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Swimming is a water based sport governed by the Fédération Internationale de Natation (FINA).
Swimming has been recorded since prehistoric times; the earliest recording of swimming dates back to Stone Age paintings from around 7,000 years ago. Written references date from 2000 BC. Some of the earliest references to swimming include the Gilgamesh, the Iliad, the Odyssey, the Bible, Beowulf, and other sagas. In 1778, Nikolaus Wynmann, a German professor of languages, wrote the first swimming book, The Swimmer or A Dialogue on the Art of Swimming (Der Schwimmer oder ein Zweigespräch über die Schwimmkunst). Competitive swimming as we know it today started in the United States started around 1800, mostly using breaststroke. Many Americans often used swimming competitions to settle differences in the frontier, such as property rights. In 1873, John Arthur Trudgen introduced the trudgen to Western swimming competitions, after copying the front crawl used by Native Americans. Due to a British dislike of splashing, Trudgen employed a scissor kick instead of the front crawl's flutter kick. Swimming was part of the first modern Olympic Games in 1896 in Athens. In 1902 Richmond Cavill
Gabapentin (brand names Fanatrex, Gabarone, Neogab, Gralise, Neurontin, Nupentin) is a pharmaceutical drug, specifically a GABA analogue. It was originally developed for the treatment of epilepsy, and currently is also used to relieve neuropathic pain. There are, however, concerns regarding the quality of the trials conducted.
Gabapentin is used primarily for the treatment of seizures, neuropathic pain, and hot flashes. There are, however, concerns regarding the quality of the research on its use to treat migraines, bipolar disorders, and pain.
Gabapentin provides significant pain relief in about a third of people who take it for fibromyalgia or chronic neuropathic pain. It is also effective in reducing narcotic usage post operatively and is helpful in neuropathic pain due to cancer. It has not been shown to be useful for HIV associated sensory neuropathy. When used for neuropathic pain it does not appear superior to carbamazepine. Further evidence is needed to determine if it is effective for migraine prevention. It appears to be equally effective as pregabalin and is of lower cost. It does not appear to be of benefit in treating complex regional pain syndrome.
Abacavir (ABC) /ʌ.bæk.ʌ.vɪər/ is a nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) used to treat HIV and AIDS. It is available under the trade name Ziagen (ViiV Healthcare) and in the combination formulations Trizivir (abacavir, zidovudine and lamivudine) and Kivexa/Epzicom (abacavir and lamivudine). It has been well tolerated: the main side effect is hypersensitivity, which can be severe, and in rare cases, fatal. Genetic testing can indicate whether an individual will be hypersensitive; over 90% of patients can safely take abacavir. However, in a separate study, the risk of heart attack increased by nearly 90%.
Viral strains that are resistant to zidovudine (AZT) or lamivudine (3TC) are generally sensitive to abacavir, whereas some strains that are resistant to AZT and 3TC are not as sensitive to abacavir.
Abacavir tablets and oral solution, in combination with other antiretroviral agents, are indicated for the treatment of HIV-1 infection.
Abacavir should always be used in combination with other antiretroviral agents. Abacavir should not be added as a single agent when antiretroviral regimens are changed due to loss of virologic response.
Since it was founded in 1991, Fénix Directo is one of the leading companies in the direct insurance sector in Spain. It is the only company with Quality Management System consistent with the requirements of ISO 9001:2008, whose scope extends to all activities and processes. This certification supports the daily work that Fénix Directo does and shows why its customers rely on the company.
Fénix Directo reached 48.5 million euros in premiums in the first months of 2010. More than 216,000 clients trust the company every day.
Public housing is a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. Social housing is an umbrella term referring to rental housing which may be owned and managed by the state, by non-profit organizations, or by a combination of the two, usually with the aim of providing affordable housing. Social housing can also be seen as a potential remedy to housing inequality.
Although the common goal of public housing is to provide affordable housing, the details, terminology, definitions of poverty and other criteria for allocation vary within different contexts.
In Hong Kong, public housing is one of the major housing policies of the government. Nearly half of Hong Kong's population lives in public housing.
In Singapore, the public housing program, particularly the planning and development of new public housing and the allocation of rental units and resale of existing ownership units, is managed by the Housing and Development Board. Day-to-day management of public housing communities has largely been delegated to Town Councils headed by the local Members of Parliament.
Most of the residential housing developments in Singapore
Cycling, also called bicycling or biking, is the use of bicycles for transport, recreation, or for sport. Persons engaged in cycling are cyclists or bicyclists. Apart from ordinary two-wheeled bicycles, cycling also includes riding unicycles, tricycles, quadracycles, and other similar human-powered vehicles (HPVs).
Bicycles were introduced in the 19th century and now number about one billion worldwide. They are the principal means of transportation in many regions.
