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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best SAF Forest Cover Type of All Time

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    1

    Shortleaf pine - oak

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Oak-pine forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    8.17
    6 votes
    2
    Loblolly Pine

    Loblolly Pine

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Southern Yellow Pine forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Pinus taeda (Loblolly Pine) is one of several pines native to the Southeastern United States, from central Texas east to Florida, and north to Delaware and Southern New Jersey. It is particularly dominant in the eastern half of North Carolina, where there are huge expanses consisting solely of Loblolly Pine trees. In the rest of the South, forests often contain Loblolly Pines along with many other species of trees. The wood industry classifies the species as a southern yellow pine. The trees reach a height of 30–35 m (98–115 ft) with a diameter of 0.4–1.5 m (1.3–4.9 ft). Exceptional specimens may reach 50 m (160 ft) tall, the largest of the southern pines. Its needles are in bundles of three, sometimes twisted, and measure 12–22 cm (4.7–8.7 in) long; an intermediate length for southern pines, shorter than those of the Longleaf Pine or Slash Pine, but longer than those of the Shortleaf Pine and Spruce Pine. The needles usually last up to two years before they fall, which gives the species its evergreen character. Although some needles fall throughout the year due to severe weather, insect damage, and drought, most needles fall during the autumn and winter of their second year. The
    6.14
    7 votes
    3
    Red Spruce

    Red Spruce

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Spruce-fir forest
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    Picea rubens (red spruce) is a species of spruce native to eastern North America, ranging from eastern Quebec to Nova Scotia, and from New England south in the Adirondack Mountains and Appalachians to western North Carolina. Red Spruce is a coniferous tree growing to 18–40 metres (59–130 ft) high (sometimes it could be much shorter, about 4 metres (13 ft)) and has a trunk diameter of about 60 centimetres (24 in), though exceptional specimens can reach 46 m (151 ft) tall and 30 cm (12 in) diameter. It has a narrow conical crown. The leaves are needle-like, yellow-green, 12–15 millimetres (0.47–0.59 in) long, four-sided, curved, with a sharp point, and extend from all sides of the twig. The bark is gray-brown on the surface and red-brown on the inside, thin, and scaly. The cones are cylindrical, 3–5 centimetres (1.2–2.0 in) long, with a glossy red-brown color and stiff scales. The cones hang down from branches. Red Spruce grows at a slow to moderate rate, lives for 250 to 450+ years, and is very shade-tolerant when young. It is often found in pure stands or forests mixed with Eastern White Pine, Balsam Fir, or Black Spruce. Along with Fraser Fir, Red Spruce is one of two primary tree
    8.60
    5 votes
    4

    Longleaf pine - scrub oak

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Oak-pine forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    6.83
    6 votes
    5
    Slash Pine

    Slash Pine

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Southern Yellow Pine forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Pinus elliottii, commonly known as the slash pine, is a pine native to the southeastern United States, from southern South Carolina west to southeastern Louisiana, and south to the Florida Keys. It is fast-growing, but not very long-lived by pine standards (to 200 years), and prefers humid climates and moist soils. Slash pine is named after the "slashes" – swampy ground overgrown with trees and bushes – that constitute its habitat. This tree reaches heights of 18–30 m (59–98 ft) with a trunk diameter of 0.6–0.8 m (2.0–2.6 ft). The leaves are needle-like, very slender, in clusters of two or three, and are 18–24 cm (7.1–9.4 in) long. The cones are glossy red-brown, 5–15 cm (2.0–5.9 in) in length with a short (2–3 mm/0.079–0.12 in), thick prickle on each scale. It is known for its conical shape. It may be distinguished from the related loblolly pine by the somewhat longer, glossier needles and larger red-brown cones, and from longleaf pine by the shorter, more slender needles and smaller cones with less broad scales. The two varieties are: Unlike the typical variety of slash pine, seedlings of P. elliotti var. densa pass through a "grass stage", in a manner similar to longleaf
    8.00
    5 votes
    6
    9.25
    4 votes
    7
    Virginia Pine

    Virginia Pine

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Southern Yellow Pine forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Pinus virginiana (Virginia Pine, Scrub Pine, Jersey Pine) is a medium-sized tree, often found on poorer soils from Long Island in southern New York south through the Appalachian Mountains to western Tennessee and Alabama. The usual size range for this pine is 9–18 m, but can grow taller under optimum conditions. The trunk can be as large as 0.5 m diameter. This tree prefers well-drained loam or clay, but will also grow on very poor, sandy soil, where it remains small and stunted. The typical life span is 65 to 90 years. The leaf type is simple. There are also some nice cultivated specimens of Pinus virginiana in the Harvard Arboretum in Boston, Massachusetts. The short (4–8 cm), yellow-green needles are paired in fascicles and are often twisted. Pinecones are 4-7 cm long and may persist on the tree for many years, often (though not always) releasing their seeds in the second year. In growth habit, some trees may be inclined with twisted trunks. This pine is useful for reforesting and provides nourishment for wildlife. Its other main use is on Christmas tree farms, despite having sharp-tipped needles and yellowish winter color. It also can provide wood pulp and lumber. It is classed
    7.40
    5 votes
    8
    Balsam Fir

