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St Ebbe's is a Church of England parish church in central Oxford. The church has a conservative evangelical tradition and participates in the Anglican Reform movement. It has members from many nations, many of whom are students at Oxford University. The Rector is Vaughan Roberts, author and conference speaker.
The church holds Sunday morning and evening services both in central Oxford and in Headington, and holds an additional morning service during Oxford University terms. The church also organises a range of small groups, meeting midweek, including a Christianity Explored group aimed at those wanting to find out what Christians believe.
The church stands on the site of one dedicated to St Æbbe before 1005. Most sources suggest that this was the Northumbrian St Æbbe of Coldingham, but it has been suggested that Æbbe of Oxford was a different saint. The name was first recorded in about 1005, when the church was granted to Eynsham Abbey.
The present church was built in 1814–16. It was enlarged and improved in 1866 and 1904. A fine Norman doorway of the 12th century has been restored and placed at the west end. The church is a parish church for the parish of St Ebbes, a portion of
Oxford Playhouse (often just known as the Playhouse by locals) is an independent theatre designed by Sir Edward Maufe. It is situated in Beaumont Street, Oxford, opposite the Ashmolean Museum.
The Playhouse was originally founded as The Red Barn at 12 Woodstock Road, North Oxford, in 1923 by J. B. Fagan. The early history of the theatre is documented by the theatre director, Norman Marshall in his 1947 book, The Other Theatre. Don Chapman has also provided a comprehensive study of the theatre in his 2008 book, Oxford Playhouse: High and Low Drama in a University City.
The current theatre building on the south side of Beaumont Street was designed by Sir Edward Maufe and was completed in 1938. It is faced with stone, in keeping with other early 19th century Regency buildings in the street.
Well-known actors who have appeared on the stage at the Playhouse include Rowan Atkinson, Ronnie Barker, Dirk Bogarde, Judi Dench, John Gielgud, Ian McKellen, Dudley Moore, Bill Hicks and Maggie Smith. Susannah York gave her final performance at The Playhouse in August 2010 in Ronald Harwood's Quartet.
The Greek theatre director Minos Volanakis was an associate director at the theatre; his
The College of the Holy and Undivided Trinity in the University of Oxford, of the foundation of Sir Thomas Pope, or Trinity College for short, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. It stands on Broad Street, next door to Balliol College and Blackwells bookshop, and opposite Turl Street. It is enclosed by an iron palisade, rather than a wall, giving the college a more open and accessible appearance than many others in Oxford. The college has four major quadrangles, as well as a large lawn and gardens, which include a small area of woodland. Despite its size, the college is relatively small in terms of student numbers, with about 400 students. As of 2010, Trinity had an estimated financial endowment of £81 million.
The site where Trinity College now stands was originally occupied by Durham College, built for Benedictine monks from Durham Cathedral. This college had been founded after land was bought in 1291, though monks had been sent to Oxford for a few years previous to this. Durham College was built around a single quadrangle, now known as the Durham Quadrangle. The only major surviving building from the Durham College foundation is the east
The Queen's College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford, England. The college was founded in 1341 by Robert de Eglesfield (d'Eglesfield) in honour of Queen Philippa of Hainault. The college is distinguished by its predominantly neo-classical architecture, which includes buildings designed by Sir Christopher Wren and Nicholas Hawksmoor.
The college was founded during the 14th century by Robert de Eglesfield (d'Eglesfield), chaplain to Queen Philippa of Hainault (the wife of King Edward III of England); hence its name. The college's coat of arms is that of the founder; it differs slightly from his family's coat of arms, which did not include the gold star on the breast of the first eagle. The current coat of arms was adopted by d'Eglesfield because he was unable to use his family's arms, being the younger son. The frontage was designed by Nicholas Hawksmoor, part of a substantial rebuilding in the 18th century during which the library was built. The medieval foundations, however, remain beneath the current 18th-century structure. In 2011, the college had an net assets of £194.5 million, and fixed assets of approximately £207.5 million.
The college has had a long
Hertford College (/ˈhɑːtfʊd ˈkɒlɪdʒ/ HART-fərd KOL-ij) is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. It is located on Catte Street in the centre of Oxford, directly opposite the main gate to the Bodleian Library. The College is known for its iconic bridge, the Bridge of Sighs. As of 2006, the college had a financial endowment of £52m. There are 612 students (396 undergraduates and 216 graduates), plus various visiting students from universities all over the world. Some famous alumni include William Tyndale, John Donne, Thomas Hobbes, Jonathan Swift and Evelyn Waugh.
The College began life as Hart Hall (Aula Cervina), a small tenement built roughly where the College's Old Hall is today, a few paces along New College Lane on the southern side. In mediaeval Oxford, halls were primarily lodging houses for students and resident tutors. The land for Hart Hall was purchased by Elias de Hertford in 1282, and made over to his son, also Elias, in 1301. The name of the hall was likely a humorous reduction of the name of its founder's home town, and allowed for the use of the symbol of a hart to be used for identification.