Cycling is a very efficient and effective mode of transportation optimal for short to moderate distances. Bicycles provide numerous benefits compared to motor vehicles, including exercise, an alternative to the use of fossil fuels, no air or noise pollution, much reduced traffic congestion, easier parking, greater maneuverability, and access to both roads and paths. The advantages are at less financial cost to the user as well as society (negligible damage to roads, and less pavement required). Criticisms and disadvantages of cycling include reduced protection in crashes, particularly with motor vehicles, longer travel time (except in densely populated areas), vulnerability to weather conditions, difficulty in
Cadexomer iodine is an iodophor that is produced by the reaction of dextrin with epichlorhydrin coupled with ion-exchange groups and iodine. It is a water-soluble modified starch polymer containing 0.9% iodine, calculated on a weight-weight basis, within a helical matrix.
Cadexomer iodine was developed in the early 1980s in Sweden by Perstorp AB, and given the name Iodosorb. The product was shown to be effective in the treatment of venous ulcers,. More recently, it has been shown in studies in animals and humans that, unlike the iodophor povidone-iodine, Iodosorb causes an acceleration of the healing process in chronic human wounds. This is due to an increase in epidermal regeneration and epithelialization in both partial-thickness and full-thickness wounds. In this way cadexomer iodine acts as a cicatrizant.
When formulated as a topical wound dressing Iodosorb adsorbs exudate and particulate matter from the surface of granulating wounds and, as the dressing becomes moist, iodine is released. The product thus has the dual effect of cleansing the wound and exerting a bactericidal action.
In addition to other manufacturers, Smith & Nephew distributes cadexomer iodine as Iodosorb and
Fénix Directo has its origins in the Spanish insurance company La Unión y el Fénix. The history of La Unión y El Fénix goes back to the year 1864. Fénix Directo was launched in Spain in 1991 as a subsidiary of La Unión y El Fénix, with the name of Fénix Autos. In 1995, as a result of the merger between AGF Assurances and La Unión y El Fénix, Fénix Autos changed his name and it was born thus Fénix Directo. Nowadays, after the merger in 1999 with the German insurance group and supplier of financial services Allianz, Fénix Directo is a member of one of the largest insurance groups in the world.
Fénix Directo is specialized in selling motor insurance vehicle over the telephone and by internet. Its headquarters is located in Madrid (Spain) and it is particularly well known in the Spanish market.
Gadobenic acid (tradename MultiHance) is a complex of gadolinium with the ligand BOPTA. In the form of the diglumine salt it functions as a gadolinium-based MRI contrast medium, under the trade name gadobenate dimeglumine.
BOPTA is a derivative of DTPA in which one terminal carboxyl group, –C(O)OH is replaced by -C–O–CH2C6H5. Thus gadobenic acid is closely related to gadopentetic acid. BOPTA itself was first synthesized in 1995. In the "gadobenate" ion gadolinium ion is 9-coordinate with BOPTA acting as a 8-coordinating ligand. The ninth position is occupied by a water molecule, which exchanges rapidly with water molecules in the immediate vicinity of the strongly paramagnetic complex, providing a mechanism for MRI contrast enhancement. La NMR studies on the diamagnetic La-BOPTA complex suggest that the Gd complex maintains in solution the same kind of coordination as found, by X-ray crystallography, in the solid state for Gd-BOPTA disodium salt.
Caffeine is a bitter, white crystalline xanthine alkaloid that acts as a stimulant drug and an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor. Caffeine is found in varying quantities in the seeds, leaves, and fruit of some plants, where it acts as a natural pesticide that paralyzes and kills certain insects feeding on the plants. It is most commonly consumed by humans in infusions extracted from the seed of the coffee plant and the leaves of the tea bush, as well as from various foods and drinks containing products derived from the kola nut. Other sources include yerba maté, guarana berries, guayusa, and the yaupon holly.
In humans, caffeine acts as a central nervous system stimulant, temporarily warding off drowsiness and restoring alertness. It is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug, but, unlike many other psychoactive substances, it is both legal and unregulated in nearly all parts of the world. Beverages containing caffeine, such as coffee, tea, soft drinks, and energy drinks, enjoy great popularity; in North America, 90% of adults consume caffeine daily.
Caffeine is toxic at sufficiently high doses. Ordinary consumption can have low health risks, even when carried on for years
Insurance is a form of risk management primarily used to hedge against the risk of a contingent, uncertain loss. Insurance is defined as the equitable transfer of the risk of a loss, from one entity to another, in exchange for payment. An insurer, or insurance carrier, is a company selling the insurance; the insured, or policyholder, is the person or entity buying the insurance policy. The amount to be charged for a certain amount of insurance coverage is called the premium. Risk management, the practice of appraising and controlling risk, has evolved as a discrete field of study and practice.
