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Best Red Planet of All Time

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    1
    Tugaske

    Tugaske

    Tugaske is a Martian impact crater, approximately 31 kilometres in diameter. It is located at 32.1°S, 101.2°W, south of the crater Dinorwic and southeast of the crater Virrat. It is named after a town in Saskatchewan, Canada, and its name was approved by the International Astronomical Union in 1991. According to a surface age map of Mars based on US Geological Survey data, the area around Tugaske is from the Noachian epoch, which places the area's age at 3.8 to 3.5 billion years ago. The elevation around the rim averages about 6700 meters above zero altitude, and the deepest part of the crater floor, in the central pit, measures 5,100 meters above zero altitude. The crater is therefore about 1.6 kilometers deep.
    9.00
    5 votes
    2
    Syrtis Major

    Syrtis Major

    Syrtis Major Planum is a "dark spot" (an albedo feature) located in the boundary between the northern lowlands and southern highlands of Mars. It was discovered, on the basis of data from Mars Global Surveyor, to be a low-relief shield volcano, but was formerly believed to be a plain, and was then known as Syrtis Major Planitia. The dark color comes from the basaltic volcanic rock of the region and the relative lack of dust. Syrtis Major is centered near at 8°24′N 69°30′E / 8.4°N 69.5°E / 8.4; 69.5, extends some 1,500 km (930 mi) north from the planet's equator, and spans 1,000 km (620 mi) from west to east. It is in the Syrtis Major quadrangle. It encompasses a large slope from its western edge at Aeria dropping 4 km (2.5 mi) to its eastern edge at Isidis Planitia. It includes a high-altitude bulge that rises 6 km (3.7 mi) at 310° W. Most of Syrtis Major has slopes of less than 1°, a much lower inclination than the slopes of the Tharsis shield volcanoes. It has a 350x150 km north-south elongated central depression containing the calderas Nili Patera and Meroe Patera, which are about 2 km deep. The floors of the calderas are not elevated relative to the terrain surrounding
    6.86
    7 votes
    3
    Tyrrhena Patera

    Tyrrhena Patera

    Tyrrhenus Mons, formerly Tyrrhena Mons or Tyrrhena Patera, is a large volcano in the Mare Tyrrhenum quadrangle of Mars, located at 21.36° south latitude and 253.47° west longitude. The name "Tyrrhena Patera" now refers only to the central depression, a volcanic crater or caldera. It was named after a classical albedo feature name. Pit chains are found at the summit of Tyrrhenus Mons. They are formed by collapse of material into underground voids. Since they form chains and concentric fractures that are aligned, they are probably caused by extension of the surface. Volcanic processes made the crust pull apart. Voids were formed, then material fell into them, leaving holes. It is one of the oldest volcanoes on Mars. As a consequence of its old age, Tyrrhenus Mons has many radiating gullies on its slope. When it was formed, magma may have gone through frozen ground and then eruped as easily eroded ash, instead of lava flows.
    8.80
    5 votes
    4
    Iani Chaos

    Iani Chaos

    Iani Chaos, the source region of Ares Vallis on Mars, is centered at ~342°E, 2°S. The chaotic terrain is widely believed to have formed via the removal of subsurface water or ice, resulting in flooding at the surface, and the formation of Ares Vallis. Within Iani Chaos, deposited stratigraphically above the chaotic terrain, are smooth, low-slope, intermediate-to-light-toned deposits that are rich in a hydrated mineral that is most likely gypsum as well as hematite. Several sites in the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle have been proposed as areas to send NASA's next major Mars rover, the Mars Science Lab. Among the top 33 landing sites was Iani Chaos. A picture below shows a potential landing zone in Iani Chaos. Deposits of hematite and gypsum have been found there. Those minerals are usually formed in connection with water. The aim of the Mars Science Laboratory is to search for signs of ancient life. It is hoped that a later mission could then return samples from sites identified as probably containing remains of life. To safely bring the craft down, a 12 mile wide, smooth, flat circle is needed. Geologists hope to examine places where water once ponded. They would like to examine
    7.50
    6 votes
    5
    Mars

    Mars

    Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun and the second smallest planet in the Solar System. Named after the Roman god of war, it is often described as the "Red Planet", as the iron oxide prevalent on its surface gives it a reddish appearance. Mars is a terrestrial planet with a thin atmosphere, having surface features reminiscent both of the impact craters of the Moon and the volcanoes, valleys, deserts, and polar ice caps of Earth. The rotational period and seasonal cycles of Mars are likewise similar to those of Earth, as is the tilt that produces the seasons. Mars is the site of Olympus Mons, the highest known mountain within the Solar System, and of Valles Marineris, one of the largest canyons. The smooth Borealis basin in the northern hemisphere covers 40% of the planet and may be a giant impact feature. Mars has two moons, Phobos and Deimos, which are small and irregularly shaped. These may be captured asteroids, similar to 5261 Eureka, a Martian trojan asteroid. Until the first successful flyby of Mars occurred in 1965 by Mariner 4, many speculated about the presence of liquid water on the planet's surface. This was based on observed periodic variations in light and dark
    8.60
    5 votes
    6
    Heat Shield Rock

    Heat Shield Rock

    Heat Shield Rock is a basketball-sized iron-nickel meteorite found on Mars by the Mars rover Opportunity in January 2005. The meteorite was formally named Meridiani Planum meteorite by the Meteoritical Society in October, 2005 (meteorites are always named after the place where they were found). Opportunity encountered the meteorite entirely by chance, in the vicinity of its own discarded heat shield (hence the name). Opportunity had been sent to examine the heat shield after exiting the crater Endurance. This was the first meteorite found on another planet and the third found on another Solar System body — two others, Bench Crater and Hadley Rille, were found on the Moon. The rock was initially identified as unusual in that it showed, from the analysis with the Mini-TES spectrometer, an infrared spectrum that appeared unusually similar to a reflection of the sky. In-situ measurements of its composition were then made using the APXS, showing the composition to be 93% Iron, 7% Nickel, with trace amounts of Germanium (~300 ppm) and Gallium (
    7.33
    6 votes
    7
    Huygens

    Huygens

    Huygens is an impact crater on Mars named in honour of the Dutch astronomer, mathematician and physicist Christiaan Huygens. The crater is approximately 456 km in diameter and can be found at 304.4°W 14.0°S. It is located in the Iapygia quadrangle. Scientists were delighted to see branched channels in pictures taken with spacecraft that were sent in orbit around Mars. The existence of these channels is strong evidence that much water once flowed on the surface of the planet. Simple organisms may have once lived where water once was. An excellent group of these channels are shown in the picture below from the rim of Huygens taken with THEMIS. Carbonates (calcium or iron carbonates) were discovered in a crater on the rim of Huygens. The impact on the rim exposed material that had been dug up from the impact that created Huygens. These minerals represent evidence that Mars once was had a thicker carbon dioxide atmosphere with abundant moisture. These kind of carbonates only form when there is a lot of water. They were found with the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. Earlier, the instrument had detected clay
    6.29
    7 votes
    8
    Milankovic

    Milankovic

    Milankovic is a crater in the Diacria quadrangle of Mars, having a diameter of 118.4 km. It is located at 54.7° north latitude and 146.7° west longitude. The crater is easy to see on Mars photographs because it lies north of Olympus Mons and sits by itself in the flat plain of Vastitas Borealis. It is named after Milutin Milanković, a Serbian geophysicist and astrophysicist, who lived from 1879 to 1958.
    7.17
    6 votes
    9
    Becquerel

    Becquerel

    Becquerel is a 167 km-diameter crater at 22.1°N, 352.0°E on Mars, in Arabia Terra. It is named after Antoine H. Becquerel. Photographs by the Mars Global Surveyor revealed layered sedimentary rocks in the crater. The layers appear to be only a few meters thick and show little variations in thickness. Recent studies with HiRISE have determined the exact thickness of the layers. The 66 layers measured showed one group of layers to average 3.6 meters and another group to average 36 meters in thickness. Patterns like this are usually produced on Earth through the effects of water; volcanic deposits would not produce ash or laval flows of such regular thickness and in any event there are no nearby volcanic vents. There are cyclic variations in the thickness of the exposed sedimentary layers, possibly indicating cyclic variations in environmental conditions while the sediment was being laid down. Most of the layers are parallel to each other, suggesting they formed by vertical settling, but a few are cross-bedded, indicating that at the time that the layers were deposited the sediment was transported along the ground surface by wind or water. The sedimentary material appears to be easily
    9.50
    4 votes
    10
    Adirondack

    Adirondack

    Adirondack is the nickname for Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's first target rock. Scientists chose Adirondack to be Spirit's first target rock after considering another, called Sashimi, that would have been a shorter, straight-ahead drive. Spirit traversed the sandy martian terrain at Gusev Crater to arrive in front of this football-sized rock on January 18, 2004, just three days after it successfully rolled off the lander. Scientists named the angular rock after the Adirondack mountain range in New York. The name "Adirondacks" is an Anglicized version of the Mohawk ratirontaks, meaning "they eat trees", a derogatory name which the Mohawk historically applied to the Algonquian-speaking tribes of the Adirondack Mountains; when food was scarce, the Algonquians would eat the buds and bark of trees. The rock was selected as Spirit's first target because its dust-free, flat surface is ideally suited for grinding. Clean surfaces also are better for examining a rock's top coating. Spirit has also returned microscopic images and Mössbauer spectrometer readings of Adirondack taken the day before the rover developed computer and communication problems on January 22, 2004. Both are
    8.20
    5 votes
    11
    Fram

    Fram

    Fram is an impact crater in Meridiani Planum, on Mars. It was visited by the rover Opportunity (MER-B) on Sol 84, April 24, 2004. Fram spans about 8 metres (26 feet) in diameter. Opportunity paused beside it while travelling from the rover's landing site toward a larger crater, Endurance. Fram is located about 450 metres (0.3 miles) east of the crater Eagle and around 250 metres (820 feet) west of Endurance. It is named after the famous Norwegian polar exploration vessel the Fram.
    7.00
    6 votes
    12
    Phaethontis quadrangle

    Phaethontis quadrangle

    The Phaethontis quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Phaethontis quadrangle is also referred to as MC-24 (Mars Chart-24). The Phaethontis quadrangle lies between 30° and 65 ° south latitude and 120° and 180 ° west longitude on Mars. This latitude range is where numerous gullies have been discovered. An old feature in this area, called Terra Sirenum lies in this quadrangle; Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter discovered iron/magnesium smectites there. Part of this quadrangle contains what is called the Electris deposits, a deposit that is 100–200 meters thick. It is light-toned and appears to be weak because of few boulders. Among a group of large craters is Mariner Crater, first observed by the Mariner IV spacecraft in the summer of 1965. It was named after that spacecraft. A low area in Terra Sirenum is believed to have once held a lake that eventually drained through Ma'adim Vallis. Russia's Mars 3 probe landed in the Phaethontis quadrangle at 44.9° S and 160.1° W in December 1971. It landed at a speed of 75 km per hour, but survived to radio back 20 seconds of signal, then it
    7.80
    5 votes
    13
    Mamers Vallis

    Mamers Vallis

    Mamers Vallis is a long, winding canyon in the north of Mars. It covers 1000 km, cutting through the cratered uplands of the Arabia Terra, from the Cerulli Crater to the Deuteronilus Mensae near the edge of Mars' vast northern lowlands. Through its midsection, it averages a width of 25 km and a depth of 1200 meters. The most popular theory states that the canyon was likely formed by either water or lava, with the flow from south to north and additional material flowing from the slope toward the valley floor. According to the most popular theory, linear features on the valley bottom indicate possible ice flows and that ice may currently be plentiful. Mamers Vallis is dated to the early Hesperian period, about 3.8 billion years ago. An infeeder canyon at Mamers Vallis's northwestern edge, near its mouth (seen at the bottom of the photo at lower right), is a box canyon. Such canyons (with rounded headwalls and no obvious overland infeeders) have been widely presumed to have formed by a process of seepage erosion. However, it has been suggested that this side canyon was formed by a catastrophic flood event (Lamb, 2008). The case is supported by comparison with Box Canyon, Idaho, USA,
    9.00
    4 votes
    14
    Oxia Palus quadrangle

    Oxia Palus quadrangle

    The Oxia Palus quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Oxia Palus quadrangle is also referred to as MC-11 (Mars Chart-11). The quadrangle covers the region of 0° to 45° west longitude and 0° to 30° north latitude on Mars. Mars Pathfinder landed in the Oxia Palus quadrangle at 19.13° N and 33.22° W, on July 4, 1997. Crater names in Oxia Palus are a Who's Who for famous scientists. Besides Galilaei and DaVinci, some of the people who discovered the atom and radiation are honored there: Curie, Becquerel, and Rutherford. Mawrth Vallis was strongly considered as a landing site for NASA's next Mars rover, the Mars Science Laboratory. This quadrangle contains abundant evidence for past water in such forms as river valleys, lakes, springs, and chaos areas where water flowed out of the ground. A variety of clay minerals have been found in Oxia Palus. Clay is formed in water, and it is good for preserving microscopic evidence of ancient life. Recently, scientists have found strong evidence for a lake located in the Oxia Palus quadrangle that received drainage from Shalbatana Vallis. The
    7.60
    5 votes
    15
    Phlegra Montes

    Phlegra Montes

    Phlegra Montes is a system of mountains in the Cebrenia quadrangle of Mars, located at 40.4 degrees north latitude and 163.71 degrees east longitude. It is 1,352.0 km across and was named after a classical albedo feature name.
    7.60
    5 votes
    16
    Alba Patera

    Alba Patera

    Alba Mons (or Alba Patera) is an immense, low-lying volcano located in the northern Tharsis region of the planet Mars. It is the largest volcano on Mars in terms of area, with volcanic flow fields that extend for at least 1350 km (839 mi) from its summit. Although the volcano has a span comparable to that of the United States, it reaches an elevation of only 6.8 km (4.2 mi) at its highest point. This is about one-third the height of Olympus Mons, the tallest volcano on the planet. The flanks of Alba Mons have very gentle slopes. The average slope along the volcano's northern (and steepest) flank is 0.5°, which is over five times lower than the slopes on the other large Tharsis volcanoes. In broad profile, Alba Mons resembles a vast but barely raised welt on the planet's surface. It is a unique volcanic structure with no counterpart on Earth or elsewhere on Mars. In addition to its great size and low relief, Alba Mons has a number of other distinguishing features. The central portion of the volcano is surrounded by an incomplete ring of faults (graben) and fractures, called Alba Fossae on the volcano's western flank and Tantalus Fossae on the eastern flank. The volcano also has very
    7.40
    5 votes
    17
    Niger Vallis

    Niger Vallis

    Niger Vallis is a valley on Mars that appears to have been carved by water. It has been identified as an outflow channel. It merges with Dao Vallis which runs southwestward into Hellas Planitia from the volcanic Hadriacus Mons. Like Dao, it was formed around the Late Noachian and Early Hesperian Epochs. It is named after the Niger River in Africa. Much of the surface of Mars is covered by a thick smooth mantle that is thought to be a mixture of ice and dust. This ice-rich mantle, a few yards thick, smoothes the land, but in places it has a bumpy texture, resembling the surface of a basketball. Because there are few craters on this mantle, the mantle is relatively young. An image below shows a good view of this smooth mantle around Niger Vallis, as observed with HiRISE. Changes in Mars's orbit and tilt cause significant changes in the distribution of water ice from polar regions down to latitudes equivalent to Texas. During certain climate periods water vapor leaves polar ice and enters the atmosphere. The water comes back to ground at lower latitudes as deposits of frost or snow mixed generously with dust. The atmosphere of Mars contains a great deal of fine dust particles. Water
    9.67
    3 votes
    18
    Arabia quadrangle

    Arabia quadrangle

    The Arabia quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Arabia quadrangle is also referred to as MC-12 (Mars Chart-12). The quadrangle contains part of the classic area of Mars known as Arabia. It lies on the boundary between the young northern plains and the old southern highlands. The quadrangle covers the area from 315° to 360° west longitude and 0° to 30° north latitude. The surface of the Arabia quadrangle appears to be very old because it has a high density of craters, but it is not near as high in elevation as typical old surfaces. On Mars the oldest areas contain the most craters; the oldest period is called Noachian after the quadrangle Noachis. The Arabia area contains many buttes and ridges. Some believe that during certain climate changes an ice-dust layer was deposited; later, parts were eroded to form buttes. Some outflow channels are found in Arabia, namely Naktong Vallis, Locras Valles, Indus Vallis, Scamander Vallis, and Cusus Valles. Many places in Arabia are shaped into layers. The layers can be a few meters thick or tens of meters thick. Recent research on these
    7.20
    5 votes
    19
    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

    Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) is a multipurpose spacecraft designed to conduct reconnaissance and Exploration of Mars from orbit. The US$720 million spacecraft was built by Lockheed Martin under the supervision of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The mission is managed by the JPL, at California Institute of Technology, La Canada Flintridge, California, for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. It was launched August 12, 2005, and attained Martian orbit on March 10, 2006. In November 2006, after five months of aerobraking, it entered its final science orbit and began its primary science phase. As MRO entered orbit it joined five other active spacecraft which were either in orbit or on the planet surface: Mars Global Surveyor, Mars Express, Mars Odyssey, and two Mars Exploration Rovers; at the time a record for the most operational spacecraft in the immediate vicinity of Mars. MRO contains a host of scientific instruments such as cameras, spectrometers, and radar, which are used to analyze the landforms, stratigraphy, minerals, and ice of Mars. It paves the way for future spacecraft by monitoring Mars' daily weather and surface conditions, studying potential
    7.20
    5 votes
    20
    Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle

    Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle

    The Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. It is also referred to as MC-20 (Mars Chart-20). The Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle covers the area from 315° to 360° west longitude and 0° to 30° degrees south latitude on Mars. It contains Schiaparelli, a large, easily visible crater that sits close to the equator. Within the region is Pollack crater, which has light-toned rock deposits. Mars has an old surface compared to Earth. While much of Earth's land surface is just a few hundred million years old, large areas of Mars are billions of years old. Some surface areas have been formed, eroded away, then covered over with new layers of rocks. The Mariner 9 spacecraft in the 1970s photographed a feature that was called "White Rock.". Newer images revealed that the rock is not really white, but that the area close by is so dark that the white rock looks really white. It was thought that this feature could have been a salt deposit, but information from the instruments on Mars Global Surveyor demonstrated rather that it was probably volcanic ash or dust. Today, it is believed that
    7.20
    5 votes
    21
    Argyre Planitia

    Argyre Planitia

    Argyre Planitia is a plain located in the Argyre impact basin in the southern highlands of Mars. Its name comes from a map produced by Giovanni Schiaparelli in 1877; it refers to Argyre, a mythical island of silver in Greek mythology. Argyre lies between -35 and -61 deg S and 27 and 62 deg W, centered at 49°42′S 316°00′E / 49.7°S 316.0°E / -49.7; 316.0. The basin is approximately 1120 miles (1800 kilometers) wide, believed to be the second-largest impact basin on Mars after Hellas Planitia, and drops 3.2 miles (5.2 kilometers) below the surrounding plains. The basin was possibly formed by a giant impact during the Late Heavy Bombardment of the early Solar System, approximately 3.9 billion years ago, and may be one of the best preserved ancient impact basins from that period. Argyre is surrounded by rugged massifs which form concentric and radial patterns around the basin. Several mountain ranges are present, including Charitum and Nereidum Montes. Four large Noachian epoch channels lie radial to the basin. Three of these channels (Surius Valles, Dzígai Valles, and Palacopas Valles) flowed into Argyre from the south and east through the rim mountains. The fourth, Uzboi Vallis,
    8.25
    4 votes
    22
    Eos Chasma

    Eos Chasma

    Eos Chasma is a chasma in the southern part of the Valles Marineris canyon system of Mars. Eos Chasma’s western floor is mainly composed of an etched massive material composed of either volcanic or eolian deposits later eroded by the Martian wind. The eastern end of the Eos chasma has a large area of streamlined bars and longitudinal striations. This is interpreted to be stream-carved plateau deposits and material transported and deposited by flowing fluid. Ganges Chasma is an offshoot of Eos Chasma. MRO discovered sulfate, hydrated sulfate, and iron oxides in Eos Chasma. According to an analysis by Vicky Hamilton of the University of Hawaii, Eos Chasma may be the source of the ALH84001 meteorite, which some believe to be evidence of past life on Mars. However, the analysis was not conclusive, in part because it was limited to parts of Mars not obscured by dust.
    8.25
    4 votes
    23
    Hrad Valles

    Hrad Valles

    Hrad Valles is an ancient outflow channel in the Cebrenia quadrangle of Mars, located at 38.7° north latitude and 224.7° west longitude. It is 825 km in length and was named for the word for "Mars" in Armenian. Large amounts of water ice are believed to be present under the surface of Mars. Some channels lie near volcanic areas. When hot subsurface molten rock comes close to this ice, large amounts of liquid water and mud may be formed. Hrad Valles in the Cebrenia quadrangle is close to Elysium Mons, a large volcano, and may have supplied water to create the channel.
    8.25
    4 votes
    24
    Tractus Fossae

    Tractus Fossae

    Tractus Fossae is a trough in the Tharsis quadrangle of Mars, located at 26° north latitude and 101.4° west longitude. It is 390 km (240 mi) long and is named after a classical albedo feature name. The name "Fossae" is used to indicate large troughs when using geographical terminology related to Mars. Troughs, sometimes also called a graben, form when the crust is stretched until it breaks, which forms two breaks with a middle section moving down, leaving steep cliffs along the sides. Sometimes, a line of pits form as materials collapse into a void that forms from the stretching.
    7.00
    5 votes
    25
    Koga

    Koga

    Koga is a Martian impact crater, approximately 19 kilometers in diameter. It is located at 29.3°S, 103.8°W, north of the crater Virrat and northeast of the crater Dinorwic. To the north is the crater Nhill. It is named after a town in Tanzania, and its name was approved by the International Astronomical Union in 1991. According to a surface age map of Mars based on US Geological Survey data, the area around Koga is from the Noachian epoch, which places the area's age at 3.8 to 3.5 billion years ago. Sharp blocks and cliffs poke through a mantle of fine material located at the bottom of the crater. At the deepest part of the crater, it is about 5,200 meters in elevation above zero altitude, and its rim averages about 6,400 meters above zero altitude. It is therefore approximately 1.2 kilometers deep.
    9.33
    3 votes
    26
    Nili Fossae

    Nili Fossae

    Nili Fossae is a fracture in the surface of Mars that has been eroded and partly filled in by sediments and clay-rich ejecta from a nearby giant impact crater, the Isidis basin. It is located at approximately 22°N, 75°E, and has an elevation of −0.6 km (−0.37 mi). Nili Fossae was on the list of potential landing sites of the Mars Science Laboratory, arriving in 2012, but was dropped before the final four sites were determined. A large exposure of olivine is located in Nili Fossae. In December 2008, NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter found that rocks at Nili Fossae contain carbonate minerals, a geologically significant discovery. Other minerals found by MRO are aluminum smectite, iron/magnesium smecite, hydrated silica, kaolinite group minerals, and iron oxides. NASA scientists discovered that Nili Fossae is the source of plumes of methane, raising the question of whether this source originates from biological sources. Researchers in July 2010 suggested that carbonate bearing rocks found in the Nili Fossae region of Mars are made up of hydrothermally altered ultramafic rocks. Consequently, hydrothermal activity would have provided sufficient energy for biological activity. Evidence
    9.33
    3 votes
    27
    Elysium Mons

    Elysium Mons

    Elysium Mons is a volcano on Mars located in the Elysium Planitia, at 25°01′N 147°13′E / 25.02°N 147.21°E / 25.02; 147.21, in the Martian eastern hemisphere. It stands about 13.9 km above the surrounding lava plains, and about 16 km above the Martian datum. Its diameter is about 240 km, with a summit caldera about 14 km across. It is flanked by the smaller volcanoes Hecates Tholus to the north, and Albor Tholus to the south. Elysium Mons was discovered in 1972 in images returned by the Mariner 9 orbiter. The terrestrial volcano Emi Koussi (in Chad) has been studied as an analog of Elysium Mons. The two shield volcanoes have summit calderas of similar size, but Elysium Mons is 3.5 times larger in diameter and 6 times higher than its counterpart on Earth.
    8.00
    4 votes
    28
    Wislicenus Crater

    Wislicenus Crater

    Wislicenus Crater is an impact crater in the Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle of Mars at 18.4° south latitude and 348.6° west longitude. It is about 139 km in diameter and was named after Walter Wislicenus, a German astronomer (1859–1905). Wislicenus Crater contains layers, also called strata. Many places on Mars show rocks arranged in layers. Sometimes the layers are of different colors. Light-toned rocks on Mars have been associated with hydraded minerals like sulfates. The Mars Rover Opportunity examined such layers close-up with several instruments. Some layers are probably made up of fine particles because they seem to break up into find dust. Other layers break up into large boulders so they are probably much harder. Basalt, a volcanic rock, is thought to in the layers that form boulders. Basalt has been identified on Mars in many places. Instruments on orbiting spacecraft have detected clay (also called phyllosilicates) in some layers. Scientists are excited about finding hydrated minerals such as sulfates and clays on Mars because they are usually formed in the presence of water. Places that contain clays and/or other hydrated minerals would be good places to look for evidence of
    8.00
    4 votes
    29
    Arcadia Planitia

