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Best Radioactive waste dump of All Time

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    1
    Yucca Mountain

    Yucca Mountain

    The Yucca Mountain Nuclear Waste Repository was to be a deep geological repository storage facility for spent nuclear reactor fuel and other high level radioactive waste, until the project was defunded by Nevada Senator and Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid in 2010. It was to be located on federal land adjacent to the Nevada Test Site in Nye County, Nevada, about 80 mi (130 km) northwest of the Las Vegas Valley. The proposed repository was within Yucca Mountain, a ridge line in the south-central part of Nevada near its border with California. Although the location has been highly contested by both environmentalists and non-local residents in Las Vegas, which is over 100 miles (160 km) away, it was approved in 2002 by the United States Congress. However, under the Obama Administration funding for development of Yucca Mountain waste site was terminated effective via amendment to the Department of Defense and Full-Year Continuing Appropriations Act, passed by Congress on April 14, 2011. The US GAO stated that the closure was for political, not technical or safety reasons. This leaves United States civilians without any long term storage site for high level radioactive waste, currently
    7.75
    4 votes
    2
    Cigar Lake Mine

    Cigar Lake Mine

    The Cigar Lake Mine is the largest undeveloped high grade uranium deposit in the world, located in the uranium rich Athabasca Basin of northern Saskatchewan, Canada. The deposit, discovered in 1981, is second in size of high-grade deposits only to the McArthur River mine. Other deposits, such as Olympic Dam in Australia, contain more uranium, but not at the significant grades of the Saskatchewan deposits. The average grade at Cigar Lake is in excess of 20% whereas the world average is less than 1%. Full scale construction began in 2005 with production originally planned for 2007, but the mine experienced a catastrophic water inflow in October 2006, which flooded the mine. A second inflow occurred in 2008 during the first attempt at dewatering the mine after sealing the initial inflow. Remediation efforts continued, and re-entry was successfully accomplished in 2010. Production was first delayed until 2011, and again until 2013. It has been suggested that the 2006 flood was a direct cause of the uranium bubble of 2007, which caused the natural uranium spot price to reach a record high of 137$/lb (300$/kgU). As of December 31, 2011, the mine has proven and probable reserves of
    7.25
    4 votes
    3
    Schacht Asse II

    Schacht Asse II

    The Asse II pit (Schacht Asse II) is a former salt mine used as a deep geological repository for radioactive waste in the mountain range of Asse in district Wolfenbüttel in Lower Saxony, Germany. Asse II was allegedly used as a research mine since 1965. Between 1967 and 1978 radioactive waste was placed in storage. The mine is operated by the German government, and was executed by the Helmholtz Zentrum München. Research was stopped in 1995; between 1995 and 2004 cavinates were filled with salt. After media reports in 2008 about brine contaminated with radioactive caesium-137, plutonium and strontium, politicians accused the operator of not having informed the inspecting authorities. On September 8, 2008, the responsible ministers of Lower Saxony and the German government concluded to change the operator. The new one, the Bundesamt für Strahlenschutz (federal office for radiation protection), will close the mine according to atomic law instead of mining law. No columns and struts are used in a salt mine. The extra stress in the remaining salt structure (the pit building) by constructing the chamber is handled in the capping mass. Plasticity effects are taken into account as they
    7.00
    4 votes
    4

    Nirex

    Nirex was a United Kingdom body set up in 1982 by the UK nuclear industry to examine safe, environmental and economic aspects of deep geological disposal of intermediate-level and low-level radioactive waste. Originally known as the Nuclear Industry Radioactive Waste Executive, it became the limited company United Kingdom Nirex Limited in 1985. The ownership of Nirex was transferred from the nuclear industry to the UK Government departments DEFRA and DTI in April 2005, and then to the UK's Nuclear Decommissioning Authority (NDA) in November 2006. Nirex's staff and functions were integrated into the NDA in April 2007, at which point Nirex ceased trading as a separate entity. Nirex's role continues through the activities of the Radioactive Waste Management Directorate of the NDA. Nirex had gained widespread notoriety during the 1980s as the focus for widespread public opposition to the burying of nuclear waste in the UK. Nirex was based at Harwell, Oxfordshire and had several roles: Nirex was also involved in keeping the UK abreast of international expertise in research and development into the disposal of radioactive waste. During the mid 1980s proposals for low-level nuclear waste
    7.33
    3 votes
    5
    Gorleben