    Balsam Fir

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Boreal conifer
    • SAF region: Boreal forest
    Balsam Fir (Abies balsamea) is a North American fir, native to most of eastern and central Canada (Newfoundland west to central Alberta) and the northeastern United States (Minnesota east to Maine, and south in the Appalachian Mountains to West Virginia). Balsam Fir is a small to medium-size evergreen tree typically 14–20 metres (46–66 ft) tall, rarely to 27 metres (89 ft) tall, with a narrow conic crown. The bark on young trees is smooth, grey, and with resin blisters (which tend to spray when ruptured), becoming rough and fissured or scaly on old trees. The leaves are flat needle-like, 15 to 30 millimetres (½–1 in) long, dark green above often with a small patch of stomata near the tip, and two white stomatal bands below, and a slightly notched tip. They are arranged spirally on the shoot, but with the leaf bases twisted to appear in two more-or-less horizontal rows. The cones are erect, 40 to 80 millimetres (1½–3 in) long, dark purple, ripening brown and disintegrating to release the winged seeds in September. There are two varieties: On mountain tops, stands of Balsam Fir occasionally develop fir waves. Often found in association with Black Spruce, White Spruce and trembling
    7.20
    5 votes
    9

    Southern redcedar

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Other southern forest types
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    5.83
    6 votes
    10
    Sand Pine

    Sand Pine

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Southern Yellow Pine forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Pinus clausa (Sand Pine, Sandhill Pine) is a small, often shrubby tree from 5–10 m (16–33 ft), exceptionally to 21 m (69 ft) tall, found in two separate locations, one across central peninsular Florida, and the other in the western Florida panhandle and the Alabama coast; there is a range gap of about 200 km (120 mi) between the populations (from Apalachicola to Cedar Key). It is largely confined to very infertile, excessively well-drained, sandy habitats where competition from larger-growing species is minimized by the harsh growing conditions, as in the Florida scrub. The leaves are needle-like, in pairs, 5–10 cm (2.0–3.9 in) long, and its cones are 4–8 cm (1.6–3.1 in) long. Over much of its range, it is fire-adapted to stand-replacing wildfires, with the cones remaining closed for many years (clausa = closed), until a natural forest fire kills the mature trees and opens the cones. These then reseed the burnt ground. Some populations differ in having cones that open at maturity, with seed dispersal not relying on fires. Sand Pine woods are an important habitat for the endangered Florida Sand Skink. The dense branching makes this tree unsuitable for wood production, and when used
    8.50
    4 votes
    11
    Red Maple

    Red Maple

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Northern hardwood forest concept
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    Acer rubrum (Red Maple, also known as Swamp, Water or Soft Maple), is one of the most common and widespread deciduous trees of eastern North America. It ranges from the Lake of the Woods on the border between Ontario and Minnesota, east to Newfoundland, south to near Miami, Florida, and southwest to east Texas. Many of its features, especially its leaves, are quite variable in form. At maturity it often attains a height of around 15 m (49 ft). It is aptly named as its flowers, petioles, twigs and seeds are all red to varying degrees. Among these features, however, it is best known for its brilliant deep scarlet foliage in autumn. Over most of its range, red maple is adaptable to a very wide range of site conditions, perhaps more so than any other tree in eastern North America. It can be found growing in swamps, on poor dry soils, and most anywhere in between. It grows well from sea level to about 900 m (3,000 ft). Due to its attractive fall foliage and pleasing form, it is often used as a shade tree for landscapes. It is used commercially on a small scale for maple syrup production as well as for its medium to high quality lumber. It is also the State Tree of Rhode Island. Though
    8.00
    4 votes
    12

    White pine - chestnut oak

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Pine and hemlock forest concept
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    8.00
    4 votes
    13
    7.50
    4 votes
    14

    Loblolly pine - shortleaf pine

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Southern Yellow Pine forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    9.00
    3 votes
    15

    South Florida slash pine

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Southern Yellow Pine forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    8.67
    3 votes
    16

    Gray birch - red maple

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Other northern forest types
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    8.33
    3 votes
    17

    Sweetbay-swamp tupelo-redbay

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Bottomland forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    8.33
    3 votes
    18
    White Spruce

    White Spruce

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Boreal conifer
    • SAF region: Boreal forest
    Picea glauca (white spruce) is a species of spruce native to boreal forests in the north of North America, from central Alaska to as far east as the Avalon Peninsula in Newfoundland, and south to northern Montana, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, upstate New York, Vermont, New Hampshire, and Maine; there is also an isolated population in the Black Hills of South Dakota and Wyoming. It is also known as Canadian spruce, skunk spruce, cat spruce, Black Hills spruce, western white spruce, Alberta white spruce, and Porsild spruce. The white spruce is a large coniferous evergreen tree which grows normally to 15 to 30 metres (49 to 98 ft) tall, but can grow up to 40 metres (130 ft) tall with a trunk diameter of up to 1 metre (3.3 ft). The bark is thin and scaly, flaking off in small circular plates 5 to 10 centimetres (2.0 to 3.9 in) across. The crown is narrow - conic in young trees, becoming cylindric in older trees. The shoots are pale buff-brown, glabrous (hairless) in the east of the range, but often pubescent in the west, and with prominent pulvini. The leaves are needle-like, 12 to 20 millimetres (0.47 to 0.79 in) long, rhombic in cross-section, glaucous blue-green above with
    8.33
    3 votes
    19

