and cell phones). Certain items such as batteries and fluorescent lamps can be returned to retail stores for disposal. The Rechargeable Battery Recycling Corporation (RBRC) maintains a list of battery recycling locations and your local environmental organization should have list of fluorescent lamp recycling locations. HHW is not regulated by the EPA. Many states and
    6.67
    3 votes
    16
    Green waste

    Green waste

    Green waste is biodegradable waste that can be composed of garden or park waste, such as grass or flower cuttings and hedge trimmings, as well as domestic and commercial food waste. The differentiation green identifies it as high in nitrogen, as opposed to brown waste, which is primarily carbonaceous. Green waste is often collected in municipal curbside collection schemes or through private waste management contractor businesses and subject to independent audit. Biogas captured from biodegrable green waste can be use as biofuel. Green waste can be used as non food crop to produce cellulosic ethanol.
    8.00
    2 votes
    17

    Biodegradable waste

    Biodegradable waste is a type of waste which can be broken down, in a reasonable amount of time, into its base compounds by micro-organisms and other living things, regardless of what those compounds may be. Biodegradable waste can be commonly found in municipal solid waste (sometimes called biodegradable municipal waste, or BMW) as green waste, food waste, paper waste, and biodegradable plastics. Other biodegradable wastes include human waste, manure, sewage, and slaughterhouse waste. In the absence of oxygen, much of this waste will decay to methane by anaerobic digestion. The main environmental threat from biodegradable waste is the production of methane in landfills. Methane is 21 times as potent a greenhouse gas as carbon dioxide and accounted for some 3% of total greenhouse gas emissions in the EU-15 in 1995. The Landfill Directive 1999/31/EC obliges Member States to reduce the amount of biodegradable waste that they landfill to 35% of 1995 levels by 2016, which will significantly reduce the problem. l Biodegradable waste can often be used for composting or can be a resource for heat, electricity and fuel in future, trough dry biodigestion as it is being achieved by the Swiss
    6.00
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    18
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    19

    Recyclable waste

    Recyclable waste is a waste type that has the potential to be recycled. A typical municipal waste stream (bin bag) contains the following components that can be recycled if recovered in a suitably clean state with little contamination:
    10.00
    1 votes
    20

    Medical waste

    Medical waste, also known as clinical waste, normally refers to waste products that cannot be considered general waste, produced from healthcare premises, such as hospitals, clinics, doctors offices, veterinary hospitals and labs. In Europe, wastes are defined by their European Waste Catalogue (EWC) Codes. EWC Codes are 6 digits long, with the first two digits defining the overarching category of waste, the next two defining the sub-category, and the last two defining the precise waste stream. Clinical waste comes under the "18" codes, for example: "18 01 01" corresponds to healthcare waste (18), from humans (01), that is sharp and not infectious [01]. It has many waste things thrown.[01] In the UK, clinical waste and the way it is to be handled is closely regulated. Applicable legislation includes the Environmental Protection Act 1990 (Part II), Waste Management Licencing Regulations 1994, and the Hazardous Waste Regulations (England & Wales) 2005, as well as the Special Waste Regulations in Scotland. In 1988 the Federal government passed The Medical Waste Tracking Act which set the standards for governmental regulation of medical waste. After the Act expired in 1991, States were
    7.50
    2 votes
    21
    Municipal solid waste

    Municipal solid waste

    Municipal solid waste (MSW), commonly known as trash or garbage (US), refuse or rubbish (UK) is a waste type consisting of everyday items that are discarded by the public. The composition of municipal waste varies greatly from country to country and changes significantly with time. In countries which have a developed recycling culture, the waste stream consists mainly of intractable wastes such as plastic film, and un-recyclable packaging. At the start of the 20th century, the majority of domestic waste in the UK consisted of coal ash from open fires In developed countries without significant recycling it predominantly includes food wastes, yard wastes, containers and product packaging, and other miscellaneousness wastes from residential, commercial, institutional, and industrial sources. Most definitions of municipal solid waste do not include industrial wastes, agricultural wastes, medical waste, radioactive waste or sewage sludge. Waste collection is performed by the municipality within a given area. The term residual waste relates to waste left from household sources containing materials that have not been separated out or sent for reprocessing. Waste can be classified in
    7.50
    2 votes
    22
    Wastewater