The transaction involves the insured assuming a guaranteed and known relatively small loss in the form of payment to the insurer in exchange for the insurer's promise to compensate (indemnify) the insured in the case of a financial (personal) loss. The insured receives a contract, called the insurance policy, which details the conditions and circumstances under which the insured will be financially compensated.
Insurance involves pooling funds from many insured entities (known as exposures) to pay for the losses that some may incur. The insured entities are therefore protected from risk for a
Abarelix (trade name Plenaxis) is an injectable gonadotropin-releasing hormone antagonist (GnRH antagonist). It is primarily used in oncology to reduce the amount of testosterone made in patients with advanced symptomatic prostate cancer for which no other treatment options are available.
It was originally marketed by Praecis Pharmaceuticals as Plenaxis, and is now marketed by Speciality European Pharma in Germany after receiving a marketing authorisation in 2005.
Galactose (from Greek γάλακτος galaktos "milk"), sometimes abbreviated Gal, is a type of sugar that is less sweet than glucose. It is a C-4 epimer of glucose.
Galactan is a polymer of the sugar galactose found in hemicellulose. Galactan can be converted to galactose by hydrolysis.
Galactose exists in both open-chain and cyclic form. The open-chain form has a carbonyl at the end of the chain.
Four isomers are cyclic, two of them with a pyranose (six-membered) ring, two with a furanose (five-membered) ring. Galactofuranose occurs in bacteria, fungi and protozoa.
Galactose is a monosaccharide. When combined with glucose (monosaccharide), through a dehydration reaction, the result is the disaccharide lactose. The hydrolysis of lactose to glucose and galactose is catalyzed by the enzymes lactase and β-galactosidase. The latter is produced by the lac operon in Escherichia coli.
Lactose is found primarily in milk and milk products. Galactose metabolism, which converts galactose into glucose, is carried out by the three principal enzymes in a mechanism known as the Leloir pathway. The enzymes are listed in the order of the metabolic pathway: galactokinase (GALK), galactose-1-phosphate
Caffeine citrate (Cafcit) is a citrate salt of caffeine, with the chemical formula of C14H18N4O9 sometimes used in medical treatment, including short-term treatment of apnea of prematurity (lack of breathing in premature infants). Caffeine citrate functions in much the same capacity as does caffeine, but takes effect more quickly; its speed of dissociation is faster than that of caffeine. Like its sister compound, it can be used to dispel pain from a headache. However, caffeine citrate is typically only used to treat severe migraines.
The drug is prepared simply by combining anhydrous caffeine with citric acid monohydrate and sodium citrate dihydrate. In method of action, the preparation is exactly identical to that of caffeine base as the citrate counter ion dissociates in water. Doses of caffeine citrate, due to the added weight of the citrate moiety, are understandably higher than with caffeine base, i.e., it takes a larger dose to get the same amount of caffeine. The ratio of therapeutic doses of caffeine base to its citrate salt is typically 1:2. It is therefore generally recommended that caffeine is prescribed in terms of caffeine base, and not caffeine citrate.
Bacillus cereus is an endemic, soil-dwelling, Gram-positive, rod-shaped, beta hemolytic bacterium. Some strains are harmful to humans and cause foodborne illness, while other strains can be beneficial as probiotics for animals. It is the cause of "Fried Rice Syndrome," as the bacteria is classically contracted from fried rice dishes that have been sitting at room temperature for hours (such as at a buffet). B. cereus bacteria are facultative anaerobes, and like other members of the genus Bacillus can produce protective endospores. Its virulence factors include cereolysin and phospholipase C.
B. cereus competes with other microorganisms such as Salmonella and Campylobacter in the gut, so its presence reduces the numbers of those microorganisms. In food animals such as chickens, rabbits and pigs, some harmless strains of B. cereus are used as a probiotic feed additive to reduce Salmonella in the intestines and cecum. This improves the animals' growth as well as food safety for humans who eat their meat.
B. cereus is responsible for a minority of foodborne illnesses (2–5%), causing severe nausea, vomiting and diarrhea. Bacillus foodborne illnesses occur due to survival of the
Basal body temperature is the lowest temperature attained by the body during rest (usually during sleep). It is generally measured immediately after awakening and before any physical activity has been undertaken, although the temperature measured at that time is somewhat higher than the true basal body temperature (see Fig. 1). In women, ovulation causes an increase of one-half to one degree Fahrenheit (one-quarter to one-half degree Celsius) in basal body temperature (BBT); monitoring of BBTs is one way of estimating the day of ovulation. The tendency of a woman to have lower temperatures before ovulation, and higher temperatures afterwards, is known as a biphasic pattern. Charting of this pattern may be used as a component of fertility awareness.