    Arcadia Planitia

    Arcadia Planitia is a smooth plain with fresh lava flows and Amazonian volcanic flows on Mars. It was named by Giovanni Schiaparelli in 1882 after the Arcadia region of ancient Greece. It dates from the Amazonian period's Arcadia formation's lava flows and small cinder cones. It includes a more recently developed large region of aeolian materials derived from periglacial processes. It is located northwest of the Tharsis region in the northern lowlands, spanning the region 40-60° North and 150-180° West in the Cebrenia quadrangle and centered at 46°42′N 192°00′E / 46.7°N 192.0°E / 46.7; 192.0. Arcadia marks a transition from the thinly cratered terrain to its north and the very old cratered terrain to the south. On its east it runs into the Alba Mons volcanoes. Its elevation relative to the geodetic datum varies between 0 and -3 km. In a lot of the low areas of Arcadia, one finds grooves and sub-parallel ridges. These indicate movement of near surface materials and are similar to features on earth where near surface materials flow together very slowly as helped by the freezing and thawing of water located between ground layers. This supports the proposition of ground ice in the
    6.80
    5 votes
    30
    Endurance

    Endurance

    Endurance is an impact crater on Mars that was visited by the Opportunity rover from May until December 2004. Mission scientists named the crater after the ship Endurance that sailed to the Antarctic in an exploration voyage organized by Ernest Shackleton. The rover entered the crater interior on its 134th mission sol (June 15), and exited on the 315th sol (December 14). During this time it traversed various obstacles, steep inclines, and overcame large wheel slippage when driving over fine sand. After arriving at the crater, Opportunity performed a survey of the crater to plan the further steps in exploring the local geology. A site dubbed "Karatepe" was chosen to enter the crater and investigate the layering of the bedrock. The picture to the right shows changes in the color of the bedrock layers. The layer "A" is closer to the rover and higher than the layers "B" to "E". Texture and rock chemistry also differed with depth. Thus scientists infer that the age of these layers is following a similar pattern, with the higher layers being younger than the lower layers. Opportunity then went farther down into the crater to investigate the sand dunes. Various rock outcrops were
    6.80
    5 votes
    31
    Phoenicis Lacus quadrangle

    Phoenicis Lacus quadrangle

    The Phoenicis Lacus quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Phoenicis Lacus quadrangle is also referred to as MC-17 (Mars Chart-17). The Phoenicis Lacus quadrangle covers the area from 90° to 135° west longitude and 0° to 30° south latitude on Mars. The Tharsus rise, which was formed from laa flows, occupies part of area. The volcanoes Pavonis Mons and Arsia Mons are believed to have once had glaciers on them. Glaciers may still exist under a thin layer of rocks. The ice can be a source of water for the possible future colonization of the planet. One of the most prominent features of this quadrangle is a large intersecting set of canyons called Noctis Labyrinthus. Other interesting features are lava channels, Dark slope streaks, pit crater chains, and large troughs (called fossae). Research published in the journal Icarus has found pits in Zumba Crater are caused by hot ejecta falling on ground containing ice. The pits are formed by heat forming steam that rushes out from groups of pits simultaneously, thereby blowing away from the pit ejecta. Noctis Labyrinthus is a large
    6.80
    5 votes
    32
    Avernus Colles

    Avernus Colles

    Avernus Colles is a region of fractured terrain on Mars on the southeast margin of Elysium Planitia, at 1.6°S, 171°E. It is fairly large, being 244km (152mi) in diameter. It was named in 1985 after a lake in Campania, Italy, which is believed by some to be an entrance to the underworld.
    9.00
    3 votes
    33
    Cassini

    Cassini

    Cassini is a crater on Mars named in honour of the Italian astronomer Giovanni Cassini. The crater is approximately 415 km in diameter and can be found at 327.9°W and 23.8°N. It is in the Arabia quadrangle of Mars. Recent research leads scientists to believe that some of the craters in Arabia may have held huge lakes. Cassini Crater probably once was full of water since its rim seems to have been breached by the waters. Both inflow and outflow channels have been observed on its rim. The lake would have contained more water than Earth's Lake Baikal, our largest freshwater lake by volume.
    7.75
    4 votes
    34
    Gusev crater

    Gusev crater

    Gusev is a crater on the planet Mars and is located at 14°30′S 175°24′E / 14.5°S 175.4°E / -14.5; 175.4. The crater is about 166 kilometers in diameter and formed approximately three to four billion years ago. It was named after Russian astronomer Matvei Gusev (1826–1866) in 1976. A channel system named Ma'adim Vallis drains into it that probably carried liquid water, or water and ice, at some point in Mars' past. The crater appears to be an old crater lake bed, filled with sediments up to 3000 feet thick. Some exposed outcrops appear to show faint layering, and some researchers also believe that landforms visible in images of the mouth of Ma'adim Vallis where it enters Gusev resemble landforms seen in some terrestrial river deltas. Deltas of this nature can take tens or hundreds of thousands of years to form on Earth, suggesting that the water flows may have lasted for long periods. Orbital images indicate that there may once have been a very large lake near the source of Ma'adim Vallis that could have provided the source of this water. It is not known whether this flow was slow and continuous, punctuated by sporadic large outbursts, or some combination of these patterns. More
    7.75
    4 votes
    35
    Hebrus Valles

    Hebrus Valles

    Hebrus Valles is an ancient system of troughs and valleys in the Amenthes quadrangle of Mars, located at 20.2° north latitude and 233.4° west longitude. It is 317 km long and was named after an ancient river in Greece. Some authors have identified these structures as outflow channels, but their origin and history remain ambiguous. Hebrus Valles has tributaries, terraces, and teardrop shaped islands. These features are all characteristic of erosion by fluid flow, but may or may not support the identification of this feature as carved by a single catastrophic outburst flood of water (as the term outflow channel would imply).
    7.75
    4 votes
    36
    Olympus Mons

    Olympus Mons

    Olympus Mons (Latin for Mount Olympus) is a large shield volcano on the planet Mars. By one measure, it has a height of nearly 22 km (14 mi). This makes it the tallest mountain on any planet in the Solar System (and, after the 2011 discovery of Rheasilvia Mons on 4 Vesta, the second largest mountain on any world known to man). It stands almost three times as tall as Mount Everest's height above sea level. Olympus Mons is the youngest of the large volcanoes on Mars, having formed during Mars's Amazonian Period. Olympus Mons had been known to astronomers since the late 19th century as the albedo feature Nix Olympica (Latin for "Olympic Snow"). Its mountainous nature was suspected well before space probes confirmed its identity as a mountain. The volcano is located in Mars's western hemisphere at approximately 18°39′N 226°12′E / 18.65°N 226.2°E / 18.65; 226.2, just off the northwestern edge of the Tharsis bulge. The western portion of the volcano lies in the Amazonis quadrangle (MC-8) and the central and eastern portions in the adjoining Tharsis quadrangle (MC-9). Two impact craters on Olympus Mons have been assigned provisional names by the IAU. They are the 15.6 km
    7.75
    4 votes
    37
    Acidalia Colles

    Acidalia Colles

    Acidalia Colles is a group of hills in the Mare Acidalium quadrangle of Mars, located at 50.9° north latitude and 23.1° west longitude. It is about 360 km long and was named after a classical albedo feature name. The HiRISE images of Acidalia Colles shown here illustrate gullies in the northern hemisphere. Gullies occur on steep slopes, especially craters. Gullies are believed to be relatively young because they have few, if any craters, and they lie on top of sand dunes which are young. Usually, each gully has an alcove, channel, and apron. Although many ideas have been put forward to explain them, the most popular involve liquid water either coming from an aquifer or left over from old glaciers. There is evidence for both theories. Most of the gully alcove heads occur at the same level, just as one would expect of an aquifer. Various measurements and calculations show that liquid water could exist in an aquifer at the usual depths where the gullies begin. One variation of this model is that rising hot magma could have melted ice in the ground and caused water to flow in aquifers. Aquifers are layer that allow water to flow. They may consist of porus sandstone. This layer would be
    6.60
    5 votes
    38
    Gale

    Gale

    Gale is a crater on Mars near the northwestern part of the Aeolis quadrangle at 5°24′S 137°48′E / 5.4°S 137.8°E / -5.4; 137.8. It is 154 km (96 mi) in diameter and estimated to be about 3.5-3.8 billion years old. The crater was named after Walter Frederick Gale, an amateur astronomer from Sydney, New South Wales, Australia, who observed Mars in the late 19th century. Aeolis Mons is a mountain in the center of Gale Crater and rises 5.5 km (18,000 ft) high. Aeolis Palus is the plain between the northern wall of Gale Crater and the northern foothills of Aeolis Mons. Peace Vallis, a nearby outflow channel, 'flows' down from the Gale Crater hills to the Aeolis Palus below and seems to have been carved by flowing water. The NASA Mars rover, Curiosity, of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission, landed in "Yellowknife" Quad 51 of Aeolis Palus in Gale Crater at 05:32 UTC August 6, 2012. NASA named the landing location Bradbury Landing on August 22, 2012. Curiosity is expected to explore Aeolis Mons and surrounding areas. An unusual feature of Gale is an enormous mound of debris around its central peak, officially named Aeolis Mons (popularly known as "Mount Sharp") rising 5.5 km
    7.50
    4 votes
    39
    Hartwig Crater

    Hartwig Crater

    Hartwig Crater is a crater in the Argyre quadrangle of Mars, located at 39° south latitude and 16° west longitude. It is 105 km in diameter and was named after Ernst Hartwig, a German astronomer (1851–1923).
    7.50
    4 votes
    40
    Vostok

    Vostok

    Vostok is a crater on Mars that was reached by the rover Opportunity on sol 399 (March 8, 2005). Vostok is located roughly 1200 meters south of Endurance in Meridiani Planum. The crater appears to have been covered up with sand by the winds on the red planet, but many rock outcrops are still visible from the surface. Other smaller craters visited along the way included Argo, Jason, and Alvin just south of the heat shield, and Naturaliste, Géographe, and Investigator. While at Vostok, Opportunity investigated a rock dubbed "Gagarin", named for cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin. It also imaged a soil sample named "Laika". The rover left on Sol 404, and headed south towards Erebus - an eroded crater wider than Endurance, some "etched terrain" and an even larger crater, the 750-meter wide Victoria. The rover's Mini-TES instrument was malfunctioning when it was near Vostok, however, the issues soon disappeared.
    7.50
    4 votes
    41
    Kunowsky Crater

    Kunowsky Crater

    Kunowsky Crater is a large crater in the Mare Acidalium quadrangle of Mars, located at 57.1° north latitude and 9.7° west longitude. It is 67.4 km in diameter and was named after George K. Kunowsky, a German astronomer (1786–1846). Because it lies on a large flat plain, Kunowsky is easy to spot on maps and pictures.
    10.00
    2 votes
    42
    Eridania quadrangle

    Eridania quadrangle

    The Eridania quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Eridania quadrangle is also referred to as MC-29 (Mars Chart-29). The Eridania quadrangle lies between 30° and 65° south latitude and 180° and 240° west longitude on the planet Mars. Most of the classic region named Terra Cimmeria is found within this quadrangle. Part of the Electris deposits, a 100–200 meters thick, light-toned deposit covers the Eridania quadrangle. Many slopes in Eridania contain gullies, which are believed to be caused by flowing water. The Eridania quadrangle is the location of gullies that may be due to recent flowing water. Gullies occur on steep slopes, especially on the walls of craters. Gullies are believed to be relatively young because they have few, if any craters. Moreover, they lie on top of sand dunes which themselves are considered to be quite young. Usually, each gully has an alcove, channel, and apron. Some studies have found that gullies occur on slopes that face all directions, others have found that the greater number of gullies are found on poleward facing slopes, especially from 30-44
    7.25
    4 votes
    43
    Arcadia quadrangle

    Arcadia quadrangle

    The Arcadia quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The quadrangle is located in the north-central portion of Mars’ western hemisphere and covers 240° to 300° east longitude (60° to 120° west longitude) and 30° to 65° north latitude. The quadrangle uses a Lambert conformal conic projection at a nominal scale of 1:5,000,000 (1:5M). The Arcadia quadrangle is also referred to as MC-3 (Mars Chart-3). The southern and northern borders of the Arcadia quadrangle are approximately 3,065 km and 1,500 km wide, respectively. The north to south distance is about 2,050 km (slightly less than the length of Greenland). The quadrangle covers an approximate area of 4.9 million square km, or a little over 3% of Mars’ surface area. Several features found in this quadrangle are interesting, especially gullies which are believed to be caused by relatively recent flows of liquid water. Dark slope streaks and dust devil tracks can have a striking appearance. Arcadia is the name of a telescopic albedo feature located at 45° north latitude (N) and 260° east longitude (E) on Mars. The feature was named
    8.33
    3 votes
    44
    Kasei Vallis

    Kasei Vallis

    Kasei Vallis (Kasei means "Mars" in Japanese) is a large channel system in the Lunae Palus quadrangle, on Mars. It is located at 24.6° north latitude and 65° west longitude. It begins in Echus Chasma, near Valles Marineris, and empties into Chryse Planitia, not far from where Viking 1 landed. Kasei is about 2,400 km (1,500 mi) long, and some sections of Kasei Valles are 300 km (190 mi) wide. Sacra Mensa, a large tableland, divides Kasei into a northern and southern channel. A significant feature of the Lunae Palus region, Kasei Valles is one of the largest outflow channels on Mars. Like other outflow channels, it was likely carved by liquid water, possibly released by volcanic subsurface heating in Tharsis/Lunae Planum region, either as a one-time catastropic event or multiple flooding events over a long time period. Others have proposed that certain landforms were produced by glacial rather than liquid flow.
    8.33
    3 votes
    45
    Miyamoto

    Miyamoto

    Miyamoto is a crater on Mars, west of the Plains of Meridiani. The crater is 150 kilometers (93 mi) wide. The crater's northeastern half is filled with rocks formed in the presence of water and include minerals of iron and sulfur, which likely settled on lake bottoms or in groundwater systems. In the southwestern half of the crater floor, erosion has stripped these materials away, instead revealing clays and other materials like those found in the most ancient Martian rocks. More than 3.5 billion years old, they date to the Noachian era at which time, liquid water was likely present at the surface and could have created an environment favorable to life. Miyamoto was considered as a possible landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory. Several sites in the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle have been proposed as areas to send NASA's next major Mars rover, the Mars Science Laboratory. Miyamoto Crater was in the top 7 sites chosen. Among the top 33 landing sites was Iani Chaos. Holden Crater is believed to have once been a lake. Eberswalde Crater contains a delta. There is a great deal of evidence that Miyamoto Crater once contained rivers and lakes. Many minerals, such as clays,
    8.33
    3 votes
    46
    Phoenix

    Phoenix

    Phoenix was a robotic spacecraft on a space exploration mission on Mars under the Mars Scout Program. The Phoenix lander descended on Mars on May 25, 2008. Mission scientists used instruments aboard the lander to search for environments suitable for microbial life on Mars, and to research the history of water there. The multi-agency program was headed by the Lunar and Planetary Laboratory at the University of Arizona, under the direction of NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The program was a partnership of universities in the United States, Canada, Switzerland, Denmark, Germany, the United Kingdom, NASA, the Canadian Space Agency, the Finnish Meteorological Institute, Lockheed Martin Space Systems, MacDonald Dettwiler & Associates (MDA) and other aerospace companies. It was the first mission to Mars led by a public university in NASA history. It was led directly from the University of Arizona's campus in Tucson, with project management at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, Calif., and project development at Lockheed Martin in Denver, Colorado. The operational funding for the mission extended through November 10, 2008. Phoenix was NASA's sixth successful landing out of seven
    8.33
    3 votes
    47
    Airy-0

    Airy-0

    Airy-0 is a crater on Mars whose location defines the position of the prime meridian of that planet. It is about 0.5 kilometres (0.31 mi) across and lies within the larger crater Airy in the region Sinus Meridiani. It was named in honor of the British Astronomer Royal Sir George Biddell Airy (1801-1892), who in 1850 built the transit circle telescope at Greenwich. The location of that telescope was subsequently chosen to define the location of Earth's prime meridian. The selection of this crater as Mars' prime meridian was made by Merton Davies in 1969 based on Mariner 6 and 7 photographs.
    7.00
    4 votes
    48
    Endeavour

    Endeavour

    Endeavour is an impact crater located in Meridiani Planum on Mars. Endeavour is about 22 kilometers (14 mi) in diameter. Using Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter data, phyllosilicate-bearing outcrops have been detected along the rim of this crater. These minerals may have formed under wet conditions in a low-acidic environment during the early history of Mars. There are raised rim segments to the north, east, and southwest. The rim has become worn, rounded and degraded, with infilling of plains material in a manner similar to the Victoria crater. When compared to the surrounding plains, the crater floor shows an enhanced spectral signature of basalt and hematite. The interior contains two groups of dune fields. Images taken since 2008 show evidence of changes in some of the associated formations, which may be evidence of active erosion by the martian wind over a period of two to three years. The plains surrounding the rim show evidence of polyhydrated sulfate. The Mars Exploration Rover-B Opportunity began travelling toward this crater in August 2008, with the rim coming into sight on March 7, 2009, and arriving at the edge on August 9, 2011. In December 2011, Opportunity Rover discovered
    7.00
    4 votes
    49
    Juventae Chasma

    Juventae Chasma

    Juventae Chasma is an enormous box canyon (250 km × 100 km) on Mars which opens to the north and forms the outflow channel Maja Valles. Juventae Chasma is located north of Valles Marineris and cuts more than 5 km into the plains of Lunae Planum. The floor of Juventae Chasma is partly covered by sand dunes. There is also a 2.5 km high mountain inside Juventae, 59 km long and 23 km wide, that was confirmed by Mars Express to be composed of sulfate deposits. MRO discovered sulfates, hydrated sulfates, and iron oxides in Juventae Chasma.
    7.00
    4 votes
    50
    Ares Vallis

    Ares Vallis

    Ares Vallis is an outflow channel on Mars, named after the Greek name for Mars: Ares, the god of war; it appears to have been carved by fluids, perhaps water. The valley 'flows' northwest out of the hilly Margaritifer Terra, where the Iani Chaos depression (180 km long and 200 km wide) is connected to the beginning of Ares Vallis by a 100 km wide transition zone centered around 342.5° East (17.5 West) and 3° North. It then continues through the ancient Xanthe Terra highlands, and ends in a delta-like region of Chryse Planitia. Ares Vallis was the landing site of NASA's Mars Pathfinder spacecraft, which studied a region of the valley near the border with Chryse in 1997. It has been argued that Uzboi, Ladon, Margaritifer and Ares Valles, although now separated by large craters, once comprised a single outflow channel flowing north into Chryse Planitia. The source of this outflow has been suggested as overflow from the Argyre crater, formerly filled to the brim as a lake by channels (Surius, Dzigai, and Palacopus Valles) draining down from the south pole. If real, the full length of this drainage system would be over 8000 km, the longest known drainage path in the solar system. Under
    8.00
    3 votes
    51
    Barnacle Bill

    Barnacle Bill

    Barnacle Bill is a 40-centimetre (16 in) rock on Mars in Ares Vallis. It was the first rock on Mars analyzed by the Sojourner rover using its Alpha Proton X-ray Spectrometer. The encounter occurred during Sol 3 of the Mars Pathfinder mission on the surface of Mars and took ten hours to complete. Early analysis of data sent from Sojourner led scientists to speculate that the rock was andesite. The name was inspired in mission scientists by barnacle-like structures on the rock that appeared in transmitted photos.
    8.00
    3 votes
    52
    Boeddicker Crater

    Boeddicker Crater

    Boeddicker Crater is a crater in the Aeolis quadrangle of Mars, located at 15° south latitude and 197.7° west longitude. It is 109 km in diameter and was named after Otto Boeddicker, a German astronomer (1853–1937).
    8.00
    3 votes
    53
    Green Valley

    Green Valley

    Green Valley is a region on Mars within Vastitas Borealis that was chosen as the landing site of NASA's Phoenix lander. It is located at 68.35 degrees north, 233 degrees east. The valley is about 50 kilometres wide but only about 250 metres deep; either it was filled in or was never any deeper than that. The edges are not visible from the middle of the valley. The name "Green Valley" is not officially recognised by the International Astronomical Union. It came from the decision process by which it was selected as Phoenix's landing site: prospective landing areas were color-coded based on how hazardous they were, with red being most hazardous through yellow to green being the safest. Green Valley has relatively few of the large boulders that could potentially have tipped the lander if it had hit one during touchdown. The ground within Green Valley is covered with polygonal features several metres across and roughly ten centimetres high, thought to be caused either by repeated freeze-thaw cycles (ice-wedge polygons) or by the effects of wind-blown dust (sand-wedge polygons). Water ice is thought to be just below the surface. During the local winter as much as three feet of carbon
    8.00
    3 votes
    54
    Home Plate

    Home Plate

    Home Plate is a plateau roughly 90 m across within the Columbia Hills, Mars. It is informally named for its similarity in shape to a baseball home plate. Home Plate is a rocky outcrop that appears to show layered features. The plateau has been extensively studied by Spirit, one of the Mars Exploration Rovers, since 2006. The rover became stuck in loose granular material alongside the northeast side of the plateau. The rover last communicated with Earth on March 22, 2010. Spirit arrived at Home Plate on sol 744 (February 7, 2006) and has completed a scientific investigation with her robotic arm before moving to Low Ridge Haven due to power concerns. She returned on sol 1126 to resume those studies. Spirit spent her third Martian winter on Home Plate's north edge. Scientists now believe that Home Plate is an explosive volcanic deposit. It is surrounded by deposits of basalt, which are believed to have exploded on contact with water. The presence of brine is further supported by the high concentration of chloride ions in the surrounding rocks. The presence of bomb sags (laminae typically found in beds of volcanish ash) seems to confirm this hypothesis. A patch of 90% pure opaline
    8.00
    3 votes
    55
    Kasei Valles

    Kasei Valles

    Kasei Valles is a giant system of canyons in Mare Acidalium and Lunae Palus quadrangles on Mars, located at 24.6° north latitude and 65.0° west longitude. It is 1,780 km long and was named for the word for "Mars" in Japanese. This huge system is 300 miles wide in some places. In contrast, Earth's Grand Canyon is only 18 miles wide. It is one of the longest continuous outflow channels on Mars. The Kasei Valles system begins in Echus Chasma, runs northward, and appears to empty into Chryse Planitia. At around 20° north latitude Kasei Valles splits into two channels, called Kasei Vallis Canyon and North Kasei Channel. These branches recombine at around 63° west longitude. Some parts of Kasei Valles are 2–3 km deep.
    8.00
    3 votes
    56
    Mars surface color

    Mars surface color

    The Mars surface color looks red from a distance because of rusty dust kicked up in the atmosphere. From close up it is more of a butterscotch, and other common surface colors include golden, brown, tan, and greenish, depending on minerals. The apparent color of the Martian surface enabled humans to distinguish it from other planets early in human history and motivated them to weave fables of war in association with Mars. One of its earliest names, Har decher, literally meant "Red One" in Egyptian. Its color may have also to a malignant association in Indian astrology, as it was given the names Angaraka and Lohitanga, both reflecting the distinctively red color of Mars as seen by the naked eye. Modern robotic explorers have shown that not only the surfaces, but also the skies above may appear red under sunlit conditions on Mars. Modern observations indicate that Mars's redness is skin deep. The Martian surface looks reddish primarily because of an ubiquitous dust layer (particles are typically between 3 µm to 45 µm across ) that is typically on the order of millimeters thick. Even where the thickest deposits of this reddish dust occur, such as the Tharsis area, the dust layer is
    8.00
    3 votes
    57
    Tharsis quadrangle

    Tharsis quadrangle

    The Tharsis quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Tharsis quadrangle is also referred to as MC-9 (Mars Chart-9). The quadrangle covers the area from 90° to 135° west longitude and 0° to 30° north latitude on Mars and contains most of the Tharsis Rise. The plateau is about as high as Earth's Mount Everest and about as big in area as all of Europe. Tharsis contains a group of large volcanoes. Olympus Mons is the tallest. Tharsis is a land of great volcanoes. Olympus Mons is the tallest known volcano in the Solar System; it is 100 times larger than any volcano on Earth. Ascraeus Mons and Pavonis Mons are at least 200 miles across and are over six miles above the plateau that they sit on—and, the plateau is three to four miles above the zero altitude of Mars. Pavonis Mons, the middle in a line of three volcanoes, sits at just about dead center on the equator. Mons is a term used for a large raised feature. Tholus is about the same, but smaller. A patera is flatter and like a volcano with a super large opening. Actually, a patera is formed when the top of a volcano collapses
    8.00
    3 votes
    58
    Aganippe Fossa