At that time, New College Lane was known as Hammer
Keble College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Its main buildings are on Parks Road, opposite the University Museum and the University Parks. The college is bordered to the north by Keble Road, to the south by Museum Road, and to the west by Blackhall Road.
Keble was established in 1870, having been built as a monument to John Keble. John Keble had been a leading member of the Oxford Movement, which sought to stress the Catholic nature of the Church of England. Consequently, the College traditionally placed a considerable emphasis on theological teaching, although this has long since ceased to be the case. In the period after the second World War the trends were towards scientific courses (the major area devoted to science east of the University Museum influenced this) and eventually co-education for men and women from 1979 onwards. As originally constituted it was for men only and the fellows were mostly bachelors resident in the college.
It remains distinctive for its once-controversial neo-gothic red-brick buildings designed by William Butterfield. The buildings are also notable for breaking from Oxbridge tradition by arranging rooms
The New Theatre Oxford (known, for a period, as the Apollo Theatre Oxford or simply The Apollo from 1977–2003) is the main commercial theatre in Oxford, England and has a capacity of 1,800 people.
It is located on George Street, in the centre of the city, and puts on a wide variety of shows, from musical theatre, to stand-up comedy and concerts.
The first "New Theatre" on this site opened in 1836 and presented music hall entertainment. This was replaced in 1886, by new premises, which were the home of Oxford University Dramatic Society. The theatre was damaged by fire in 1892 and enlarged in 1908, from which date, until 1972, the New Theatre was continuously under the management of the Dorrill family.
The present building dates from 1933 and was designed by Milburn Brothers with an art deco interior by T.P. Bennet and Sons. The colour scheme was originally in shades of deep brown with gilt friezes but in later years (circa 1980?) a multi-colour scheme was introduced, which did not reflect the original design.
There has been a theatre on the corner of George Street for almost 170 years. The first theatre built in 1836 was known commonly as the 'Vic', and later as the 'Theatre
Merton College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Its foundation can be traced back to the 1260s when Walter de Merton, chancellor to Henry III and later to Edward I, first drew up statutes for an independent academic community and established endowments to support it. The important feature of Walter's foundation was that this "college" was to be self-governing and that the endowments were directly vested in the Warden and Fellows.
By 1274 when Walter retired from royal service and made his final revisions to the college statutes, the community was consolidated at its present site in the south east corner of the city of Oxford, and a rapid programme of building commenced. The hall and the chapel and the rest of the front quad were complete before the end of the 13th century, but apart from the chapel they have all been much altered since. To most visitors, the college and its buildings are synonymous, but the history of the college can be more deeply understood if one distinguishes the history of the academic community from that of the site and buildings that they have occupied for nearly 750 years. Merton is among the wealthier colleges, and
Oxford University Press (OUP) is the largest university press in the world. It is a department of the University of Oxford and is governed by a group of 15 academics appointed by the Vice-Chancellor known as the Delegates of the Press. They are headed by the Secretary to the Delegates, who serves as OUP's chief executive and as its major representative on other university bodies. Oxford University has used a similar system to oversee the Press since the 17th century.
The university became involved in the print trade around 1480, and grew into a major printer of Bibles, prayer books, and scholarly works. Its Press took on the project that became the Oxford English Dictionary in the late 19th century, and expanded to meet the ever-rising costs of the work. As a result, the last hundred years has seen Oxford publish children's books, school text books, music, journals, the World's Classics series, and a best-selling range of English Language Teaching texts to match its academic and religious titles. Moves into international markets led to the Press opening its own offices outside the United Kingdom, beginning with New York in 1896. With the advent of computer technology and
Ruskin College is an independent educational institution in Oxford, England. It is named after the essayist and social critic John Ruskin (1819–1900) and specialises in providing educational opportunities for adults with few or no qualifications. The college is not part of the University of Oxford, but strong relations with the university allow special privileges such as attending lectures and the use of most facilities. Ruskin College is among the eight non-university institutions whose members are eligible for Long-Term Temporary Membership in the Oxford Union.
The mission of the college has always been to provide educational opportunities to adults who are excluded and disadvantaged, and to transform the individuals concerned along with the communities, groups and societies from which they come, the only change having been to personalise the language (away from ‘the excluded’, who do not sound like people) in line with growing equalities awareness. The mission statement is twofold:
Ruskin tends towards a curriculum that has high social relevance, students who want to make a difference in the world, and forms of academic scholarship and research that are engaged and
Pembroke College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England, located in Pembroke Square. As of 2009, Pembroke had an estimated financial endowment of £44.9 million.
In the early seventeenth century, the endowment of Thomas Tesdale—a merchant from nearby Abingdon—and Richard Wightwick—a clergyman from Berkshire—enabled the conversion of the Broadgates Hall, which had been a University hostel for law students since its construction in the fifteenth century, to form the basis of a fully fledged college. The letters patent to found the college were signed by King James I in 1624, with the college being named after William Herbert, 3rd Earl of Pembroke, Lord Chamberlain and then-Chancellor of the University.