The higher levels of estrogen present during the pre-ovulatory (follicular) phase of the menstrual cycle lower BBTs. The higher levels of progesterone released by the corpus luteum after ovulation raise BBTs. The rise in temperatures can most commonly be seen the day after ovulation, but this varies and BBTs can only be used to estimate ovulation within a three day range.
If pregnancy does not occur, the disintegration of the corpus
Ascorbic acid is an essential nutrient in human diets, and is necessary to maintain connective tissue and bone. Its biologically active form is vitamin C. Primates (including humans) and a few other species in all divisions of the animal kingdom, notably the guinea pig, have lost the ability to synthesize ascorbic acid and must obtain it in their food. Ascorbic acid is an electron donor for enzymes involved in collagen hydroxylation, biosynthesis of carnitine and norepinephrine, tyrosine metabolism, and amidation of peptide hormones; its deficiency causes scurvy. The amount of vitamin C necessary to prevent scurvy may not be adequate to maintain optimal health. The ability of vitamin C to donate electrons also makes it a potent water-soluble antioxidant that readily scavenges free radicals such as molecular oxygen, superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and hypochlorous acid. In this setting, several mechanisms could account for a link between vitamin C and heart disease. One is the relation between LDL oxidation and vitamins C and E. Vitamin C in vitro can recycle vitamin E, which can donate electrons to prevent LDL oxidation in vitro. As the lipid-phase vitamin E is oxidized, it can be regenerated by aqueous vitamin C. Other possibilities are that vitamin C could decrease cholesterol by mechanisms not well characterized, or could improve vasodilatation and vascular reactivity, perhaps by decreasing the interactions of nitric oxide with oxidants. (PMID 10799361)
An injection (often referred to as a "shot" in US English, or a "jab" in UK English) is an infusion method of putting fluid into the body, usually with a hollow needle and a syringe which is pierced through the skin to a sufficient depth for the material to be forced into the body. An injection follows a parenteral route of administration; that is, administered other than through the digestive tract.
There are several methods of injection or infusion, including intradermal, subcutaneous, intramuscular, intravenous, intraosseous, and intraperitoneal. Long-acting forms of subcutaneous/intramuscular injections are available for various drugs, and are called depot injections.
Injections are among the most common health care procedures, with least 16 billion administered in developing and transitional countries each year. 95% of injections are administered in curative care, 3% for immunization and the rest for other purposes, such as blood transfusions.
In an intramuscular injection, the medication is delivered directly into a muscle. Many vaccines are administered intramuscularly, as well as codeine, metoclopramide, and many other medications. Many drugs injected intramuscularly are
Mometasone furoate is a glucocorticosteroid used topically to reduce inflammation of the skin or in the airways. It is a prodrug of the free form, mometasone (INN).
Mometasone furoate is used in the treatment of inflammatory skin disorders (such as eczema and psoriasis), allergic rhinitis (such as hay fever), asthma for patients unresponsive to less potent corticosteroids, and penile phimosis. In terms of steroid strength, it is more potent than hydrocortisone, and less potent than dexamethasone.
It reduces inflammation by causing several effects:
Schering-Plough markets the medication under the following brand names; Elocon (Elocom, Elomet, Elosalic) as a cream or ointment for skin conditions, Nasonex as a nasal spray for upper respiratory conditions such as nasal sinus inflammation, Asmanex Twisthaler as a dry powder inhaler (DPI) for lower respiratory conditions. Essex pharma markets the medication under the brand name Ecural and Progreś Laboratories markets it under mometAid.
It is also available as a veterinary drug in an otic (ears) form for treatment of otitis externa under the brand name Mometamax.
Advil is a brand of ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). Advil is manufactured by Pfizer and has been on the market since 1984.
Ibuprofen was initially introduced as a prescription NSAID used for such conditions as rheumatoid arthritis, in 1969 in the UK and 1974 in the US. Ibuprofen became available without a prescription in the UK in 1983 under the name "Nurofen" and in the US in 1984 under the name "Advil".
Ibuprofen was derived from propionic acid by the research arm of Boots Group during the 1960s. It was discovered by Andrew RM Dunlop, with colleagues Stewart Adams, John Nicholson, Vonleigh Simmons, Jeff Wilson and Colin Burrows.
When ibuprofen was introduced in the United States in 1974, the recommended dose was 1200–3200 mg/day. This amount is three times the current recommended dose. The use became widespread and it was confirmed by the FDA as one of the safest of the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); However, concerns about side effects to the liver and stomach had been mounting for some time.