    Aganippe Fossa

    Aganippe Fossa is a surface feature on Mars which runs from 4.1° to 13° south latitude and 124.9° to 126.9° west longitude. It is named after a classical albedo feature. Its name was approved by the IAU in 1976. Figure 1 shows dark streaks on the slopes of Aganippe Fossa. Such streaks are common on Mars. They occur on steep slopes of craters, troughs, and valleys. The streaks are dark at first. They get lighter with age. Sometimes they start in a tiny spot, then spread out and go for hundreds of meters. They have been seen to travel around obstacles, like boulders. It is believed that they are avalanches of bright dust that expose a darker underlying layer. However, several ideas have been advanced to explain them. Some involve water or even the growth of organisms. The streaks appear in areas covered with dust. Much of the Martian surface is covered with dust. Fine dust settles out of the atmosphere covering everything.
    6.75
    4 votes
    59
    Biblis Patera

    Biblis Patera

    Biblis Tholus is an extinct Martian volcano located at 2°33′N 235°37′E / 2.55°N 235.62°E / 2.55; 235.62, one of two volcanoes near the center of the Tharsis volcanism. Along with Ulysses Patera, it is almost midway between Olympus Mons and Tharsis Montes. It is approximately 170 kilometers (110 mi) long and 100 kilometers (62 mi) wide, rising about 3 kilometers (1.9 mi) from its surroundings. In the middle of the volcano is a caldera, named Biblis Patera, possibly formed as the result of collapse of the magma chamber during eruptions of the volcano. The caldera is 53 kilometers (33 mi) in diameter and four kilometers (2.5 miles) in depth.
    6.75
    4 votes
    60
    Gorgonum Chaos

    Gorgonum Chaos

    Gorgonum Chaos is a set of canyons in the Phaethontis quadrangle of Mars. It is located at 37.5° south latitude and 170.9° west longitude. Its name comes from an albedo feature at 24S, 154W. The Phaethontis quadrangle is the location of many gullies that may be due to recent flowing water. Some are found in the Gorgonum Chaos. Gullies occur on steep slopes, especially craters. Gullies are believed to be relatively young because they have few, if any craters, and they lie on top of sand dunes which are young. Usually, each gully has an alcove, channel, and apron. Although many ideas have been put forward to explain them, the most popular involve liquid water either coming from an aquifer or left over from old glaciers. There is evidence for both theories. Most of the gully alcove heads occur at the same level, just as one would expect of an aquifer. Various measurements and calculations show that liquid water could exist in an aquifer at the usual depths where the gullies begin. One variation of this model is that rising hot magma could have melted ice in the ground and caused water to flow in aquifers. Aquifers are layer that allow water to flow. They may consist of porus
    6.75
    4 votes
    61
    Lomonosov

    Lomonosov

    Lomonosov is a medium crater on Mars, with a diameter close to 150 km. It is located in the Martian northern plains north of the planet's equator. Since it is large and found close (65.9° north) to the boundary between the Mare Acidalium quadrangle and the Mare Boreum quadrangle, it is found on both maps. The topography is smooth and young in this area, hence Lomonosov is easy to spot on large maps of Mars. The crater was named in 1973 in honour of Mikhail V. Lomonosov.
    6.75
    4 votes
    62
    North Polar Basin

    North Polar Basin

    The North Polar Basin, or Borealis basin, is a large basin in the northern hemisphere of Mars that covers 40% of the planet. Chryse Planitia, the landing site of the Viking 1 lander, is a bay which opens into this basin. One possible explanation for the basin's low, flat and relatively crater-free topography is that the basin was formed by a single large impact. Two simulations of a possible impact sketched a profile for the collision: low velocity (6 – 10 km/s), oblique angle and diameter 1,600 - 2,700 km. Topographical data from the Mars Global Surveyor are consistent with the models and also suggest that the elliptical crater has axes of length 10,600 km and 8,500 km, centered on 67°N, 208°E, though this has been partially obscured by later volcanic eruptions that created the Tharsis bulge along its rim. There is evidence for a secondary rim as well. This would make the North Polar Basin by far the largest impact crater in the Solar System, approximately four times the diameter of the next largest craters: Utopia Planitia which is imbedded inside the North Polar Basin, the South Pole – Aitken basin on Earth's Moon, and Hellas Planitia on the southern hemisphere of Mars.
    6.75
    4 votes
    63
    Tycho Brahe

    Tycho Brahe

    Tycho Brahe is a crater on Mars named after the Danish astronomer Tycho Brahe. It is located in the Cerberus hemisphere of Mars, around 49.8° south and 213.9° west, in an area which is southeast of the Martz crater and east of the Hellas Basin.
    6.75
    4 votes
    64
    Elysium quadrangle

    Elysium quadrangle

    The Elysium quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Elysium quadrangle is also referred to as MC-15 (Mars Chart-15). The Elysium quadrangle covers the area 180° to 225° west longitude and 0° to 30° north latitude on Mars. It contains major volcanoes named Elysium Mons and Albor Tholus and river valleys--one of which, Athabasca Valles may be one of the youngest on Mars. The Elysium quadrangle contains the volcanoes Elysium Mons and Albor Tholus. Much of this area is covered with lava flows, some can even be shown approaching, then stopping upon reaching higher ground. (See pictures below for examples) Sometimes when lava flows the top cools quickly into a solid crust. However, the lava below often still flows, this action breaks up the top layer making it very rough. Such rough flow is called aa. Research, published in January 2010, described the discovery of a vast single lava flow, the size of the state of Oregon, that "was put in place turbulently over the span of several weeks at most." This flow, near Athabasca Valles, is the youngest lava flow on Mars. It is thought to be
    9.00
    2 votes
    65
    Ma'adim Vallis

    Ma'adim Vallis

    Ma'adim Vallis is one of the largest outflow channels on Mars, about 700 km long and significantly larger than Earth's Grand Canyon. It is over 20 km wide and 2 km deep in some places. It runs from a region of southern lowlands thought to have once contained a large group of lakes (see Eridania Lake) north to Gusev crater near the equator. It looks as if water may have collected in Gusev crater, forming a giant lake; the Spirit Rover was sent there to investigate that possibility, but found only volcanic rocks on the floor of Gusev. Any lake deposits were probably covered over by a later deposit of volcanic materials from Apollinaris Mons, a nearby volcano. Ma'adim Vallis is thought to have been carved by flowing water early in Mars' history. Some of the short narrow channels along the walls of Ma'adim are probably sapping channels. Sapping occurs when groundwater partially dissolves and undermines the rock, which collapses into debris deposits and is carried away by other erosion processes. Ma'adim (מאדים) is the Hebrew name of the Planet Mars.
    9.00
    2 votes
    66
    Pot of Gold

    Pot of Gold

    Pot of Gold is the nickname for a knobby, softball-sized rock in Gusev Crater on Mars. During an examination by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit on June 25, 2004 Hematite was first detected by Spirit, suggesting a watery past on Mars.
    9.00
    2 votes
    67
    Reull Vallis

    Reull Vallis

    Reull Vallis is a valley on Mars that appears to have been carved by water. It runs westward into the Channels of Reull Vallis which runs north westwards into Hellas Planitia. It is named after the Gaelic word for planet. On the floors of some channels are features called lineated floor deposits. They are ridged and grooved materials that seem to deflect around obstacles. They are believed to be ice-rich. Some glaciers on the Earth show such features. Lineated floor deposits may be related to lobate debris aprons, which have been proven to contain large amounts of ice. Reull Vallis, as pictured below, displays these deposits.
    9.00
    2 votes
    68
    Tinjar Vallis

    Tinjar Vallis

    Tinjar Vallis is an ancient outflow channel in the Amenthes quadrangle of Mars, located at 38° north latitude and 235.8° west longitude. It is 425 km long and was named after a modern river in Sarawak, Malaysia.
    9.00
    2 votes
    69
    Mars 3

    Mars 3

    Mars 3 was an unmanned space probe of the Soviet Mars program which spanned between 1960 and 1973. Mars 3 was launched nine days after its twin spacecraft Mars 2. Both probes were identical spacecraft, each consisting of an orbiter and an attached lander. After Mars 2 crash-landed on the martian surface, Mars 3 lander became the first spacecraft to attain soft landing on Mars. Both probes were launched by Proton-K rockets with Blok D upper stages. The primary purpose of the orbiter was to study the topography of the surface; analyze its soil composition; measure various properties of the atmosphere; monitor "solar radiation, the solar wind, and the interplanetary and martian magnetic fields." In addition, it served as a "communications relay to send signals from the lander to Earth." The orbiter suffered from a partial loss of fuel and did not have enough to put itself into a planned 25 hour orbit. The engine instead performed a truncated burn to put the spacecraft into a highly-elliptical long-period (12 day, 19 hours) orbit about Mars. By coincidence, a particularly large dust storm on Mars adversely affected the mission. When Mariner 9 arrived and successfully orbited Mars on 14
    5.80
    5 votes
    70
    Antoniadi

    Antoniadi

    Antoniadi is a crater on Syrtis Major Planum, Mars, located at 21.5° north latitude and 299.2° west longitude. It is 394 km long and was named after Eugène Michael Antoniadi, a Turkish-born French astronomer (1870-1944). There is evidence that Antoniadi Crater once contained rivers and lakes. The picture below shows an inverted channel in Antoniadi, as seen by HiRISE. Inverted channels formed from accumulated sediments that were cemented by minerals. These channels eroded into the surface, then the whole area was covered over with sediments. When the sediments were later eroded away, the place where the river channel existed remained because the hardened material were resistant to erosion. Some places on Mars show inverted relief. In these locations, a stream bed may be a raised feature, instead of a valley. The inverted former stream channels may be caused by the depositon of large rocks or due to cementation. In either case erosion would erode the surrounding land and leave the old channel as a raised ridge because the ridege will be more resistant to erosion. An image below, taken with HiRISE of Antoniadi Crater shows sinuous ridges that are old channels that have become
    7.67
    3 votes
    71
    Arsia Mons

    Arsia Mons

    Arsia Mons is the southernmost of three volcanos (collectively known as Tharsis Montes) on the Tharsis bulge near the equator of the planet Mars. To its north is Pavonis Mons, and north of that is Ascraeus Mons. The tallest mountain in the solar system, Olympus Mons, is to its northwest. Its name comes from a corresponding albedo feature on a map by Giovanni Schiaparelli, which he named in turn after the legendary Roman forest of Arsia Silva. Using a global climate model, a group of researchers headed by Laura Kerber found that the Medusae Fossae Formation could have easily been formed from ash from the volcanoes Apollinaris Mons, Arsia Mons, and possibly Pavonis Mons. Arsia Mons is a shield volcano with a relatively low slope and a massive caldera at its summit. The southernmost of the three Tharsis Montes volcanoes, it is the only major Tharsis volcano south of the equator. The volcano is 270 miles (approximately 435 kilometres) in diameter, almost 12 miles high (more than 9 kilometers (5.6 mi) higher than the surrounding plains), and the summit caldera is 72 miles (approximately 110 km) wide. It experiences atmospheric pressure lower than 107 pascals at the summit. Except for
    7.67
    3 votes
    72
    Santa Claus Conquers the Martians

    Santa Claus Conquers the Martians

    Santa Claus Conquers the Martians is a 1964 science fiction film that regularly appears on lists of the worst films ever made. It is regularly featured in the "bottom 100" list on the Internet Movie Database, and was featured in an episode of the 1986 syndicated series, the Canned Film Festival. It was directed by Nicholas Webster, and it stars John Call as Santa Claus. It also includes an 8-year-old Pia Zadora playing the role of one of the Martian children. The film took on newfound fame in the 1990s after being featured on an episode of the comedy series Mystery Science Theater 3000. It became a holiday staple on the Comedy Central cable channel in the years following its 1991 premiere. It has since found new life again in the 2000s (decade) having been riffed by Cinematic Titanic. The movie was also featured on the current run of "Elvira's Movie Macabre." The story involves the people of Mars, including Momar ("Mom Martian") and Kimar ("King Martian"). They're worried that their children Girmar ("Girl Martian") and Bomar ("Boy Martian") are watching too much Earth television, most notably station KID-TV's interview with Santa Claus in his workshop at the North Pole. Consulting
    7.67
    3 votes
    73
    Tooting

    Tooting

    Tooting is a multi-layered fluidized ejecta crater (a type of rampart crater) at 23.1°N, 207.1°E, in Amazonis Planitia (Amazonis quadrangle), due west of the volcano Olympus Mons, on Mars. . It was identified by planetary geologist Peter Mouginis-Mark in September 2004. Scientists estimate that its age is on the order of hundreds of thousands of years, which is relatively young for a Martian crater. A later study confirms this order of magnitude estimate.. A preliminary paper describing the geology and geometry of Tooting was published in 2007 by the journal "Meteoritics and Planetary Science", vol. 42, pages 1615 - 1625. Further papers have more recently been published, including a 2010 analysis of flows on the walls of Tooting crater by A.R. Morris et al. ("Icarus vol. 209, p. 369 - 389), and a 2012 review paper by P.J. Mouginis-Mark and J.M. Boyce in "Chemie der Erde Geochemistry", vol. 72, p. 1 - 23. A geologic map has also been submitted in 2012 to the U.S. Geological Survey for consideration and future publication. Tooting is named after the London suburb of the same name. This is in accordance with the International Astronomical Union's rules for planetary nomenclature,
    7.67
    3 votes
    74
    Valles Marineris

    Valles Marineris

    Valles Marineris (Latin for Mariner Valleys, named after the Mariner 9 Mars orbiter of 1971–72 which discovered it) is a system of canyons that runs along the Martian surface east of the Tharsis region. At more than 4,000 km long, 200 km wide and up to 7 km deep, the Valles Marineris rift system is one of the larger canyons of the Solar System, surpassed only by the rift valleys of Earth and (in length only) by Baltis Vallis on Venus. Valles Marineris is located along the equator of Mars, on the east side of the Tharsis Bulge, and stretches for nearly a quarter of the planet’s circumference. The Valles Marineris system starts in the west with Noctis Labyrinthus; proceeding to the east are Tithonium and Ius chasmata, then Melas, Candor and Ophir chasmata, then Coprates Chasma, then Ganges, Capri and Eos chasmata; finally it empties into an outflow channel region containing chaotic terrain that ends in the basin of Chryse Planitia. Valles Marineris is a large tectonic "crack" in the Martian crust. Most researchers agree that this formed as the crust thickened in the Tharsis region to the west, and was subsequently widened by erosional forces. However, near the eastern flanks of the
    7.67
    3 votes
    75
    Arnus Vallis

    Arnus Vallis

    Arnus Vallis is an ancient river valley in the Syrtis Major quadrangle of Mars, located at 14.1° north latitude and 289.5° west longitude. It is 280 km long and was named after the classical and present day Arno River in Tuscany, Italy (previously named Arena Rupes).
    10.00
    1 votes
    76
    Daedalia Planum

    Daedalia Planum

    Daedalia Planum is a plain on Mars located south of Arsia Mons at 21°48′S 232°00′E / -21.8°N 232.0°E / -21.8; 232.0 and appears to be relatively featureless plain with multiple lava flows and small craters. Modern imagery suggests that it may more accurately be called a "fluctus" rather than a "planum". There is evidence that an ancient 4500 km-diameter impact basin formed in the Noachian epoch may be centered in Daedalia Planum.
    10.00
    1 votes
    77
    Erebus

    Erebus

    Erebus is a crater on Mars visited by the Opportunity rover on the way to the much larger crater Victoria. It is named after the polar exploration vessel HMS Erebus. The rover was in the immediate vicinity of the crater from approximately sol 550 to 750 (October 2005 to March 2006). Erebus is located roughly 2,500 meters south of the much smaller crater Vostok, which was previously visited by Opportunity. It is surrounded by what scientists are describing as "etched terrain", a region where rocks peek out from under the sand of Meridiani Planum. Erebus is about 350 meters wide, twice as large as the crater Endurance. However, it is very old and eroded, and is barely visible from the ground; it appears merely as a number of flat rocky outcrops encircling a region of dunes.
    10.00
    1 votes
    78
    It! The Terror from Beyond Space

    It! The Terror from Beyond Space

    It! The Terror from Beyond Space (1958) is black and white science fiction film directed by Edward L. Cahn. The film opens with a nuclear powered spaceship perched on the cratered surface of an alien world. A voice-over tells us the year is 1973, that this is the planet Mars, and this spaceship has been sent to rescue the crew of a previous, ill-fated mission to the Red Planet; they have found only one survivor, Col. Edward Carruthers (Marshall Thompson). He is suspected of having murdered the other nine members of his crew for their food and water rations, since he would have no way of knowing if or when he would ever be rescued. Carruthers denies this allegation and pleads his innocence, blaming the deaths of his colleagues on an unknown, hostile life-form encountered on Mars. He offers up the first incident: caught on the surface during a blinding Martian sandstorm, one of his crewmates was quickly plucked from their moving transport vehicle by something unseen, It running fast enough to keep pace. The rescue ship's commander remains unconvinced, ordering Carruthers confined to his quarters, and an immediate return to Earth, a journey that will take four months. Unknown to the
    10.00
    1 votes
    79
    Mare Acidalium quadrangle

    Mare Acidalium quadrangle

    The Mare Acidalium quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The quadrangle is located in the northeastern portion of Mars’ western hemisphere and covers 300° to 360° east longitude (0° to 60° west longitude) and 30° to 65° north latitude. The quadrangle uses a Lambert conformal conic projection at a nominal scale of 1:5,000,000 (1:5M). The Mare Acidalium quadrangle is also referred to as MC-4 (Mars Chart-4). The southern and northern borders of the quadrangle are approximately 3,065 km and 1,500 km wide, respectively. The north to south distance is about 2,050 km (slightly less than the length of Greenland). The quadrangle covers an approximate area of 4.9 million square km, or a little over 3% of Mars’ surface area. This area contains many bright spots on a dark background that may be mud volcanoes. There are also some gullies that are believed to have formed by relatively recent flows of liquid water. Mare Acidalium (Acidalian Sea) is the name of a telescopic albedo feature located at 45° N and 330° E on Mars. The feature was named for a well or fountain in Boeotia, Greece.
    10.00
    1 votes
    80
    Mare Australe quadrangle

    Mare Australe quadrangle

    The Mare Australe quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Mare Australe quadrangle is also referred to as MC-30 (Mars Chart-30).The quadrangle covers all the area of Mars south of 65°, including the South polar ice cap, and its surrounding area. The quadrangle's name derives from an older name for a feature that is now called Planum Australe, a large plain surrounding the polar cap. Around the southern ice cap is a surface, called the Dorsa Argentea Formation that may be an old ice-rich deposit. It contains a group of sinuous, branched ridges that resembles eskers that form when streams are under glaciers. The formation often contains pits: two major locations are named Cavi Angusti and Cavi Sisyphi. The pits have steep sides and an irregular shape. They are up to 50 km across and 1 km deep. The quadrangle also contains Angustus Labyrinthus, a formation of intersecting valley or ridges, nicknamed the "Inca City". Researchers were suprised to see parts of the surface having a swiss-cheese appearance. Also, some areas showed strange spider-shaped forms, which were determined to
    10.00
    1 votes
    81
    Moreux Crater

    Moreux Crater

    Moreux Crater is a crater in the Ismenius Lacus quadrangle on Mars with a diameter of 138 km. It is located at 42.1° north latitude and 315.6° west longitude It was named after Theophile Moreux, a French astronomer and meteorologist (1867–1954). Moreux Crater's appearance has been shaped by the action of glaciers. Glaciers modified large areas of the surface of Mars. Many places are believed to still contain enormous amounts of water ice that was associated with glaciers. Glaciers have shaped much of the fretted terrain. It would be difficult to take a hike on the fretted terrain because the surface is folded, pitted, and often covered with linear striations. The striations show the direction of movement. Much of this rough texture is due to sublimation of buried ice. When the ice transitions directly into a gas it leaves behind an empty space. Overlying material then collapses into the void. Glaciers are not pure ice; they contain dirt and rocks. At times, they will dump their load of materials into ridges. Such ridges are called moraines. Some places on Mars have groups of ridges that are twisted around; this may have been due to more movement after the ridges were put into
    10.00
    1 votes
    82
    Opportunity rover

    Opportunity rover

    Opportunity, MER-B (Mars Exploration Rover – B), is a robotic rover on the planet Mars, active since 2004. Launched from Earth on July 7, 2003, it landed on Meridiani Planum on January 25, 2004 at 05:05 Ground UTC (about 13:15 local time). This was three weeks after its twin Spirit (MER-A), also part of NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Mission, touched down on the other side of the planet. Its twin became immobile in 2009 and in 2010 ceased communications, but MER-B is still active as of 2012, having already exceeded its planned 90 day duration of activity by &100000000000000080000008 years, &10000000000000134000000134 days. Mission highlights include the initial 90 Sol (90 Martian days) mission, finding extramartian meteorites such as Meridiani Planum, and over two years studying Victoria crater. It survived dust-storms and reached Endeavour crater in 2011, which has been described as a "second landing site". The Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, California, manages the Mars Exploration Rover project for NASA's Science Mission Directorate in Washington, D.C.. The scientific objectives of the Mars Exploration Rover
    10.00
    1 votes
    83
    Sleepy Hollow

    Sleepy Hollow

    Sleepy Hollow is the name given to a circular, shallow depression in Gusev Crater on Mars near the landing site of the Mars Exploration Rover "Spirit" in 2004. About 12 meters from the landing site, Sleepy Hollow measures about 9 meters across. The name is an allusion to the locale mentioned in Washington Irving's "The Legend of Sleepy Hollow" (which also gave its name to Sleepy Hollow, New York). According to a press conference, it also is the hollow where Spirit will sleep as it is checked before beginning to rove Mars.
    10.00
    1 votes
    84
    Tempe Fossae

    Tempe Fossae

    Tempe Fossae is a group of troughs in the Arcadia quadrangle of Mars, located at 40.2° north latitude and 71.4° west longitude. It is about 2,000 km long and was named after an albedo feature at 40N, 70W. Troughs, like this one are called Fossae on Mars. More information and more examples can be found at Fossa (geology).
    10.00
    1 votes
    85
    Ulysses Fossae

    Ulysses Fossae

    Ulysses Fossae is a trough in the Tharsis quadrangle of Mars at 10.06° north latitude and 123.07° west longitude. It was named after an albedo feature name. It is containing area of pitted cones called Ulysses Colles.
    10.00
    1 votes
    86
    Eberswalde

    Eberswalde

    Eberswalde, formerly known as Holden NE, is a partially buried impact crater in Margaritifer Terra, Mars. Eberswalde Crater lies just to the north of Holden Crater, a large crater that may have been a lake. The 65.3-km-diameter crater, centered at 24°S, 33°W, is named after the German town of the same name, in accordance with the International Astronomical Union's rules for planetary nomenclature. It was one of the final four proposed landing sites for the Mars rover Mars Science Laboratory mission. Landforms in the crater provide strong evidence of the prior existence of flowing water on Mars. Several sites in the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle have been proposed as areas to send NASA's next major Mars rover, the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL). Eberswalde Crater was shortlisted as one of the final four proposed landing sites for the Curiosity rover, part of the MSL mission. It was voted a close second after Gale Crater by a team of scientists. MRO discovered iron/magnesium smectites here. This mineral requires water to form. The crater contains inverted relief, an exhumed delta formed by the flow of a liquid, most likely water. The series of valleys leading into the delta "drain" an
    6.50
    4 votes
    87
    Sirenum Fossae

    Sirenum Fossae

    Sirenum Fossae is a trough in the Memnonia quadrangle of Mars, located at 34.9° south latitude and 160.9° west longitude. Sirenum Fossae is 2,735 km long and was named after a classical albedo feature name. Troughs on Mars like this one are called Fossae. Sirenum Fossae is believed to have formed by movement along a pair of faults causing a center section to drop down. This kind of feature is called a graben.
    6.50
    4 votes
    88
    Acidalia Planitia

    Acidalia Planitia

    Acidalia Planitia is a plain on Mars. It is located between the Tharsis volcanic province and Arabia Terra to the north of Valles Marineris, centered at 46°42′N 338°00′E / 46.7°N 338.0°E / 46.7; 338.0. The plain contains the famous Cydonia region at the contact with the heavily cratered highland terrain. The plain is named after a corresponding albedo feature on a map by Giovanni Schiaparelli, which was in turn named after the mythological fountain of Acidalia. It has been hypothesized by J.E.Brandenburg from Orbital Technologies Corp. that a large natural nuclear reactor in the northern Mare Acidalium, near the large, shallow depression north of Acidalia Colles (similar to Oklo on Earth) underwent catastrophic meltdown.
    8.50
    2 votes
    89
    Argyre quadrangle