    Sugar maple - basswood

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Northern hardwood forest concept
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    8.00
    3 votes
    20
    8.00
    3 votes
    21

    Red spruce - balsam fir

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Spruce-fir forest
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    6.25
    4 votes
    22
    Black Spruce

    Black Spruce

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Boreal conifer
    • SAF region: Boreal forest
    Picea mariana (Black Spruce) is a species of spruce native to northern North America, from Newfoundland to Alaska, and south to northern New York, Minnesota and central British Columbia. This area is also known as the taiga forest, in the Taiga and Boreal forests biome. Picea mariana is a slow-growing, small upright evergreen coniferous tree (rarely a shrub), having a straight trunk with little taper, a scruffy habit, and a narrow, pointed crown of short, compact, drooping branches with upturned tips. Through much of its range it averages 5–15 m tall with a trunk 15-50 cm diameter at maturity, though occasional specimens can reach 30 m tall and 60 cm diameter. The bark is thin, scaly, and grayish brown. The leaves are needle-like, 6-15 mm long, stiff, four-sided, dark bluish green on the upper sides, paler glaucous green below. The cones are the smallest of all of the spruces, 1.5-4 cm long and 1–2 cm broad, spindle-shaped to nearly round, dark purple ripening red-brown, produced in dense clusters in the upper crown, opening at maturity but persisting for several years. Natural hybridization occurs regularly with the closely related Picea rubens (Red Spruce), and very rarely with
    7.67
    3 votes
    23
    Northern Pin Oak

    Northern Pin Oak

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Northern hardwood forest concept
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    Quercus ellipsoidalis, Northern Pin Oak or Hill's Oak, is native to the northern midwest United States, and also in the southeast and southwest of Ontario, Canada. It occurs on moist, clay soils. Although the name suggests an alliance to the Pin Oak Q. palustris, it has traditionally been thought to be closely related to the Scarlet Oak Q. coccinea, and was in fact included in that species by many botanists. Recent work suggests that there is more gene flow between Hill's oak and Black Oak Q. velutina, but the phylogenetic position of these species is still undercertain (Hipp and Weber 2008). The morphological similarity between Q. ellipsoidalis and Q. coccinea remains a source of confusion, especially in northwestern Indiana and southern Cook County, Illinois. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree growing to 20 m tall with an open, rounded crown. The leaves are glossy green, 7-13 cm long and 5-10 cm broad, lobed, with five or seven lobes, and deep sinuses between the lobes. Each lobe has 3-7 bristle-tipped teeth. The leaf is nearly hairless, except for small tufts of pale orange-brown down where the lobe veins join the central vein. The acorns tend to be ellipsoid (ellipse-shaped,
    7.67
    3 votes
    24
    Live oak

    Live oak

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Bottomland forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Live oak (Quercus virginiana), also known as the southern live oak, is a normally evergreen oak tree native to the southeastern United States. Though many other species are loosely called live oak, the southern live oak is particularly iconic of the Old South. When the term live oak is used in a specific rather than general sense, it most commonly refers to the southern live oak (the first species so named), but can often refer to other species regionally. The southern live oak is the official state tree of Georgia. In Texas, a small grove of trees, such as live oaks (Texas live oak or southern live oak) or elm, is known as a mott. Live oak was widely used in early American butt shipbuilding. Because of the trees' short height and low-hanging branches, lumber from live oak was specifically used to make curved structural members of the hull, such as knee braces (single-piece, inverted L-shaped braces that spring inward from the side and support a ship's deck). In such cuts of lumber, the line of the grain would fall perpendicularly to lines of stress, creating structures of exceptional strength. Live oaks were not generally used for planking because the curved and often convoluted
    9.50
    2 votes
    25

    Longleaf pine -slash pine

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Southern Yellow Pine forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    7.33
    3 votes
    26
    Pond Pine

    Pond Pine

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Southern Yellow Pine forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Pinus serotina (Pond Pine, Marsh Pine, Pocosin Pine) is a tree found along the Atlantic coastal plain of the eastern United States, from southern New Jersey south to Florida and west to southern Alabama. This pine often has a crooked growth pattern and an irregular top and attains the height of 15-20 m, occasionally up to 30 m. The needles are in bundles of three or four, and of length 15-20 cm. The almost round cones are 5-9 cm long with small prickles on the scales. Its cones are serotinous and require fire to open. The Pond Pine is found in wet habitats near ponds, bays, swamps, and pocosins. The species name is derived from the persistently unopened cones that may remain closed for several years before they release their seeds; the opening is often in response to forest fires. At the north end of its range, it intergrades and hybridises with Pitch Pine (P. rigida); it is distinguished from that species by the longer needles and on average slightly larger cones. Some botanists treat Pond Pine as a subspecies of Pitch Pine.
    7.33
    3 votes
    27
    Water Tupelo

    Water Tupelo

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Bottomland forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Nyssa aquatica, commonly called the water tupelo, cottongum, wild olive, large tupelo, sourgum, tupelo-gum, or water-gum, is a large, long-lived tree in the tupelo genus (Nyssa) that grows in swamps and floodplains in the Southeastern United States. Nyssa aquatica trunks have a swollen base that tapers up to a long, clear bole, and its root system is periodically under water. Water tupelo trees often occurs in pure stands. Nyssa aquatica's genus name (Nyssa) refers to a Greek water nymph; the species epithet aquatica, meaning ‘aquatic’, refers to its swamp and wetland habitat. One of the species' common names, tupelo, is of Native American origin, coming from the Creek words ito ‘tree’ and opilwa ‘swamp’; it was in use by the mid-18th century A large mature tree can produce commercial timber used for furniture and crates. The swollen base of the Nyssa aquatica is the source of a favored wood of wood carvers. Many kinds of wildlife eat the fruit, and it is a favored honey tree.
    5.75
    4 votes
    28
    Eastern Hemlock

