Top List Curated by Listnerd
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  • Nov 27th 2012
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  • 185 votes
  • 185 voters
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Best Pet Health of All Time

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Best Pet Health of All Time is a public top list created by Listnerd on rankly.com on November 27th 2012. Items on the Best Pet Health of All Time top list are added by the rankly.com community and ranked using our secret ranking sauce. Best Pet Health of All Time has gotten 588 views and has gathered 185 votes from 185 voters. O O

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    1

    Feline chronic renal failure

    Feline chronic renal failure is a common and serious condition evidenced by progressive, irreversible deterioration of kidney function over a period of months or years.
    7.83
    6 votes
    3
    7.80
    5 votes
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    6.33
    6 votes
    5
    Anal sac adenocarcinoma

    Anal sac adenocarcinoma

    An anal sac adenocarcinoma is an uncommon and aggressive malignant tumor found in dogs that arises from the apocrine glandular tissue of anal sac. At least one case has been reported in a cat. They are the second most common cancerous cause of hypercalcaemia (high serum calcium) in dogs, following T-cell lymphoma. Apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinomas first appear as small lumps associated with one of the anal sacs (rarely bilateral), but they can grow to a large size. Smaller tumors are undetectable without a rectal examination, while larger tumors can cause pain and straining to defecate. Between 25-50 percent of dogs with these tumors will also develop hypercalcaemia through secretion of parathyroid hormone-related protein by the tumor. Symptoms of hypercalcaemia include increased drinking and urination, vomiting, loss of appetite, weight loss, and bradycardia (slow heart rate). Apocrine gland anal sac adenocarcinomas also have a tendency to metastasize to the regional lymph nodes, spleen, and lungs. The sublumbar (iliac) lymph nodes are the most common site of metastasis and can become larger than the original tumor. Anal sac adenocarcinomas are often suspected due to
    7.40
    5 votes
    6
    8.75
    4 votes
    7
    Toxoplasmosis

    Toxoplasmosis

    Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii. The parasite will infect most genera of warm-blooded animals, including humans, but the primary host is the felid (cat) family. The parasite spreads by the ingestion of infected meat or the feces of an infected cat, or by vertical transmission from mother to fetus. A 2001 study found that direct contact with pet cats is probably a less common route of transmission to human hosts than contamination of hands with cat feces by touching the earth, and that "contact with infected raw meat is probably a more important cause of human infection in many countries". This disease has also been directly correlated to festering human fluids, such as feces, vomit, or urine. These liquids can provide a breeding ground for toxoplasmotic parasites in a matter of hours in warm, dark environments. Toxoplasmosis kills thousands of impoverished and homeless people yearly who are living in squalid environments in which they might encounter festering human fluids. From one-third to half of the world's human population is estimated to carry a Toxoplasma infection. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention notes that
    8.75
    4 votes
    8
    Feline hepatic lipidosis

    Feline hepatic lipidosis

    Feline hepatic lipidosis, also known as feline fatty liver syndrome, is one of the most common forms of liver disease of cats. The disease officially has no known cause, though obesity is known to increase the risk. The disease begins when the cat stops eating from a loss of appetite, forcing the liver to convert body fat into usable energy. If this process continues for too long, fat builds up in the cells of the liver, and the disease has officially onset. Prognosis varies depending on the stage of the disease, with both a high recovery and mortality rate at different stages. The disease is reversible through intense feeding. Obesity is known to increase the risk of Feline Hepatic Lipidosis, however, there is no known official cause of the disease. Severe anorexia usually precedes onset of the disease, but it is unknown why the animal stops eating in the first place. One of the reasons a cat may stop eating is separation anxiety. Prolonged boarding, such as when a cat is being moved long distances, can be problematic to the health of the liver if the boarding facility is not trained to recognize the symptoms and is not watching the weight of the cat. When the cat has no energy
    8.50
    4 votes
    9

    Cat flu

    Cat flu is the common name for a feline upper respiratory tract disease. While feline upper respiratory disease can be caused by several different pathogens, there are a few symptoms that they have in common. While Avian Flu can also infect cats, Cat flu is generally a misnomer, since it usually does not refer to an infection by an influenza virus. Instead, it is a syndrome, a term referring to the fact that patients display a number of symptoms that can be caused by one or more of the following infectious agents (pathogens):
    8.00
    4 votes
    10
    8.00
    4 votes
    11