    Argyre quadrangle

    The Argyre quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Argyre quadrangle is also referred to as MC-26 (Mars Chart-26). The Argyre quadrangle covers the area from 0° to 60° west longitude and from 30° to 65° south latitude on Mars. It contains Galle crater, which resembles a smiley face and the Argyre basin, a giant impact crater. Research published in the journal Icarus has found pits in Hale Crater that are caused by hot ejecta falling on ground containing ice. The pits are formed by heat forming steam that rushes out from groups of pits simultaneously, thereby blowing away from the pit ejecta. Many steep slopes in this quadrangle contain gullies, which are believed to have formed by relatively recent flows of water. Gullies are common in some latitude bands on Mars. Usually, martian gullies are found on the walls of craters or troughs, but Charitum Montes, a group of mountains, has gullies in some areas (See the image below). Gullies occur on steep slopes, especially on the walls of craters. Gullies are believed to be relatively young because they have few, if any craters.
    8.50
    2 votes
    90
    McCool Hill

    McCool Hill

    McCool Hill is the tallest of the Columbia Hills in Gusev crater, Mars. It was named in honor of William C. McCool, an astronaut of the Space Shuttle Columbia during its final mission where it disintegrated during atmospheric reentry (see Space Shuttle Columbia disaster). The hill was to be Spirit rover's next target. She was expect significant north-facing slopes on the hill in mid-April 2006, and spend her second winter on Mars there. However, on the way to slopes on "McCool Hill" between outcrops nicknamed "Oberth" and "Korolev," Spirit ran into an impassable, sandy area. To increase solar power output, Spirit's handlers redirected the rover to a closer north-facing slope in an area known as "Low Ridge" or "Low Ridge Haven," about 20 meters away from the rover's position on sol 802 (April 5, 2006). Spirit is spending the rest of the Martian winter here, operating from a fixed position for long periods of time, attempting to observe very small changes that would not be noticeable otherwise because the rover was moving much more often. Mission directors were undecided on where to go in the spring, either to re-attempt the climb of McCool Hill, go back to Home Plate, or somewhere
    8.50
    2 votes
    91
    Nicholson

    Nicholson

    Nicholson is a crater on Mars centered at 0.1° N and 164.5° W. It is 62 miles wide (100 km), and located in the Memnonia quadrangle. Nicholson is a good marker for the equator as it sits almost directly on the martian equator. It is named after Seth Barnes Nicholson, an American astronomer. Nicholson is notable for its central peak, which rises in a high mound 3.5 km above the crater floor. This rounded peak is riddled with channels, which may have been eroded by wind or even water. Many places on Mars show dark streaks on steep slopes like crater walls. It seems that the youngest streaks are dark; they become lighter with age. Often they begin as a small narrow spot then widen and extend downhill for hundreds of meters. They have been seen to travel around obstacles, like boulders. Several ideas have been advanced to explain the streaks. Some involve water or even the growth of organisms. . It is most generally accepted that they represent avalanches of dust. The streaks appear in areas covered with dust. When a thin layer of dust is removed, the underlying surface is dark. Much of the Martian surface is covered with dust. Fine dust settles out of the atmosphere covering
    8.50
    2 votes
    92
    Spallanzani Crater

    Spallanzani Crater

    Spallanzani Crater is found in the Hellas quadrangle of Mars, located at 58.3° south latitude and 273.7° west longitude. It is 72.5 km in diameter and was named after Lazzaro Spallanzani, an Italian biologist (1729-1799).
    8.50
    2 votes
    93
    Sripur

    Sripur

    Srīpur is a Martian impact crater, approximately 23 kilometers in diameter. It is located at -31.1°S, 100.8°W, southeast of the crater Dinorwic and northeast of the crater Tugaske. It is named for a town in Bangladesh, and its name was adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1991. According to a surface age map of Mars based on US Geological Survey data, the area around Srīpur is from the Noachian epoch, which places the area's age at 3.8 to 3.5 billion years ago. The crater floor is relatively flat, except for a small craterlet toward east of the center, and is approximately 6,300 meters above zero altitude in elevation. Its rim averages about 6,800 meters above zero altitude, making it 500 meters deep. The area south of the crater is about the same elevation as the crater floor.
    8.50
    2 votes
    94
    Ulysses Patera

    Ulysses Patera

    Ulysses Tholus is a Martian volcano. It is located in the Tharsis quadrangle at 2.89° north latitude and 121.55° west longitude. It is 58 km across and is named after a classical albedo feature name. The name of the mountain itself changed in Sept. 19, 2007. The former terminology, Ulysses Patera, now applies only (and more accurately) to the central caldera, whereas formerly it had applied to the whole edifice. Tholus describes a volcanic edifice somewhat smaller than would be implied by Mons.
    8.50
    2 votes
    95
    Isidis Planitia

    Isidis Planitia

    Isidis Planitia is a plain located inside a giant impact basin on Mars, centered at 12°54′N 87°00′E / 12.9°N 87.0°E / 12.9; 87.0. It is the third biggest impact structure on the planet after the Hellas and Argyre basins – it is about 1500 km in diameter. Due to dust coverage, it typically appears bright in telescopic views, and was mapped as a classical albedo feature, Isidis Regio, visible by telescope in the pre-spacecraft era. The Beagle 2 lander was about to land in the eastern part of Isidis Planitia in December 2003 when contact with the craft was lost. Just to the west of Isidis is Syrtis Major Planum, a low-relief shield volcano that is also a prominent dark albedo feature of Mars, which formed after the basin. Around the Isidis basin magnesium carbonate was found by MRO. This mineral indicates that water was present and that it was not acid. Life may have formed in this area. The name "Isidis Planitia" follows the earlier name Isidis Regio ("Isis' Region"). Isis is the Egyptian goddess of heaven and fertility.
    7.33
    3 votes
    96
    Licus Vallis

    Licus Vallis

    Licus Vallis is an ancient river valley in the Mare Tyrrhenum quadrangle of Mars, located at 2°54′S 233°54′W / 2.9°S 233.9°W / -2.9; -233.9. It is 219.1 km (136.1 mi) long and was named after an ancient name for modern Lech River in Germany and Austria.
    7.33
    3 votes
    97
    Cape Verde

    Cape Verde

    Cape Verde is a large promontory on the rim of Victoria Crater in Meridiani Planum, Mars. The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity perched atop this feature to take a true color mosaic of the crater below. Sols 958 to 991 were spent on this cape, including the period of solar conjunction which spanned from sol 970 to sol 984. Cape Verde and neighboring Cabo Frio are named after Cape Verde and Cabo Frio, places visited on Ferdinand Magellan's voyage around the world by the ship Victoria.
    6.25
    4 votes
    98
    Hutton Crater

    Hutton Crater

    Hutton Crater is a crater in the Mare Australe quadrangle of Mars, located at 71.8° south latitude and 255.4° west longitude. It is 99 km in diameter and was named after James Hutton, a British geologist (1726-1797). Many areas of Mars show patterned ground. Sometimes the ground has the shape of polygons. In other places, the surface has low mounds arranged in chains. Patterned ground is common in cold climates on Earth when the soil contains water that is often frozen. Patterned ground is visible below in the image of Hutton Crater.
    6.25
    4 votes
    99
    Planum Australe

    Planum Australe

    Planum Australe (Latin: "the southern plain") is the southern polar plain on Mars. It extends southward of roughly 75°S and is centered at 83°54′S 160°00′E / 83.9°S 160.0°E / -83.9; 160.0. The geology of this region was to be explored by the failed NASA mission Mars Polar Lander, which lost contact on entry into the Martian atmosphere. Planum Australe is partially covered by a permanent polar ice cap composed of frozen water and carbon dioxide about 3 km thick. A seasonal ice cap forms on top of the permanent one during the Martian winter, extending from 60°S southwards. It is, at the height of winter, approximately 1 meter thick. It is possible that the area of this ice cap may be shrinking due to localized climate change or more widespread global warming. In 1966, Leighton and Murray proposed that the Martian polar caps provided a store of CO2 much larger than the atmospheric reservoir. However it is now thought that both poles are made mostly of water ice. Both poles have a thin seasonal covering of CO2, while in addition the southern pole has a permanent residual CO2 cap, about 8 to 10 metres thick, that lies on top of the water ice. Perhaps the key argument that the bulk of
    6.25
    4 votes
    100
    Apollinaris Patera

    Apollinaris Patera

    Apollinaris Mons is a shield volcano on Mars's surface. It is situated near the equator in the south hemisphere, southeast of the shield volcano Elysium Mons on the Elysium Planitia, and north of Gusev crater. The volcano's caldera is named Apollinaris Patera; this name formerly applied to the whole edifice. Apollinaris Mons is about 5 kilometres high with a base about 296 kilometres in diameter. On the top of this volcano is a caldera about 80 km (50 miles) in diameter. The volcano is approximately 3 billion years old or possibly 3.5 billion years old. It was named in 1973 after a mountain spring near Rome in Italy. Using a global climate model, a group of researchers headed by Laura Kerber found that the Medusae Fossae Formation could have easily been formed from ash from Apollinaris Mons.
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    3 votes
    101
    Cebrenia quadrangle

    Cebrenia quadrangle

    The Cebrenia quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The quadrangle is located in the northeastern portion of Mars’ eastern hemisphere and covers 120° to 180° east longitude (180° to 240° west longitude) and 30° to 65° north latitude. The quadrangle uses a Lambert conformal conic projection at a nominal scale of 1:5,000,000 (1:5M). The Cebrenia quadrangle is also referred to as MC-7 (Mars Chart-7). The southern and northern borders of the Cebrenia quadrangle are approximately 3,065 km and 1,500 km wide, respectively. The north to south distance is about 2,050 km (slightly less than the length of Greenland). The quadrangle covers an approximate area of 4.9 million square km, or a little over 3% of Mars’ surface area. Cebrenia is a telescopic albedo feature located at 50° N and 150° E on Mars. The feature is named after the plains around ancient Troy. The name was approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1958. The quadrangle's prominent features are the large craters Mie and Stokes, a volcano, Hecates Tholus, and a group of mountains, Phlegra Montes. This area is a
    7.00
    3 votes
    102
    Eagle

    Eagle

    Eagle is a 22-metre impact crater located on Mars on Meridiani Planum. The Opportunity rover came to rest inside Eagle crater when it landed in 2004. Scientists were delighted that the rover landed there, as the crater contains rocky outcroppings that helped prove that Meridiani was once an ocean floor. The name is a triple reference: in honor of the first manned spacecraft to land on the Moon in 1969; in honor of the launching country, the United States, whose symbol is an eagle; and in reference to the golf term eagle, referring to sinking a ball two strokes under par. The third reference extended the golf metaphor begun with a description of landing in the crater as "a hole in one". Mission scientists were intrigued by the abundance of rock outcrops dispersed throughout the crater, as well as the crater's soil, which appeared to be a mixture of coarse gray grains and fine reddish grains. Upon closer, in-situ examination of the outcrops, whose layers are no thicker than a finger, it was confirmed that Meridiani Planum was once the location of an ancient, somewhat acidic and salty sea, though much more information on the history of this area would start being collected more than
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    3 votes
    103
    Galle

    Galle

    Galle is a crater on Mars. It is located on the eastern rim of the huge impact basin Argyre Planitia. It is named after the astronomer Johann Gottfried Galle. Galle is often known as the "happy face crater" because the illusion of a smiley is created by a curved mountain range in the southern part of the crater and two smaller mountain clusters further north. The formation was first photographed by Viking Orbiter 1. As the smiley is a key motif in the comic book Watchmen by Alan Moore and Dave Gibbons, the crater was used as a story location after the coincidence was noted by Gibbons. According to Gibbons, the similarity "was almost too good to be true. I worried that if we put it in, people would never believe it." The actual crater was visualized in the 2009 film adaptation of Watchmen. A second "happy face crater", smaller than Galle and located at 45.1°S, 55.0°W in Nereidum Montes, was discovered by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter on January 28, 2008.
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    3 votes
    104
    Harmakhis Vallis

    Harmakhis Vallis

    Harmakhis Vallis is a valley near Hellas Planitia, Mars. It has been identified as an outflow channel, the site of catastrophic floods of water during Mars' past. Gullies are also common on the wall of Harmakhis Vallis, as seen the image below. Some authors have suggested these structures indicate geologically recent flow of small quantities of water across the surface.
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    3 votes
    105
    Auquakuh Valles

    Auquakuh Valles

    Auqakuh Vallis is an ancient river valley in the Syrtis Major quadrangle on Mars, located at 30.4° north latitude and 299.9° west longitude. It is 312 km long, and was named for the word for 'Mars' in Quechua (Inca). Many places on Mars have buttes that are similar to buttes on Earth, such as the famous ones in Monument Valley, Utah. Buttes are formed when most of a layer(s) of rocks are removed from an area. Buttes usually have a hard, erosion-resistant cap rock on the top. The cap rock causes the top of a butte to be flat. An example of a butte in the Syrtis Major quadrangle is shown in a picture on this page.
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    2 votes
    106
    Cerulli Crater

    Cerulli Crater

    Cerulli Crater is a crater in the Ismenius Lacus quadrangle on Mars with a diameter of 130 km. It is located at 32.5° north latitude and 337.9° west longitude. It is named after Vicenzo Cerulli, an Italian astronomer (1859–1927).
    8.00
    2 votes
    107
    Lyot Crater

    Lyot Crater

    Lyot is a large crater in the Vastitas Borealis region of Mars, located at 50.8° north latitude and 330.7° west longitude within the Ismenius Lacus quadrangle. It is 236 km in diameter and was named after Bernard Lyot, a French astronomer (1897–1952). Lyot stands out on the flat plains of Vastitas Borealis, which is generally flat and smooth with few large craters. Lyot is the deepest point in Mars's northern hemisphere. Research published in June 2009 describes evidence for liquid water in Lyot in the past. Images from Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter show valleys carved by rivers on the floor of Lyot Crater. Scientists are excited because the rivers seem to have formed more recently than others on Mars; water could have flowed in them only 1.25 million years ago. The source of the water is believed to have been ice from nearby glaciers. The river valleys are over 250 meters wide and tens of kilometers long. Many areas on Mars, including Lyot, experience the passage of giant dust devils. A thin coating of fine bright dust covers most of the Martian surface. When a dust devil goes by it blows away the coating and exposes the underlying dark surface. These dust devils have been seen from
    8.00
    2 votes
    108
    Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle

    Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle

    The margaritifer Sinus quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle is also referred to as MC-19 (Mars Chart-19). The Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle covers the area from 0° to 45° west longitude and 0° to 30° south latitude on Mars. This quadrangle shows many signs of past water with evidence of lakes, deltas, ancient rivers, inverted channels, and chaos regions that released water. Margaritifer Sinus contains some of the longest lake-chain systems on Mars, perhaps because of a wetter climate, more groundwater, or some of each factor. The Samara/Himera lake-chain system is about 1800 km long; the Parara/Loire valley network and lake-chain system is about 1100 km long. A low area between Parana Valles and Loire Vallis is believed to have once held a lake. The 154 Km diameter Holden Crater also once held a lake. Near Holden Crater is a graben, called Erythraea Fossa, that once held a chain of three lakes. This region of Mars is famous because the Opportunity Rover landed there on January 25, 2004 at 1.94°S and 354.47°E (5.53° W). Opportunity Rover found
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    2 votes
    109
    Phobos

    Phobos

    Phobos ( /ˈfoʊbəs/ FOH-bəs; Greek: Φόβος; systematic designation: Mars I) is the larger and closer of the two natural satellites of Mars. With a mean radius of 11.1 km (6.9 mi), Phobos is 7.24 times as massive as the second moon Deimos. It is named after the Greek god Phobos (which means "fear"), a son of Ares (Mars). Both moons were discovered in 1877. A small, irregularly shaped object, Phobos orbits about 9,400 km (5,800 mi) from the center of Mars, or about 6,000 km (3,700 mi) from the Martian surface, closer to its primary than any other known planetary moon. Phobos is one of the least reflective bodies in the Solar System, and features a large impact crater, Stickney crater. It orbits so close to the planet that it moves around Mars faster than Mars rotates. As a result, from the surface of Mars it appears to rise in the west, move across the sky in 4 h 15 min or less, and set in the east twice in each Martian day. Due to its short orbital period and tidal interactions, Phobos's orbital radius is decreasing and it will eventually either impact the surface of Mars or break up into a planetary ring. Phobos was discovered by astronomer Asaph Hall on August 18, 1877, at the
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    2 votes
    110
    Secchi Crater

    Secchi Crater

    Secchi Crater is a crater in the Hellas quadrangle of Mars, located at 58.3° south latitude and 258.1° west longitude. it is 234 km in diameter and was named after Angelo Secchi, an Italian astronomer (1818–1878). Many areas on Mars experience the passage of giant dust devils. A thin coating of fine bright dust covers most of the Martian surface. When a dust devil goes by it blows away the coating and exposes the underlying dark surface. Dust devils have been seen from the ground and high overhead from orbit. They have even blown the dust off of the solar panels of the two Rovers on Mars, thereby greatly extending their lives. The twin Rovers were designed to last for 3 months, instead they have lasted more than five years and are still going. The pattern of the tracks have been shown to change every few months. The image below of the Secchi Crater Floor, shows a beautiful view of dust devil tracks as seen by HiRISE
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    2 votes
    111
    Viking 1

    Viking 1

    Viking 1 was the first of two spacecraft sent to Mars as part of NASA's Viking program. It was the first spacecraft to successfully land on Mars and perform its mission, and held the record for the longest Mars surface mission of 6 years and 116 days (from landing until surface mission termination, Earth time) until that record was broken by the Opportunity Rover on May 19, 2010. Following launch using a Titan/Centaur launch vehicle on August 20, 1975 and a 10-month cruise to Mars, the orbiter began returning global images of Mars about 5 days before orbit insertion. The Viking 1 Orbiter was inserted into Mars orbit on June 19, 1976 and trimmed to a 1513 x 33,000 km, 24.66 h site certification orbit on June 21. Landing on Mars was planned for July 4, 1976, the United States Bicentennial, but imaging of the primary landing site showed it was too rough for a safe landing. The landing was delayed until a safer site was found. The lander separated from the orbiter on July 20 08:51 UTC and landed at 11:53:06 UTC. It was the first attempt by the United States at landing on Mars. The instruments of the orbiter consisted of two vidicon cameras for imaging (VIS), an infrared spectrometer
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    2 votes
    112
    Aeolis quadrangle

    Aeolis quadrangle

    The Aeolis quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Aeolis quadrangle is also referred to as MC-23 (Mars Chart-23). The Aeolis quadrangle covers 180° to 225° W and 0° to 30° south on Mars. It is famous as the site of two spacecraft landings: the Spirit Rover landing site (14.5718° S and 175.4785° E) in Gusev crater (January 4, 2004), and the Curiosity Rover in Gale Crater (4.591817° S, 137.440247° E) (August 6, 2012). Spirit found that the rocks on the plains of Gusev are a type of basalt. They contain the minerals olivine, pyroxene, plagioclase, and magnetite, and they look like volcanic basalt as they are fine-grained with irregular holes (geologists would say they have vesicles and vugs).[3][4] A large, ancient river valley, called Ma'adim Vallis, enters at the south rim of Gusev Crater, so Gusev Crater was believed to be an ancient lake bed. However, it seems that a volcanic flow covered up the lakebed sediments. Apollinaris Patera, a large volcano, lies directly north of Gusev Crater. Gale Crater, in the northwestern part of the Aeolis quadrangle, is of special interest to
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    1 votes
    113
    Airy

    Airy

    Airy is an impact crater on Mars, named in honor of the British Astronomer, Royal Sir George Biddell Airy (1801–1892). The crater is approximately 40 kilometers in diameter and is located at 0.1°E 5.1°S in the Meridiani Planum region. The much smaller crater Airy-0, which defines the location of Mars' prime meridian, lies within it.
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    1 votes
    114
    Bahram Vallis

    Bahram Vallis

    Bahram Vallis is an ancient river valley in the Lunae Palus quadrangle of Mars at 20.7° north latitude and 57.5° west longitude. It is about 302 km long and was named after the word for 'Mars' in Persian. Bahram Vallis is located midway between Vedra Vallis and lower Kasei Valles. It is basically a single trunk valley, with scalloped walls in some places. The presence of streamlined erosional features on its floor shows that fluid was involved with its formation.
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    1 votes
    115
    Deimos

    Deimos

    Deimos is a Mars moon with an average radius of 6.2 kilometres (3.9 mi), and an escape velocity of 5.6 m/s (20 km/h). It is the smaller and outer of Mars's two known moons, the other being Phobos. 23,460 km (14,580 mi) distant from Mars, Deimos takes 30.3 hours to orbit the planet at an orbital velocity of 1.35 km/s. Its systematic designation is Mars II. In English Deimos is pronounced  /ˈdaɪməs/ DY-məs; also /ˈdiːməs/ DEE-məs; Greek: Δείμος; also DAY-moce or DEE-moce. Deimos was discovered by Asaph Hall, Sr. at the United States Naval Observatory in Washington, D.C on August 12, 1877, at about 07:48 UTC (given in contemporary sources as "August 11 14:40" Washington mean time, using an astronomical convention of beginning a day at noon, so 12 hours must be added to get the actual local mean time). Hall also discovered Phobos on August 18, 1877, at about 09:14 GMT, after deliberately searching for Martian moons. It is named after Deimos, a figure representing dread in Greek Mythology. The names, at first spelled Phobus and Deimus, were suggested by Henry Madan (1838–1901), Science Master of Eton, from Book XV of the Iliad, where Ares (the Roman god Mars) summons Dread (Deimos) and
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    1 votes
    116
    Mars Exploration Rover

    Mars Exploration Rover

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Mission (MER) is an ongoing robotic space mission involving two rovers, Spirit and Opportunity, exploring the planet Mars. It began in 2003 with the sending of the two rovers—MER-A Spirit and MER-B Opportunity—to explore the Martian surface and geology. The mission's scientific objective was to search for and characterize a wide range of rocks and soils that hold clues to past water activity on Mars. The mission is part of NASA's Mars Exploration Program, which includes three previous successful landers: the two Viking program landers in 1976 and Mars Pathfinder probe in 1997. The total cost of building, launching, landing and operating the rovers on the surface for the initial 90-Martian-day (sol) primary mission was US$820 million. Since the rovers have continued to function beyond their initial 90 sol primary mission, they have each received five mission extensions. The fifth mission extension was granted in October 2007, and ran to the end of 2009. The total cost of the first four mission extensions was $104 million, and the fifth mission extension is expected to cost at least $20 million. In July 2007, during the fourth mission extension, Martian
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    1 votes
    117
    Syrtis Major quadrangle

    Syrtis Major quadrangle

    The Syrtis Major quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Syrtis Major quadrangle is also referred to as MC-13 (Mars Chart-13). The quadrangle covers longitudes 270° to 315° west and latitudes 0° to 30° north on Mars. Syrtis Major is an old shield volcano with a central depression that is elongated in a north-south direction. It contains the calderas Meroe Patera and Nili Patera. Interesting features in the area include dikes and inverted terrain. The name Syrtis Major is derived from the classical Roman name Syrtis maior for the Gulf of Sidra on the coast of Libya (classical Cyrenaica). Syrtis Major was the first documented surface feature of another planet. It was discovered by Christiaan Huygens, who included it in a drawing of Mars in 1659. The feature was originally known as the Hourglass Sea but has been given different names by different cartographers. In 1840, Johann Heinrich von Mädler compiled a map of Mars from his observations and called the feature Atlantic Canale. In Richard Proctor's 1867 map it is called then Kaiser Sea (after Frederik Kaiser of the Leiden
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    1 votes
    118
    Virrat

    Virrat

    Virrat is a Martian impact crater, approximately 54 kilometres in diameter. It is located at 31.1°S, 103°W, southwest of the crater Dinorwic and northeast of Clantas Fossae. Several Virrat crater radii to the north are the craters Koga and Nhill. It is named after a town in Finland, and its name was approved by the International Astronomical Union in 1991. According to a surface age map of Mars based on US Geological Survey data, the area around Virrat is from the Noachian epoch, which places the area's age at 3.8 to 3.5 billion years ago. At the highest point on its rim, it is about 6,400 metres above zero altitude, and it is about 5,100 metres at the crater bottom, giving it a depth of 1.3 kilometres.
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    1 votes
    119
    Zunil

    Zunil

    Zunil is an impact crater near the Cerberus Fossae on Mars, with a diameter of 10.4 km (6.5 mi). It is named after a town in Guatemala. The crater is located in the Elysium quadrangle. Visible in images from the Viking 1 and Viking 2 Mars orbiters in the 1970s, Zunil was subsequently imaged at higher resolution for the first time by the Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) in 2000. A ray system associated with the Zunil impact, visible in infrared images from the Mars Odyssey Thermal Emission Spectrometer (THEMIS) was later detailed by McEwen et al. (2003); prior to this, large craters with ray systems had not been seen on Mars. The debris from a recent landslide was first spotted on the south-east wall of the crater by the Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) in 2003, and was subsequently imaged at higher resolution by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) in December 2006. The impact which formed Zunil occurred no more than a few million years ago and hence the crater is in a relatively pristine form. It was probably not produced in a high velocity impact, such as from a comet. If the interpretation that
    9.00
    1 votes
    120
    Ascraeus Mons