    Eastern Hemlock

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Eastern Hemlock forest concept
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    Tsuga canadensis, also known as eastern hemlock or Canadian hemlock, and in the French-speaking regions of Canada as Pruche du Canada, is a coniferous tree native to eastern North America. It is the state tree of Pennsylvania . The eastern hemlock grows well in shade and is very long lived, with the oldest recorded specimen being at least 554 years old. The tree generally reaches heights of about 31 meters (100 feet), but exceptional trees have been recorded up to 53 metres (173 feet). The diameter of the trunk at breast height is often 1.5 metres (5 feet), but again, outstanding trees have been recorded up to 1.75 meters (6 feet). The trunk is usually straight and monopodial, but very rarely is forked. The crown is broadly conic, while the brownish bark is scaly and deeply fissured, especially with age. The twigs are a yellow-brown in colour with darker red-brown pulvini, and are densely pubescent. The buds are ovoid in shape and are very small, measuring only 1.5 to 2.5 mm (0.05 to 0.1 inches) in length. These are usually not resinous, but may be slightly so. The leaves are typically 15 to 20 mm (0.6 to 0.9 inches) in length, but may be as short as 5 mm (0.2 inches) or as long as
    7.00
    3 votes
    29
    Pin cherry

    Pin cherry

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Boreal hardwoods
    • SAF region: Boreal forest
    Prunus pensylvanica, also known as bird cherry, fire cherry, pin cherry, and red cherry, is a North American cherry species in the genus Prunus. Prunus pensylvanica can be found from Newfoundland and southern Labrador, crossing Canada to the west and reaching British Columbia and the southern Northwest Territories. Additionally it is very common in New England and the Great Lakes region but not very common south of Pennsylvania, where it is found only sporadically in the Appalachian Mountains to northern Georgia and eastern Tennessee. Scattered growth of the Pin cherry also occurs in the Rocky Mountains, south to Colorado and southeast to the Black Hills of South Dakota. Prunus pensylvanica, grows as a shrub or small tree, usually with a straight trunk and a narrow, round-topped crown. It grows 5–15 m (15–50 ft) tall and 10–51 cm (4-20 inches) in diameter. Trees up to 30 m (100 ft) tall have been found growing in the southern Appalachians, with the largest found on the western slopes of the Great Smoky Mountains. Its foliage is thin, with leaves 4–11 cm (1.5-4.3 inches) long and 1-4.5 cm (0.5-1.75 inches) wide. Flowers occur in small groupings of five to seven with individual
    7.00
    3 votes
    30

    Southern scrub oak

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Other southern forest types
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    7.00
    3 votes
    31

    Beech - sugar maple

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Northern hardwood forest concept
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    8.50
    2 votes
    32
    8.50
    2 votes
    33

    Baldcypress-tupelo

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Bottomland forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    6.67
    3 votes
    34
    Hawthorn

    Hawthorn

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Other northern forest types
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    Crataegus ( /krəˈtiːɡəs/), commonly called hawthorn, or thornapple, or hawberry, is a large genus of shrubs and trees in the family Rosaceae, native to temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere in Europe, Asia and North America. The name "hawthorn" was originally applied to the species native to northern Europe, especially the common hawthorn C. monogyna, and the unmodified name is often so used in Britain and Ireland. However the name is now also applied to the entire genus, and also to the related Asian genus Rhaphiolepis. Crataegus species are shrubs or small trees, mostly growing to 5–15 metres (16–49 ft) tall, with small pome fruit and (usually) thorny branches. The most common type of bark is smooth grey in young individuals, developing shallow longitudinal fissures with narrow ridges in older trees. The thorns are small sharp-tipped branches that arise either from other branches or from the trunk, and are typically 1–3 cm long (recorded as up to 11.5 centimetres (4.5 in) in one case). The leaves grow spirally arranged on long shoots, and in clusters on spur shoots on the branches or twigs. The leaves of most species have lobed or serrate margins and are somewhat variable
    10.00
    1 votes
    35
    Sugar Maple

    Sugar Maple

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Pine and hemlock forest concept
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    Acer saccharum (sugar maple) is a species of maple native to the hardwood forests of northeastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southern Ontario, and south to Georgia and Texas. Sugar maple is best known for its bright fall foliage and for being the primary source of maple syrup. Acer saccharum is a deciduous tree normally reaching heights of 25–35 m (82–115 ft) tall, and exceptionally up to 45 m (148 ft). A 10-year-old tree is typically about 5 m (16 ft) tall. The leaves are deciduous, up to 20 cm (7.9 in) long and equally wide with five palmate lobes. The basal lobes are relatively small, while the upper lobes are larger and deeply notched. In contrast with the angular notching of the silver maple, however, the notches tend to be rounded at their interior. The fall color is often spectacular, ranging from bright yellow through orange to fluorescent red-orange. Sugar maples also have a tendency to color unevenly in fall. In some trees, all colors above can be seen at the same time. There is also a tendency, as there is also with red maples, for certain parts of a mature tree to change color weeks ahead of or behind the remainder of the tree. The leaf buds are pointy and
    10.00
    1 votes
    36
    Northern white-cedar