    Canine herpesvirus infection

    Canine herpesvirus (CHV) is a virus of the family Herpesviridae which most importantly causes a fatal hemorrhagic disease in puppies (and in wild Canidae) less than two to three weeks old. It is known to exist in the United States, Canada, Australia, Japan, England and Germany. CHV was first recognized in the mid 1960s from a fatal disease in puppies. The incubation period of CHV is six to ten days. CHV is transmitted to puppies in the birth canal and by contact with infected oral and nasal secretions from the mother or other infected dogs, but it is not spread through the air. The virus replicates in the surface cells of the nasal mucosa, tonsils, and pharynx. Low body temperature allows the virus to spread and infect the rest of the body. Symptoms include crying, weakness, depression, discharge from the nose, soft, yellow feces, and a loss of the sucking reflex. CHV also causes a necrotizing vasculitis that results in hemorrhage around the blood vessels. Bruising of the belly may occur. Eye lesions include keratitis, uveitis, optic neuritis, retinitis, and retinal dysplasia. There is a high mortality rate, approaching 80 percent in puppies less than one week old, and death
    9.67
    3 votes
    12

    Infectious canine hepatitis

    Infectious canine hepatitis is an acute liver infection in dogs caused by canine adenovirus type-1 (CAV-1). CAV-1 also causes disease in wolves, coyotes, and bears, and encephalitis in foxes. The virus is spread in the faeces, urine, blood, saliva, and nasal discharge of infected dogs. It is contracted through the mouth or nose, where it replicates in the tonsils. The virus then infects the liver and kidneys. The incubation period is 4 to 7 days. Symptoms include fever, depression, loss of appetite, coughing, and a tender abdomen. Corneal edema and signs of liver disease, such as jaundice, vomiting, and hepatic encephalopathy, may also occur. Severe cases will develop bleeding disorders, which can cause hematomas to form in the mouth. Death can occur secondary to this or the liver disease. However, most dogs recover after a brief illness, although chronic corneal edema and kidney lesions may persist. Diagnosis is made by recognizing the combination of symptoms and abnormal blood tests that occur in infectious canine hepatitis. A rising antibody titer to CAV-1 is also seen. The disease can be confused with canine parvovirus because both will cause a low white blood cell count and
    9.67
    3 votes
    13
    7.75
    4 votes
    14
    Chronic superficial keratitis

    Chronic superficial keratitis

    Chronic superficial keratitis (CSK), also known as pannus or Uberreiter’s disease, is an inflammatory condition of the cornea in dogs, particularly seen in the German Shepherd Dog. Chronic superficial keratitis is most commonly seen in German Shepherd Dogs, but it is also found in Belgian Tervurens, Greyhounds, Siberian Huskies, Australian Shepherds, and Border Collies. CSK is immune-mediated in nature, characterized by an infiltration of white blood cells into the superficial stroma of the cornea. These cells are predominately CD4-expressing T lymphocytes and to a lesser extent CD8-expressing T cells. The CD4-expressing T-cells secrete gamma interferon, which causes expression of the major histocompatibility complex class II molecules in the cells of the cornea. These class II molecules cause further inflammation by interacting with the T cells and triggering an immune response. Ultraviolet light is important in the genesis of the disease which is seen at higher prevalence at elevated altitude and has a seasonal variation with most cases occurring in the summer. There is likely also a genetic component to the cause of CSK due to its predominance in certain breeds. CSK is usually a
    7.50
    4 votes
    15
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    3 votes
    16
    Canine distemper

    Canine distemper

    Canine distemper is a viral disease that affects animals in the families Canidae, Mustelidae, Mephitidae, Hyaenidae, Ailuridae, Procyonidae, Pinnipedia, some Viverridae and Felidae (though not domestic cats; feline distemper or panleukopenia is a different virus exclusive to cats). It is most commonly associated with domestic animals such as dogs and ferrets, although it can infect wild animals as well. It is a single-stranded RNA virus of the family paramyxovirus, and thus a close relative of measles and rinderpest. Despite extensive vaccination in many regions, it remains a major disease of dogs. The origin of the word distemper is from the Middle English distemperen, meaning to upset the balance of the humors, which is from the Old French destemprer, meaning to disturb, which is from the Vulgar Latin distemperare: Latin dis- and Latin temperare, meaning to not mix properly. Although very similar to the measles virus, canine distemper virus (CDV) seems to have appeared more recently, with the first case described in 1905 by French veterinarian Henri Carré. It was first thought to be related to the plague and typhus, and was attributed to several species of bacteria. It now
    7.25
    4 votes
    18

    Canine Pyoderma

    Canine Pyoderma, also known as Bacterial folliculitis, is the most common type of bacterial skin infection in the dog.
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    5 votes
    19
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    22