    Ascraeus Mons

    Ascraeus Mons is a large shield volcano located in the Tharsis region of the planet Mars. It is the northernmost and tallest of three shield volcanoes collectively known as the Tharsis Montes. The volcano's location corresponds to the classical albedo feature Ascraeus Lacus. Ascraeus Mons was discovered by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1971. The volcano was originally called North Spot because it was the northernmost of only four spots visible on the surface due to a global dust storm that was then enshrouding the planet. As the dust cleared, the spots were revealed to be extremely tall volcanoes whose summits had projected above the dust-laden, lower atmosphere. The volcano's name officially became Ascraeus Mons in 1973. The volcano is located in the southeast-central portion of the Tharsis quadrangle at 11.8°N, 255.5°E in Mars' western hemisphere. A group of three smaller volcanoes (the Ceraunius-Uranius group) lies about 700 km to the northeast, and Pavonis Mons (the middle volcano of the Tharsis Montes) lies 500 km to the southwest. The 70-km diameter crater Poynting is located 300 km to the west-southwest. Ascraeus Mons is roughly 480 km in diameter and is the second highest
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    5 votes
    121
    Aelita

    Aelita

    Aelita (Russian: Аэлита), also known as Aelita: Queen of Mars, is a silent film directed by Soviet filmmaker Yakov Protazanov made at the Mezhrabpom-Rus film studio and released in 1924. It was based on Alexei Tolstoy's novel of the same name. Mikhail Zharov and Igor Ilyinsky were cast in leading roles. Though the main focus of the story is the daily lives of a small group of people during the post-war Soviet Union, the enduring importance of the film comes from its early science fiction elements. It primarily tells of a young man, Los (Russian: Лось, literally Elk), traveling to Mars in a rocket ship, where he leads a popular uprising against the ruling group of Elders, with the support of Queen Aelita who has fallen in love with him after watching him through a telescope. One of the earliest full-length films about space travel, the most notable part of the film remains its remarkable constructivist Martian sets and costumes designed by Aleksandra Ekster. Their influence can be seen in a number of later films, including the Flash Gordon serials and probably Fritz Lang's Metropolis and Woman in the Moon. Parts of the plot were loosely adapted for the 1951 film Flight to
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    3 votes
    122
    Albor Tholus

    Albor Tholus

    Albor Tholus is an extinct volcano in the Elysium Planitia area on Mars. It lies south of the neighbouring volcanoes Elysium Mons and Hecates Tholus. Albor Tholus is 4.5 kilometres high and has a diameter of 160 km at its base. Its caldera has a diameter of 30 km and is 3 km deep, it can put in a whole Mount Etna. Compared with terrestrial volcanoes the caldera is unusually deep, the elevation of the lowest level of the caldera being the same as the base of the volcano; however, the original lower slopes of Albor Tholus may have been covered by lava flows from its larger neighbor, Elysium Mons. Evaluations by the Mars probe Mars Express found that the volcanoes of the Elysium region were active over long periods.
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    3 votes
    123
    Barnard

    Barnard

    Barnard is a crater on Mars named after astronomer Edward Emerson Barnard.
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    3 votes
    124
    Emma Dean

    Emma Dean

    Emma Dean is a small impact crater in Meridiani Planum on Mars that was visited by the Opportunity rover from sols 929 to 943. The much larger crater Victoria lies about 100m to the east. Emma Dean lies directly on top of the ejecta blanket from Victoria and could therefore expose material originating from deep inside Victoria. The crater is named after the Emma Dean, one of the boats in John Wesley Powell's Grand Canyon expedition.
    6.67
    3 votes
    125
    Libya Montes

    Libya Montes

    The Libya Montes are a highland terrain on Mars up-lifted by the giant impact that created the Isidis basin to the north. During 1999, this region became one of the top two that were being considered for the canceled Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander. The Isidis basin is very ancient. Thus, the Libya Montes that form the southern Isidis basin rim contain some of the oldest rocks available at the Martian surface, and a landing in this region might potentially provide information about conditions on early Mars. After they formed by the Isidis impact, the Libya Montes were subsequently modified by a large variety of processes, including fluvial activity, wind erosion and impact cratering. In particular, precipitation induced surface runoff and groundwater seepage resulted in the formation of fluvial landforms, i.e., dense valley networks, broad and elongated valleys, delta deposits, alluvial fans, open-basin paleolakes and coastlines. Crater size - frequency distribution measurements ("crater counting") revealed that the majority of valleys was formed early in martian history (more than 3.7 billion years ago, Late Noachian). However, recent studies show that the formation of valleys continued
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    3 votes
    126
    Noachis Terra

    Noachis Terra

    Noachis Terra (lit. "Land of Noah") is an extensive southern landmass (terra) of the planet Mars. It lies west of the giant Hellas impact basin, roughly between the latitudes −20° and −80° and longitudes 30° west and 30° east, centered on 45°S 350°E / 45°S 350°E / -45; 350. The term "Noachian epoch" is derived from this region.
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    3 votes
    127
    Spirit rover

    Spirit rover

    Spirit, MER-A (Mars Exploration Rover – A), is a robotic rover on Mars, active from 2004 to 2010. It was one of two rovers of NASA's ongoing Mars Exploration Rover Mission. It landed successfully on Mars at 04:35 Ground UTC on January 4, 2004, three weeks before its twin, Opportunity (MER-B), landed on the other side of the planet. Its name was chosen through a NASA-sponsored student essay competition. The rover became stuck in late 2009, and its last communication with Earth was sent on March 22, 2010. The rover completed its planned 90-sol mission. Aided by cleaning events that resulted in higher power from its solar panels, Spirit went on to function effectively over twenty times longer than NASA planners expected following mission completion. Spirit also logged 7.73 km (4.8 mi) of driving instead of the planned 600 m (0.4 mi), allowing more extensive geological analysis of Martian rocks and planetary surface features. Initial scientific results from the first phase of the mission (the 90-sol prime mission) were published in a special issue of the journal Science. On May 1, 2009 (5 years, 3 months, 27 Earth days after landing; 21.6 times the planned mission duration), Spirit
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    3 votes
    128
    Amazonis Planitia

    Amazonis Planitia

    Amazonis Planitia is one of the smoothest plains on Mars. It is located between the Tharsis and Elysium volcanic provinces, to the west of Olympus Mons, in the Amazonis and Memnonia quadrangles, centered at 24°48′N 196°00′E / 24.8°N 196.0°E / 24.8; 196.0. The plain's topography exhibits extremely smooth features at several different lengths of scale. Its name derives from one of the classical albedo features observed by early astronomers, which was in turn named after the Amazons, a mythical race of warrior women. Only approximately 100 million years old, these plains provide some of the fewest sedimentary layers impeding viewing of the Martian terrain, and closely resemble the composition of Earth's Iceland. Formed by free-flowing lava across great plains, Amazonis has been described by William Hartmann as a "bright dusty volcanic desert crossed by many fresh-looking lava flows." Amazonis has become the primary focus of modern research efforts both because of its geological composition and because of its relative youth compared to other Martian regions, which are often hundreds of millions of years older. Hartman writes that the plain closely resembles Iceland's surface, with
    5.75
    4 votes
    129
    Apsus Vallis

    Apsus Vallis

    Apsus Vallis is a channel in the Cebrenia quadrangle of Mars, located at 35.1° north latitude and 225° west longitude. It is 120 km long and was named after a classical river in ancient Macedonia, the present-day Seman River.
    5.75
    4 votes
    130
    Yuty

    Yuty

    Yuty is a crater on Mars in Chryse Planitia. The crater is about 20 km (12 mi) in diameter, and is surrounded by complex ejecta lobes, which are a distinctive characteristic of martian impact craters. Many craters at equatorial and mid-latitudes on Mars have this form of ejecta morphology, which is thought to arise when the impacting object melts ice in the subsurface. Liquid water in the ejected material forms a muddy slurry that flows along the surface, producing the characteristic lobe shapes. The presence of a pre-existing, partially buried crater on Yuty’s southwestern rim is evidence that the ejecta is thin. Yuty is located in the general region of the Viking 1 landing site. It was well photographed by the Viking orbiters in the 1970s, and as a consequence its image appears in many books and articles of the era as a type example of martian impact crater morphology. The distinctive lobate ejecta pattern of craters like Yuty gave rise to a confusing terminology among Mars researchers. Sometimes informally called “splosh craters,” Yuty-type craters have also been called petal or flower craters and fluidized ejecta craters. More commonly they are called rampart craters because
    5.75
    4 votes
    131
    Bounce Rock

    Bounce Rock

    Bounce Rock is a football-sized primarily pyroxene rock found on Mars by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in April 2004. The rock was named for the fact that it was struck by Opportunity as the craft bounced to a stop during its landing stage. Bounce Rock bears a striking resemblance to a class of meteorites found on Earth known as shergottites, that are believed to have originated from Mars.
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    2 votes
    132
    Chasma Boreale

    Chasma Boreale

    Chasma Boreale is a large canyon in the Mare Boreum quadrangle of Mars at 83° north latitude and 47.1° west longitude. It is about 560 km (350 mi) long and was named after a classical albedo feature name. The canyon shows layered features that result from seasonal melting and deposition of ice, together with dust deposits from Martian dust storms. Information about the past climate of Mars may eventually be revealed in these layers, just as tree ring patterns and ice core data do on Earth. Both polar caps also display grooved features, probably caused by wind flow patterns. The grooves are also influenced by the amount of dust. The more dust, the darker the surface. The darker the surface, the more melting as dark surfaces absorb more energy.
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    133
    Herschel

    Herschel

    Herschel is a large crater on Mars. It is named after the eighteenth century astronomer William Herschel. Herschel is 300 kilometers wide, so large that it is properly considered an impact basin. It is located in the cratered highlands of the Martian southern hemisphere, at 14.5°S, 230°W. Its floor was discovered by the Mars Global Surveyor spacecraft to contain fields of dark sand dunes.
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    2 votes
    134
    Miyamoto Crater

    Miyamoto Crater

    Miyamoto Crater is a crater in the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle of Mars at 2.88° south latitude and 7.0° west longitude. It is 160 km in diameter and is named after Shotaro Miyamoto, a Japanese astronomer (1912-1992). Miyamoto Crater was in the top 7 sites chosen to send NASA's next major Mars rover, Mars Science Lab. However, it did not make the final cut. There is a great deal of evidence that Miyamoto Crater once contained rivers and lakes. Many minerals, such as clays, chlorides, sulfates, and iron oxides, have been discovered there. These minerals are often formed in water. The picture below shows an inverted channel in Miyamoto. Inverted channels formed from accumulated sediments that were cemented by minerals. These channels eroded into the surface, then the whole area was covered over with sediments. When the sediments were later eroded away, the place where the river channel existed remained because the hardened material were resistant to erosion. The aim of the Mars Science Laboratory is to search for signs of ancient life. It is hoped that a later mission could then return samples from sites identified as probably containing remains of life. To safely bring the craft
    7.50
    2 votes
    135
    Shalbatana Vallis

    Shalbatana Vallis

    Shalbatana Vallis is an ancient water-worn channel on Mars, located in the Oxia Palus quadrangle at 7.8° north latitude and 42.1° west longitude. It is the westernmost of the southern Chryse outflow channels. Beginning in a zone of chaotic terrain, at 0° latitude and 46° W longitude, it ends in Chryse Planitia. Shalbatana Vallis contains our first definitive evidence of a Martian shoreline. This shoreline was part of an ancient lake 80 square miles (210 km) in size and 1,500 feet (460 m) deep. The study carried out with HiRISE images indicates that water formed a 30 miles (48 km) long canyon that opened up into a valley, deposited sediment, and created a delta. This delta and others around the basin imply the existence of a large, long-lived lake. Of special interest is evidence that the lake formed after the warm, wet period was thought to have ended. So, lakes may have been around much longer than previously thought. It is the word for "Mars" in Akkadian.
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    2 votes
    136
    Tharsis Montes

    Tharsis Montes

    The Tharsis Montes are three large shield volcanoes in the Tharsis region of the planet Mars. From north to south, the volcanoes are Ascraeus Mons, Pavonis Mons and Arsia Mons. Mons (plural montes) is the Latin word for mountain. It is a descriptor term used in astrogeology for mountainous features in the Solar System. The three Tharsis Montes volcanoes are enormous by terrestrial standards, ranging in diameter from 375 km (Pavonis Mons) to 475 km (Arsia Mons). Ascraeus Mons is the tallest with a summit elevation of over 18 km, or 15 km base-to-peak. For comparison, the largest volcano on Earth, Mauna Loa in Hawaii, is about 120 km across and stands 9 km above the ocean floor. The Tharsis Montes volcanoes lie near the equator, along the crest of a vast volcanic plateau called the Tharsis region or Tharsis buldge. The Tharsis region is thousands of kilometers across and averages nearly 10 km above the mean elevation of the planet. Olympus Mons, the tallest known mountain in the Solar System, is located about 1,200 km northwest of the Tharsis Montes, at the edge of the Tharsis region. The Tharsis Montes were discovered by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1971. They were among the few
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    137
    Vastitas Borealis

    Vastitas Borealis

    Vastitas Borealis (Latin, 'northern waste' ) is the largest lowland region of Mars. It is in the northerly latitudes of the planet and encircles the northern polar region. Vastitas Borealis is often simply referred to as the Northern plains or Northern lowlands of Mars. The plains lie 4–5 km below the mean radius of the planet. To the north lies Planum Boreum. The region was named by Eugene Antoniadi, who noted the distinct albedo feature of the Northern plains in his book La Planète Mars (1930). The name was officially adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1973. Two distinct basins are recognized within the Vastitas Borealis: the North Polar Basin and Utopia Planitia. Some scientists have speculated the plains were covered by an ocean at some point in Mars' history and putative shorelines have been suggested for its southern edges. Today these mildly sloping plains are marked by ridges, low hills, and sparse cratering. Vastitas Borealis is noticeably smoother than similar topographical areas in the south. In 2005 the European Space Agency's Mars Express spacecraft imaged a substantial quantity of water ice in a crater in the Vastitas Borealis region. The environmental
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    2 votes
    138
    Victoria

    Victoria

    Victoria is an impact crater on Mars located at 2.05°S, 5.50°W in Meridiani Planum, visited by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. It is roughly 730 metres wide, nearly eight times the size of the crater Endurance, visited by Opportunity from sols 951 to 1630. It is informally named after Victoria – one of the five ships of Ferdinand Magellan and the first ship to circumnavigate the globe – and formally named after Victoria, Seychelles. Along the edges of the crater are many outcrops within recessed alcoves and promontories, named for bays and capes that Magellan discovered. Opportunity traveled for 21 months to Victoria before finally reaching its edge on September 26, 2006 (sol 951), at the newly named "Duck Bay". Around the rover were features dubbed "No Name", "Duck Crater", "Emma Dean", "Maid of the Canyon", and "Kitty Clyde's Sister". It also imaged several nearby alcoves, informally named "Cape Verde" and "Cabo Frio", and a small bright crater the size of Beagle on the opposite end of Victoria. After arrival at the crater, the rover undertook a partial clockwise circumnavigation. The trip took approximately a quarter of the way around the crater. The various "bays" and
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    2 votes
    139
    Cerberus Hemisphere

    Cerberus Hemisphere

    Cerberus Hemisphere is a part of Mars' geography and refers to the area approximately of Latitude: 20° South to 55° North and Longitude: 150° to 230°. Prominent features of the Cerberus Hemisphere include:
    6.33
    3 votes
    140
    Molesworth Crater

    Molesworth Crater

    Molesworth Crater is a crater in the Aeolis quadrangle of Mars, located at 27.7° south latitude and 210.9° west longitude. It is 181 km in diameter and was named after Percy B. Molesworth, a British astronomer (1867–1908).
    6.33
    3 votes
    141
    Tader Valles

    Tader Valles

    Tader Valles is a set of small channels in the Phaethontis quadrangle found at 49.1° south latitude and 152.5° west longitude. it is named after the ancient name for present Segura River, Spain. Much of the surface of Mars is covered by a thick smooth mantle that is thought to be a mixture of ice and dust. This ice-rich mantle, a few yards thick, smoothes the land, but in places it has a bumpy texture, resembling the surface of a basketball. Under certain conditions the ice could melt and flow down the slopes to create gullies. Because there are few craters on this mantle, the mantle is relatively young. This mantle probably fills Tader Valles as shown in the image below, as seen by HiRISE. Changes in Mars's orbit and tilt cause significant changes in the distribution of water ice from polar regions down to latitudes equivalent to Texas. During certain climate periods water vapor leaves polar ice and enters the atmosphere. The water comes back to ground at lower latitudes as deposits of frost or snow mixed generously with dust. The atmosphere of Mars contains a great deal of fine dust particles. Water vapor will condense on the particles, then fall down to the ground due to the
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    3 votes
    142
    Trouvelot Crater

    Trouvelot Crater

    Trouvelot Crater is a crater on Mars, located in the Oxia Palus quadrangle at 16.2° north latitude and 13.1° west longitude. It 154.7 km in diameter and was named after Étienne Léopold Trouvelot, a French astronomer (1827–1895).
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    3 votes
    143
    Arabia Terra

    Arabia Terra

    Arabia Terra is a large upland region in the north of Mars in that lies mostly in the Arabia quadrangle. It is densely cratered and heavily eroded. This battered topography indicates great age, and Arabia Terra is presumed to be one of the oldest terrains on the planet. It covers as much as 4500 kilometers at its longest extent, centered roughly at 19°47′N 30°00′E / 19.79°N 30°E / 19.79; 30 with its eastern and southern regions rising 4 kilometers above the north-west. Alongside its many craters, canyons wind through the Arabia Terra, many emptying into the large Northern lowlands of the planet, which borders Arabia Terra to the north. Arabia contains many interesting features. There are some good examples of pedestal craters in the area. A pedestal crater has its ejecta above the surrounding terrain, often forming a steep cliff. The ejecta forms a resistant layer that protects the underlying material from erosion. Mounds and buttes on the floor of some craters display many layers. The layers may have formed by volcanic processes, by wind, or by underwater deposition. Dark slope streaks have been observed in Tikhonravov Basin, a large eroded crater. The streaks appear on steep
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    1 votes
    144
    Ceraunius Tholus

    Ceraunius Tholus

    Ceraunius Tholus is a volcano on Mars located in the Tharsis quadrangle at at 24.25° north latitude and 262.75° east longitude, part of the Uranius group of volcanoes. It is 130 km across, 5.5 km high and is named after a classical albedo feature name. It is generally believed to be a basaltic shield with the lower part buried beneath plain forming lavas. Earlier interpretations suggested that it is a stratovolcano. The slopes on Ceraunius Tholus are quite steep with an average slope of 8° with many radial erosion channels and pitted valleys extending from just below the rim of the caldera toward the base of the volcano. The current view is that the valleys were eroded by water. Interesting features on Ceraunius Tholus are three large canyons at the northwest flank of Ceraunius Tholus which are up to 2.5 km wide and 300 m deep. The biggest of these three also appears to be the youngest and protrude from the lowest point of the volcanic caldera and ends at the interesting Rahe crater (an oblique impact crater with measures of 35 × 18 km), just north from the volcano where it formed a depositional fan. Its origin is still debatable and there are four main models proposed: fluvial
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    1 votes
    145
    Minio Vallis

    Minio Vallis

    Minio Vallis is an old river valley in the Memnonia quadrangle of Mars, located at 4.3° south latitude and 151.8° west longitude. It is 88 km long and was named after a classical name for river in Italy.
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    146
    Nicholson Crater

    Nicholson Crater

    Nicholson Crater is a crater on the equator of Mars, in the Memnonia quadrangle, located at 0.2 ° north latitude and 164.6° west longitude. It is 102.5 km in diameter and was named after Seth Barnes Nicholson, an American astronomer (1891-1963). Many places on Mars show dark streaks on steep slopes like crater walls. It seems that the youngest streaks are dark; they become lighter with age. Often they begin as a small narrow spot then widen and extend downhill for hundreds of meters. Several ideas have been advanced to explain the streaks. Some involve water. or even the growth of organisms. The streaks appear in areas covered with dust. Much of the Martian surface is covered with dust. Fine dust settles out of the atmosphere covering everything. We know a lot about this dust because the solar panels of Mars Rovers get covered with dust. The power of the Rovers has been saved many times by the wind, in the form of dust devils, that have cleared the panels and boosted the power. It is most generally accepted that the streaks represent avalanches of dust. The streaks appear in areas covered with dust. When a thin layer of dust is removed, the underlying surface is dark. Much of the
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    1 votes
    147
    Planum Boreum

    Planum Boreum

    Planum Boreum (Latin: "the northern plain") is the northern polar plain on Mars. It extends northward from roughly 80°N and is centered at 88°00′N 15°00′E / 88.0°N 15.0°E / 88.0; 15.0. Surrounding the high polar plain is a flat and featureless lowland plain called Vastitas Borealis which extends for approximately 1500 kilometres southwards, dominating the northern hemisphere. In 1999, the Hubble Space Telescope captured a cyclonic storm in the region. The diameter of the storm was approximately 1750 km and featured an eye 320 kilometres in diameter. Planum Boreum is home to a permanent ice cap consisting mainly of water and carbon dioxide ice. It has a volume of 1.2 million cubic kilometres and covers an area equivalent to about 1.5 times the size of Texas. It has a radius of 600 km. The maximum depth of the cap is 3 km. The spiral patterns in the ice cap are dune-like features analogous to megadunes in Antarctica. Katabatic winds driven by the Coriolis effect entrain and redeposit surface ice to make the pattern. The surface composition of the northern ice cap in middle spring (after a winter's accumulation of seasonal dry ice) has been studied from orbit. The outer edges of
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    1 votes
    148
    Ptolemaeus

    Ptolemaeus

    Ptolemaeus is an ancient lunar impact crater close to the center of the near side. To the south-southeast Ptolemaeus is joined to the rim of the crater Alphonsus by a section of rugged, irregular terrain, and these form a prominent chain with Arzachel to the south. To the southeast is Albategnius and to the north is the smaller but well-defined Herschel. The features of Ptolemaeus are highlighted when the Sun is at low angles during the first and last quarter. At full Moon the Sun is directly overhead and the crater contours become more difficult to discern. The crater has a low, irregular outer rim that is heavily worn and impacted with multiple smaller craters. The rim has a discernibly polygonal shape, although overall it remains circular. The largest of the peaks along the rim, designated Ptolemaeus Gamma (γ), has an altitude of 2.9 km and is located along the northwest rim. The crater has no central peak, a lava-flooded floor, and lacks a ray system. Impact sites of this form are often classified as walled plains, due to their resemblance to the maria. The somewhat dark-hued floor of Ptolemaeus is notable for several ghost craters, formed where lava has covered a pre-existing
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    149
    Ptolemaeus Crater

    Ptolemaeus Crater

    Ptolemaeus Crater is a crater on Mars found in the Phaethontis quadrangle at 46.21° south latitude and 157.6° west longitude. It is 165.18 km in diameter and was named after Claudius Ptolemaeus, a Greco-Egyptian astronomer (c. AD 90-160). Much of the surface of Mars is covered by a thick smooth mantle that is thought to be a mixture of ice and dust. This ice-rich mantle, a few yards thick, smoothes the land, but in places it has a bumpy texture, resembling the surface of a basketball. Under certain conditions the ice could melt and flow down the slopes to create gullies. Because there are few craters on this mantle, the mantle is relatively young. An excellent view of this mantle is shown below in the picture of the Ptolemaeus Crater Rim, as seen by HiRISE. Changes in Mars's orbit and tilt cause significant changes in the distribution of water ice from polar regions down to latitudes equivalent to Texas. During certain climate periods water vapor leaves polar ice and enters the atmosphere. The water comes back to ground at lower latitudes as deposits of frost or snow mixed generously with dust. The atmosphere of Mars contains a great deal of fine dust particles. Water vapor will
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    1 votes
    150
    Elysium Planitia

    Elysium Planitia

    Elysium Planitia is the second largest volcanic region on Mars, after Tharsis. It is centered at 2°00′N 155°00′E / 2.0°N 155.0°E / 2.0; 155.0. It includes volcanoes, from north to south, Hecates Tholus, Elysium Mons and Albor Tholus. Another large volcano, Apollinaris Mons, lies south of the others. Besides having large volcanoes, Elysium Planitia has several areas with long trenches, called fossa or fossae (plural) on Mars. They include Cerberus Fossae, Elysium Fossae, and Hephaestus Fossae. A 2005 photo of Elysium Planitia by the Mars Express spacecraft shows what may be ash-covered water ice. The volume of ice is estimated to be 800 by 900 kilometers in size and 45 meters deep, similar in size and depth to the North Sea. The ice is thought to be the remains of water floods and lava flows in the Cerberus Fossae fissures about 2 to 10 million years ago. The surface of the area is broken into 'plates' like broken ice floating on a lake. Impact crater counts show that the plates are up to 1 million years older than the gap material, showing that the area solidified much too slowly for the material to be basaltic lava.
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    4 votes
    151
    Aureum Chaos