Following its foundation, the college proceeded to expand around Broadgates, building what is now known as "Old Quad" in the 1600s. Built in stages through the seventeenth century out of the local Cotswold limestone, space restrictions saw the south-side of the Quad built directly on top of the old City Wall. A Chapel was built in 1732, and the introduction of further accommodation in 1846, and the Hall in 1848 to designs by Exeter based architect John
The Bodleian Library ( /ˈbɒdliən/ or /bɒdˈliːən/), the main research library of the University of Oxford, is one of the oldest libraries in Europe, and in Britain is second in size only to the British Library. Known to Oxford scholars as "Bodley" or simply "the Bod", under the Legal Deposit Libraries Act 2003 it is one of six legal deposit libraries for works published in the United Kingdom and under Irish Law it is entitled to request a copy of each book published in the Republic of Ireland. Though University members may borrow some books from dependent libraries (such as the Radcliffe Science Library), the Bodleian operates principally as a reference library and in general documents may not be removed from the reading rooms.
The Library occupies a group of five buildings near Broad Street: these range in date from the late medieval Duke Humfrey's Library to the New Bodleian of the 1930s. Since the 19th century a number of underground stores have been built below parts of these.
Today, the Bodleian also includes several off-site storage areas as well as many other libraries in central Oxford:
Before being granted access to the library, new readers are required to agree to a formal
The Oxford Oratory Church of St Aloysius Gonzaga (or Oxford Oratory for short) is the Catholic parish church for the centre of Oxford, England. It is located at 25 Woodstock Road. The church is presently served by the Congregation of the Oratory.
St. Aloysius' was originally founded as the Jesuit (Society of Jesus) parish of central Oxford. Completed in 1875, the building of St. Aloysius' was an important step in the on-going refoundation of a Roman Catholic presence in Oxford. The parish was served by notable members of the Society for many years - including Gerard Manley Hopkins. The Church also housed a notable collection of relics bequeathed by Hartwell de la Garde Grissell, many of which were destroyed in the 1970s.
In the 1980s, the Jesuits left the church and the parish was taken over by the Archdiocese of Birmingham. In 1990, the Archbishop of Birmingham invited members of the Birmingham Oratory to take over the running of the parish and found a new Oratorian community in Oxford. Two priests from Birmingham arrived in September 1990 and, in 1993, the Oxford Oratory was established as an independent Congregation.
It is part of the tradition of the Oratory in England to
Exeter College (in full: The Rector and Scholars of Exeter College in the University of Oxford) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England and the fourth oldest college of the University. The main entrance is on the east side of Turl Street. As of 2006, the college had an estimated financial endowment of £47m.
Still situated in its original location in Turl Street, Exeter College was founded in 1314 by Walter de Stapeldon of Devon, Bishop of Exeter and later treasurer to Edward II, as a school to educate clergy. During its first century, it was known as Stapeldon Hall and was significantly smaller, with just twelve to fourteen students. The college grew significantly from the 15th century onward, and began offering rooms to its students. The College motto is "Floreat Exon.", meaning "Let Exeter Flourish".
In the 16th century, donations from Sir William Petre, a former Exeter graduate, helped to expand and transform the college. In a clever move by the bursar to fill the new buildings as they were completed, a significant number of noble Roman Catholic students were invited to enroll and take classes at the enlarged college; however, they were not
St Catherine's College, often called Catz, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Its motto is Nova et Vetera ("the new and the old"). As of 2006, the college had an estimated financial endowment of £53m.
St Catherine's College was founded by the distinguished historian Alan Bullock, who went on to become the first Master of the College, and later Vice-Chancellor of Oxford University.
The College traces its descent from the Delegacy of Non-Collegiate Students, founded in 1868 to offer university education at Oxford without the costs of college membership. Nonetheless, the social role of a college was re-established by the Delegacy's students, meeting as St Catherine's Club (originally St Catharine's Club), which was named after its meeting place in a hall on Catte Street. The Club was officially recognised by the University in 1931 as St Catherine's Society. It was thus developing the characteristics of a college, and in 1956 the Delegates decided to formalise this change in status.
After acquiring 8 acres (32,000 m) from Merton College, Oxford on part of Holywell Great Meadow for £57,690, monies were sought from the University Grants Committee
The University Church of St Mary the Virgin (St Mary's or SMV for short) is the largest of Oxford's parish churches and the centre from which the University of Oxford grew. It is situated on the north side of the High Street, and is surrounded by university and college buildings.
St Mary's possesses an eccentric baroque porch, designed by Nicholas Stone, facing High Street, and a spire which is claimed by some church historians to be one of the most beautiful in England. Radcliffe Square lies to the north and to the east is Catte Street. The 13th century tower is open to the public for a fee and provides good views across the heart of the historic university city, especially Radcliffe Square, the Radcliffe Camera, Brasenose College and All Souls College.