    Northern white-cedar

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Northern white cedar swamp
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    Thuja occidentalis is an evergreen coniferous tree, in the cypress family Cupressaceae, which is native to the North east of the United States and the South east of Canada, but widely cultivated as an ornamental plant. The species was first described by Carolus Linnaeus in 1753, and the binomial name remains current. Common names include White cedar (in the United Kingdom), Yellow Cedar, Atlantic White Cedar, Eastern White Cedar, Swamp cedar, Cedrus Lycea, False White Cedar, Hackmatack, Lebensbaum, Thuia du Canada, Techny Arborvitae, American Arborvitae or just Arborvitae) The name Arborvitae is particularly used in the horticultural trade in the United States. The name 'Arbor vitae', is Latin for "tree of life" - due to the supposed medicinal properties of the sap, bark and twigs. Despite its common names it does not belong to the cedar genus, nor is it related to the Australian White cedar, Melia azedarach. T. occidentalis has fan-like branches and scaly leaves. Unlike the closely related species, Thuja plicata, it is only a small tree, growing to a height of 10–20 metres (33–66 ft) tall with a 0.4 metres (1.3 ft) trunk diameter, exceptionally to 30 metres (98 ft) tall and 1.6
    8.00
    2 votes
    37
    8.00
    2 votes
    38
    Cabbage Palmetto

    Cabbage Palmetto

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Other southern forest types
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Sabal palmetto, also known as cabbage palm, palmetto, cabbage palmetto, palmetto palm, blue palmetto, Carolina palmetto, common palmetto, swamp cabbage and sabal palm, is one of 15 species of palmetto palm (Arecaceae, genus Sabal). It is native to the southeastern United States, Cuba, and the Bahamas. In the United States it was originally found throughout most of the Florida peninsula, and near the coast from St. Andrews Bay in the Florida panhandle to the coast of North Carolina and Virginia. As a result of horticultural relocations, cabbage palms are now found throughout the south and mature plants are being grown in many areas not normally associated with palm trees. It is the state tree of both South Carolina and Florida and is also the state symbol for South Carolina. Sabal palmetto grows up to 65 ft (20 m) in height (with exceptional individuals up to 92 ft (28 m) in height, with a trunk up to 2 ft (60 cm) diameter. It is a distinct fan palm (Arecaceae tribe Corypheae), with a bare petiole which extends as a center spine or midrib, (costa) 1/2 to 2/3 the length into a rounded, costapalmate fan of numerous leaflets. A costapalmate leaf has a definite costa (midrib) unlike the
    6.33
    3 votes
    39
    Black Willow

    Black Willow

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Bottomland forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Salix nigra (black willow) is a species of willow native to eastern North America, from New Brunswick and southern Ontario west to Minnesota, and south to northern Florida and Texas. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree, the largest North American species of willow, growing to 10–30 m (33–98 ft) tall, exceptionally up to 45 m (148 ft), with a trunk 50–80 cm diameter. The bark is dark brown to blackish, becoming fissured in older trees, and frequently forking near the base. The shoots are slender and variable in color from green to brown, yellow or purplish; they are (like the related European Salix fragilis) brittle at the base, snapping evenly at the branch junction if bent sharply. The foliage buds are 2–4 mm long, with a single, pointed reddish-brown bud scale. The leaves are alternate, long, thin, 5–15 cm long and 0.5–2 cm broad, usually somewhat falcate, dark, shiny green on both sides or with a lighter green underside, with a finely serrated margin, a short petiole and a pair of small stipules. It is dioecious, with small, greenish yellow to yellow flowers borne on catkins 2.5-7.5 cm long in early spring at the same time as the new leaves appear. The fruit is a 5 mm capsule
    5.00
    4 votes
    40

    Sweetgum - willow oak

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Bottomland forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    6.00
    3 votes
    41
    Atlantic White Cedar

    Atlantic White Cedar

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Other southern forest types
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Chamaecyparis thyoides (Atlantic White Cypress or Atlantic White cedar), is a species of Chamaecyparis, native to the Atlantic coast of North America from Maine south to Georgia, with a disjunct population on the Gulf of Mexico coast from Florida to Mississippi. It grows on wet sites on the coastal plain at altitudes from sea level up to 50 m, more rarely in the foothills of the Appalachian Mountains up to 460 m altitude. The common name "Atlantic White Cedar" has been rejected by the American Joint Committee on Horticultural Nomenclature, as it is a cypress, not a cedar. However, it is still the most widely used name for this species. It is an evergreen coniferous tree growing to 20-28 m (rarely to 35 m) tall, with feathery foliage in moderately flattened sprays, green to glaucous blue-green in color. The leaves are scale-like, 2-4 mm long, and produced in opposite decussate pairs on somewhat flattened shoots; seedlings up to a year old have needle-like leaves. The seed cones are globose, 4-9 mm diameter, with 6-10 scales, green or purple, maturing brown in 5–7 months after pollination. The pollen cones are purple or brown, 1.5–3 mm long and 1–2 mm broad, releasing their yellow
    7.50
    2 votes
    42