    Aureum Chaos

    Aureum Chaos is a rough, collapsed region in the Margaritifer Sinus quadrangle of Mars at 4.4° south latitude and 27° west longitude. It is 368 km across and was named after a classical albedo feature name. The classic name came from one of the first maps of Mars drawn by Schiaparelli who has been called the "Father of Mars." He called a feature "Aurea Cherso, which translates to the golden peninsula—an ancient name for Malaya. Aureum is the Latin word for gold. In chemistry, the symbol for gold is Au from gold's Latin name. In many places, the canyons of Aureum Chaos are about 1 km deep—a little more than half the depth of the Grand Canyon. But, Aureum Chaos covers an area about the size of the state of Alabama, almost 20 times larger than the Grand Canyon National Park. Aureum Chaos is a major canyon system and collapsed area. Large outflow channels on Mars are believed to be caused by catastrophic discharges of ground water. Many of the channels begin in chaotic terrain, where the ground has apparently collapsed. In the collapsed section, blocks of undisturbed material can be seen. The OMEGA experiment on Mars Express discovered clay minerals (phyllosilicates) in a variety
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    2 votes
    152
    Diacria quadrangle

    Diacria quadrangle

    The Diacria quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The quadrangle is located in the northwestern portion of Mars’ western hemisphere and covers 180° to 240° east longitude (120° to 180° west longitude) and 30° to 65° north latitude. The quadrangle uses a Lambert conformal conic projection at a nominal scale of 1:5,000,000 (1:5M). The Diacria quadrangle is also referred to as MC-2 (Mars Chart-2). The southern and northern borders of the Diacria quadrangle are approximately 3,065 km and 1,500 km wide, respectively. The north to south distance is about 2,050 km (slightly less than the length of Greenland). The quadrangle covers an approximate area of 4.9 million square km, or a little over 3% of Mars’ surface area. The Phoenix Lander’s landing site (68.22° N, 234.25° E) lies about 186 km north of the northeastern quarter of the Diacria quadrangle. The landscape viewed by the Phoenix lander is probably representative of a large portion of the terrain in the northern Diacria quadrangle. Diacria is the name of a telescopic albedo feature located at 48° N and 190° E on Mars. The feature
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    153
    Elysium Fossae

    Elysium Fossae

    Elysium Fossae is a large trough in the Elysium quadrangle of Mars at 24.8° north latitude and 213.7° west longitude. It is about 1,175 km long and is named after a classical albedo feature name. Elysium Fossae contains layers, also called strata. Many places on Mars show rocks arranged in layers. Sometimes the layers are of different colors. Light-toned rocks on Mars have been associated with hydraded minerals like sulfates. The Mars Rover Opportunity examined such layers close-up with several instruments. Some layers are probably made up of fine particles because they seem to break up into find dust. Other layers break up into large boulders so they are probably much harder. Basalt, a volcanic rock, is thought to in the layers that form boulders. Basalt has been identified on Mars in many places. Instruments on orbiting spacecraft have detected clay (also called phyllosilicates) in some layers. Scientists are excited about finding hydrated minerals such as sulfates and clays on Mars because they are usually formed in the presence of water. Places that contain clays and/or other hydrated minerals would be good places to look for evidence of life. Rock can form layers in a variety
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    2 votes
    154
    Heimdal

    Heimdal

    Heimdall is a relatively recent impact crater on the planet Mars. It lies in Vastitas Borealis, the northern plain. It is named after the Norse god Heimdall. The crater is approximately 20 kilometers from the landing site of the Phoenix lander. The landing site area is believed to be blanketed by ejecta excavated by the impact that created Heimdall. The spacecraft was photographed during landing by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, and was captured parachuting in the line of sight to the crater. While appearing to be over the crater, the craft was actually 20 km in front of it.
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    2 votes
    155
    Hellas Planitia

    Hellas Planitia

    Hellas Planitia, also known as the Hellas Impact Basin, is a huge, roughly circular impact basin located in the southern hemisphere of the planet Mars. It is the second or third largest impact crater and the largest visible impact crater known in the Solar System. The basin floor is about 7152-meters deep, 3 km deeper than the moon's South Pole-Aitken basin, and extends about 2,300 km east to west. It is centered at 42°42′S 70°00′E / 42.7°S 70°E / -42.7; 70 With a diameter of about 2,300 kilometres (1,400 mi), it is the largest unambiguous impact structure on the planet, though a distant second if the Borealis Basin proves to be an impact crater. The basin is thought to have been formed during the Late Heavy Bombardment period of the Solar System, approximately 4.1 to 3.8 billion years ago, when a large asteroid hit the surface. The altitude difference between the rim and the bottom is ~9 km (30,000 ft). The depth of the crater (7152-meters (23,000 ft) below the standard topographic datum of Mars) explains the atmospheric pressure at the bottom: 1,155 Pa (11.55 mbar, 0.17 psi, or 0.01 atm). This is 89% higher than the pressure at the topographical datum (610 Pa, or 6.1 mbar or
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    2 votes
    156
    Hellas quadrangle

    Hellas quadrangle

    The Hellas quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Hellas quadrangle is also referred to as MC-28 (Mars Chart-28). The Hellas quadrangle covers the area from 240° to 300° west longitude and 30° to 65° south latitude on the planet Mars. Within the Hellas quadrangle lies the classic features Hellas Planitia and Promethei Terra. Many interesting and mysterious features have been discovered in the Hellas quadrangle, including the giant river valleys Dao Vallis, Niger Vallis, Harmakhis, and Reull Vallis—all of which may have contributed water to a lake in the Hellas basin in the distant past. Many places in the Hellas quadrangle show signs of ice in the ground, especially places with glacier-like flow features. The Hellas quadrangle contains part of the Hellas Basin, the largest known impact crater on the surface of Mars and the second largest in the solar system. The depth of the crater is 7152 m (23,000 ft) below the standard topographic datum of Mars. The basin is located in the southern highlands of Mars and is thought to have been formed about 3.9 billion years ago, during the
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    2 votes
    157
    Holden

    Holden

    Holden is a 140 km wide crater on Mars, located with the southern highlands. It is named after Edward Singleton Holden, an American astronomer, and the founder of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. Like Gusev, it is notable for an outlet channel, Uzboi Vallis, that runs into it, and for many features that seem to have been created by flowing water. The crater's rim is cut with gullies, and at the end of some gullies are fan-shaped deposits of material transported by water. The crater is of great interest to scientists because it has some of the best-exposed lake deposits. One of the layers has been found by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter to contain clays. Clays only form in the presence of water. It is believed that great amount of water went through this area; one flow was caused by a body of water larger than Earth's Lake Huron. Holden is an old crater, containing numerous smaller craters, many of which are filled with sediment. The crater's central mountain is also obscured by sediment. Holden Crater was a proposed landing site for NASA's Mars Science Laboratory, until Gale Crater was deemed a better landing site. Just to the north east of Holden Crater is Eberswalde
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    2 votes
    158
    Huo Hsing Vallis

    Huo Hsing Vallis

    Huo Hsing Vallis is an ancient river valley in the Syrtis Major quadrangle of Mars at 30.5° north latitude and 293.4° west longitude. It is about 318 km long and was named after the word for "Mars" in Chinese. Some crater floors in the Syrtis Major area show elongated ridges in a lattice-like pattern. Such patterns are typical of faults and breccia dikes formed as a result of an impact. The ridges are found where there has been enhanced erosion. Pictures on this page show examples of these dikes. Water may flow along faults. The water often carries minerals that serve to cement rock materials thus making them harder. Later when the whole area undergoes erosion the dikes will remain as ridges because they are more resistant to erosion. This discovery may be of great importance for future colonization of Mars because these types of faults and breccia dikes on earth are associated with key mineral resources. Perhaps, when people live on Mars these areas will be mined as they are on earth.
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    2 votes
    159
    Iapygia quadrangle

    Iapygia quadrangle

    The Iapygia quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Iapygia quadrangle is also referred to as MC-21 (Mars Chart-21). The Iapygia quadrangle covers the area from 270° to 315° west longitude and from 0° to 30° south latitude on Mars. The largest crater in this quadrangle is Huygens. Some interesting features in this quadrangle are dikes,. the many layers found in Terby Crater, and the presence of carbonates on the rim of Huygens Crater. Near Huygens, especially just to the east are a number of narrow ridges which appear to be the remnants of dikes, like the ones around Shiprock, New Mexico. The dikes were once under the surface, but have now been eroded. Dikes are magma-filled cracks that often carry lava to the surface. Dikes by definition cut across rock layers. Some dikes on earth are associated with mineral deposits. Discovering dikes on Mars means that perhaps future colonists will be able to mine needed minerals on Mars, instead of transporting them all the way from the Earth. Impact craters generally have a rim with ejecta around them, in contrast volcanic craters usually
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    2 votes
    160
    Mare Boreum quadrangle

    Mare Boreum quadrangle

    The Mare Boreum quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Mare Boreum quadrangle is also referred to as MC-1 (Mars Chart-1). Its name derives from an older name for a feature that is now called Planum Boreum, a large plain surrounding the polar cap. The quadrangle covers all of the Martian surface north of latitude 65°. It includes the north polar ice cap, which has a swirl pattern and is roughly 1,100 km across. Mariner 9 in 1972 discovered a belt of sand dunes that ring the polar ice deposits, which is 500 km across in some places and may be the largest dune field in the solar system. The ice cap is surrounded by the vast plains of Planum Boreum and Vastitas Borealis. Close to the pole, there is a large valley, Chasma Boreale, that may have been formed from water melting from the ice cap. An alternative view is that it was made by winds coming off the cold pole. Another prominent feature is a smooth rise, called Olympia Planitia. In the summer, a dark collar around the residual cap becomes visible; it is mostly caused by dunes. The quadrangle includes some very large craters
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    2 votes
    161
    Mawrth Vallis

    Mawrth Vallis

    Mawrth Vallis (Mawrth means "Mars" in Welsh) is a valley on Mars at 22.3°N, 343.5°E with an elevation approximately two kilometers below datum. It is an ancient water outflow channel with light-colored clay-rich rocks. Mawrth Vallis is one of the oldest valleys on Mars. It was formed in and subsequently covered by layered rocks, from beneath which it is now being exhumed. The Mawrth Vallis region holds special interest because of the presence of phyllosilicate (clay) minerals which form only if water is available, first identified in data from the OMEGA spectrometer on the European Space Agency's Mars Express orbiter. Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter's Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars has identified aluminium-rich and iron-rich clays, each with a unique distribution. Some of the clays recently discovered by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter are montmorillonite and kaolinite, and nontronite. Since some clays seem to drape over high and low areas, it is possible that volcanic ash landed in an open body of water. On Earth such clays occur in (among other environments) weathered volcanic rocks and hydrothermal systems, where volcanic activity and water interact. Mawrth
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    2 votes
    162
    Newton

    Newton

    Newton is a large crater on Mars, with a diameter close to 300 km. It is located south of the planet's equator in the heavily cratered highlands of Terra Sirenum. The impact that formed Newton likely occurred more than 3 billion years ago. The crater contains smaller craters within its basin and is particularly notable for gully formations that are presumed to be indicative of past liquid water flows. Many small channels exist in this area; they are further evidence of liquid water. The crater was named in 1973 in honour of Sir Isaac Newton. In 2011 it was announced that images captured by NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have suggested the presence of possible flowing water during the warmest months on Mars, as shown in images taken of Newton Crater and Horowitz Crater among others.
    7.00
    2 votes
    163
    Nhill

    Nhill

    Nhill is a Martian impact crater, 22 kilometers in diameter. It is located at 29°S, 103.4°W, southwest of the crater Llanesco and northwest of the crater Dinorwic. It is named after a town in Victoria, Australia, and its name was adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1991. According to a surface age map of Mars based on US Geological Survey data, the area around Nhill is from the Noachian epoch, which places the area's age at 3.8 to 3.5 billion years ago. The crater is relatively shallow, and is only about 300 meters deep.
    7.00
    2 votes
    164
    Pangboche Crater

    Pangboche Crater

    Pangboche Crater is a young impact crater in the Tharsis quadrangle of Mars near the summit of Olympus Mons. It is 11 km in diameter, and is located at 17.22° N and 133.62° W. It was named after a village in Nepal.
    7.00
    2 votes
    165
    Warrego Valles

    Warrego Valles

    Warrego Valles is an ancient river valley in the Thaumasia quadrangle of Mars, located at 42.2° south latitude and 93° west longitude. It is 188 km long and was named after a Modern Australian River. Mariner 9 and Viking Orbiter images, showed a network of branching valleys in Thaumasia called Warrego Valles. These networks are evidence that Mars may have once been warmer, wetter, and perhaps had precipitation in the form of rain or snow. At first glance they resemble river valleys on our Earth. But sharper images from more advanced cameras reveal that the valleys are not continuous. They are very old and may have suffered from the effects of erosion. A picture below shows some of these branching valleys. A study with the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter, Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) and the Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) support the idea that Warrego Valles was formed from precitation.
    7.00
    2 votes
    166
    Dennin Crater

    Dennin Crater

    Denning Crater is a crater in the Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle of Mars at 17.7° south latitude and 326.6° west longitude. It is about 165 km in diameter and was named after William F. Denning, a British astronomer (1848–1931). When a comet or asteroid collides at a high rate of speed interplanetary with the surface of Mars it creates a primary impact crater. The primary impact may also eject significant numbers of rocks which eventually fall back to make secondary craters. The secondary craters may be in clusters. All of the craters in the cluster would appear to be equally eroded; hence they would all seem to be of the same age. If these secondary craters formed from a single, large, nearby impact, then they would have formed at roughly the same instant in time. The image below of Dennin Crater shows a cluster of secondary craters.
    6.00
    3 votes
    167
    Grissom Hill

    Grissom Hill

    Grissom Hill, named after American astronaut Virgil I. "Gus" Grissom, is one of the three Apollo 1 Hills on the planet Mars. It was discovered by the Spirit rover, and named on January 27, 2004 - the 37th anniversary of the Apollo 1 launchpad fire, which claimed Grissom's life, along with other crewmembers Ed White and Roger Chaffee. The hill lies to southwest of the Columbia Memorial Station, where the Spirit rover landed.
    6.00
    3 votes
    168
    Icaria Fossae

    Icaria Fossae

    Icaria Fossae is a trough in the Phaethontis quadrangle of Mars with its location centered at 46.4° south latitude and 123.8° west longitude. It is 280 km long and was named after an albedo feature at 44S, 130W.
    6.00
    3 votes
    169
    Last Chance

    Last Chance

    Last Chance is a layered rock outcrop found on Mars, discovered by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in March 2004. The rock lies within the outcrop near the rover's landing site at Meridiani Planum, Mars. Images returned show evidence for a geologic feature known as ripple cross-stratification. At the base of the rock, layers can be seen dipping downward to the right. The bedding that contains these dipping layers is only one to two centimeters (0.4 to 0.8 inches) thick. In the upper right corner of the rock, layers also dip to the right, but exhibit a weak "concave-up" geometry. These two features -- the thin, cross-stratified bedding combined with the possible concave geometry -- suggest small ripples with sinuous crest lines. Although wind can produce ripples, they rarely have sinuous crest lines and never form steep, dipping layers at such a small scale. The most probable explanation for these ripples is that they were formed in the presence of moving water.
    6.00
    3 votes
    170
    Columbus Crater

    Columbus Crater

    Columbus Crater is a crater in the Memnonia quadrangle of Mars, located at 29.8° south latitude and 166.1° west longitude. It is 119 km in diameter and was named after Christopher Columbus, Italian explorer (1451–1506). Columbus Crater contains layers, also called strata. Many places on Mars show rocks arranged in layers. Sometimes the layers are of different colors. Light-toned rocks on Mars have been associated with hydrated minerals like sulfates. The Mars Rover Opportunity examined such layers close-up with several instruments. Some layers are probably made up of fine particles because they seem to break up into fine dust. Other layers break up into large boulders so they are probably much harder. Basalt, a volcanic rock, is thought to be in the layers that form boulders. Basalt has been identified on Mars in many places. Instruments on orbiting spacecraft have detected clay (also called phyllosilicates) in some layers. The CRISM instrument on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter found kaolinite, hydrated sulfates including alunite and possibly jarosite. Scientists are excited about finding hydrated minerals such as sulfates and clays on Mars because they are usually formed in the
    5.67
    3 votes
    171
    Memnonia quadrangle

    Memnonia quadrangle

    The Memnonia quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Memnonia quadrangle is also referred to as MC-16 (Mars Chart-16). The quadrangle is a region of Mars that covers latitude -30° to 0° and longitude 135° to 180°. The western part of Memnonia is a highly cratered highland region that exhibits a large range of crater degradation. Memnonia includes these topographical regions of Mars (listed North to South): Recently, evidence of water was found in the area. Layered sedimentary rocks were found in the wall and floor of Columbus Crater. These rocks could have been deposited by water or by wind. Hydrated minerals were found in some of the layers, so water may have been involved. Many ancient river valleys Vallis including Mangala Vallis, have been found in the Memnonia quadrangle. Mangala appears to have begun with the formation of a graben, a set of faults that may have exposed an aquifer. Dark slope streaks and troughts (fossae) are present in this quadrangle. Columbus Crater contains layers, also called strata. Many places on Mars show rocks arranged in layers. Sometimes the
    5.67
    3 votes
    172
    Canso

    Canso

    Canso is a Martian crater. It lies about 450 kilometres west of the Viking 1 lander, slightly northeast of Lunae Planum, and west of Chryse Planitia, in the Lunae Palus quadrangle. The crater is named after Canso, a fishing town in Nova Scotia. The name was officially adopted in 1988 by the International Astronomical Union's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (IAU/WGPSN). IAU/WGPSN Planetary Feature Gazetteer Database. USGS Branch of Astrogeology, Flagstaff, Arizona.
    6.50
    2 votes
    173
    Cydonia

    Cydonia

    Cydonia is a region on the planet Mars, and has attracted both scientific and popular interest. The name originally referred to the albedo feature (distinctively coloured area) that was visible from Earthbound telescopes. The area borders plains of Acidalia Planitia and the Arabia Terra highlands. The area includes the Mars regions: "Cydonia Mensae", an area of flat-topped mesa-like features, "Cydonia Colles", a region of small hills or knobs, and "Cydonia Labyrinthus", a complex of intersecting valleys. As with other albedo features on Mars, the name Cydonia was drawn from classical antiquity, in this case from Kydonia, a historic polis (or "city-state") on the island of Crete. Cydonia contains the "Face on Mars" feature—located about half-way between Arandas Crater and Bamberg Crater. The ESA "skull" formation is a few kilometres south of the "face". Cydonia lies in the planet's northern hemisphere in a transitional zone between the heavily cratered regions to the South, and relatively smooth plains to the North. Some planetologists believe that the northern plains may once have been ocean beds and that Cydonia may have been a coastal zone. One of the features in the Cydonia
    6.50
    2 votes
    174
    Dinorwic

    Dinorwic

    Dinorwic is a Martian impact crater, approximately 56 kilometers in diameter. It is located on the planet Mars at 30.4°S, 101.6°W, northeast of the crater Virrat and north of the crater Tugaske. To the northeast of Dinorwic is the crater Caxias, and farther north is the crater Llanesco. It is named after the town in Ontario, Canada. Its name was approved by the International Astronomical Union in 1991. According to a surface age map of Mars based on US Geological Survey data, the area around Dinorwic is from the Noachian epoch, which places the area's age at 3.8 to 3.5 billion years ago. At the crater's rim, it is about 7,600 meters above zero altitude, and it is about 5,950 meters above zero altitude at its floor, giving it a depth of 1.6 kilometers.
    6.50
    2 votes
    175
    Labou Vallis

    Labou Vallis

    Labou Vallis is a valley in the Memnonia quadrangle of Mars, located at 8.7° south latitude and 154.5° west longitude. It is 222 km long and was named after a French word for Mars. Labou Vallis has dark slope streaks on its walls. The streaks are generally thought to be the dark material that has been exposed by bright dust moving down a steep slope in an avalanche.
    6.50
    2 votes
    176
    Nilo Syrtis

    Nilo Syrtis

    Nilo Syrtis (or Nilosyrtis) is a region just north of Syrtis Major Planum on Mars, at approximately 23°N, 76°E and an elevation of −0.5 km. It marks a region of transition (a "crustal dichotomy") between southern highland and northern lowland terrain, and consists of isolated peaks and mesas. On average, the drop in elevation between the two terrains is 5,500 meters (18,000 feet). Nilosyrtis is one of the sites proposed as a landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory. However, it did not make the final cut. It was in the top 7, but not in the top 4. The aim of the Mars Science Laboratory is to search for signs of ancient life. It is hoped that a later mission could then return samples from sites identified as probably containing remains of life. To safely bring the craft down, a 12 mile wide, smooth, flat circle is needed. Geologists hope to examine places where water once ponded. They would like to examine sediment layers.
    6.50
    2 votes
    177
    Noctis Labyrinthus

    Noctis Labyrinthus

    Noctis Labyrinthus, "the labyrinth of the night", is a region of Mars between the Valles Marineris and the Tharsis upland. It is located in the Phoenicis Lacus quadrangle. The region is notable for its maze-like system of deep, steep-walled valleys. The valleys and canyons of this region formed by faulting and many show classic features of grabens, with the upland plain surface preserved on the valley floor. In some places the valley floors are rougher, disturbed by landslides, and there are places where the land appears to have sunk down into pit-like formations. It is thought that this faulting was triggered by volcanic activity in the Tharsis region. Research, described in December 2009, found a variety of minerals--including clays, sulfates, and hydrated silicas in some of the layers.
    6.50
    2 votes
    178
    Sabis Vallis

    Sabis Vallis

    Sabis Vallis is an ancient river valley in the Memnonia quadrangle of Mars, located at 5.3° south latitude and 152.5° west longitude. It is 206 km long and was named after a classical name for the present Sambre River in France and Belgium.
    6.50
    2 votes
    179
    Thaumasia quadrangle

    Thaumasia quadrangle

    The Thaumasia quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Thaumasia quadrangle is also referred to as MC-25 (Mars Chart-25). The Thaumasia quadrangle covers the area from 60° to 120° west longitude and 30° to 65° south latitude on Mars. One of the first major networks of stream channels, called Warrego Valles, were discovered here by early orbiters. Another sign of water is the presence of gullies carved into steep slopes. Many places on Mars have sand dunes. Some craters in Thaumasia show dark blotches in them. High resolution photos show that the dark markings are dark sand dunes. Dark sand dunes probably contain the igneous rock basalt. Brashear Crater, pictured below, is one crater with dark dunes. Gullies are common in some parts of Mars. Gullies occur on steep slopes, especially on the walls of craters. Martian gullies are believed to be relatively young because they have few, if any craters. Moreover, they lie on top of sand dunes which themselves are considered to be quite young. Usually, each gully has an alcove, channel, and apron. Some studies have found that gullies
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    2 votes
    180
    Dawes Crater

    Dawes Crater

    Dawes Crater is located in the Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle of Mars, at 9°12′S 38°00′E / 9.2°S 38°E / -9.2; 38. It is about 191 km (119 mi) in diameter, and was named after William R. Dawes, a British astronomer (1799–1868) who was ahead of his time in believing that Mars only had a thin atmosphere. Dawes presumed that the atmosphere of Mars was thin because surface markings on the planet could easily be seen.
    5.33
    3 votes
    181
    Utopia Planitia

    Utopia Planitia

    Utopia Planitia (Latin: "Nowhere Plain") is the largest recognized impact basin on Mars and in the solar system with an estimated diameter of 3300 km, and is the Martian region where the Viking 2 lander touched down and began exploring on September 3, 1976. It is located at the antipode of Argyre Planitia, centered at 49°42′N 118°00′E / 49.7°N 118.0°E / 49.7; 118.0. It is in the Casius quadrangle and the Cebrenia quadrangle of Mars. Many rocks at Utopia Planitia appear perched, as if wind removed much of the soil at their bases. A hard surface crust is formed by solutions of minerals moving up through soil and evaporating at the surface. Some areas of the surface exhibit what is called "Scalloped topography," a surface that seems to have been carved out by an ice cream scoop. This suface is thought to have formed by the degradation of an ice-rich permafrost. In the Star Trek media franchise, Utopia Planitia – both on Mars' surface and in areosynchronous orbit above it – is the site of a major Federation shipyard. The USS Enterprise-D, USS Defiant, USS Sao Paulo, USS Voyager, and USS Enterprise-F were built there. The Flaming Lips song "Approaching Pavonis Mons by Balloon (Utopia
    5.33
    3 votes
    182
    Cerberus Fossae