Ibuprofen's safety record remained good with problems only being related to overdosing. The product was "Fast-Tracked" from prescription to over
Heart rate is the number of heartbeats per unit of time, typically expressed as beats per minute (bpm). Heart rate can vary as the body's need to absorb oxygen and excrete carbon dioxide changes, such as during physical exercise or sleep.
The measurement of heart rate is used by medical professionals to assist in the diagnosis and tracking of medical conditions. It is also used by individuals, such as athletes, who are interested in monitoring their heart rate to gain maximum efficiency from their training. The R wave to R wave interval (RR interval) is the inverse of the heart rate.Your target rate zone should be 220
Heart rate is measured by finding the pulse of the body. This pulse rate can be measured at any point on the body where the artery's pulsation is transmitted to the surface by pressuring it with the index and middle fingers; often it is compressed against an underlying structure like bone. The thumb should not be used for measuring another person's heart rate, as its strong pulse may interfere with correct perception of the target pulse.
Possible points for measuring the heart rate are:
A more precise method of determining pulse involves the use of an
Human height is the distance from the bottom of the feet to the top of the head in a human body standing erect.
When populations share genetic background and environmental factors, average height is frequently characteristic within the group. Exceptional height variation (around 20% deviation from average) within such a population is sometimes due to gigantism or dwarfism, which are medical conditions caused by specific genes or endocrine abnormalities.
In regions of extreme poverty or prolonged warfare, environmental factors like chronic malnutrition during childhood or adolescence may account for delayed growth and/or (in severe cases) marked reductions in adult stature even without the presence of any of these medical conditions.
The study of height is known as auxology. Growth has long been recognized as a measure of the health of individuals, hence part of the reasoning for the use of growth charts. For individuals, as indicators of health problems, growth trends are tracked for significant deviations and growth is also monitored for significant deficiency from genetic expectations. Genetics is a major factor in determining the height of individuals, though it is far less
In physiology, perfusion is the process of delivery of blood to a capillary bed in the biological tissue. The word is derived from the French verb "perfuser" meaning to "pour over or through."
Tests of adequate perfusion are a part of the patient assessment process performed by medical or emergency personnel. The most common methods include evaluating skin color, temperature, condition and capillary refill.
The terms "overperfusion" and "underperfusion" are measured relative to the average level of perfusion across all tissues in an individual body, and the terms should not be confused with hypoperfusion and "hyperperfusion", which measure the perfusion level relative to the tissue's current need.
Tissues like the heart are considered overperfused and receive more blood than would be expected to meet the metabolic needs of the tissue. In the case of the skin, extra blood flow is used for thermoregulation. In addition to delivering oxygen, the blood helps dissipate heat by redirecting warm blood close to the surface where it can cool the body through sweating and thermal dissipation.
In 1920 August Krogh was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine for the discovery of the
Cafergot is the proprietary name of a medication consisting of ergotamine tartrate and caffeine. This combination is used for the treatment of vascular headaches, such as migraine headache.
Correct timing of use is important. Cafergot is an abortive headache treatment, which prevents the development of the headache, rather than a treatment for an established headache. The medication should be administered at the first sign of headache.
There exists some limitations as to the maximum number of tablets that can be taken per day per week. Different sources of drug information may carry different information, and patients are encouraged to ask their pharmacist or prescriber about such details.
The causes of migraine are not fully understood, but dilation of blood vessels in the brain may play a part in causing the headache pain. Ergotamine tartrate and caffeine are both vasoconstrictors, substances which act to constrict blood vessels.
Because the vasoconstrictive effects of ergotamine and caffeine are not selective for the brain, adverse effects due to systemic vasoconstriction can occur. Cold feet or hands, angina pectoris or dizziness are some examples.
Gadopentetic acid is one of the trade names for a gadolinium -based MRI contrast agent, usually administered as a salt of a complex of gadolinium with DTPA (diethylenetriaminepentacetate ) with the chemical formula A2[Gd(DTPA)(H2O)]; when cation A is the protonated form of the amino sugar meglumine the salt goes under the name "Gadopentetate dimeglumine". It was described in 1981 and introduced as the first MRI contrast agent in 1987. It is used to assist imaging of blood vessels and of inflamed or diseased tissue where the blood vessels become 'leaky'. It is often used when viewing intracranial lesions with abnormal vascularity or abnormalities in the blood–brain barrier. It is usually injected intravenously. Gd-DTPA is classed as an acyclic, ionic gadolinium contrast medium. Its paramagnetic property reduces the T1 relaxation time (and to some extent the T2 and T2* relaxation times) in NMR, which is the source of its clinical utility.