    Black cherry - maple

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Northern hardwood forest concept
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    7.50
    2 votes
    43

    Hemlock - yellow birch

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Pine and hemlock forest concept
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    9.00
    1 votes
    44

    Mohrs ("shin") oak

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Other southern forest types
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    9.00
    1 votes
    45

    Red spruce - yellow birch

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Spruce-fir forest
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    9.00
    1 votes
    46
    Longleaf Pine

    Longleaf Pine

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Southern Yellow Pine forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Pinus palustris, commonly known as the Longleaf Pine, is a pine native to the southeastern United States, found along the coastal plain from eastern Texas to southeast Virginia, extending into northern and central Florida. It reaches a height of 30–35 m (98–115 ft) and a diameter of 0.7 m (28 in). In the past, they reportedly grew to 47 m (154 ft) with a diameter of 1.2 m (47 in). The bark is thick, reddish-brown, and scaly. The leaves are dark green and needle-like, and occur in bundles of three. They often are twisted and 20–45 cm (7.9–18 in) in length. It is one of the two southeastern U.S. pines with long needles, the other being slash pine. The cones, both female seed cones (ovulate strobili) and male pollen cones (staminate strobili), are initiated during the growing season before buds emerge. Pollen cones begin forming in their buds in July, while seed conelets are formed during a relatively short period of time in August. Pollination occurs early the following spring, with the male cones 3–8 cm (1.2–3.1 in) long. The female (seed) cones mature in about twenty months from pollination; when mature they are yellow-brown in color, 15–25 cm (5.9–9.8 in) long, and 5–7 cm (2.0–2.8
    7.00
    2 votes
    47

    Slash pine - hardwood

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Oak-pine forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    7.00
    2 votes
    48

    Virginia pine-oak

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Oak-pine forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    6.50
    2 votes
    49
    Tamarack Larch

    Tamarack Larch

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Boreal conifer
    • SAF region: Boreal forest
    Tamarack Larch, or Tamarack, or Hackmatack, or American Larch (Larix laricina) is a species of larch native to Canada, from eastern Yukon and Inuvik, Northwest Territories east to Newfoundland, and also south into the northeastern United States from Minnesota to Cranesville Swamp, West Virginia; there is also a disjunct population in central Alaska. The name Tamarack is the Algonquian name for the species and means "wood used for snowshoes". It is a small to medium-size deciduous coniferous tree reaching 10–20 metres (33–66 ft) tall, with a trunk up to 60 centimetres (24 in) diameter.The tamarack is not an evergreen. The bark is tight and flaky, pink, but under flaking bark it can appear reddish. The leaves are needle-like, 2–3 cm (0.8–1.2 in) short, light blue-green, turning bright yellow before they fall in the autumn, leaving the pale pinkish-brown shoots bare until the next spring. The needles are produced spirally on long shoots and in dense clusters on long woody spur shoots. The cones are the smallest of any larch, only 1–2.3 cm (0.4–0.9 in) long, with 12-25 seed scales; they are bright red, turning brown and opening to release the seeds when mature, 4–6 months after
    8.00
    1 votes
    50
    Jack Pine

    Jack Pine

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Boreal conifer
    • SAF region: Boreal forest
    Jack pine, Pinus banksiana, is an eastern North American pine. Its native range in Canada is east of the Rocky Mountains from Northwest Territories to Nova Scotia, and the north-central and northeast of the United States from Minnesota to Maine, with the southernmost part of the range just into northwest Indiana. In the far west of its range, Pinus banksiana hybridizes readily with the closely related Lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta). Banksiana is after the English botanist Sir Joseph Banks. Pinus banksiana ranges from 9–22 m (30–72 ft) in height. Some jack pines are shrub-sized, due to poor growing conditions. They do not usually grow perfectly straight, resulting in an irregular shape similar to pitch pine (Pinus rigida). This pine often forms pure stands on sandy or rocky soil. It is fire-adapted to stand-replacing fires, with the cones remaining closed for many years, until a forest fire kills the mature trees and opens the cones, reseeding the burnt ground. The leaves are in fascicles of two, needle-like, twisted, slightly yellowish-green, and 2–4 centimetres (0.79–1.6 in) long. Jack pine cones are usually 5 centimetres (2.0 in) and curved at the tip. The cones are 3–5 cm
    6.00
    2 votes
    51
    Paper Birch

    Paper Birch

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Boreal hardwoods
    • SAF region: Boreal forest
    Betula papyrifera (Paper Birch, also known as American White Birch and Canoe Birch) is a species of birch native to northern North America. It is a medium-sized deciduous tree reaching 60 feet tall (18m) (exceptionally to 130 feet) (40m) with a trunk up to 32 inches diameter (0,8m). The bark is white, commonly brightly so, flaking in fine horizontal strips, and often with small black marks and scars. In individuals younger than five years, the bark appears brown with white lenticels, making the tree much harder to distinguish from other trees. The leaves are alternate, ovate, 1-5 in. long and 2-4 in. broad, with a doubly serrate margin. The leaf buds are conical and small. They are green-colored with brown edges. The flowers are wind-pollinated catkins 1.5 in. long growing from the tips of twigs. The fruit matures in the fall. The mature fruit is composed of numerous tiny winged seeds packed between the catkin bracts. They drop between September and spring. Betula papyrifera has a wide range. It is found in interior (var. humilus) and south-central (var. kenaica) Alaska and in all provinces and territories of Canada, except Nunavut, as well as the northern continental United
    6.00
    2 votes
    52
    Taxodium distichum