    Cerberus Fossae

    The Cerberus Fossae are a series of semi-parallel fissures on Mars formed by faults which pulled the crust apart in the Cerberus region (9°N, 197°W). Ripples seen at the bottom of the fault are sand blown by the wind . The underlying cause for the faulting was magma pressure related to the formation of the Elysium Volcanic field, located to the northwest. The faults pass through pre-existing features such as hills, indicating that it is a younger feature. The formation of the fossae is suspected to have released pressurised underground water, previously confined by the cryosphere, with flow rates up to 2 × 10 ms, leading to the creation of the Athabasca Valles. However, early radar analysis suggests there's no evidence of 'pack ice' tens of metres thick as hypothesised based on the images from Mars Express of the area. This is in support of the US view of images of the area, based on impact crater morphology which do not show any evidences of meteorite hitting anything but solid stone lava fields. Other researchers have found evidence of past ice in the area; they believe that lava flows may not have been involved.
    7.00
    1 votes
    183
    El Capitan

    El Capitan

    El Capitan is a layered rock outcrop found on Mars by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in February 2004. The rock outcrop was named for El Capitan, a mountain in Texas.
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    1 votes
    184
    Maja Valles

    Maja Valles

    Maja Valles is a large, ancient outflow channel in the Lunae Palus quadrangle on Mars. Its location is 12.6° north latitude and 58.3° west longitude. The name is a Nepali word for "Mars". Maja Valles begins at Juventae Chasma. Parts of the system have been partially buried by thin volcanic debris. Maja Valles ends at Chryse Planitia. Huge outflow channels were found in many areas by the Viking Orbiters. They showed that floods of water broke through dams, carved deep valleys, eroded grooves into bedrock, and traveled thousands of kilometers.
    7.00
    1 votes
    185
    Mariner 3

    Mariner 3

    Mariner 3 (together with Mariner 4 known as Mariner-Mars 1964) was one of two identical deep-space probes designed and built by Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) for NASA's Mariner Mars 1964 Project that were intended to conduct close-up (flyby) scientific observations of the planet Mars and transmit information on interplanetary space and the space surrounding Mars, televised images of the Martian surface and occultation data of spacecraft radio signals as affected by the Martian atmosphere back to Earth. It was the third of ten spacecraft within the Mariner program. Mariner 3 was launched on November 5, 1964 from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station Launch Complex 13, but the shroud encasing the spacecraft atop its rocket failed to open properly, and Mariner 3 did not get to Mars. Unable to collect the Sun's energy for power from its solar panels, the probe soon died when its batteries ran out and is now derelict in a solar orbit. Three weeks later, on November 28, 1964, Mariner 4 was launched successfully on a 7½-month voyage to the red planet. The instruments on Mariner 3 included:
    7.00
    1 votes
    186
    Tantalus Fossae

    Tantalus Fossae

    Tantalus Fossae is a group of troughs in the Arcadia quadrangle of Mars, located at 50.9° north latitude and 97.5° west longitude. They are about 2,400 km long and was named after an albedo feature at 35N, 110W. Troughs, like this one are called Fossae on Mars. More information and more examples can be found at Fossa (geology). Many areas on Mars experience the passage of giant dust devils. A thin coating of fine bright dust covers most of the Martian surface. When a dust devil goes by it blows away the dust coating and exposes the underlying dark surface. Dust devils have been seen from the ground and from high overhead from orbit. They have even blown the dust off of the solar panels of the two Rovers on Mars, thereby greatly extending their lives. The twin Rovers were designed to last for 3 months, instead they have lasted more than five years and are still going. The pattern of the tracks have been shown to change every few months. The image below from HiRISE shows some dust devil tracks in the shape of X's. You may need to click on the image for a larger view to see the tracks clearly.
    7.00
    1 votes
    187
    Tharsis Tholus

    Tharsis Tholus

    Tharsis Tholus is an intermediate-sized shield volcano located in the eastern Tharsis region of the planet Mars. The volcano was discovered by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1972 and originally given the informal name Volcano 7. In 1973, the International Astronomical Union (IAU) officially designated it Tharsis Tholus. In planetary geology, tholus (pl. tholi) is the term used to describe a small domical mountain, usually a volcano. Tharsis Tholus lies on the eastern edge of the Tharsis quadrangle at 13.5°N, 91°W. It is about 800 km east-northeast of Ascraeus Mons, the northernmost of the large Tharsis Montes volcanoes. Lava from the Tharsis Montes and other sources within the interior of Tharsis completely surrounds Tharsis Tholus, forming a broad volcanic plain at the volcano's base. Tharsis Tholus measures 155 km x 125 km. It is distinctly bulbous in appearance, and is unique among Martian volcanoes in the degree to which it has been modified by faulting. Large normal faults cut across and completely penetrate the volcano, dividing the edifice into several major blocks, or sectors. The volcano has an elongated central caldera (collapse crater) measuring 36.7 × 38.9 km and about
    7.00
    1 votes
    188
    Casius quadrangle

    Casius quadrangle

    The Casius quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The quadrangle is located in the north central portion of Mars’ eastern hemisphere and covers 60° to 120° east longitude (240° to 300° west longitude) and 30° to 65° north latitude. The quadrangle uses a Lambert conformal conic projection at a nominal scale of 1:5,000,000 (1:5M). The Casius quadrangle is also referred to as MC-6 (Mars Chart-6). The southern and northern borders of the Casius quadrangle are approximately 3,065 km and 1,500 km wide, respectively. The north to south distance is about 2,050 km (slightly less than the length of Greenland). The quadrangle covers an approximate area of 4.9 million square km, or a little over 3% of Mars’ surface area. Casius is the name of a telescopic albedo feature located at 40° N and 100° E on Mars. The feature was named for the Latin epithet for Zeus from his sanctuaries in Egypt and Syria. The name was approved by the International Astronomical Union (IAU) in 1958. The high latitude Casius quadrangle bears several features that are believed to indicate the presence of ground ice.
    6.00
    2 votes
    189
    Charitum Montes

    Charitum Montes

    Charitum Montes is a large group of mountains in the Argyre quadrangle of Mars, located at 58.4° south latitude and 40.29° west longitude. It is 850 km across and was named after a classical albedo feature name. Gullies are common in some latitude bands on Mars. Usually, gullies are found on the walls of craters or troughs, but Charitum Montes has gullies in some areas. See the image below. Gullies occur on steep slopes, especially craters. Gullies occur on steep slopes, especially craters. Gullies are believed to be relatively young because they have few, if any craters, and they lie on top of sand dunes which are young. Usually, each gully has an alcove, channel, and apron. Although many ideas have been put forward to explain them, the most popular involve liquid water either coming from an aquifer or left over from old glaciers. There is evidence for both theories. Most of the gully alcove heads occur at the same level, just as one would expect of an aquifer. Various measurements and calculations show that liquid water could exist in an aquifer at the usual depths where the gullies begin. One variation of this model is that rising hot magma could have melted ice in the ground
    6.00
    2 votes
    190
    Eddie Crater

    Eddie Crater

    Eddie Crater is a crater in the Elysium quadrangle of Mars at 12.3° north latitude and 217.9° west longitude. It is 89 km in diameter and was named after Lindsay Eddie, a South African astronomer (1845–1913).
    6.00
    2 votes
    191
    Heinlein

    Heinlein

    Heinlein is a crater in Promethei Terra, Mars. It is centered at 64.6 degrees south, 243.8 degrees west, and is 83 km in diameter. It is named after Robert A. Heinlein, a famous author of science fiction. According to prevailing views and based on scientific analysis of available data, there may exist underground layers of ice at northern and southern latitudes greater than 30-40 degrees. Ice may have been detected at the north polar cap. There is then a chance that underground ice will be found in the vicinity of Heinlein, making it a possible site for human settlement. In winter, the south polar cap extends about 45 degrees in south latitude. Heinlein is then covered by this seasonal cap, which consists of frozen carbon dioxide, i.e., dry ice.
    6.00
    2 votes
    192
    Philips Crater

    Philips Crater

    Philips Crater is a crater in the Mare Australe quadrangle of Mars, located at 66.7° south latitude and 45.1° west longitude. It is 190.2 km in diameter and was named after John Phillips, a British geologist (1800–1874), and Theodore E. Philips, a British astronomer (1868–1942).
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    2 votes
    193
    Thira

    Thira

    Thira is a crater on Mars. It is located within the larger crater Gusev. It is named after the town of Fira on the island of Santorini, Greece. Thira is about 20km east of the landing site of NASA's Spirit rover. The rim of the crater can be seen in the distance in images taken by Spirit.
    6.00
    2 votes
    194
    Candor Chasma

    Candor Chasma

    Candor Chasma is one of the largest canyons in the Valles Marineris canyon system on Mars. The feature is geographically divided into two halves: East and West Candor Chasmas, respectively. It is unclear how the canyon originally formed; one theory is that it was expanded and deepened by tectonic processes similar to a graben, while another suggests that it was formed by subsurface water erosion similar to a karst. MRO discovered sulfates, hydrated sulfates, and iron oxides in Candor Chasma.
    5.00
    3 votes
    195
    Kinkora Crater

    Kinkora Crater

    Kinkora Crater is a crater in the Mare Tyrrhenum quadrangle of Mars, located at 25.2° south latitude and 247.2° west longitude. It is 54.3 km in diameter and was named by the International Astronomical Union's Working Group for Planetary System Nomenclature (IAU/WGPSN) in 1991, after the town of Kinkora, Prince Edward Island, Canada.
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    3 votes
    196
    Mars Pathfinder

    Mars Pathfinder

    Mars Pathfinder (MESUR Pathfinder) was an American spacecraft that landed a base station with a roving probe on Mars in 1997. It consisted of a lander, renamed the Carl Sagan Memorial Station, and a lightweight (10.6 kg/23 lb) wheeled robotic Mars rover named Sojourner. Launched on December 4, 1996 by NASA aboard a Delta II booster a month after the Mars Global Surveyor was launched, it landed on July 4, 1997 on Mars's Ares Vallis, in a region called Chryse Planitia in the Oxia Palus quadrangle. The lander then opened, exposing the rover which conducted many experiments on the Martian surface. The mission carried a series of scientific instruments to analyze the Martian atmosphere, climate, geology and the composition of its rocks and soil. It was the second project from NASA's Discovery Program, which promotes the use of low-cost spacecraft and frequent launches under the motto "cheaper, faster and better" promoted by the then administrator, Daniel Goldin. The mission was directed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), a division of the California Institute of Technology, responsible for NASA's Mars Exploration Program. The project manager was JPL's Tony Spear. This mission was
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    3 votes
    197
    Pavonis Mons

    Pavonis Mons

    Pavonis Mons is a large shield volcano located in the Tharsis region of the planet Mars. It is the middle member of a chain of three volcanic mountains (collectively known as the Tharsis Montes) that straddle the Martian equator between longitudes 235°E and 259°E. The volcano was discovered by the Mariner 9 spacecraft in 1971 and was originally called Middle Spot. Its name formally became Pavonis Mons in 1973. Pavonis Mons is Latin for "Peacock Mountain." Pavonis Mons stands at the southern edge of the Tharsis quadrangle - approximately 400 km southwest of Ascraeus Mons (the northernmost of the Tharsis Montes) and 400 km northeast of Arsia Mons (the southernmost member of the chain). The Tharsis Montes volcanoes lie along the crest of a northeast-trending rise (Tharsis bulge) that extends more than 3,000 km across the western equatorial region of Mars. Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in the Solar System lies at the edge of the Tharsis buldge, about 1,200 km northwest of Pavonis Mons. Pavonis Mons is the smallest of the Tharsis Montes volcanoes, measuring about 375 km across and standing 14 km above Mars' mean surface level. As a shield volcano, Pavonis Mons has an extremely low
    5.00
    3 votes
    198
    Swiss cheese features

    Swiss cheese features

    Swiss cheese features (SCFs) are curious pits in the south polar ice cap of Mars (Mare Australe quadrangle) named from their similarity to the holes in Swiss cheese. They were first seen in 2000 using Mars Orbiter Camera imagery. They are typically a few hundred meters across and 8 metres deep, with a flat base and steep sides. They tend to have similar bean-like shapes with a cusp pointing towards the south pole, indicating that insolation is involved in their formation. The angle of the sun probably contributes to their roundness. Near the Martian summer solstice, the sun can remain continuously just above the horizon; as a result the walls of a round depression will receive more intense sunlight, and melt much more rapidly, than the floor. The walls melt and recede, while the floor remains the same. As the seasonal frost disappears, the pit walls appear to darken considerably relative to the surrounding terrain. The SCFs have been observed to grow in size, year by year, at an average rate of 1 to 3 meters, suggesting that they are formed in a thin layer (8m) of carbon dioxide ice lying on top of water ice.
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    3 votes
    199
    Tinia Valles

    Tinia Valles

    Tinia Valles is an ancient valley in the Memnonia quadrangle of Mars, located at 4.7° south latitude and 149° west longitude. It is 18.7 km long and was named after a classical river in Italy. Tinia Valles has many dark slope streaks on its walls. These features are widely believed to be avalanches of a thin layer of bright dust that usually covers the dark surface beneath.
    5.00
    3 votes
    200
    Athabasca Vallis

    Athabasca Vallis

    Athabasca Valles is an outflow channel on Mars, cut into its surface by catastrophic flooding. It is one of the youngest known of these structures, probably forming only in the geologically recent past of Mars. The flood produced distinctive "teardrop" landforms similar to those found in the Channeled Scablands on Earth. It is thought that these landforms were produced though depositional processes wherein the floodwaters dropped sediment behind resistant bedrock outcroppings and craters. The source of water for the flood is thought to be Cerberus Fossae, at 10 N and 157 E. Groundwater may have been trapped under a cryosphere which was broken when the fossae was created. The very high spatial resolution images from the HiRISE camera on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have revealed that all the flood features are draped by lava flows (Jaeger et al., 2007). Research, published in January 2010, described the discovery of a vast single lava flow, the size of the state of Oregon, that "was put in place turbulently over the span of several weeks at most." This flow, near Athabasca Valles, is the youngest lava flow on Mars. It is thought to be of Late Amazonian Age. The floor of
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    Dejnev Crater

    Dejnev Crater

    Dejnev Crater is a crater in the Memnonia quadrangle of Mars, located at 25.5° south latitude and 164.8° west longitude. It is 156 km in diameter and was named after Semen Ivanovich Dejnev, a Russian geographer, explorer, and navigator (1605–1673).
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    202
    Ismenius Lacus quadrangle

    Ismenius Lacus quadrangle

    The Ismenius Lacus quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The quadrangle is located in the northwestern portion of Mars’ eastern hemisphere and covers 0° to 60° east longitude (300° to 360° west longitude) and 30° to 65° north latitude. The quadrangle uses a Lambert conformal conic projection at a nominal scale of 1:5,000,000 (1:5M). The Ismenius Lacus quadrangle is also referred to as MC-5 (Mars Chart-5). The southern and northern borders of the Ismenius Lacus quadrangle are approximately 3,065 km and 1,500 km wide, respectively. The north to south distance is about 2,050 km (slightly less than the length of Greenland). The quadrangle covers an approximate area of 4.9 million square km, or a little over 3% of Mars’ surface area. The Ismenius Lacus quadrangle contains Deuteronilus Mensae and Protonilus Mensae, two places that are of special interest to scientists. They contain evidence of present and past glacial activity. They also have a landscape unique to Mars, called Fretted terrain. The largest crater in the area is Lyot Crater which contains channels probably carved by
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    203
    Llanesco

    Llanesco

    Llanesco is a Martian impact crater, 27 kilometers in diameter. It is located at 28.5S, 101.2°W, north of the crater Dinorwic. It is named after a town in Spain, and its name was approved by the International Astronomical Union in 1991. According to a surface age map of Mars based on US Geological Survey data, the area around Llanesco is from the Noachian or Hesperian epoch, which places the area's age at 3.8 to 1.8 billion years. The crater's rim averages about 7,750 meters above zero altitude, and its floor averages about 7,000 meters above zero altitude. The crater is therefore approximately only 750 meters deep.
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    Mareotis Fossae

    Mareotis Fossae

    Mareotis Fossae is a group of troughs in the Arcadia quadrangle of Mars, located at 44° north latitude and 75.3° west longitude. It is about 1,860 km long and was named after an albedo feature at 32N, 96W. Troughs, like this one are called Fossae on Mars. More information and more examples can be found at Fossa (geology).
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    205
    Semeykin

    Semeykin

    Semeykin Crater is a crater in the Ismenius Lacus quadrangle on Mars. It is located at 41.8° north latitude and 351.4° west longitude. Semeykin Crater is 76.0 km in diameter and was named after Boris Semeykin, a Soviet astronomer (1900-1937).
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    206
    Bernard Crater

    Bernard Crater

    Bernard Crater is a large crater in the Memnonia quadrangle of Mars, located at 23.6° south latitude and 154.3° west longitude. It is 131.0 km in diameter and was named after P. Bernard, a French atmospheric scientist. The floor of the crater contains large cracks, which may be due to erosion.
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    207
    Korolev Crater

    Korolev Crater

    Korolev Crater is a crater in the Mare Boreum quadrangle of Mars, located at 73° north latitude and 195.5° west longitude. It is 84.2 km in diameter and was named after Sergey Pavlovich Korolev (1906-1966), the head Soviet rocket engineer and designer during the Space Race in the 1950s and 1960s.
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    208
    Terby

    Terby

    Terby is a crater on the northern edge of Hellas Planitia, Mars. The 174 km diameter crater is centered at 28°S, 73°E with an elevation of −5 km. It is named after François J. Terby. It is the site of an ancient lakebed and has clay deposits.
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    209
    Tharsis

    Tharsis

    The Tharsis region on Mars is a vast volcanic plateau centered near the equator in Mars’ western hemisphere. The region is home to the largest volcanoes in the Solar System, including the three enormous shield volcanoes Arsia Mons, Pavonis Mons, and Ascraeus Mons, which are collectively known as the Tharsis Montes. The tallest volcano on the planet, Olympus Mons, is often associated with the Tharsis region but is actually located off the western edge of the plateau. The name Tharsis is the Greco-Latin transliteration of the biblical Tarshish, the land at western extremity of the known world. The Tharsis region can have several meanings depending on historical and scientific context. The name is commonly used in a broad sense to represent a continent-sized region of anomalously elevated terrain centered just south of the equator around longitude 265°E. Called the Tharsis bulge or Tharsis rise, this broad, elevated region dominates the western hemisphere of Mars and is the largest topographic feature on the planet, after the global dichotomy. Tharsis has no formally defined boundaries, so precise dimensions for the region are difficult to give. In general, the bulge is about 5,000 km
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    210
    Total Recall

    Total Recall

    Total Recall is a 1990 American dystopian science fiction action film starring Arnold Schwarzenegger, Rachel Ticotin, Sharon Stone, Michael Ironside, and Ronny Cox. It is loosely based on the Philip K. Dick story "We Can Remember It for You Wholesale". It was directed by Paul Verhoeven and written by Ronald Shusett, Dan O'Bannon, Jon Povill, and Gary Goldman, and won a Special Achievement Academy Award for its visual effects. The original score composed by Jerry Goldsmith won the BMI Film Music Award. In 2084, Douglas Quaid (Schwarzenegger) is a construction worker on Earth, who is having troubling dreams about Mars and a mysterious woman there. His wife Lori (Stone) is dismissive, pointing out how life on Earth is perfect compared to the ongoing conflicts between rival factions on colonized Mars, in part due to actions by the governor of Mars, Vilos Cohaagen (Cox), with rumors that an alien artifact has been located in the mines on the planet. Despite warnings from his co-workers, Quaid visits "Rekall", a company that uses memory implants to give its clients experiences of fabulous vacations. Quaid opts for a trip to Mars (a program entitled "Blue Sky On Mars") including an
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    211
    Vishniac

    Vishniac

    Vishniac is a largest crater of the Martian surface feature called the Giant's Footprint. It was named after Wolf V. Vishniac, a microbiologist who died on an expedition to Antarctica. Fittingly, the crater lies in the Antarctic of Mars. The feature was originally observed by Mariner 7 in 1969. In 1999, the Mars Global Surveyor's Mars Orbiter Camera was able to provide more detailed pictures.
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    Martian soil

    Martian soil

    Martian soil is the fine regolith found on the surface of Mars. Its properties can differ significantly from those of terrestrial soil. The term Martian soil typically refers to the finer fraction of regolith, that which is composed of grains one centimeter in diameter or less. Some have argued that the term "soil" is not correct in reference to Mars because soil is defined as having organic content, whereas Mars is not known to have such content. However, standard usage among planetary scientists is to ignore that distinction. Martian dust generally connotes even finer materials than Martian soil, the fraction which is less than 30 micrometres in diameter. Disagreement over the significance of soil's definition arises due to the lack of an integrated concept of soil in the literature. The pragmatic definition "medium for plant growth" has been commonly adopted in the planetary science community but a more complex definition describes soil as (bio)geochemically/physically altered material at the surface of a planetary body that encompasses surficial extraterrestrial telluric deposits. This definition emphasizes that soil is a body that retains information about its environmental
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    213
    Aram Chaos

    Aram Chaos

    Aram Chaos, centered at 2.6°N, 21.5°W, comprises a heavily eroded impact crater on the planet Mars. It lies at the eastern end of the large canyon Valles Marineris and close to Ares Vallis. Various geological processes have reduced it to a circular area of chaotic terrain. Aram Chaos takes its name from Aram, one of the classical albedo features observed by Giovanni Schiaparelli, who named it after the Biblical land of Aram. Spectroscopic observation from orbit indicates the presence of the mineral hematite, likely a signature of a once aqueous environment. Aram Chaos measures about 280 kilometers (170 mi) across, and lies in a region called Margaritifer Terra, where many water-carved channels show that floods poured out of the highlands onto the northern lowlands ages ago. The Thermal Emission Imaging System (THEMIS) on the Mars Odyssey orbiter found gray crystalline hematite on the floor of Aram. CRISM, the spectroscope on the MRO, found hyrdrated sulfates, jarosite, and hematite. Hematite is an iron-oxide mineral that can precipitate when ground water circulates through iron-rich rocks, whether at normal temperatures or in hot springs. The floor of Aram contains huge blocks of
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    214
    Beagle

    Beagle

    This article is about the crater on Mars. For other uses, see Beagle (disambiguation). Beagle is a crater on Mars in Meridiani Planum which was explored by the Opportunity rover. It was located by the rover in images taken on sol 855 (June 20, 2006), 310 metres (1,107 ft) away. It is on the edge of the much larger ejecta blanket surrounding the crater Victoria, named the Victoria Annulus.
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    215
    Bonneville

    Bonneville

    Bonneville is an impact crater on Mars. It is located within the much larger crater Gusev. Bonneville was visited by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit in 2004, during its exploration of the floor of Gusev. Bonneville is also the final resting place of Spirit's heat shield, jettisoned during the landing procedure; the heat-shield could be seen glinting on the opposite wall when Spirit photographed the crater. The crater is 210 meters in diameter, 14 meters deep and its rim rises 6.4 meters above the surrounding terrain. Bonneville is named after Benjamin Bonneville and Lake Bonneville, an ancient lake in Utah. The strata into which Bonneville formed is thought to be loose debris, although some of the ejecta may have originated from more competent rocks. No underlying bedrock was exposed in the crater or the numerous craterlets in Bonneville's walls. The crater is relatively pristine and in particular has not been affected by water based erosion. It is likely that Bonneville is a secondary crater, given its low depth to diameter ratio.
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    Caxias

    Caxias

    Caxias is a Martian impact crater, approximately 25 kilometers in diameter. It is located at 29.3°S, 100.8°W, southeast of the crater Llanesco and northeast of the crater Dinorwic. It was named after Duque de Caxias, a town in Brazil, and its name was adopted by the International Astronomical Union in 1991. According to a surface age map of Mars based on US Geological Survey data, the area around Caxias is from the Noachian or Hesperian epoch, which places the area's age at 3.8 to 1.8 billion years. The crater is about 7,400 meters in elevation above zero altitude on its floor, and averages about 8,000 meters above zero altitude on its rim; it is therefore about 600 meters in depth.
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    217
    Mariner 4

    Mariner 4

    Mariner 4 (together with Mariner 3 known as Mariner-Mars 1964) was the fourth in a series of spacecraft, launched on November 28, 1964, intended for planetary exploration in a flyby mode and performed the first successful flyby of the planet Mars, returning the first pictures of the Martian surface. It captured the first images of another planet ever returned from deep space; their depiction of a cratered, seemingly dead world largely changed the view of the scientific community on life on Mars. Mariner 4 was designed to conduct closeup scientific observations of Mars and to transmit these observations to Earth. Other mission objectives were to perform field and particle measurements in interplanetary space in the vicinity of Mars and to provide experience in and knowledge of the engineering capabilities for interplanetary flights of long duration. On December 21, 1967 communications with Mariner 4 were terminated. The Mariner 4 spacecraft consisted of an octagonal magnesium frame, 127 cm across a diagonal and 45.7 cm high. Four solar panels were attached to the top of the frame with an end-to-end span of 6.88 meters, including solar pressure vanes which extended from the ends. A
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    218
    Verde Vallis