    Wastewater

    Wastewater, also written as waste water, is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by anthropogenic influence. It comprises liquid waste discharged by domestic residences, commercial properties, industry, and/or agriculture and can encompass a wide range of potential contaminants and concentrations. In the most common usage, it refers to the municipal wastewater that contains a broad spectrum of contaminants resulting from the mixing of wastewater from homes, businesses, industrial areas and often storm drains, especially in older sewer systems. Municipal wastewater is usually treated in a combined sewer, sanitary sewer, effluent sewer or septic tank. Sewage is the subset of wastewater that is contaminated with feces or urine, but is often used to mean any wastewater. Sewage includes domestic, municipal, or industrial liquid waste products disposed of, usually via a pipe or sewer (sanitary or combined), sometimes in a cesspool emptier. Sewerage is the physical infrastructure, including pipes, pumps, screens, channels etc. used to convey sewage from its origin to the point of eventual treatment or disposal. It is found in all types of sewage treatment, with the
    7.50
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    23

    Animal by-products

    Animal by-products are biodegradable wastes consisting of animal carcases, parts of animal carcases, products of animal origin which are not intended for human consumption, includes catering waste (all waste food from restaurants, catering facilities, central kitchens, slaughterhouses and household kitchens).
    7.00
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    24
    Biomedical waste

    Biomedical waste

    Biomedical waste, (BMW), consists of solids, liquids, sharps, and laboratory waste that are potentially infectious or dangerous and are considered biowaste. It must be properly managed to protect the general public, specifically healthcare and sanitation workers who are regularly exposed to biomedical waste as an occupational hazard. Biomedical waste differs from other types of hazardous waste, such as industrial waste, in that it comes from biological sources or is used in the diagnosis, prevention, or treatment of diseases. Common producers of biomedical waste include hospitals, health clinics, nursing homes, medical research laboratories, offices of physicians, dentists, and veterinarians, home health care, and funeral homes. Sorting of medical wastes in hospital.At the site where it is generated, biomedical waste is placed in specially labelled bags and containers for removal by biomedical waste transporters. Other forms of waste should not be mixed with biomedical waste as different rules apply to the treatment of different types of waste. Household biomedical waste usually consists of needles and syringes from drugs administered at home (such as insulin), soiled wound
    7.00
    2 votes
    25

    Coffee wastewater

    Coffee wastewater, also known as Coffee effluent, is a byproduct of the coffee processing process whose treatment and disposal is an important environmental consideration for Coffee processing. It is a form of industrial water pollution. The unpicked fruit of the coffee tree, known as the coffee cherry, must undergo a long process to make it ready for consumption. This process often entails the usage of massive amounts of water and the production of considerable amounts of both solid and liquid waste. To determine the type of waste stemming from coffee processing, it is important to know how the coffee cherries are processed. The conversion of the cherry to oro or green bean (the dried coffee bean which is ready to be exported) can be achieved through three different processing techniques: dry, semi-washed, and fully washed. The coffee cherries are dried immediately after they are harvested through sun drying, solar drying or artificial drying. In sun drying, the coffee cherries are placed on a clean floor and left to dry in the open air. In solar drying, the cherries are placed in a closed cabinet, which has ventilation holes to let moisture out. Artificial drying is used mostly
    7.00
    2 votes
    26
    High level waste

    High level waste

    High level waste (HLW) is a type of nuclear waste created by the reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel. It exists in two main forms: Liquid high level waste is typically held temporarily in underground tanks pending vitrification. Most of the high level waste created by the Manhattan project and the weapons programs of the cold war exists in this form because funding for further processing was typically not part of the original weapons programs. Both spent nuclear fuel and vitrified waste are considered as suitable forms for long term disposal, after a period of temporary storage in the case of spent nuclear fuel. HLW contains many of the fission products and transuranic elements generated in the reactor core and is the type of nuclear waste with the highest activity. HLW accounts for over 95% of the total radioactivity produced in the nuclear power process. In other words, while most nuclear waste is low-level and intermediate-level waste, such as protective clothing and equipment that have been contaminated with radiation, the majority of the radioactivity produced from the nuclear power generation process becomes high-level waste. In the US, HLW from reprocessing of spent fuel
    7.00
    2 votes
    27
    Construction waste