    Biliary fever

    Biliary fever is an illness of the liver affecting horses, dogs and cats. This, perhaps the most common infectious disease of dogs in Southern Africa. It is also known as tick bite fever or "Bosluiskoors" in Afrikaans. It is caused by a tiny parasite (Babesia canis) which is introduced into the body by a tick bite. This parasite then enters and destroys red blood cells. Biliary in dogs has a lot in common with malaria in man, except that in the latter, a mosquito is the vector. The peracute (very sudden and severe) form causes death within a few hours and treatment is of little avail. More commonly dogs suffer from the acute or subacute form. This is recognised by the dog being listless or lethargic, losing its appetite and running a temperature. If your dog is off its food, take a rectal temperature reading. If this is 39°C or higher you should have the dog examined - do not wait until its mucous membranes become pale, white or yellow, which commonly suggests a more advanced stage of the disease. Fever is present only while the patient is actively fighting the parasite; the disease may be present with a normal (38,5°C) or subnormal temperature. Yellow faeces and brown or red urine
    8.33
    3 votes
    23
    Grasshopper

    Grasshopper

    The grasshopper is an insect of the suborder Caelifera in the order Orthoptera. To distinguish it from bush crickets or katydids, it is sometimes referred to as the short-horned grasshopper. Species that change colour and behaviour at high population densities are called locusts. Grasshoppers have antennae that are generally shorter than their body and short ovipositors. They also have pinchers or mandibles that cut and tear off food. Those species that make easily heard noises usually do so by rubbing the hind femurs against the forewings or abdomen (stridulation), or by snapping the wings in flight. Tympana, if present, are on the sides of the first abdominal segment. The hind femora are typically long and strong, fitted for leaping. Generally they are winged, but hind wings are membranous while front wings (tegmina) are coriaceous and not fit for flight. Females are normally larger than males, with short ovipositors. Males have a single unpaired plate at the end of the abdomen. Females have two pairs of valves ( triangles) at the end of the abdomen used to dig in sand when egg laying. They are easily confused with the other sub-order of Orthoptera, Ensifera (crickets), but are
    10.00
    2 votes
    24

    Head Trauma in Animals

    Head trauma in animals is a blunt or penetrating injury in the head that is mostly caused by vehicular accidents, falls and animal bites.
    10.00
    2 votes
    25

    Canine brucellosis

    Canine brucellosis is a highly contagious disease that is transmitted to other dogs through breeding and contact with aborted fetuses.
    6.50
    4 votes
    26

    Cat fight abscess

    Cat fight abscesses are common in cats. They are collections of pus that usually form as a result of puncture wounds inflicted during cat fights.
    8.00
    3 votes
    27
    Otitis externa in animals

    Otitis externa in animals

    Otitis externa is an inflammation of the outer ear and ear canal. Animals are commonly prone to ear infection, and this is one of the most common manifestations of allergy in dogs. In dogs, those breeds with floppy ears are more prone, since air flow is limited and a warm, moist environment built up, which is conducive to infection. The external ear in animals is longer and deeper than in humans, which makes it easier for infection or wax to build up or be hard to remove. Complete ear canal inspection requires the use of an otoscope by a veterinarian. Infections are usually secondary to inflammation or to improper grooming techniques. Infections can be caused by both bacterial and fungal origin, as well as small organisms such as ear mites. Malassezia pachydermatis is a common fungal agent for ear infections in dogs. Staphylococcus intermedius is the most common bacterial infection. A more serious ear infection, with pus in the ear, may be caused by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Signs of ear infection include shaking of the head, and scratching at or under the ear. Some animals may also paw the ear or try to rub it on other objects to relieve pain and discomfort. Ear infections often
    8.00
    3 votes
    28
    9.50
    2 votes
    29
    Feline odontoclastic resorptive lesion

    Feline odontoclastic resorptive lesion

    Feline odontoclastic resorptive lesions (FORLs) is a disease in cats characterized by resorption of the tooth by odontoclasts, cells similar to osteoclasts. A FORL is also known as a neck lesion, cervical neck lesion, cervical line erosion, feline caries, or feline cavity. It is one of the most common disease of domestic cats, affecting up to two-thirds. FORLs have been seen more recently in the history of feline medicine due to the advancing ages of cats, but 800-year-old cat skeletons have shown evidence of this disease. Purebred cats, especially Siamese and Persians, may be more susceptible. FORLs appear as erosions of the surface of the tooth at the gingival border. They are often covered with calculus or gingival tissue. It is a progressive disease, usually starting with loss of cementum and dentin and leading to penetration of the pulp cavity. Resorption continues up the dentinal tubules into the tooth crown. The enamel is also resorbed or undermined to the point of tooth fracture. Resorbed cementum and dentin is replaced with bone-like tissue. Symptoms of FORLs include mouth pain (caused by dentin exposure), especially while chewing, anorexia, dehydration, weight loss, and
    7.33
    3 votes
    30

    Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis

    Hemorrhagic gastroenteritis (HGE) is a disease of dogs characterized by sudden vomiting and bloody diarrhea. The symptoms are usually severe, and HGE can be fatal if not treated. HGE is most common in young adult dogs of any breed, but especially small dogs such as the Toy Poodle and Miniature Schnauzer. It is not contagious. The cause is uncertain. Suspected causes include abnormal responses to bacteria or bacterial endotoxin, or a hypersensitivity to food. Pathologically there is an increase in the permeability of the intestinal lining and a leakage of blood and proteins into the bowel. Clostridium perfringens has been found in large numbers in the intestines of many affected dogs. This condition has been linked to taking the drug Rimadyl in some dogs. (by whom) Profuse vomiting is usually the first symptom, followed by depression and bloody diarrhea with a foul odor. Severe hypovolemia (low blood volume) is one of the hallmarks of the disease, and severe hemoconcentration (concentrated blood) is considered necessary for diagnosis. The progression of HGE is so rapid that hypovolemic shock and death can occur within 24 hours. Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) is a
    7.33
    3 votes
    31
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    32

    Anal sac disease

    Anal sac disease is a common medical condition in dogs. It occurs in progressive stages: impaction, inflammation, and abscess formation.
    8.50
    2 votes
    33

    Ehrlichiosis

    Ehrlichiosis ( /ˌɛərlɨkiˈoʊsɨs/; also known as canine rickettsiosis, canine hemorrhagic fever, canine typhus, tracker dog disease, and tropical canine pancytopenia) is a tick-borne disease of dogs usually caused by the organism Ehrlichia canis. Ehrlichia canis is the pathogen of animals. Humans can become infected by E. canis and other species after tick exposure. German Shepherd dogs are thought to be particularly affected by the disease, other breeds generally have milder clinical signs. Cats can also be infected. Ehrlichia is a rickettsial bacteria belonging to the family Ehrlichiaceae. There are several species of Ehrlichia, but the one that most commonly affects dogs and causes the most severe clinical signs is Ehrlichia canis. This species infects monocytes in the peripheral blood. The brown dog tick, or Rhipicephalus sanguineous, that passes the organism to the dog is prevalent throughout most of the United States, but most cases tend to occur in the Southwest and Gulf Coast regions where there is a high concentration of the tick. Ehrlichia is found in many parts of the world and was first recognized in Algeria in 1935. During the Vietnam War ehrlichiosis became well known
    8.50
    2 votes
    34

    Obesity in animals

    Obesity is a common nutritional problem of pets. It is one of the most prevalent diseases in dogs and cats in our time and can lead to serious and life threatening conditions.
    8.50
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    37
    Hip dysplasia

    Hip dysplasia

    Hip dysplasia is an abnormal formation of the hip socket that, in its more severe form, can eventually cause crippling lameness and painful arthritis of the joints. It is a genetic (polygenic) trait that is affected by environmental factors. It can be found in many animals and occasionally in humans, but is most commonly associated with dogs, and is common in many dog breeds, particularly the larger breeds. Hip dysplasia is one of the most studied veterinary conditions in dogs, and the most common single cause of arthritis of the hips. In the normal anatomy of the hip joint, the root (the thigh bone) is connected to the pelvis at the hip joint. The almost spherical end of the femur head (the caput, or caput ossis femoris) fits into the acetabulum (a concave socket located in the pelvis). The bony surface of the femur head and of the acetabulum are covered by cartilage. While bones provide the strength necessary to support body weight, cartilage ensures a smooth fit and a wide range of motion. Normal hip function can be affected by congenital conditions such as dysplasia, discussed in this article, trauma, and by acquired diseases such as osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis. In
    5.25
    4 votes
    38
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    2 votes
    39

    Intestinal Obstruction

    Intestinal Obstruction refers to a condition wherein a foreign material other than food becomes lodged in the gastrointestinal tract.
    8.00
    2 votes
    41
    Periodontal disease

    Periodontal disease

    Periodontal disease is a type of disease that affects one or more of the periodontal tissues: While many different diseases affect the tooth-supporting structures, plaque-induced inflammatory lesions make up the vast majority of periodontal diseases and have traditionally been divided into two categories: While in some sites or individuals, gingivitis never progresses to periodontitis, data indicates that gingivitis always precedes periodontitis. In 1976, Page & Schroeder introduced an innovative new analysis of periodontal disease based on histopathologic and ultrastructural features of the diseased gingival tissue. Although this new classification does not correlate with clinical signs and symptoms and is admittedly "somewhat arbitrary," it permits a focus of attention pathologic aspects of the disease that were, until recently, not well understood. This new classification divided plaque-induced periodontal lesions into four stages: Unlike most regions of the body, the oral cavity is perpetually populated by pathogenic microorganisms; because there is a constant challenge to the mucosa in the form of these microorganisms and their harmful products, it is difficult to truly
    8.00
    2 votes
    42
    Proteus