A church was established on this site, at the centre of the old walled city, in Anglo Saxon times; records of 1086 note the church as previously belonging to an estate held by Aubrey de Coucy, likely Iffley, and the parish including part of Littlemore.
In the early days of Oxford University, the church was adopted as the first building of the university, congregation met there from at least 1252, and by the early 13th century it
Nuffield College ( /ˈnʌfiːld/) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. It is an all-graduate college and primarily a research establishment, specialising in the social sciences, particularly economics, politics and sociology. Despite being one of the newest and smallest of the colleges, its architecture is designed to conform to the traditional college layout, and its modernist spire is a landmark for those approaching Oxford from the west.
As of 2006, the college had an estimated financial endowment of £146m.
Nuffield College is a graduate college of the University of Oxford specialising in the social sciences, particularly economics, politics (especially psephology), and sociology. It aims to provide a stimulating research-oriented environment for postgraduate students (about 75 in number) and faculty (approximately 60 academic fellows). The college, which was founded in 1937, is located on a site on the western side of Oxford city centre. The land on which the college stands, which was formerly the city's principal canal basin and coal wharfs, was donated to the university by William Morris, 1st Viscount Nuffield (Lord Nuffield). Restrictions
The Samuel May Williams House is a former museum in Galveston, Texas. The second-oldest surviving residence in Galveston, it is now on the National Register of Historic Places. It was designated a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1964.
The home was built in 1839 for Samuel May Williams, one of the founders of Galveston. The prefabricated house was shipped from Maine and constructed on 7 feet (2.1 m) off the ground, raised on ten piers. The 1.5-story house was topped with a cupola, where Williams installed a telescope so that he could be one of the first to learn when interesting cargo arrived by ship. After Williams' death in 1858, the house was sold to his friend, Phillip C. Tucker, and became known as the Tucker House. The Tucker family retained possession of the house until 1953.
The house was purchased by, and became the first project of, the newly organized Galveston Historic Foundation. Restoration was partially funded by a grant from the Moody Foundation. In 2007, the executive director of the GHF, stated "I can hardly overemphasize the importance of this house, not only to Galveston and Texas history, but to the history and affections of our organization." The house was
St Aldate's is a street in central Oxford, England. It is named after Saint Aldate of whom little is known, although it has also been suggested that the name is a corruption of 'old gate', referring to the south gate in the former city walls. St Aldate's Church is on the west side of the street, in Pembroke Square. A former name for St Aldate's is Fish Street.
The street runs south from the generally acknowledged centre of Oxford at Carfax. The Town Hall, which includes the Museum of Oxford, is on the east side of the street. Christ Church, with its imposing Tom Tower, faces the east end of St Aldate's, while Pembroke College (on Pembroke Square) faces its west end. Other adjoining streets include Blue Boar Street to the east side and Pembroke Street, Pembroke Square, Brewer Street, Rose Place, and Speedwell Street to the west.
Opposite Christ Church is Alice's Shop, formerly frequented by Alice Liddell, and the model for the Sheep Shop in the "Wool and Water" chapter in Through the Looking-Glass.
South of Christ Church is an entrance to Christ Church Meadow and, still on the east side, the Oxford University Faculty of Music, containing the Bate Collection of Musical Instruments.
St Edmund Hall is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. Better known within the University by its nickname, "Teddy Hall", the college has a claim to being "the oldest academical society for the education of undergraduates in any university". As of 2011 St Edmund Hall had an estimated financial endowment of £43m.
Like the University of Oxford itself, the precise date of establishment of St Edmund Hall not certain; it is usually estimated at 1236, before any other college was formally established. It is named after St Edmund of Abingdon, Oxfordshire, the first known Oxford Master of Arts and the first Oxford-educated Archbishop of Canterbury, who lived and taught on the college site. The name St Edmund Hall (Aula Sancti Edmundi) first appears in a 1317 rental agreement.
St Edmund Hall began life as one of Oxford's ancient Aularian houses, the mediaeval halls that laid the foundation of the University, preceding the creation of the first colleges. As the only surviving mediaeval hall, its members are known as "Aularians". St Edmund Hall took on the status of a college in 1957, though retaining the historical moniker of "Hall".
The college has a
Magdalen College ( /ˈmɔːdlɪn/ MAWD-lin) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. As of 2006, the college had an estimated financial endowment of £153 million. Four Magdalen alumni are currently members of the Conservative-Liberal Democrat Cabinet (down from 5 after the resignation of Chris Huhne). Magdalen currently sits top of the Norrington Table, and holds the record for the highest ever Norrington score after over half its finalists achieved firsts in 2010.
Magdalen College was founded in 1458 by William of Waynflete, Bishop of Winchester. The founder's statutes included provision for a choral foundation of men and boys (a tradition that has continued to the present day) and made reference to the pronunciation of the name of the College in English. The college received another substantial endowment from the estate of Sir John Fastolf of Caister Castle in Norfolk (1380–1459). Another unrelated college named Magdalen Hall adjacent to Magdalen College eventually became part of Hertford College.