Marketed as Magnevist by Bayer Schering Pharma, it was the first intravenous contrast agent to become available for clinical use, and is in widespread use around the world. Similar contrast agents are Dotarem (gadoterate) manufactured by Guerbet,
Aripiprazole ( /ˌɛərɨˈpɪprəzoʊl/ AIR-i-PIP-rə-zohl; brand names: Abilify, Aripiprex) is a partial dopamine agonist of the third generation class of atypical antipsychotics with additional antidepressant properties that is used in the treatment of schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and clinical depression. It was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for schizophrenia on November 15, 2002 and the European Medicines Agency on 4 June 2004; for acute manic and mixed episodes associated with bipolar disorder on October 1, 2004; as an adjunct for major depressive disorder on November 20, 2007; and to treat irritability in children with autism on 20 November 2009. Aripiprazole was developed by Otsuka in Japan, and in the United States, Otsuka America markets it jointly with Bristol-Myers Squibb.
Aripiprazole is used for the treatment of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder.
In the United States, the FDA has approved aripiprazole for the treatment of schizophrenia in adults and adolescents (aged 13–17), of manic and mixed episodes associated with Bipolar I Disorder with or without psychotic features in adults, children and adolescents (aged 10–17), of irritability associated
Cabbage (Brassica oleracea or variants) is a leafy green biennial, grown as an annual vegetable for its densely-leaved heads. Closely related to other cole crops such as broccoli, cauliflower and brussels sprouts, it descends from B. oleracea var. oleracea, a wild field cabbage. Cabbage heads generally range from 1 to 8 pounds (0.45 to 3.6 kg), and can be green, purple and white. Smooth-leafed firm-headed green cabbages are the most common, with smooth-leafed red and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colors seen more rarely.
It is difficult to trace the exact history of cabbage, but it was most likely domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC. By the Middle Ages it was a prominent part of European cuisine, although savoys were not developed until the 16th century. Cabbage heads are generally picked during the first year of the plants' life cycles, but those intended for seed are allowed to grow a second year, and must be kept separated from other cole crops to prevent cross pollination. Cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies, as well as multiple pests, bacteria and fungal diseases.
The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) reports that
An automobile, autocar, motor car or car is a wheeled motor vehicle used for transporting passengers, which also carries its own engine or motor. Most definitions of the term specify that automobiles are designed to run primarily on roads, to have seating for one to eight people, to typically have four wheels, and to be constructed principally for the transport of people rather than goods.
The term motorcar has also been used in the context of electrified rail systems to denote a car which functions as a small locomotive but also provides space for passengers and baggage. These locomotive cars were often used on suburban routes by both interurban and intercity railroad systems.
It was estimated in 2010 that the number of automobiles had risen to over 1 billion vehicles, with 500 million reached in 1986. The numbers are increasing rapidly, especially in China and India.
The word automobile comes, via the French automobile from the Ancient Greek word αὐτός (autós, "self") and the Latin mobilis ("movable"); meaning a vehicle that moves itself. The alternative name car is believed to originate from the Latin word carrus or carrum ("wheeled vehicle"), or the Middle English word carre
Cabergoline (brand names Dostinex and Cabaser), an ergot derivative, is a potent dopamine receptor agonist on D2 receptors. In vitro, rat studies show cabergoline has a direct inhibitory effect on pituitary lactotroph (prolactin) cells. It is frequently used as a first-line agent in the management of prolactinomas due to higher affinity for D2 receptor sites, less severe side effects, and more convenient dosing schedule than the older bromocriptine.
Cabergoline was invented by scientists working for the Italian drug company Farmitalia-Carlo Erba SpA in Milan in 1981/82, who were experimenting with semisynthetic derivatives of the ergot alkaloids. Farmitalia-Carlo Erba was acquired by Pharmacia in 1992, which in turn was acquired by Pfizer in 2002. The drug was approved by the FDA on December 23, 1996. It went generic in late 2005 following US patent expiration.
Farmitalia filed a patent application for Cabergoline in 1982, and U.S. Patent 4,526,892 issued in July 1985.
Although cabergoline is commonly described principally as a dopamine D2 receptor agonist, it also possesses significant affinity for the D3, D4, 5-HT1A, 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, 5-HT2C, α2B- receptors, and moderate/low
Abatacept (marketed as Orencia) is a fusion protein composed of the Fc region of the immunoglobulin IgG1 fused to the extracellular domain of CTLA-4. It is a molecule capable of binding with more avidity to CD80 (B7-1) than to CD86 (B7-2). Abatacept is a selective co-stimulation modulator as it inhibits the costimulation of T cells. It was developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb and is licensed in the United States for the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis in the case of inadequate response to anti-TNFα therapy.
Abatacept prevents antigen-presenting cells (APCs) from delivering the co-stimulatory signal to T cells to fully activate them. Note that binding of the activation signal without its complementary co-stimulatory signal also helps to enable downregulation of T cells by way of T cell anergy. Simple signaling without co-stimulation allows the cell to recognize the primary signal as "self" and not ramp-up responses for future responses as well.