    Construction waste

    Construction waste consists of unwanted material produced directly or incidentally by the construction or industries. This includes building materials such as insulation, nails, electrical wiring, and rebar, as well as waste originating from site preparation such as dredging materials, tree stumps, and rubble. Construction waste may contain lead, asbestos, or other hazardous substances. Much building waste is made up of materials such as bricks, concrete and wood damaged or unused for various reasons during construction. Observational research has shown that this can be as high as 10 to 15% of the materials that go into a building, a much higher percentage than the 2.5-5% usually assumed by quantity surveyors and the construction industry. Since considerable variability exists between construction sites, there is much opportunity for reducing this waste. Certain components of construction waste such as plasterboard are hazardous once landfilled. Plasterboard is broken down in landfill conditions releasing hydrogen sulfide, a toxic gas. There is the potential to recycle many elements of construction waste. Often roll-off containers are used to transport the waste. Rubble can be
    5.33
    3 votes
    28

    Commercial waste

    Commercial waste consists of waste from premises used wholly or mainly for the purposes of a trade or business or for the purpose of sport, recreation, education or entertainment but not including household; agricultural or industrial waste.
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    Sewage

    Sewage

    Sewage is water-carried waste, in solution or suspension, that is intended to be removed from a community. Also known as wastewater, it is more than 99% water and is characterized by volume or rate of flow, physical condition, chemical constituents and the bacteriological organisms that it contains. In loose American English usage, the terms 'sewage' and 'sewerage' are sometimes interchanged. Both words are descended from Old French assewer, derived from the Latin exaquare, "to drain out (water)" Classes of sewage include sanitary, commercial, industrial, agricultural and surface runoff. The wastewater from residences and institutions, carrying body wastes, washing water, food preparation wastes, laundry wastes, and other waste products of normal living, are classed as domestic or sanitary sewage. Liquid-carried wastes from stores and service establishments serving the immediate community, termed commercial wastes, are included in the sanitary or domestic sewage category if their characteristics are similar to household flows. Wastes that result from an industrial process or the production or manufacture of goods are classed as industrial wastewater. Their flows and strengths are
    6.50
    2 votes
    31
    Sharps waste

    Sharps waste

    Sharps waste is a form of medical waste composed of used sharps, which includes any device or object used to puncture or lacerate the skin. Sharps waste is classified as biohazardous waste and must be carefully handled. Common medical materials treated as sharps waste are: In addition to syringes and injection devices, anything attached to them will also be considered sharps waste. Examples of such attachments could be a tube or Vacutainer. The entire complex is treated as one unit of sharps waste, even though the attached item cannot puncture or lacerate the skin. The category of blades can include razors, scalpels, X-Acto knife, scissors, or any other medical items used for cutting in the medical setting. Both needles and blades are always treated and handled with the highest concern as sharps waste. This is regardless of if they have been contaminated with biohazardous material. While glass and plastic are considered sharps waste, their handling methods can vary. Glass and plastic items, which have been contaminated with a biohazardous material, will be treated with the same concern as needles and blades, even if unbroken. If not contaminated, broken glass and plastic is still a
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    Low level waste

    Low level waste

    Low-level waste (LLW) is nuclear waste that does not fit into the categorical definitions for intermediate-level waste (ILW), high-level waste (HLW), spent nuclear fuel (SNF), transuranic waste (TRU), or certain byproduct materials known as 11e(2) wastes, such as uranium mill tailings. In essence, it is a definition by exclusion, and LLW is that category of radioactive wastes that do not fit into the other categories. If LLW is mixed with hazardous wastes, then it has a special status as Mixed Low-Level Waste (MLLW) and must satisfy treatment, storage, and disposal regulations both as LLW and as hazardous waste. While the bulk of LLW is not highly radioactive, the definition of LLW does not include references to its activity, and some LLW may be quite radioactive, as in the case of radioactive sources used in industry and medicine. The definition of low level waste is set by the nuclear regulators of individual countries, though the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) provides recommendations. Some countries, such as France, specify categories for long-lived low (and intermediate) level waste. Depending on who "owns" the waste, its handling and disposal is regulated
    8.00
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    34

    Business waste

    Business (or commercial and industrial) waste – cover the commercial waste and industrial waste types . Generally, businesses are expected to make their own arrangements for the collection, treatment and disposal of their wastes. Waste from smaller shops and trading estates where local authority waste collection agreements are in place will generally be treated as municipal waste.
    6.00
    2 votes
    35