Regarded as one of the most beautiful of the Oxford and Cambridge colleges, Magdalen is also one of the most visited. It stands next to the River Cherwell
Merton College Library (in Merton College, Oxford) is one of the earliest libraries in England and the oldest library in the world in continuous daily use. The library is housed in several parts of the college, and houses a priceless collection of early printed books and more than 300 medieval manuscripts. The main collection runs to approximately 70,000 volumes.
The oldest part, known as the Upper Library, is on the first floor of two orthogonal ranges of buildings that were built around 1373 by William Humberville as part of the completion of Mob Quad, one of the first collegiate quadrangles.
The Upper Library was improved in the 16th century under Warden Sir Henry Savile. Large dormer windows were added to the roof to allow more light in, and Thomas Bodley reorganized it in the new Continental style; the old book chests and lecterns were replaced by book shelves — among the first to be used in England — with benches between them. The Upper Library still retains these 16th-century fittings.
It also contains a number of book chests, some chained books, one of Elizabeth I's Welsh Bibles, a matching pair of 16th-century globes (one of the earth, the other of the heavens), and a
The Sheldonian Theatre, located in Oxford, England, was built from 1664 to 1668 after a design by Christopher Wren for the University of Oxford. The building is named after Gilbert Sheldon, chancellor of the university at the time and the project's main financial backer. It is used for music concerts, lectures and university ceremonies, but not for drama.
What came to be known as the Sheldonian Theatre was Wren's second work, and was commissioned by Gilbert Sheldon, Archbishop of Canterbury. With the triumph of the Restoration and with it the Church of England, Dean Fell sought to revive a project proposed in the 1630s by the late William Laud Archbishop of Canterbury: a separate building whose sole use would be graduation and degree ceremonies.
In the past these increasingly rowdy occasions had taken place in the university's church of St. Mary-the-Virgin-on-High. "The notion that 'sacrifice is made equally to God and Apollo', in the same place where homage was due to God and God alone, was as repugnant to Fell and his colleagues as it had been to Laud"; with this in mind they approached the current Archbishop of Canterbury Gilbert Sheldon, for his blessing, his assistance, and a
The City Hall (German: Rathaus) is a historical building in Cologne, western Germany, located off Hohe Straße in the district of Innenstadt, set between the two squares of Rathausplatz and Alter Markt. It houses part of the city government, including the city council and offices of the Lord Mayor. It is Germany's oldest city hall with a documented history spanning some 900 years. The history of its council during the 11th century is a prominent example for self-gained municipal autonomy of Medieval cities.
Today's building complex consists of several structures, added successively in varying architectural styles: they include the 14th century historic town hall, the 15th century Gothic style tower, the 16th century Renaissance style loggia and cloister (the Löwenhof), and the 20th century Modern Movement atrium (the Piazzetta). The so-called Spanischer Bau is an extension on Rathausplatz but not directly connected with the main building.
The City Hall is located on the site of the former Ancient Roman Praetorium, which until the year 475 was seat of the Roman Governor of Germania Inferior. Merovingian kings are known to have used the praetorium as a regia until 754, but the
The Martyrs' Memorial is a stone monument positioned at the intersection of St Giles', Magdalen Street and Beaumont Street in Oxford, England just outside Balliol College. It commemorates the 16th-century "Oxford Martyrs".
Designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott, the monument was completed in 1843 after two years' work, having replaced "a picturesque but tottering old house". The Victorian Gothic memorial, whose design dates from 1838, has been likened to the steeple of a cathedral. The three statues of Thomas Cranmer, Hugh Latimer and Nicholas Ridley are by Henry Weekes. The monument is listed at grade II*.
The inscription on the base of the Martyrs' Memorial reads:
To the Glory of God, and in grateful commemoration of His servants, Thomas Cranmer, Nicholas Ridley, Hugh Latimer, Prelates of the Church of England, who near this spot yielded their bodies to be burned, bearing witness to the sacred truths which they had affirmed and maintained against the errors of the Church of Rome, and rejoicing that to them it was given not only to believe in Christ, but also to suffer for His sake; this monument was erected by public subscription in the year of our Lord God, MDCCCXLI.
Lincoln College (in full: The College of the Blessed Mary and All Saints, Lincoln) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. It is situated on Turl Street in central Oxford, backing onto Brasenose College and adjacent to Exeter College. Founded in 1427, it is the ninth oldest of the university's 38 colleges.
The College was founded on 13 October 1427 by Richard Fleming, then Bishop of Lincoln, to combat the Lollard teachings of John Wyclif. He intended it to be "a little college of true students of theology who would defend the mysteries of Scripture against those ignorant laymen who profaned with swinish snouts its most holy pearls".. To this effect, he obtained a charter for the College from King Henry VI, which combined the parishes of All Saints, St Michael's at the North Gate and St Mildred's within the College under a rector. The College now uses All Saints Church as its library and has strong ties with St Michael's Church at the North Gate, having used it as a stand-in for the College chapel when necessary and has appointed its minister since 1427.