    Verde Vallis

    Verde Vallis is an ancient river valley in the Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle on Mars. It is found in the Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle at 0.5° south latitude and 330.2° west longitude. It is named after a river in Arizona, USA.
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    Lunae Palus quadrangle

    Lunae Palus quadrangle

    The Lunae Palus quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The quadrangle is also referred to as MC-10 (Mars Chart-10). The Lunae Palus quadrangle contains many ancient river valleys. The quadrangle covers the area from 45° to 90° west longitude and 0° to 30° north latitude on Mars. The Viking I Lander (part of Viking program) landed in the quadrangle on July 20, 1976, at 22.4° N and 47.5° W. It was the first robot spacecraft to successfully land on the Red Planet. The sky would be a light pink. The dirt would also appear pink. Rocks of many sizes would be spread about. One large rock, named Big Joe, is as big as a banquet table. Some boulders would show erosion due to the wind. There would be many small sand dunes that are still active. The wind speed would typically be 7 meters per second (16 miles per hour). There would be a hard crust on the top of the soil similar to a deposit, called caliche which is common in the U.S. Southwest. Such crusts are formed by solutions of minerals moving up through soil and evaporating at the surface. The soil resembled those produced from the
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    Pettit Crater

    Pettit Crater

    Pettit Crater is a crater in the Amazonis quadrangle of Mars, located at 12.39° north latitude and 173.87° west longitude. It is 92.49 km in diameter and was named after Edison Pettit, an American astronomer (1890–1962).
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    Viking 2

    Viking 2

    The Viking 2 mission was part of the American Viking program to Mars, and consisted of an orbiter and a lander essentially identical to that of the Viking 1 mission. The Viking 2 lander operated on the surface for 1,281 Mars days and was turned off on 11 April 1980 when its batteries failed. The orbiter worked until 25 July 1978, returning almost 16,000 images in 706 orbits around Mars. The craft was launched on September 9, 1975. Following launch using a Titan/Centaur launch vehicle and a 333 day cruise to Mars, the Viking 2 Orbiter began returning global images of Mars prior to orbit insertion. The orbiter was inserted into a 1500 x 33,000 km, 24.6 h Mars orbit on August 7, 1976 and trimmed to a 27.3 h site certification orbit with a periapsis of 1499 km and an inclination of 55.2 degrees on 9 August. Imaging of candidate sites was begun and the landing site was selected based on these pictures and the images returned by the Viking 1 Orbiter. The lander separated from the orbiter on September 3, 1976 at 22:37:50 UT and landed at Utopia Planitia. Normal operations called for the structure connecting the orbiter and lander (the bioshield) to be ejected after separation, but because
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    222
    Bond Crater

    Bond Crater

    Bond Crater is a crater in the Argyre quadrangle on Mars, located at 33.2° south latitude and 36° west longitude. It is 110.6 km in diameter and was named after George P. Bond, an American astronomer (1825–1865).
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    223
    Chryse Planitia

    Chryse Planitia

    Chryse Planitia (Greek, "Golden Plain") is a smooth circular plain in the northern equatorial region of Mars close to the Tharsis region to the west, centered at 26°42′N 320°00′E / 26.7°N 320.0°E / 26.7; 320.0. Chryse Planitia lies partially in the Lunae Palus quadrangle and partially in the Oxia Palus quadrangle. It is 1600 km in diameter and with a floor 2.5 km below the average planetary surface altitude, and is thought to be an ancient impact basin; it has several features in common with lunar maria, such as wrinkle ridges. The density of impact craters in the 100 m to 2000 m range is close to half the average for lunar maria. Chryse Planitia shows evidence of water erosion in the past, and is the bottom end for many outflow channels from the southern highlands as well as from Valles Marineris and the flanks of the Tharsis bulge. It is one of the lowest regions on Mars (2-3 km below the mean surface elevation of Mars), so water would tend to flow into it. The elevation generally goes down from the Tharsis Ridge to Chryse. Kasei Vallis, Maja Valles, and Nanedi Valles appear to run from high areas (Tharsis Ridge) to Chryse Planitia. On the other side of Chryse, to the east,
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    Flaugergues Crater

    Flaugergues Crater

    Flaugergues Crater is a crater in the Sinus Sabaeus quadrangle on Mars at 17° south latitude and 340.8° west longitude. It is about 245 km in diameter. It was named after Honore Flaugergues, a French astronomer (1755-1835).
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    Hecates Tholus

    Hecates Tholus

    Hecates Tholus is a Martian volcano, notable for results from the European Space Agency's Mars Express mission which indicate a major eruption took place 350 million years ago. The eruption created a caldera 10 km in diameter. It has been suggested that glacial deposits later partly filled the caldera and an adjacent depression. Crater counts indicate this happened as recently as 5 to 20 million years ago. However climate models show that ice is not stable at Hecates Tholus today, pointing to climate change since the glaciers were active. It has been shown that the age of the glaciers correspond to a period of increased obliquity of Mars' rotational axis. The volcano is at location 32.12°N 150.24°E, in Elysium Planitia, and has a diameter of 182 km. It is the northernmost of the Elysium volcanoes; the others are Elysium Mons and Albor Tholus. In planetary nomenclature, a "tholus" is a "small domical mountain or hill".
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    Stura Vallis

    Stura Vallis

    Stura Vallis is an ancient river valley in the Elysium quadrangle of Mars, located at 22.9° north latitude and 217.6° west longitude. It is 75 km long and was named after a classical river east of Rome, Italy.
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    Amenthes quadrangle

    Amenthes quadrangle

    The Amenthes quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Amenthes quadrangle is also referred to as MC-14 (Mars Chart-14). The quadrangle covers the area form 225° to 270° west longitude and from 0° to 30° north latitude on Mars. This quadrangle contains the Isidis basin, a location where magnesium carbonate was found by MRO. This mineral indicates that water was present and that it was not acid. Life may have formed in this area. There are Dark slope streaks, troughs (fossae), and river valleys (Vallis) in this quadrangle. Some craters in the Amenthes region (as well as other parts of Mars) show ejecta around them that have lobes. It is believed that the lobed shape is caused by an impact into water or ice logged ground. Calculations suggest that ice is stable beneath the Martian surface. At the equator the stable layer of ice might lie under as much as 1 kilometer of material, but at higher latitudes the ice may be just a few centimeters below the surface. This was proven when the landing rockets on the Phoenix lander blew away surface dust to reveal an ice surface. The larger
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    Becquerel

    Becquerel

    Becquerel is a lunar crater that lies in the northern hemisphere on the far side of the Moon. This is an ancient and heavily worn formation that is now little more than an irregular depression in the surface. The outer rim has been worn and reshaped until it forms a rugged, mountainous region around the flatter interior. The most notable of the formations on the rim is Becquerel X, which is part of a double crater along the northwestern rim. There is a short valley paralleling the southwestern rim, most likely formed by the merging of several small craters. The interior floor of Becquerel is relatively flat, but with rough sections and several tiny craterlets marking the surface. There is a dark patch (low albedo) on the floor near the southern rim. By convention these features are identified on lunar maps by placing the letter on the side of the crater midpoint that is closest to Becquerel.
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    Geysers on Mars

    Geysers on Mars

    Martian geysers are putative sites of small-scale jet-like eruptions that occur in the south polar region region of Mars during the spring thaw. "Dark dune spots" and "spiders" are the two most visible types of features ascribed to these eruptions. They are unlike any terrestrial geological phenomenon. The reflectance (albedo), shapes and unusual spider appearance of these features have stimulated a variety of hypotheses about their origin, ranging from differences in frosting reflectance, to explanations involving biological processes. However, all current geophysical models assume some sort of geyser-like activity on Mars. Their characteristics, and the process of their formation, are still a matter of debate. These features are unique to the south polar region of Mars in an area informally called the 'cryptic region', at latitudes 60° to 80° south and longitudes 150°W to 310°W; this 1 meter deep ice transition area —between the scarps of the thick polar ice layer and the permafrost— is where clusters of the apparent geyser systems are located. The seasonal frosting and defrosting of ice results in the appearance of a number of features, such dark dune spots with spider-like
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    Melas Chasma

    Melas Chasma

    Melas Chasma is a canyon on Mars, the widest segment of the Valles Marineris canyon system, located east of Ius Chasma at 9.8°S, 283.6°E. It cuts through layered deposits that are thought to be sediments from an old lake that resulted from runoff of the valley networks to the west. Other theories include windblown sediment deposits and volcanic ash. Support for abundant, past water in Melas Chasma is the discovery by MRO of hydrated sulfates. In addition, sulfate and iron oxides were found by the same satellite. The floor of Melas Chasma is about 70% younger massive material that is thought to be volcanic ash whipped up by the wind into eolian features. It also contains rough floor material from the erosion of the canyon walls. Around the edges of Melas is also a lot of slide material. This is also the deepest part of the Valles Marineris system at eleven kilometers deep from the surrounding surface, from here to the outflow channels are about a 0.03 degree slope upward to the northern plains, which means that if you filled the canyon with fluid, would have a lake with a depth of one kilometer before the fluid would flow out onto the northern plains. The canyon's depth suggests
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    231
    Olympia Undae

    Olympia Undae

    Olympia Undae is a vast dune field in the north polar region of the planet Mars. It consists of a broad "sand sea" or erg that partly rings the north polar plateau (Planum Boreum) from about 120° to 240°E longitude and 78° to 83°N latitude. Stretching about 1,100 km (680 mi) across and covering an area of 470,000 km, Olympia Undae is the largest continuous dune field on Mars. It is similar in size to the Rub' Al Khali in the Arabian Peninsula, the largest active erg on Earth. Olympia Undae lies within the informally named Borealis basin (also called the north polar basin), the largest of three topographic basins that occur in the northern lowlands of Mars. The average elevation in Olympia Undae is about 4,250 m below datum (martian "sea" level). The 19-km-diameter crater Jojutla lies near the geographic center of Olympia Undae at 81.63°N latitude and 169.65°E longitude.This crater was named by Andres Eloy Martinez Rojas, Mexican astronomer and science writer. Unda (pl. undae) is a Latin term meaning water, particularly water in motion as waves. The International Astronomical Union (IAU) adopted the term to describe "undulatory," dune-like features on other planets. Olympia Undae
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    Reuyl Crater

    Reuyl Crater

    Reuyl Crater is a crater in the Aeolis quadrangle of Mars, located at 9.8° south latitude and 193.2° west longitude and is 85.9 km in diameter. This martian feature and was named after Dirk Reuyl, a Dutch-American physicist and astronomer (1906–1972) who made astronomical measurements of the diameter of Mars in the 1940s.
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    Schiaparelli

    Schiaparelli

    Schiaparelli is an impact crater on Mars named after Giovanni Schiaparelli located near Mars' equator. It is 461 kilometers (286 mi) in diameter and located at latitude 3° South and longitude 344°. A crater within Schiaparelli shows many layers that may have formed by the wind, volcanoes, or deposition under water. Layers can be a few meters thick or tens of meters think. Recent research on these layers by scientists at California Institute of Technology (Caltech) suggest that ancient climate change on Mars caused by regular variation in the planet's tilt, may have caused the patterns in layers. On Earth, similar changes (astronomical forcing) of climate results in ice-age cycles. The regular appearance of rock layers suggests that regular changes in climate may be the root cause. Regular changes in climate may be due to variations of a planet's tilt (called obliquity). The tilt of the Earth's axis changes by only a little more than 2 degrees since our moon is relatively large. In contrast Mars's tilt varies by tens of degrees. When the tilt is low (current situation on Mars), the poles are the coldest places on the planet, while the equator is the warmest (as on Earth). This could
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    Amazonis quadrangle

    Amazonis quadrangle

    The Amazonis quadrangle is one of a series of 30 quadrangle maps of Mars used by the United States Geological Survey (USGS) Astrogeology Research Program. The Amazonis quadrangle is also referred to as MC-8 (Mars Chart-8). The quadrangle covers the area from 135° to 180° west longitude and 0° to 30° north latitude on Mars. This area is considered to be among the youngest parts of Mars because it has a very low density of craters. The Amazonia period is named after this area. This quadrangle contains special, unusual features called the Medusae Fossae Formation and Sulci. The Amazonis quadrangle is of special interest to scientists because it contains a big part of a formation, called the Medusae Fossae Formation. It is a soft, easily eroded deposit that extends for nearly 1,000 km along the equator of Mars. The surface of the formation has been eroded by the wind into a series of linear ridges called yardangs. These ridges generally point in direction of the prevailing winds that carved them and demonstrate the erosive power of Martian winds. The easily eroded nature of the Medusae Fossae Formation suggests that it is composed of weakly cemented particles, and was most likely
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    Antoniadi Crater

    Antoniadi Crater

    Antoniadi Crater is a crater in the Syrtis Major quadrangle of Mars, located at 21.5° north latitude and 299.2° west longitude. It is 394 km long and was named after Eugène Michael Antoniadi, a Turkish-born French astronomer (1870-1944). Recent research leads scientists to believe that Antoniadi Crater probably once was full of water since its rim seems to have been breached by its water. Antoniadi Crater once held more water than Lake Baikal, Earth's largest freshwater lake. The source of the large river valley, Auqakuh Vallis, is a rim breach on the north rim of Antoniadi Crater. Antoniadi Crater's watershed is too small to gather enough water by precipitation alone; therefore it is thought that much of its water came from groundwater. Some places on Mars show inverted relief. In these locations, a stream bed may be a raised feature, instead of a valley. The inverted former stream channels may be caused by the depositon of large rocks or due to cementation. In either case erosion would erode the surrounding land and leave the old channel as a raised ridge because the ridege will be more resistant to erosion. An image below, taken with HiRISE of Antoniadi Crater shows sinuous
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    Ceraunius Fossae

    Ceraunius Fossae

    Ceraunius Fossae is an area of intensely fractured terrain in the northern Tharsis region of Mars. It lies directly south of the large volcano Alba Mons and consists of ancient highland crust that has been deformed by numerous parallel faults and tension cracks. In places, younger lava flows cover the fractured terrain, dividing it into several large patches or islands. The faults are mainly narrow, north-south oriented graben. Graben (the name is both singular and plural) are long, narrow troughs bound by two inward-facing normal faults that enclose a downfaulted block of crust. The graben in Ceraunius Fossae are commonly several kilometers wide, between 100 to slightly over 1000 m deep, and very closely spaced, giving the terrain a rugged ridge and groove topography. Many of the graben are hundreds of kilometers long and have walls with complex scalloped segments. Some contain pit crater chains (catenae) at their bottoms, suggesting the presence of deep-seated tension cracks into which surface material has drained. The term Ceraunius is from an albedo feature at lat. 19.78°N, long. 267°E. It was named by Greek Astronomer E. M. Antoniadi in 1930 for the Ceraunian Mountains on the
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    Cyane Fossae

    Cyane Fossae

    Cyane Fossae is a trough in the Diacria quadrangle of Mars. Its location is centered at 32.57° north latitude and 120.17° west longitude. It is 938 kilometres (583 mi) long and was named after a classical albedo feature name.
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    Dao Vallis

    Dao Vallis

    Dao Vallis is a valley on Mars that appears to have been carved by water. It runs southwestward into Hellas Planitia, and has been identified as an outflow channel. It and its tributary, Niger Vallis, extend for about 1,200 km (750 mi). It is named after the Thai word for star, and it was proposed as a potential landing site for the 2012 Curiosity rover of the Mars Science Laboratory mission. In the fictional 2007 Canadian miniseries Race to Mars, it is the landing site for Gagarin, the lander. Dao Vallis begins near a large volcano, called Hadriaca Patera, so it is thought to have received water when hot magma melted huge amounts of ice in the frozen ground. Much of this water may have been released in very large "outburst floods". The partially circular depressions on the left side of the channel in the image below suggests that groundwater sapping also contributed water more gradually.
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    Hydaspis Chaos

    Hydaspis Chaos

    Hydaspis Chaos is a region in the Oxia Palus quadrangle of Mars, located at 3.2° north latitude and 27.1° west longitude. The region is about 355 km across. It was named after a classical albedo feature. Many large, ancient river valleys are found in this area; along with collapsed features, called Chaos. The Chaotic features may have collapsed when water came out of the surface. Some of the rivers begin with a Chaos region. A chaotic region can be recognized by a rat's nest of mesas, buttes, and hills, chopped through with valleys which in places look almost patterned. Some parts of this chaotic area have not collapsed completely—they are still formed into large mesas, so they may still contain water ice. Chaotic terrain occurs in numerous locations on Mars, and always gives the strong impression that something abruptly disturbed the ground. The chaos regions formed long ago. By counting craters (more craters in any given area means an older surface) and by studying the valleys' relations with other geological features, scientists conclude the channels formed 2.0 to 3.8 billion years ago. One generally accepted view for the formation of large outflow channels is that they were
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    Hypanis Vallis

    Hypanis Vallis

    Hypanis Vallis is a 270 km valley in Xanthe Terra on Mars at 11ºN, 314ºE. It appears to have been carved by long-lived flowing water, and a significant river delta exists at its outlet into the lowlands. Hypanis Vallis is one of the sites proposed as a landing site for the Mars Science Laboratory. However, it did not make the final cut. The aim of the Mars Science Laboratory is to search for signs of ancient life. It is hoped that a later mission could then return samples from sites identified as probably containing remains of life. To safely bring the craft down, a 12 mile wide, smooth, flat circle is needed. Geologists hope to examine places where water once ponded. They would like to examine sediment layers.
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    Mariner Crater

    Mariner Crater

    Mariner Crater is a crater on Mars with a diameter of 170 km. it is located in the Phaethontis quadrangle at 35.1° south latitude and 164.5° west longitude. It was named for Mariner IV spacecraft. In fact it is probably the best image that was taken with the Mariner IV spacecraft. The Phaethontis quadrangle is the location of many gullies that may be due to recent flowing water. Some are found in Newton (Martian crater). Gullies occur on steep slopes, especially craters. Gullies are believed to be relatively young because they have few, if any craters, and they lie on top of sand dunes which are young. Usually, each gully has an alcove, channel, and apron. Although many ideas have been put forward to explain them, the most popular involve liquid water either coming from an aquifer or left over from old glaciers. There is evidence for both theories. Most of the gully alcove heads occur at the same level, just as one would expect of an aquifer. Various measurements and calculations show that liquid water could exist in an aquifer at the usual depths where the gullies begin. One variation of this model is that rising hot magma could have melted ice in the ground and caused water to
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    Mars 2

    Mars 2

    The Mars 2 was an unmanned space probe of the Mars program, a series of unmanned Mars landers and orbiters launched by the Soviet Union in the early 1970s. Mars 2 and Mars 3 missions consisted of identical spacecraft, each with an orbiter and an attached lander, they were launched by Proton K heavy launch vehicle with a Blok D upper stage. The lander of Mars 2 became the first man-made object to reach the surface of Mars. The orbiter engine performed a burn to put the spacecraft into a 1380 x 24,940 km, 18 hour orbit about Mars with an inclination of 48.9 degrees. Scientific instruments were generally turned on for about 30 minutes near periapsis. The orbiter primary scientific objectives were to image the Martian surface and clouds, determine the temperature on Mars, study the topography, composition and physical properties of the surface, measure properties of the atmosphere, monitor the solar wind and the interplanetary and Martian magnetic fields, and act as communications relays to send signals from the landers to Earth. By coincidence, a particularly large dust storm on Mars adversely affected the mission. When Mariner 9 arrived and successfully orbited Mars on 14 November
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    Mars Polar Lander

    Mars Polar Lander

    The Mars Polar Lander, also referred to as the Mars Surveyor '98 Lander, was a 290-kilogram robotic spacecraft lander, launched by NASA on January 3, 1999, to study the soil and climate of Planum Australe, a region near the south pole on Mars, as part of the Mars Surveyor '98 mission. However, on December 3, 1999, after the descent phase was expected to be complete, the lander failed to reestablish communication with Earth. It was determined the most likely cause of the mishap was an improperly ceased engine firing prior to the lander touching the surface, causing the lander to impact at a high velocity. As part of the intended goals of the Mars Surveyor '98 mission, a lander was sought as a way to gather climate data from the ground in conjunction with an orbiter. It was suspected that a large quantity of frozen water may exist under a thin layer of dust at the south pole. In planning Mars Polar Lander, the potential water content in the Martian south pole was the strongest determining factor for choosing a landing location. The primary objectives of the mission included: Mars Polar Lander carried two small, identical impactor probes known as Deep Space 2 A and B. The probes were
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    Meridiani Planum

    Meridiani Planum

    Meridiani Planum is a plain located 2 degrees south of Mars' equator (centered at 0°12′N 357°30′E / 0.2°N 357.5°E / 0.2; 357.5), in the westernmost portion of Terra Meridiani. It hosts a rare occurrence of gray crystalline hematite. On Earth, hematite is often formed in hot springs or in standing pools of water; therefore, many scientists believe that the hematite at Meridiani Planum may be indicative of ancient hot springs or that the environment contained liquid water. The hematite is part of a layered sedimentary rock formation about 200 to 800 meters thick. Other features of Meridiani Planum include volcanic basalt and impact craters. In 2004, Meridiani Planum was the landing site for the second of NASA's two Mars Exploration Rovers, named Opportunity. It had also been the target landing site for Mars Surveyor 2001 Lander, which was cancelled after the failures of the Mars Climate Orbiter and Mars Polar Lander missions. Results from Opportunity indicate that its landing site was once saturated for a long period of time with liquid water, possibly of high salinity and acidity. Features that suggest this include cross-bedded sediments, the presence of many small spherical
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    Porter

    Porter

    Porter is a large-scale impact crater in the Thaumasia quadrangle on the planet Mars, situated in Aonia Terra at 50.8° south and 113.9º west. The impact caused a bowl 105 kilometres (65 mi) across. The name was chosen in 1973 by the International Astronomical Union in honour of the US astronomer and explorer, Russell W. Porter (1871-1949).
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    Samara Valles

    Samara Valles

    Samara Valles is a valley in the Memnonia quadrangle on Mars, located at 25.1° south latitude and 19.1° west longitude. It is 615 km long and was named after the ancient name for modern Somme River, France.
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    Uranius Patera

    Uranius Patera

    Uranius Mons, formerly Uranius Patera, is a volcano on Mars located in the Tharsis quadrangle, named after a classical albedo feature. The name "Uranius Patera" now refers only to the volcano's central caldera. It is about three kilometers high and has shallow slopes. It belongs to the Uranius group of volcanoes in the Tharsis area. The sides of Uranius Mons consist of radial lava flows; the large caldera (90 x 65 km) is elongated in the southwestern direction. The surrounding plains are younger and part of the Tharsis Montes Formation of the Amazonian epoch.
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    Vernal Crater

    Vernal Crater

    Vernal Crater is a crater on Mars, located at 6° north latitude and 355.5° west longitude in the Oxia Palus quadrangle. It is 57 km in diameter and was named after Vernal, Utah, USA. Because structures resembling springs on Earth were found there it is the scene of one of the most important discoveries on the quest of life on Mars. A study of images taken with the High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) on the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter strongly suggests that hot springs once existed in Vernal Crater, in the Oxia Palus quadrangle. These springs may have provided a long-time location for life. Furthermore, mineral deposits associated with these springs may have preserved traces of Martian life. In Vernal Crater, on a dark part of the floor two light-toned, elliptical structures closely resemble hot springs on the Earth. They have inner and outer halos, with roughly circular depressions. A large number of hills are lined up close to the springs. These are thought to have formed by the movement of fluids along the boundaries of dipping beds. A picture below shows these springs. One of the depressions is visible. The discovery of opaline silica by the Mars Rovers on the
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    Wirtz Crater

    Wirtz Crater

    Wirtz Crater is a crater in Argyre quadrangle of Mars at 48.6° south latitude and 26° west longitude, It is 129 km in diameter and was named after Carl Wilhelm Wirtz, a German astronomer (1886–1956).
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    Yogi Rock

    Yogi Rock

    Yogi Rock is a rock on Mars that was discovered during the Mars Pathfinder mission in 1997, and named by Geoffrey A. Landis. The rocks found on the mission were named after famous icons and figures, and Yogi Rock was thought to resemble the head of a bear looking away from the spacecraft. As a result, it was named for the famed cartoon character Yogi Bear. The rock was the first on Mars found to be made of basalt, which suggests previous volcanic activity in the region as basalt is an igneous rock. The smoothness of the surface also suggested the past existence of water in the region. Yogi was also the first large rock reached by the Sojourner rover and was analyzed by an X-ray spectrometer to determine its composition. Images of Sojouner approaching Yogi used in the opening credits of Star Trek: Enterprise made that television program the first science fiction television or film production in history to use footage taken on another planet.
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