Ordinarily, full T cell activation requires 1) binding of the T cell receptor to the antigen-MHC complex on the APC and 2) a co-stimulatory signal provided by the binding of CD28, a T cell protein, to the B7 protein on the APC. Abatacept,
The drug combination atorvastatin/amlodipine (trade names Caduet in the US and Australia, and Envacar elsewhere) is a medication approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of high cholesterol and high blood pressure. It is a fixed dose combination drug containing the calcium channel blocker amlodipine and the statin atorvastatin. It is being marketed by the pharmaceutical company Pfizer.
Blood glucose monitoring is a way of testing the concentration of glucose in the blood (glycemia). Particularly important in the care of diabetes mellitus, a blood glucose test is performed by piercing the skin (typically, on the finger) to draw blood, then applying the blood to a chemically active disposable 'test-strip'. Different manufacturers use different technology, but most systems measure an electrical characteristic, and use this to determine the glucose level in the blood. The test is usually referred to as capillary blood glucose and sometimes incorrectly called BM Stix (after one of the companies that makes the test kit).
Healthcare professionals advise patients with diabetes on the appropriate monitoring regime for their condition. Most people with Type 2 diabetes test at least once per day. Diabetics who use insulin (all Type 1 diabetes and many Type 2s) usually test their blood sugar more often (3 to 10 times per day), both to assess the effectiveness of their prior insulin dose and to help determine their next insulin dose.
Improved technology for measuring blood glucose is rapidly changing the standards of care for all diabetic people.
Blood glucose monitoring
Gadodiamide is a gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent, used in MR imaging procedures to assist in the visualization of blood vessels. It is commonly marketed under the trade name Omniscan.
Gadodiamide is a contrast medium for cranial and spinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and for general MRI of the body after intravenous administration. The product provides contrast enhancement and facilitates visualisation of abnormal structures or lesions in various parts of the body including the central nervous system (CNS). It does not cross an intact blood brain barrier but might give enhancement in pathological conditions.
In February 2008, Danish media stated that gadolinium-based agents may be associated with a toxic reaction known as nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) in some patients with severe kidney problems.
Some articles suggested that over 60 persons examined with Omniscan had either died or had been severely disabled as a result of the use of the product. However, a recent report by the Danish Medicines Agency stated that there were 35 cases of NSF reported after use of Omniscan and that 33 of these had been reported from a single centre in Copenhagen. However, already in
Gadoteric acid (trade names Artirem, Dotarem) is a macrocycle-structured gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent. It consists of the organic acid DOTA as a chelating agent, and gadolinium (Gd), and is used in form of the meglumine salt. The drug is approved and used in a number of countries worldwide.
Blood pressure (BP), sometimes referred to as arterial blood pressure, is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels, and is one of the principal vital signs. When used without further specification, "blood pressure" usually refers to the arterial pressure of the systemic circulation. During each heartbeat, blood pressure varies between a maximum (systolic) and a minimum (diastolic) pressure. The blood pressure in the circulation is principally due to the pumping action of the heart. Differences in mean blood pressure are responsible for blood flow from one location to another in the circulation. The rate of mean blood flow depends on the resistance to flow presented by the blood vessels. Mean blood pressure decreases as the circulating blood moves away from the heart through arteries and capillaries due to viscous losses of energy. Mean blood pressure drops over the whole circulation, although most of the fall occurs along the small arteries and arterioles. Gravity affects blood pressure via hydrostatic forces (e.g., during standing) and valves in veins, breathing, and pumping from contraction of skeletal muscles also influence blood pressure in
Walking (also known as ambulation) is one of the main gaits of locomotion among legged animals, and is typically slower than running and other gaits. Walking is defined by an 'inverted pendulum' gait in which the body vaults over the stiff limb or limbs with each step. This applies regardless of the number of limbs - even arthropods with six, eight or more limbs.
The word walk is descended from the Old English wealcan "to roll". In humans and other bipeds, walking is generally distinguished from running in that only one foot at a time leaves contact with the ground and there is a period of double-support. In contrast, running begins when both feet are off the ground with each step. This distinction has the status of a formal requirement in competitive walking events. For quadrupedal species, there are numerous gaits which may be termed walking or running, and distinctions based upon the presence or absence of a suspended phase or the number of feet in contact any time do not yield mechanically correct classification. The most effective method to distinguish walking from running is to measure the height of a person's center of mass using motion capture or a force plate at midstance.
Abciximab (previously known as c7E3 Fab), a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor antagonist manufactured by Centocor and distributed by Eli Lilly under the trade name ReoPro, is a platelet aggregation inhibitor mainly used during and after coronary artery procedures like angioplasty to prevent platelets from sticking together and causing thrombus (blood clot) formation within the coronary artery. It is a glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor.