    Proteus

    Proteus is a genus of Gram-negative Proteobacteria. Three species — P. vulgaris, P. mirabilis, and P. penneri — are opportunistic human pathogens. Proteus includes pathogens responsible for many human urinary tract infections. P. mirabilis causes wound and urinary tract infections. Most strains of P. mirabilis are sensitive to ampicillin and cephalosporins. P. vulgaris is not sensitive to these antibiotics. However, this organism is isolated less often in the laboratory and usually only targets immunosuppressed individuals. P. vulgaris occurs naturally in the intestines of humans and a wide variety of animals, and in manure, soil, and polluted waters. P. mirabilis, once attached to the urinary tract, infects the kidney more commonly than E. coli. P. mirabilis is often found as a free-living organism in soil and water. About 10-15% of kidney stones are struvite stones, caused by alkalinization of the urine by the action of the urease enzyme (which splits urea into ammonia and carbon dioxide) of Proteus (and other) bacterial spp. Proteus species do not usually ferment lactose, but have shown to be capable lactose fermenters depending on the species in a triple sugar iron (TSI)
    8.00
    2 votes
    43

    Salmon poisoning disease

    Salmon poisoning disease (SPD) is a fatal disease of dogs and other canids caused by infection with a type of rickettsia, Neorickettsia helminthoeca. It results from eating raw salmon, trout, or Pacific giant salamander and is found in the Pacific Northwest. These fish and amphibians are infected with metacercariae of a fluke, Nanophyetus salmincola through an intermediate host, the snail Oxytrema plicifer. The fluke attaches to the intestine of the dog and the rickettsiae are released, causing severe gastrointestinal disease and systemic infection. Neorickettsia elokominica, carried by the same fluke, causes a similar disease known as Elokomin fluke fever (EFF) in canids, bears, raccoons, and ferrets. Symptoms of SPD begin about one week after eating the salmon and include vomiting, diarrhea, loss of appetite, depression, high fever, and enlarged lymph nodes. Untreated, mortality reaches 90 percent. Death occurs seven to ten days after symptoms begin. Diagnosis is through finding the fluke eggs microscopically in a stool sample. A needle aspiration biopsy of an enlarged lymph node will reveal rickettsial organisms within macrophages in many cases. The rickettsial infection can be
    8.00
    2 votes
    44
    7.50
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    45
    Rabies

    Rabies

    Rabies (pronounced /ˈreɪbiːz/. From Latin: rabies, "madness") is a viral disease that causes acute encephalitis (inflammation of the brain) in warm-blooded animals. The disease is zoonotic, meaning it can be transmitted from one species to another, such as from dogs to humans, commonly by a bite from an infected animal. For a human, rabies is almost invariably fatal if postexposure prophylaxis is not administered prior to the onset of severe symptoms. The rabies virus infects the central nervous system, ultimately causing disease in the brain and death. The rabies virus travels to the brain by following the peripheral nerves. The incubation period of the disease is usually a few months in humans, depending on the distance the virus must travel to reach the central nervous system. Once the rabies virus reaches the central nervous system and symptoms begin to show, the infection is virtually untreatable and usually fatal within days. Early-stage symptoms of rabies are malaise, headache and fever, progressing to acute pain, violent movements, uncontrolled excitement, depression, and hydrophobia. Finally, the patient may experience periods of mania and lethargy, eventually leading to
    7.50
    2 votes
    46
    6.00
    3 votes
    48
    5.67
    3 votes
    49
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    50
    Corneal ulcers in animals

    Corneal ulcers in animals

    A corneal ulcer, or ulcerative keratitis, is an inflammatory condition of the cornea involving loss of its outer layer. It is very common in dogs and is sometimes seen in cats. In veterinary medicine, the term corneal ulcer is a generic name for any condition involving the loss of the outer layer of the cornea, and as such is used to describe conditions with both inflammatory and traumatic causes. The cornea is a transparent structure that is part of the outer layer of the eye. It refracts light and protects the contents of the eye. The cornea is about one-half to one millimeter thick in the dog and cat. The trigeminal nerve supplies the cornea via the long ciliary nerves. There are pain receptors in the outer layers and pressure receptors deeper. Transparency is achieved through a lack of blood vessels, pigmentation, and keratin, and through the organization of the collagen fibers. The collagen fibers cross the full diameter of the cornea in a strictly parallel fashion and allow 99 percent of the light to pass through without scattering. There are four important layers in the dog and cat cornea. The outer layer is the epithelium, which is 25 to 40 micrometers and five to seven
    6.50
    2 votes
    51