Encountering both insufficient endowment and trouble from the Wars of the Roses (for
Oxford Castle is a large, partly ruined Norman medieval castle situated on the west edge of Oxford in Oxfordshire, England. The original moated, wooden motte and bailey castle was replaced with stone in the 11th century and played an important role in the conflict of the Anarchy. In the 14th century the military value of the castle diminished and the site became used primarily for county administration and for detaining prisoners. Most of the castle was destroyed during the English Civil War and by the 18th century the remaining buildings were used as Oxford's local prison. A new prison complex was built on the site from 1785 onwards and expanded in 1876; this ultimately became HM Prison Oxford. The prison closed in 1996 and was redeveloped as a hotel. Today the medieval remains of the castle, including the motte and St George's Tower, are classed as a Grade I listed building and as a Scheduled Monument.
According to the Abingdon Chronicle, Oxford Castle was built by the Norman baron, Robert D'Oyly the senior from 1071-3. D'Oyly had arrived in England with William I during the Norman Conquest of England in 1066 and was granted extensive lands in Oxfordshire. Oxford had been stormed
Somerville College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England, and was one of the first women's colleges to be founded there. As of 2006, Somerville had an estimated financial endowment of £44.5 million. The college is located at the southern end of Woodstock Road, with Little Clarendon Street to the south and Walton Street to the west.
In June 1878, the Association for the Higher Education of Women was formed, aiming for the eventual creation of a college for women in Oxford. Some of the more prominent members of the association were Dr. G. G. Bradley, Master of University College, T. H. Green, a prominent liberal philosopher and Fellow of Balliol College, and Edward Stuart Talbot, Warden of Keble College. Talbot insisted on a specifically Anglican institution, which was unacceptable to most of the other members. The two parties eventually split, and Talbot's group founded Lady Margaret Hall.
Thus, in 1879, a second committee was formed to create a college "in which no distinction will be made between students on the ground of their belonging to different religious denominations." This second committee included Dr. John Percival, Dr. G. W. Kitchin,
University College (in full The Master and Fellows of the College of the Great Hall of the University of Oxford, colloquially referred to as "Univ"), is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. As of 2009 the college had an estimated financial endowment of £110m. As it was founded in 1249, it is the oldest Oxbridge college.
Some claim the college was founded by King Alfred in 872. However most agree its foundation was in 1249 by William of Durham. This later date still allows the claim that Univ is the oldest of the Oxford colleges, although this is contested by Balliol and Merton. Until the 16th century it was only open to Fellows studying theology. As Univ grew in size and wealth, its medieval buildings were replaced with the current Main Quadrangle in the 17th Century. Although the foundation stone was placed on 17 April 1634 the disruption of the English Civil War meant it was not completed until sometime in 1676. Radcliffe Quad followed more rapidly by 1719, and the Library was built in 1861. Univ began to accept female undergraduate students in 1979.
The main entrance to the college is on the High Street and its grounds are bounded by Merton Street and
St Giles' is a wide street leading north from the centre of Oxford, England. At its northern end, the road divides into Woodstock Road to the left and Banbury Road to the right, both major roads through North Oxford. At the southern end, the road continues as Magdalen Street at the junction with Beaumont Street to the west. Also to the west halfway along the street is Pusey Street.
At the northern end of St Giles' is St Giles' Church, whose churchyard includes the main War Memorial. The church originates from the 12th century.
Working from north to south, on the east side are the Lamb & Flag public house (formerly a coaching inn), St John's College, the Oxford Internet Institute (No 1 St Giles'), Balliol College, and Trinity College. On the west side are the International Study Centre of d'Overbroeck's College, St Benet's Hall, the Theology Faculty, the Eagle and Child public house (where J. R. R. Tolkien, C. S. Lewis, and other members of the Inklings met), Regent's Park College (Principal's Lodgings and Senior Tutor's house), Pusey House and St Cross College, Blackfriars, and the Taylor Institution, behind which is the Ashmolean Museum (with its main entrance in Beaumont Street).
Oriel College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in Oxford, England. Located in Oriel Square, the college has the distinction of being the oldest royal foundation in Oxford (a title formerly claimed by University College, whose claim of being founded by King Alfred is no longer promoted). In recognition of this royal connection, the college has also been known as King's College and King's Hall.
The original medieval foundation set up by Adam de Brome, under the patronage of Edward II, was called the House or Hall of the Blessed Mary at Oxford. The first design allowed for a Provost and ten Fellows, called 'scholars', and the College remained a small body of graduate Fellows until the 16th century, when it started to admit undergraduates. During the English Civil War, Oriel played host to high-ranking members of the King's Oxford Parliament.