While Abciximab has a short plasma half-life, due to its strong affinity for its receptor on the platelets, it may occupy some receptors for weeks. In practice, platelet aggregation gradually returns to normal about 96 to 120 hours after discontinuation of the drug.(Tanguay, J.F., Eur Heart J 1999; 1 (suppl E): E27-E35 Abciximab is made from the Fab fragments of an immunoglobulin that targets the glycoprotein IIb/IIIa receptor on the platelet membrane.
Abciximab is indicated for use in individuals undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (angioplasty with or without stent placement). The use of abciximab in this setting is associated with a decreased incidence of ischemic complications due to the procedure and a decreased need for repeated coronary
Tiagabine ( /taɪˈæɡəbiːn/ is an anti-convulsive medication produced by Cephalon and marketed under the brand name Gabitril. The drug was discovered at Novo Nordisk in Denmark in 1988 and was co-developed with Abbott. After a period of co-promotion, Cephalon licensed Tiagabine from Abbott/Novo and now is the exclusive producer. The medication is also used in the treatment of panic disorder, as are a few other anticonvulsants.
Tiagabine is approved by U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as an adjunctive treatment for partial seizures in ages 12 and up. It may also be prescribed to treat anxiety disorders and neuropathic pain (including fibromyalgia). For anxiety and neuropathic pain, tiagabine is used primarily to augment other treatments. Tiagabine may be used alongside SSRIs, SNRIs or benzodiazepines for anxiety, or antidepressants, gabapentin, anticonvulsants or opiates for neuropathic pain.
It is believed that the pharmacology is related to its ability, documented in in vitro experiments, to enhance the activity of gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system. These experiments have shown that tiagabine binds to
Urokinase (trade name Abbokinase), also called urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), is a serine protease (EC 126.96.36.199). It was ﬁrst discovered in 1947 by McFarlane. ( Nursing grand rounds pdfs.journals.lww.com/.../Nursing_grand_rounds.8.pdf J Vitello-Cicciu - 1987 ). Urokinase was originally isolated from human urine, but is present in several physiological locations, such as blood stream and the extracellular matrix. The primary physiological substrate is plasminogen, which is an inactive zymogen form of the serine protease plasmin. Activation of plasmin triggers a proteolysis cascade that, depending on the physiological environment, participates in thrombolysis or extracellular matrix degradation. This links urokinase to vascular diseases and cancer.
Urokinase is a 411-residue protein, consisting of three domains: the serine protease domain, the kringle domain, and the growth factor domain. Urokinase is synthesized as a zymogen form (prourokinase or single-chain urokinase), and is activated by proteolytic cleavage between L158 and I159. The two resulting chains are kept together by a disulfide bond.
The most important inhibitors of urokinase are the serpins plasminogen
4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) is known to be a transcriptional regulator, and sodium-4-PBA has been shown to induce fetal hemoglobin, and it has been used in clinical trials for sickle cell anemia and β-thalassemia Because gene expression profiles became more differentiated, it is in phase I trials in several different malignant disorders. The potential for therapeutic benefit in cystic fibrosis (CF) resides in an additional mechanism, involving protein folding and the ER environment. 4-PBA is a drug that was developed to treat elevated blood ammonia in urea cycle disorders, a histone deacetylase inhibitor that promotes mutation ΔF508 cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) trafficking. (PMID 12458151)
Gadobutrol (INN) (Gd-DO3A-butrol) is a gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent (GBCA).
It received marketing approval in Canada and in the United States.
As of 2007, it was the only GBCA approved at 1.0 molar concentrations.
Gadobutrol is marketed by Bayer Schering Pharma as Gadovist, and by Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals as Gadavist.
The peak expiratory flow (PEF), also called peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) is a person's maximum speed of expiration, as measured with a peak flow meter, a small, hand-held device used to monitor a person's ability to breathe out air. It measures the airflow through the bronchi and thus the degree of obstruction in the airways.
Peak flow readings are higher when patients are well, and lower when the airways are constricted. From changes in recorded values, patients and doctors may determine lung functionality, severity of asthma symptoms, and treatment options.
First measure of precaution would be to check patient for signs and symptoms of asthmatic hypervolemia. This would indicate whether or not to even continue with the Peak Flow Meter procedure. Measurement of PEFR requires training to correctly use a meter and the normal expected value depends on a patient's sex, age and height. It is classically reduced in obstructive lung disorders such as asthma.
Due to the wide range of ‘normal' values and high degree of variability, peak flow is not the recommended test to identify asthma. However, it can be useful in some circumstances.
A small proportion of people with asthma may