    Diabetes in cats and dogs

    Diabetes mellitus strikes 1 in 230 cats, though recent veterinary studies note that it has become increasingly common. Symptoms in cats are similar to those in humans. Diabetes in cats occurs less frequently than in dogs. 80-95% of diabetic cats experience something similar to type-2 diabetes. but are generally severely insulin-dependent by the time symptoms are diagnosed. The condition is definitely treatable, and need not shorten the animal's life span or life quality. In type-2 cats, prompt effective treatment can even lead to diabetic remission, in which the cat no longer needs injected insulin. Untreated, the condition leads to increasingly weak legs in cats, and eventually malnutrition, ketoacidosis and/or dehydration, and death. Cats will generally show a gradual onset of the disease over a few weeks, and it may escape notice for a while. The condition is unusual in cats younger than seven years old. The first obvious symptoms are a sudden weight loss (occasionally gain), accompanied by excessive drinking and urination; for example, cats can appear to develop an obsession with water and lurk around faucets or water bowls. Appetite is suddenly either ravenous (up to
    6.50
    2 votes
    52

    Feline lower urinary tract disease

    Feline lower urinary tract disease (FLUTD) is a broad term that is used to cover a number of conditions associated with the feline lower urinary tract. It may present as any of a variety of problems such as, inflammation of the bladder (cystitis) or urethra, formation of urinary crystals/stones in the bladder (crystalluria/urolithiasis), and partial or total obstruction of the urethra. The latter condition is also known as plugged-penis syndrome and blocked cat syndrome. Complete urethral obstruction is fatal if left untreated. FLUTD is a common disease in adult cats, affecting from 0.5% to 1% of the population. FLUTD affects cats of both sexes, but tends to be more dangerous in males because they are more susceptible to blockages due to their longer, narrower urethrae. Urinary tract disorders have a high rate of recurrence, and some cats seem to be more susceptible to urinary problems than others. The older term, Feline urologic syndrome (FUS) was renamed to discourage the perception that the clinical signs seen represent one disease with one cause. Approximately 15-20% of FLUTD cases are caused by uroliths, with the most common form being calcium oxalate and struvite (magnesium
    6.50
    2 votes
    53

    Kennel cough

    Kennel cough is an upper respiratory infection affecting dogs. A number of pathogens can cause kennel cough, including viruses such as canine distemper, canine adenovirus, canine parainfluenza virus, canine coronavirus or Influenza A virus subtype H3N8, and bacteria such as Bordetella bronchiseptica. Kennel cough is so named because the infection can spread quickly among dogs in the close quarters of a kennel or animal shelter. Viral and bacterial causes of canine cough are spread through airborne droplets produced by sneezing and coughing. These agents also spread through contact with contaminated surfaces. Most causes of kennel cough are highly contagious, even days or weeks after symptoms disappear. Symptoms usually begin two to three days after exposure, and can progress to lower respiratory infections such pneumonia. Various studies have shown that canine cough is a zoonotic disease, meaning that it can be transmitted from animal to human and vice versa. These studies indicate that Bordetella bronchiseptica infections in humans are uncommon and generally occur in immunocompromised individuals. Symptoms can include a harsh, dry cough, retching, sneezing, snorting, gagging or
    6.50
    2 votes
    54
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    56
    Cytauxzoonosis

    Cytauxzoonosis

    Cytauxzoon felis is a protozoal organism transmitted to domestic cats by tick bites, and whose natural reservoir host is the bobcat. C. felis has been found in other wild felid species such as Florida bobcat, eastern bobcat, Texas cougar, and even a captive white tiger. C. felis infection is limited to the family felidae which means that C. felis poses no zoonotic (transmission to humans) risk or agricultural (tansmission to farm animals) risk. Until recently it was believed that after infection with C. felis, pet cats almost always died. As awareness of C. felis has increased it has been found that treatment is not always futile. More cats have been shown to survive the infection than was previously thought. New treatments offer as much as 60% survival rate. C. felis belongs to the order Piroplasmida and the family Theileriidae. C. felis is related to Cytauxzoon spp. of African ungulates. It is not a bacteria, not a virus, and not a fungus but is instead a protozoa that infects the blood cells of cats. The first case of C. felis was documented in Missouri in 1976, and in the past it was believed to be limited to south central and southeastern United States. There have been more
    6.00
    2 votes
    57
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    61

    Canine hypothyroidism

    Canine hypothyroidism is the most common endocrine disease in dogs and is usually caused by the thyroid gland ceasing to function properly.
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    64