    Gorleben

    Gorleben is a small municipality (Gemeinde) in the Gartow region of the Lüchow-Dannenberg district in the far north-east of Lower Saxony, Germany, a region also known as the Wendland. Gorleben was first recorded as a town by the rulers of Dannenberg in 1360; there was a fort on the site. The name "Gorleben" probably comes from Goor ("silt"; in Slavic, however, Gor means "mountain") and leben ("heritage"). Gorleben is known as the site of a controversial radioactive waste disposal facility, currently used as an intermediate storage facility but planned to serve with the salt dome Gorleben as a future deep final repository for waste from nuclear reactors. It has attracted frequent protests from environmentalists since the 1970s. The small town is directly on the left bank of the Elbe river, about 20 metres above sea level. The Elbe river landscape spreads out to the east, north and northwest, protected as the Lower Saxon Elbe Valley Leas biosphere reserve. To the south, a large area of pine forest adjoins it, the Gartower Tannen. This is the largest contiguous privately-owned forest in Germany, owned by Graf Bernstorff of Gartow, and is on a large hilly area which grew out of
    7.00
    3 votes
    6
    Olkiluoto

    Olkiluoto

    The Olkiluoto Nuclear Power Plant (Finnish: Olkiluodon ydinvoimalaitos) is on Olkiluoto Island (fi), which is on the shore of the Gulf of Bothnia in the municipality of Eurajoki in western Finland. It is one of Finland's two nuclear power plants, the other being the two-unit Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant. The Olkiluoto plant is operated by Teollisuuden Voima (TVO), a nuclear plant operator that is owned by a consortium of Finnish industrial and power companies. The plant consists of two operating units, both Boiling Water Reactors (BWR) with 880 MW each, and a third unit under construction. The third unit is the first European Pressurized Reactor (EPR) to have gone into construction, in 2005. Various problems have delayed its expected entry into service to no earlier than 2015, six years after the originally scheduled date of 2009. In July 2010, the Finnish parliament granted a license for a fourth reactor to be built at the site. Units 1 and 2 consists of two BWRs with 880 MW each. The main contractor was ASEA-Atom, now a part of Westinghouse Electric Sweden AB. Turbine generators were supplied by Stal-Laval. The units' architecture was designed by ASEA-Atom. The reactor pressure
    9.00
    2 votes
    7
    Oskarshamn Nuclear Power Plant

    Oskarshamn Nuclear Power Plant

    The Nuclear power station Oskarshamn is one of three active nuclear power stations in Sweden. The plant is about 30 kilometers north of Oskarshamn directly at the Kalmarsund at the Baltic Sea coast and with three reactors producing about 10% of the electricity needs of Sweden. All reactors use BWR technology. Unit 1 has an installed output of 494 MW, Unit 2 664 MW, and Unit 3, the newest reactor block at the facility, has an installed output of 1,450 MW. The nuclear power station Oskarshamn is thereby one of the largest power stations in the Nordic area by production. Clab, the temporary storage facility for spent nuclear fuel from all Swedish reactors, is also located at the site. The responsible utility is OKG, short for the Oskarshamnsverkets Kraftgrupp OKG, which was acquired by Sydkraft in 1993, which is called E.ON Sverige currently. E.ON Sverige owns 54.5% and the other partner Fortum 45.5% of OKG. On July 25, 2006, Units 1 and 2 were shut down as a precaution after a safety-related incident at an identical reactor at the Forsmark plant. The incident related to a failure of diesel generators to automatically start up when required, after a blackout caused by a shortcut at
    8.50
    2 votes
    8
    Hanford Site