The main site of the College incorporates four medieval halls: Bedel Hall, St Mary Hall, St Martin Hall and Tackley's Inn, the last being the earliest property acquired by the college and the oldest standing medieval hall in Oxford. The College has nearly 40 Fellows, about 300 undergraduates and some 160 graduates, the student
The Ashmolean Museum (in full the Ashmolean Museum of Art and Archaeology) on Beaumont Street, Oxford, England, is the world's first university museum. Its first building was built in 1678–1683 to house the cabinet of curiosities Elias Ashmole gave Oxford University in 1677. The museum reopened in 2009 after a major redevelopment. In November 2011 new galleries focusing on Egypt and Nubia were also unveiled.
The collection includes that of Elias Ashmole which he had collected himself, including objects he had acquired from the gardeners, travellers and collectors John Tradescant the elder and his son of the same name. The collection included antique coins, books, engravings, geological specimens, and zoological specimens—one of which was the stuffed body of the last dodo ever seen in Europe; but by 1755 the stuffed dodo was so moth-eaten that it was destroyed, except for its head and one claw. The museum opened on 24 May 1683, with naturalist Robert Plot as the first keeper. The first building, which became known as the Old Ashmolean, is sometimes attributed to Sir Christopher Wren or Thomas Wood.
After the various specimens had been moved into new museums, the "Old Ashmolean"
Corpus Christi College (corporate designation The President and Scholars of the College of Corpus Christi in the University of Oxford) is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. Founded in 1517, it is the 12th oldest college in Oxford, with an estimated financial endowment of £58m as of 2006.
The college, situated on Merton Street between Merton College and Oriel College, is one of the smallest in Oxford by student population, having around 230 undergraduates and 120 graduates. It is academic by Oxford standards, averaging in the top half of the university's informal ranking system, the Norrington Table, in recent years, and coming second in 2009-10.
The college has had for a long time a reputation as specializing and excelling in Classics, due to the emphasis placed upon this subject since its founding; to this day it takes more students to study Classics (and its joint schools) each year than any other single subject.
The college's historical significance includes its role in the translation of the King James Bible. The college is also noted for the pillar sundial in the main quadrangle, known as the Pelican Sundial, which was erected in
The Warden and the College of the Souls of all Faithful People deceased in the University of Oxford or All Souls College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.
Unique to All Souls, all of its members automatically become Fellows, i.e., full members of the College's governing body. It has no undergraduate members, but each year recent graduates of Oxford and other universities compete in "the hardest exam in the world" for Examination Fellowships.
It is one of the wealthiest colleges with a financial endowment of £236m (2007) but because the College's only source of revenue is its endowment, it ranks nineteenth among Oxford colleges with respect to total income.
The college is located on the north side of the High Street and also adjoins Radcliffe Square to the west. To the east is The Queen's College and to the north is Hertford College.
The current Warden is Professor Sir John Vickers, a graduate of Oriel College, Oxford.
The College was founded by Henry VI of England and Henry Chichele (fellow of New College and Archbishop of Canterbury), in 1438. The Statutes provided for the Warden and forty fellows — all to take Holy Orders; twenty-four to
Carfax is located at the conjunction of St Aldate's (south), Cornmarket Street (north), Queen Street (west) and the High Street (east) in Oxford, England. It is considered to be the centre of the city, and is at 51°45′07″N 1°15′29″W / 51.752°N 1.258°W / 51.752; -1.258. The name "Carfax" derives from the French carrefour "crossroads" or quatre-face "four-face".
Carfax Tower is located at the northwest corner of Carfax. The Tower is all that remains of the 13th century St Martin's Church and is now owned by the Oxford City Council. It was the official City Church of Oxford, where the Mayor and Corporation were expected to worship, between c.1122 and 1896, when the main part of the church was demolished to make more room for traffic in the area. In 1896, the City Church was moved to All Saints Church in the High Street.
The tower is 23 m (74 ft) tall, and no building in central Oxford may be constructed higher than it. It still contains a ring of six bells, recast from the original five by Richard Keene of Woodstock in 1676. These chime the quarter hours and are rung on special occasions by the Oxford Society of Change Ringers. It is possible to climb to the top of the tower for a
New College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom.
The College's official name, College of St Mary, is the same as that of the older Oriel College; hence, it has been referred to as the "New College of St Mary" and is now almost always called "New College". The College is one of the most famous and academically successful of the Oxford colleges and ranks high on the Norrington Table. For 2011-2012 the college was ranked third, maintaining its place from 2010-2011. The College stands along Holywell Street and New College Lane (known for Oxford's Bridge of Sighs), next to All Souls College, Harris Manchester College, Hertford College, The Queen's College and St Edmund Hall.
The College is one of the main choral foundations of the University of Oxford. The College Choir has recorded over one hundred albums, and has been awarded two Gramophone Awards.
In 2006 the College had an estimated financial endowment of £143m. That year the College sold an area of land in Buckinghamshire for £55m, and the subsequent extra endowment income was put towards academic development, salaries, and repair to buildings.