    Hypoadrenocorticism in dogs

    Primary. Primary adrenocortical insufficiency is the more common form of hypoadrenocorticism. It involves a deficiency of both mineralocorticoid and glucocorticoid secretion. Most cases are classified as idiopathic, although immune-mediated adrenocortical destruction is a likely cause. Bilateral destruction of the adrenal cortex by neoplasia (e.g. lymphosarcoma), granulomatous disease, or arterial thrombosis can also cause primary adrenocortical insufficiency. The destruction is progressive, although variable in rate, ultimately leading to complete loss of adrenocorotical function. A partial deficiency syndrome may occur initially, with signs manifested only during times of stress (e.g., boarding, travel, surgery). Secondary. Secondary adrenocortical insufficiency involves only a deficiency of glucocorticoid secretion. Destructive lesions (e.g. neoplasia, inflammation) in the pituitary gland or hypothalamus and chronic administration of exogenous glucocorticoids or megestrol acetate (cats) are the most common causes. Hypoadrenocorticism is typically a disease of young to middle-aged (mean, 4 years; range, 2 months to 12 years) female dogs. No significant breed predilection exists,
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    66

    Feline asthma

    Feline asthma is a common allergic respiratory disease in cats, affecting at least one percent of all adult cats worldwide. It is a chronic progressive disease for which there is no cure. Common symptoms include wheezing, coughing, labored breathing and potentially life-threatening bronchoconstriction. There is conjecture that the disease is becoming more common due to increased exposure to industrial pollutants. Owners often notice their cat coughing several times per day. Cat coughing sounds different from human coughing; more like the cat is passing a hairball. Veterinarians will classify the severity of the symptoms. They will rule out other diseases including heartworm, lungworm and heart disease. Symptoms, pulmonary radiographs, and a positive response to steroids help confirm the diagnosis. Although feline asthma is incurable, ongoing treatments allow many domestic cats to live normal lives. Feline asthma is commonly managed through use of bronchodilators for mild cases, or glucocorticosteroids with bronchodilators for moderate to severe cases. Previously, standard veterinary practice recommended injected and oral medications for control of the disease. These drugs may have
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    67
    Feline eosinophilic granuloma

    Feline eosinophilic granuloma

    Eosinophilic granuloma is a form of Langerhans cell histiocytosis. It is a condition of both human and veterinary pathology. Feline eosinophilic granuloma complex is synonymous with feline eosinophilic skin diseases. This is considered to be a cutaneous reaction pattern that can be the manifestation of a number of underlying infections, allergies or ectoparasite infestations. It can also be idiopathic, that is have no discoverable underlying trigger. The eosinophilic reaction is common in feline inflammatory disease and the eosinophilic granuloma can be a hereditary reaction pattern in some lines of domestic cats. Cats with eosinophilic granuloma complex (EGC) may have one or more of four patterns of skin disease. The most frequent form is eosinophilic plaque. This is a rash comprising raised red to salmon-colored and flat-topped, moist bumps scattered on the skin surface. The most common location is on the ventral abdomen and inner thigh. Another form of EGC is the lip ulcer. This is a painless, shallow ulcer with raised and thickened edges that forms on the upper lip adjacent to the upper canine tooth. It is often found on both sides of the upper lips. The third form of the EGC
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    68
    Microbiological culture

    Microbiological culture

    A microbiological culture, or microbial culture, is a method of multiplying microbial organisms by letting them reproduce in predetermined culture media under controlled laboratory conditions. Microbial cultures are used to determine the type of organism, its abundance in the sample being tested, or both. It is one of the primary diagnostic methods of microbiology and used as a tool to determine the cause of infectious disease by letting the agent multiply in a predetermined medium. For example, a throat culture is taken by scraping the lining of tissue in the back of the throat and blotting the sample into a medium to be able to screen for harmful microorganisms, such as Streptococcus pyogenes, the causative agent of strep throat. Furthermore, the term culture is more generally used informally to refer to "selectively growing" a specific kind of microorganism in the lab. Microbial cultures are foundational and basic diagnostic methods used extensively as a research tool in molecular biology. It is often essential to isolate a pure culture of microorganisms. A pure (or axenic) culture is a population of cells or multicellular organisms growing in the absence of other species or
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    70

    Canine cancer

    Canine Cancer affects the skin, bone, and other organs of dogs. Some are slow growing and some progress very rapidly.
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    71
    Feline acne

    Feline acne

    Feline acne is a problem seen in cats primarily involving the formation of blackheads accompanied by inflammation on the cat's chin and surrounding areas. In many cases symptoms are mild and the disease does not require treatment. More severe cases, however, may respond slowly to treatment and seriously detract from the health and appearance of the cat. Feline acne can affect cats of any age, sex or breed. Sebaceous glands are mostly found in the skin of the chin, base of the tail, eyelids, lips, prepuce and scrotum. They are connected to the hair follicles. In acne, the follicles become clogged with black sebaceous material, forming comedones (also known as blackheads). These comedones can become irritated, swollen and infected, leading to pustules. The cats may experience itching and discomfort due to swelling and bacterial growth inside infected glands. Secondary fungal infections (species Malassezia) may also occur. Other conditions that can cause similar-appearing conditions include skin mites, ringworm, yeast infection, or auto-immune diseases such as eosinophilic granuloma complex ("rodent ulcers"). The main causes of feline acne include: Topical treatments such as warm
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    72
    Feline infectious peritonitis