    Hanford Site

    The Hanford Site is a mostly decommissioned nuclear production complex on the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington, operated by the United States federal government. The site has been known by many names, including Hanford Works, Hanford Engineer Works or HEW, Hanford Nuclear Reservation or HNR, and the Hanford Project. Established in 1943 as part of the Manhattan Project in the town of Hanford in south-central Washington, the site was home to the B Reactor, the first full-scale plutonium production reactor in the world. Plutonium manufactured at the site was used in the first nuclear bomb, tested at the Trinity site, and in Fat Man, the bomb detonated over Nagasaki, Japan. During the Cold War, the project was expanded to include nine nuclear reactors and five large plutonium processing complexes, which produced plutonium for most of the 60,000 weapons in the U.S. nuclear arsenal. Nuclear technology developed rapidly during this period, and Hanford scientists produced many notable technological achievements. Many of the early safety procedures and waste disposal practices were inadequate, and government documents have since confirmed that Hanford's operations released
    8.00
    2 votes
    9
    Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory

    Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory

    The Meuse/Haute Marne Underground Research Laboratory is a laboratory located 500 metres underground in Bure in the Meuse département. It allows study of the geological formation in order to evaluate its capacity for deep geological repository of high level and long lived medium level radioactive waste. It is managed by Agence nationale pour la gestion des déchets radioactifs (Andra). Since radioactive waste needs to be safely stored for extreme lengths of time, the geology of the area is of utmost importance. This site consists of mudstone 500 metres underground in the Paris Basin. The first practical geological studies on locations for deep geological repository in France date back to the 1960s. In the 1980s Andra, at that time a branch of the CEA, was given the task of investigating possible locations for an underground research laboratory. Two geological formations were initially considered in the 1990s: clay and granite. The 1991 law thus dictated that research would be done in several possible sites. In 1994, work by Andra investigated a wide range of locations in 4 separate départements, and further narrowed down the choice to 3 locations. All above and below ground
    7.00
    2 votes
    10
    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, or WIPP, is the world's third deep geological repository (after closure of Germany's Repository for radioactive waste Morsleben and the Schacht Asse II Salt Mine) licensed to permanently dispose of transuranic radioactive waste for 10,000 years that is left from the research and production of nuclear weapons. It is located approximately 26 miles (42 km) east of Carlsbad, New Mexico, in eastern Eddy County. It is located in an area known as the southestern New Mexico nuclear corridor which also includes the National Enrichment Facility near Eunice, New Mexico, the Waste Control Specialists low-level waste disposal facility just over the border near Andrews, Texas, and the International Isotopes, Inc. facility to be built near Eunice, New Mexico. The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant is located in the Delaware Basin of New Mexico. This 600-meter deep salt basin was formed during the Permian Era approximately 250 million years ago. An ancient sea once covering the area evaporated and left behind a nearly impermeable layer of salt that over time was covered by 300 meters of soil and rock. The Delaware Basin is geologically similar to other basins created by
    5.50
    2 votes
    11

    Asse, Germany

    Asse is a Samtgemeinde ("collective municipality") in the district of Wolfenbüttel, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated approx. 10 km southeast of Wolfenbüttel. It is named after the Asse, a small chain of hills in the municipality. Its seat is in the village Remlingen. The Samtgemeinde Asse consists of the following municipalities:
    6.00
    1 votes
    12
    Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant

    Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant

    Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant is a nuclear power plant in Forsmark, Sweden, and also the site of the Swedish Final repository for radioactive operational waste. It is operated by a subsidiary of Vattenfall. Forsmark NPP has three Boiling water reactors: West of Forsmark Nuclear Power Plant, there is the static inverter of HVDC Fenno-Skan. Forsmark is the proposed site for the long-term burial of all spent fuel from Swedish nuclear power reactors, using the KBS-3 process. The new site will be located next to the already existing final repository for radioactive operational waste, but the two will not be connected with each other. On April 28, 1986, unusually high levels of radiation were detected in workers' clothing at this plant, prompting concerns of a radiation leak. No leak was found, however, and the radiation was subsequently determined to have originated from Chernobyl, where a reactor had exploded the previous day. Chernobyl is approximately 1,100 km from this power plant. Detection of rise of environmental radioactivity at Forsmark was crucial in leading Soviet authorities, originally attempting to cover up the disaster, to admit that a nuclear incident had taken place in
    5.00
    1 votes
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