    Taxodium distichum

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Bottomland forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Taxodium distichum (bald cypress, baldcypress, bald-cypress, cypress, southern-cypress,white-cypress, tidewater red-cypress, Gulf-cypress, red-cypress, or swamp cypress) is a deciduous conifer that grows on saturated and seasonally inundated soils of the Southeastern and Gulf Coastal Plains of the United States. It is a large tree, reaching 25–40 m (rarely to 44 m) tall and a trunk diameter of 2–3 m, rarely to 5 m. The bark is gray-brown to red-brown, shallowly vertically fissured, with a stringy texture. The leaves are borne on deciduous branchlets that are spirally arranged on the stem, but twisted at the base to lie in two horizontal ranks, 1-2 cm long and 1-2 mm broad; unlike most other species in the family Cupressaceae, it is deciduous, losing its leaves in the winter months, hence the name 'bald'. It is monoecious. Male and female strobili mature in about 12 months; they are produced from buds formed in the late fall, with pollination in early winter. The seed cones are green maturing gray-brown, globular, and 2-3.5 cm in diameter. They have from 20 to 30 spirally arranged, four-sided scales, each bearing one or two (rarely three) triangular seeds. The number of seeds per
    6.00
    2 votes
    53
    Aspen

    Aspen

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Boreal hardwoods
    • SAF region: Boreal forest
    Aspen is a common name for certain tree species; some, but not all, are classified by botanists in the section Populus, of the poplar genus. These species are called aspens: The aspens are all native to cold regions with cool summers, in the north of the Northern Hemisphere, extending south at high altitudes in the mountains. They are all medium-sized deciduous trees reaching 15–30 m (49–98 ft) tall. All of the aspens typically grow in large clonal colonies, derived from a single seedling, and spread by means of root suckers; new stems in the colony may appear at up to 30–40 m (98–130 ft) from the parent tree. Each individual tree can live for 40–150 years above ground, but the root system of the colony is long-lived. In some cases, this is for thousands of years, sending up new trunks as the older trunks die off above ground. For this reason, it is considered to be an indicator of ancient woodlands. One such colony in Utah, given the nickname of "Pando", is estimated to be 80,000 years old, making it possibly the oldest living colony of aspens. Some aspen colonies become very large with time, spreading about 1 m (3.3 ft) per year, eventually covering many hectares. They are able
    7.00
    1 votes
    54
    Shortleaf Pine

    Shortleaf Pine

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Southern Yellow Pine forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Pinus echinata (Shortleaf Pine) is a species of pine native to the eastern United States from southern New York south to northern Florida, west to the extreme southeast of Kansas, and southwest to eastern Texas. The tree is variable in form, sometimes straight, sometimes crooked, with an irregular crown. This tree reaches heights of 20–30 metres (66–98 ft) with a trunk diameter of 0.5–0.9 metre (1 ft 8 in–2 ft 10 in). The leaves are needle-like, in bundles of two and three mixed together, and from 7–11 centimetres (2.8–4.3 in) long. The cones are 4–7 centimetres (1.6–2.8 in) long, with thin scales with a transverse keel and a short prickle. They open at maturity but are persistent. Shortleaf pine seedlings develop a persistent J-shaped crook near the ground surface. Axillary and other buds form near the crook and initiate growth if the upper stem is killed by fire or is severed. This pine is a source of wood pulp, plywood veneer, and lumber for a variety of uses. The Shortleaf Pine is one of the southern US "yellow" pines; it is also occasionally called Southern Yellow pine or the Shortstraw Pine. Shortleaf Pine has the largest range of the southern US yellow pines. This pine
    7.00
    1 votes
    55

    Overcup oak - water hickory

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Bottomland forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    5.50
    2 votes
    56

    White pine - hemlock

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Pine and hemlock forest concept
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    5.50
    2 votes
    57
    5.50
    2 votes
    58
    6.00
    1 votes
    59

    Loblolly pine -hardwood

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Oak-pine forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    4.50
    2 votes
    60
    Red Pine

    Red Pine

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Pine and hemlock forest concept
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    The red pine (Pinus resinosa) is pine native to North America. The Red Pine occurs from Newfoundland west to Manitoba, and south to Pennsylvania, with several smaller, disjunct populations occurring in the Appalachian Mountains in Virginia and West Virginia, as well as a few small pockets in extreme northern New Jersey and one in north central Illinois. Red Pine is a coniferous evergreen tree characterized by tall, straight growth in a variety of habitats. It usually ranges from 20–35 m (66–115 ft) in height and 1 m (3 ft 3 in) in trunk diameter, exceptionally reaching 43 m (141 ft) tall. The crown is conical, becoming a narrow rounded dome with age. The bark is thick and gray-brown at the base of the tree, but thin, flaky and bright orange-red in the upper crown; the tree's name derives from this distinctive character. Some red color may be seen in the fissures of the bark. Red Pine is self pruning; there tend not to be dead branches on the trees, and older trees may have very long lengths of branchless trunk below the canopy. The leaves are needle-like, dark green, in fascicles of two, 12–18 cm (4.7–7.1 in) long, and brittle. The leaves snap cleanly when bent; this character,
    5.00
    1 votes
    61
    4.00
    1 votes
    62
    4.00
    1 votes
    63
    0.00
    0 votes
    64
    Cottonwood