    Feline infectious peritonitis

    Feline infectious peritonitis (FIP) is a usually fatal, incurable disease that affects cats. It is believed by some to be caused by Feline Infectious Peritonitis Virus (FIPV), which is a mutation of Feline Enteric Coronavirus (FECV) - (Feline Coronavirus FeCoV). Although there appears to be a connection between FIP and feline coronavirus, no clear cause and effect has yet been proven. Experts do not always agree on the specifics of FIP. However, the most common theory is that the normally benign FECV mutates into FIPV. The mutated virus has the ability to invade and grow in certain white blood cells, namely macrophages. The immune system's response causes an intense inflammatory reaction in the containing tissues. This disease is generally fatal . However, its incidence rate is roughly 1 in 5000 for households with one or two cats. A nasally administered vaccine for FIP is available, but controversial and isn't proven to be highly effective. . Great strides are being made with an experimental polyprenyl immunostimulant being manufactered by Sass and Sass and tested by Dr. Al Legendre. In one case study, a female cat diagnosed with dry FIP has survived 26 months from the date of
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    74

    Feline panleukopenia

    Feline panleukopenia virus (FPV), also known as Feline infectious enteritis, Feline distemper, feline ataxia, or cat plague, is a viral infection affecting cats, both domesticated and wild feline species. It is caused by feline parvovirus, a close relative of both type 2 canine parvovirus and mink enteritis. Once contracted, it is highly contagious and can be fatal to the affected cat. The name, panleucopenia, comes from the low white blood cell count (leucocytes) exhibited by affected animals. Panleukopenia is primarily spread through contact with an infected animal's bodily fluids, feces, or other fomites, as well as by fleas. It may be spread to and by cats, minks and ferrets and can be spread long distances through contact with bedding, food dishes, or even by clothing and shoes of handlers of infected animals. It is not, however, contagious or contractable by humans. Like all parvoviruses, FPV is extremely resistant to inactivation and can survive for longer than one year in a suitable environment. The virus primarily attacks the lining of the gastrointestinal tract, causing internal ulceration and, ultimately, total sloughing of the intestinal epithelium. This results in
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    75
    Feline viral rhinotracheitis

    Feline viral rhinotracheitis

    Feline viral rhinotracheitis (FVR) is an upper respiratory or pulmonary infection of cats caused by feline herpesvirus 1, of the family Herpesviridae. It is also known as feline influenza and feline coryza. Viral respiratory diseases in cats can be serious, especially in catteries and kennels. Causing one-half of the respiratory diseases in cats, FVR is the most important of these diseases and is found worldwide. The other important cause of feline respiratory disease is feline calicivirus. FVR is very contagious and can cause severe disease, including death from pneumonia in young kittens. It can cause Flat Chested Kitten Syndrome, but most evidence for this is anecdotal. All members of the Felidae family are susceptible to FVR; in fact, FHV-1 has caused a fatal encephalitis in lions in Germany. FHV-1 was first isolated from cats in 1958 in the United States. FVR is transmitted through direct contact only. It replicates in the nasal and nasopharyngeal tissues and the tonsils. Viremia (the presence of the virus in the blood) is rare. The virus is shed in saliva and eye and nasal secretions, and can also be spread by fomites. FVR has a two to five day incubation period. The virus is
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    76
    Leptospirosis

    Leptospirosis

    Leptospirosis (also known as Weil's syndrome, canicola fever, canefield fever, nanukayami fever, 7-day fever, Rat Catcher's Yellows, Fort Bragg fever, black jaundice, and Pretibial fever) is caused by infection with bacteria of the genus Leptospira and affects humans as well as other animals. Leptospirosis is among the world's most common diseases transmitted to people from animals. The infection is commonly transmitted to humans by allowing water that has been contaminated by animal urine to come in contact with unhealed breaks in the skin, the eyes, or with the mucous membranes. Outside of tropical areas, leptospirosis cases have a relatively distinct seasonality with most cases occurring in spring and autumn. Leptospirosis is caused by a spirochaete bacterium called Leptospira spp. There are at least five serotypes of importance in the United States and Canada, all of which cause disease in dogs (Icterohaemorrhagiae, Canicola, Pomona, Grippotyphosa, and Bratislava). There are other (less common) infectious strains. Genetically different leptospira organisms may be identical serologically and vice versa. Hence, an argument exists on the basis of strain identification. The
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