    Hazardous waste

    A Hazardous waste is waste that poses substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment. In the United States, the treatment, storage and disposal of hazardous waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Hazardous wastes are defined under RCRA in 40 CFR 261 where they are divided into two major categories: characteristic wastes and listed wastes. The requirements of RCRA apply to all the companies that generate hazardous waste as well as those companies that store or dispose of hazardous waste in the United States. Many types of businesses generate hazardous waste. For example, dry cleaners, automobile repair shops, hospitals, exterminators, and photo processing centers may all generate hazardous waste. Some hazardous waste generators are larger companies such as chemical manufacturers, electroplating companies, and oil refineries. These wastes may be found in different physical states such as gaseous, liquids, or solids. A hazardous waste is a special type of waste because it cannot be disposed of by common means like other by-products of our everyday lives. Depending on the physical state of the waste, treatment and
    5.50
    2 votes
    37
    Slag

    Slag

    Slag is a partially vitreous by-product of the process of smelting ore, which separates the desired metal fraction from the unwanted fraction. Slag is usually a mixture of metal oxides and silicon dioxide. However, slags can contain metal sulfides (see also matte) and metal atoms in the elemental form. While slags are generally used to remove waste in metal smelting, they can also serve other purposes, such as assisting in the temperature control of the smelting, and minimizing any re-oxidation of the final liquid metal product before the molten metal is removed from the furnace and used to make solid metal. In nature, the ores of metals such as iron, copper, lead, nickel and other metals are found in impure states, often oxidized and mixed in with silicates of other metals. During smelting, when the ore is exposed to high temperatures, these impurities are separated from the molten metal and can be removed. Slag is the collection of compounds that are removed. In many smelting processes, oxides are introduced to control the slag chemistry, assisting in the removal of impurities and protecting the furnace refractory lining from excessive wear. In this case, the slag is termed
    5.50
    2 votes
    38
    Bulky waste

    Bulky waste

    Bulky waste or bulky refuse is a technical term taken from waste management to describe waste types that are too large to be accepted by the regular waste collection. It is usually picked up regularly in many countries from the streets or pavements of the area. This service is provided free of charge in many places, but often a fee has to be paid. Bulky waste items include discarded furniture (couches, recliners, tables), large appliances (refrigerators, ovens, tv's), and plumbing fixtures (bathtubs, toilets, sinks). A large amount (30-60%, depending on area) of bulky waste is picked up by scavengers before it is collected. Branches, brush, logs and other green waste are also categorized as bulky waste, although they may be collected separately for shredding and/or composting. Grapple trucks, also known as knuckleboom loaders, are often used to collect bulky waste. In the UK, refuse collection vehicles (RCVs) or crushers are being increasingly phased out as more bulky waste is diverted for re-use and recycling. Bulky Matters is the partnership between reuse, recycling and training charity Furniture Matters and Lancaster City Council. The partnership has won national acclaim
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    Human waste

    Human waste is a waste type usually used to refer to byproducts of digestion, such as feces and urine. Human waste is most often transported as sewage in waste water through sewerage systems. Alternatively it is disposed of in nappies (diapers) in municipal solid waste. Human waste is considered a biowaste as it is a good vector for both viral and bacterial diseases. It can be a serious health hazard if it gets into sources of drinking water. The World Heath Organization reports that nearly 2.2 million people die annually from diseases caused by contaminated water. A major accomplishment of human civilization has been the reduction of disease transmission via human waste through the practice of hygiene and sanitation, including the development of sewage systems and plumbing. The amount of water needed to process human waste can be reduced by the use of waterless urinals and composting toilets and by recycling greywater. The most common method of waste treatment in rural areas where municipal sewage systems are unavailable is the use of septic tank systems. In remote rural places without sewage or septic systems, small populations allow for the continued use of honey buckets and
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    2 votes
    41

    Slaughterhouse waste

    Slaughterhouse waste is a biodegradable waste with the following definition: Animal body parts cut off in the preparation of carcasses for use as food. This waste can come from several sources, including slaughterhouses, restaurants, stores and farms(source:OED). In the UK, slaughterhouse waste is classed as category 3 risk waste in the Animal By-Products Regulations, with the exception of condemned meat which is classed as category 2 risk. Abattoir is another word for Slaughterhouse.
    6.00
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    Demolition waste