    Cottonwood

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Bottomland forest
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Populus section Aigeiros is a section of three species in the genus Populus, the poplars. Commonly known as cottonwoods, the species are native to North America, Aigeiros and western Asia. In the past, as many as six species were recognized, but recent trends have been to accept just three species, treating the others as subspecies of P. deltoides. They are large, deciduous trees 20–45 m tall, distinguished by thick, deeply fissured bark and triangular-based to diamond-shaped leaves that are green on both sides (without the whitish wax on the undersides of balsam poplar leaves) and without any obvious balsam scent in spring. An important feature of the leaves is the petiole, which is flattened sideways so that the leaves have a particular type of movement in the wind. Male and female flowers are in separate catkins, appearing before the leaves in spring. The seeds are borne on cottony structures that allow them to be blown long distances in the air before settling to ground. The cottonwoods are exceptionally tolerant of flooding, erosion and flood deposits filling around the trunk. Although each of the three cottonwood species has a different leaf pattern, they all have the same
    0.00
    0 votes
    65
    Eastern White Pine

    Eastern White Pine

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Pine and hemlock forest concept
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    Pinus strobus, commonly known as the eastern white pine, is a large pine native to eastern North America, occurring from Newfoundland west to Minnesota and southeastern Manitoba, and south along the Appalachian Mountains to the northern edge of Georgia. It is occasionally known as simply white pine, northern white pine, or soft pine. It is also known as Weymouth pine, especially in Britain. In addition, this tree is known to the Haudenosaunee Native Americans as the Tree of Peace. Like all members of the white pine group, Pinus subgenus Strobus, the leaves ('needles') are in fascicles (bundles) of five (rarely 3 or 4), with a deciduous sheath. They are flexible, bluish-green, finely serrated, and 5-13 centimeters (2–5 in) long, and persist for usually about 18 months. The cones are slender, 8–16 cm (3–6 in) long (rarely longer than that) and 4–5 cm (1.5–2 in) broad when open, and have scales with a rounded apex and slightly reflexed tip. The seeds are 4–5 mm (3/16 in) long, with a slender 15–20 mm (3/4 in) wing, and are wind-dispersed. Cone production peaks every 3 to 5 years. Mature trees can easily be 200 to 250 years old. Some white pines live over 400 years. A tree growing near
    0.00
    0 votes
    66
    Mesquite

    Mesquite

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Other southern forest types
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Mesquite (from Nahuatl mizquitl ['miskit͡ɬ]) is a leguminous plant of the Prosopis genus found in northern Mexico through the Sonoran Desert and Chihuahuan Deserts, and up into the Southwestern United States as far north as southern Kansas, west to the Colorado Desert in California, and east to the eastern fifth of Texas, where average annual rainfall is in excess of 40 in (100 cm). Several species are found in arid to semi-arid regions of southern and western South America. These deciduous trees can reach a height of 6 to 9 m (20 to 30 ft) although in most of their range they are shrub size. They have narrow, bipinnately compound leaves 50 to 75 mm (2.0 to 3.0 in) long, of which the pinnules are sharply pointed. Twigs have a characteristic zig-zag form. Some common species of mesquite are honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa), velvet mesquite (Prosopis velutina), creeping mesquite (Prosopis strombulifera), and screwbean mesquite (Prosopis pubescens). Mesquite is an extremely hardy, drought-tolerant plant because it can draw water from the water table through its long taproot (recorded at up to 58 m (190 ft) depth). It can also use water in the upper part of the ground, depending
    0.00
    0 votes
    67
    Pond Cypress

    Pond Cypress

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Other southern forest types
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    Taxodium ascendens, also known as Pond Cypress, is a deciduous conifer of the genus Taxodium, native to North America. Many botanists treat it as a variety of Bald Cypress, Taxodium distichum (as T. distichum var. imbricarium) rather than as a distinct species, but it differs in ecology, occurring mainly in still blackwater rivers, ponds and swamps without silt-rich flood deposits. It predominates in cypress dome habitats. Taxodium ascendens reaches on average 15–18 metres (49–59 ft) in height. Compared to T. distichum, the leaves are shorter (3-10 mm long), slenderer and are on shoots that tend to be erect rather than spreading. The trunk is expanded at the base, even on young trees, assisting the tree in anchoring in the soft, muddy soil. The cones also tend to be smaller, not over 2.5 cm diameter. The bark is also a paler gray color. Like Bald Cypresses, Pond Cypresses growing in water have a characteristic growth trait called cypress knees; these are woody projections pneumatophores sent above the water from the roots, probably enabling this plant to breathe air in habitat with waterlogged soil. Maximum longevity of this plant is estimated at 1000 years. This species is native
    0.00
    0 votes
    68

    Red spruce- Fraser fir

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Spruce-fir forest
    • SAF region: Northern Forest
    0.00
    0 votes
    69

    Sweetgum - yellow-poplar

    • Classification system: SAF Forest Cover Types of the United States and Canada classification system
    • Code category: Other southern forest types
    • SAF region: Southern Forest
    0.00
    0 votes
    70
    0.00
    0 votes
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