    Demolition waste

    Demolition waste is waste debris from destruction of a building. The debris varies from insulation, electrical wiring, rebar, wood, concrete, and bricks. It also may contain lead, asbestos or different hazardous materials. Certain components of demolition waste such as plasterboard are hazardous once landfilled. Plasterboard is broken down in landfill conditions releasing hydrogen sulfide, a toxic gas. There is the potential to recycle many elements of demolition waste. Often roll-off containers are used to transport the waste. Rubble can be crushed and reused in construction projects. Waste wood can also be recovered and recycled. Government or local authorities often make rules about how much waste should be sorted before it is hauled away to landfills or other waste treatment facilities. Some hazardous materials may not be moved, or demolition begun, before the authorities have ascertained that safety guidelines and restrictions have been followed. Among their concerns would be the proper handling and disposal of such toxic elements as lead, asbestos or radioactive materials.
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    43
    Electronic waste

    Electronic waste

    Electronic waste, e-waste, e-scrap, or waste electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE) describes discarded electrical or electronic devices. There is a lack of consensus as to whether the term should apply to resale, reuse, and refurbishing industries, or only to product that cannot be used for its intended purpose. Informal processing of electronic waste in developing countries may cause serious health and pollution problems, though these countries are also most likely to reuse and repair electronics. Some electronic scrap components, such as CRTs, may contain contaminants such as lead, cadmium, beryllium, or brominated flame retardants. Even in developed countries recycling and disposal of e-waste may involve significant risk to workers and communities and great care must be taken to avoid unsafe exposure in recycling operations and leaching of material such as heavy metals from landfills and incinerator ashes. Scrap industry and USA EPA officials agree that materials should be managed with caution. "Electronic waste" may be defined as discarded computers, office electronic equipment, entertainment device electronics, mobile phones, television sets and refrigerators. This
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    1 votes
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    Chemical waste

    Chemical waste is a waste that is made from harmful chemicals (mostly produced by large factories). Chemical waste may fall under regulations such as COSHH in the United Kingdom, or the Clean Water Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act in the United States. In the U.S., the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA), as well as state and local regulations also regulate chemical use and disposal. Chemical waste may or may not be classed as hazardous waste. In the laboratory, chemical wastes are usually segregated on-site into appropriate waste carboys, and disposed by a specialist contractor in order to meet safety, health, and legislative requirements. Waste organic solvents are separated into chlorinated and non-chlorinated solvent waste. Chlorinated solvent waste is usually incinerated at high temperature to minimize the formation of dioxins. Non-chlorinated solvent waste can be burned for energy recovery. Innocuous aqueous waste (such as solutions of sodium chloride) may be poured down the sink; aqueous waste containing toxic compounds are collected separately. Waste elemental mercury, spent acids and bases may be
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    Mixed waste

    According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency, mixed waste (MW) is a waste type defined as follows; "MW contains both hazardous waste (as defined by RCRA and its amendments) and radioactive waste (as defined by AEA and its amendments). It is jointly regulated by NRC or NRC's Agreement States and EPA or EPA's RCRA Authorized States. The fundamental and most comprehensive statutory definition is found in the Federal Facilities Compliance Act (FFCA) where Section 1004(41) was added to RCRA: "The term 'mixed waste' means waste that contains both hazardous waste and source, special nuclear, or byproduct material subject to the Atomic Energy Act of 1954." Mixed waste is much more expensive to manage and dispose of than waste that is solely radioactive. Waste generators can avoid higher charge back costs by eliminating or minimizing the volume of mixed waste generated. The EPA defines hazardous waste as the following: A subset of solid wastes that pose substantial or potential threats to public health or the environment and meet any of the following criteria identified 40 CFR 260 and 261:
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    Toxic waste

    Toxic waste

    Toxic waste is waste material that can cause death, injury or birth defects to living creatures. It spreads quite easily and can contaminate lakes and rivers and atmosphere. The term is often used interchangeably with “hazardous waste”, or discarded material that can pose a long-term risk to health or environment. Hazardous wastes are poisonous byproducts of manufacturing, farming, city septic systems, construction, automotive garages, laboratories, hospitals, and other industries. The waste may be liquid, solid, or sludge and contain chemicals, heavy metals, radiation, dangerous pathogens, or other toxins. Even households generate hazardous waste from items such as batteries, used computer equipment, and leftover paints or pesticides. In the United States, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the state departments oversee the rules that regulate hazardous waste. The EPA requires that toxic waste be handled with special precautions and be disposed of in designated facilities around the country. Also, many cities in the United States have collection days where household toxic waste is gathered. Some materials that may not be accepted at regular landfills are ammunition,
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