Despite its name, New College is one of
The Pitt Rivers Museum is a museum displaying the archaeological and anthropological collections of the University of Oxford in Oxford, England. The museum is located to the east of the Oxford University Museum of Natural History, and can only be accessed through that building.
The museum was founded in 1884 by General Augustus Pitt Rivers, who donated his collection to the University of Oxford with the condition that a permanent lecturer in anthropology must be appointed. Museum staff are involved in teaching Archaeology and Anthropology at the University even today. The first Curator of the Museum was Henry Balfour. A second stipulation in the Deed of Gift was that a building should be provided to house the collection and used for no other purpose. The University therefore engaged Thomas Manly Deane, son of Thomas Newenham Deane who, together with Benjamin Woodward, had designed and built the original Oxford University Museum of Natural History building three decades earlier, to create an adjoining building at the rear of the main building to house the collection. Construction started in 1885 and was completed in 1886.
The original donation consisted of approximately 20,000
St Peter's College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford, Oxford, United Kingdom, located in New Inn Hall Street. It occupies the site of two of the University's oldest Inns, or medieval hostels - Bishop Trellick's, later New Inn Hall, and Rose Hall - both of which were founded in the 13th century and were part of the University in their own right. During the First English Civil War, the University's college plate was requisitioned by the King's Oxford Parliament and taken to New Inn Hall to be melted down into "Oxford Crowns". In the 18th century, William Blackstone became the Principal of New Inn Hall after being appointed the Vinerian Professor of English Law at Oxford. New Inn Hall and Rose Hall later became part of Balliol College.
The modern history of the college in its present form began in 1929 when St Peter's Hall was founded by Francis James Chavasse, Bishop of Liverpool, who was concerned at the rising cost of education in the older universities in Britain, and projected St Peter's as a College where promising students, who might otherwise be deterred by the costs of College life elsewhere, could obtain an Oxford education. The commitment to
The Radcliffe Camera (Camera, meaning "room" in Italian) (colloquially, "Rad Cam"; "Radder" in 1930s slang) is a building in Oxford, England, designed by James Gibbs in the English Palladian style and built in 1737–1749 to house the Radcliffe Science Library.
It was known that John Radcliffe, physician to William III and Mary II of England, intended to build a library in Oxford at least two years before his death in 1714. It was thought that the new building would be an extension westwards of the Selden End of the Bodleian Library. Francis Atterbury, Dean of Christ Church thought a 90 ft room would be built on Exeter College land, and that the lower storey would be a library for Exeter College and the upper story Radcliffe's Library. Such plans were indeed prepared, by Nicholas Hawksmoor (fourteen 'Designs of Printing and Town Houses of Oxford by Mr Hawksmoor' were among the drawings offered for sale after Hawksmoor's death), the plans are now in the Ashmolean Museum. Radcliffe's will, however, proved on 8 December 1714, clearly showed his intention that the library be built in the position it now occupies, stating:
And will that my executors pay forty thousand pounds in the terme
The Oxford University Museum of Natural History, sometimes known simply as the Oxford University Museum, is a museum displaying many of the University of Oxford's natural history specimens, located on Parks Road in Oxford, England. It also contains a lecture theatre which is used by the University's chemistry, zoology and mathematics departments. The University Museum provides the only access into the adjoining Pitt Rivers Museum.
The University's Honour School of Natural Science started in 1850, but the facilities for teaching were scattered around the city of Oxford in the various colleges. The University's collection of anatomical and natural history specimens were similarly spread around the city.
Regius Professor of Medicine, Sir Henry Acland, initiated the construction of the museum between 1855 and 1860, to bring together all the aspects of science around a central display area. In 1858, Acland gave a lecture on the museum, setting forth the reason for the building's construction. He viewed that the University had been one-sided in the forms of study it offered – chiefly theology, philosophy, the classics and history — and that the opportunity should be offered to learn of
Brasenose College, originally Brazen Nose College (in full: The King's Hall and College of Brasenose, often referred to by the abbreviation BNC), is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. As of 2006, it has an estimated financial endowment of £98 million. Brasenose is home to one of the oldest boat clubs in the world, Brasenose College Boat Club.
The history of Brasenose College, Oxford stretches back to 1509, when the college was founded on the site of Brasenose Hall. Its name is believed to derive from the name of a bronze knocker that adorned the hall's door. The college was associated with Lancashire and Cheshire, the county origins of its two founders – Sir Richard Sutton and the Bishop of Lincoln, William Smyth – a link which was maintained strongly until the latter half of the twentieth century. The first principals navigated Brasenose, with its Catholic sympathisers, through the reformation and continuing religious reforms. Most of Brasenose favoured the Royalist side during the English Civil War, although it produced notable generals and clergy on both sides. The library and chapel were completed in the mid-seventeenth century,
Ashton Villa is a fully restored, historic home located on the corner of 23rd and Broadway in Galveston, Texas, United States. Constructed in 1859, it was one of the first brick structures in Texas.
On January 7, 1859, Colonel James Moreau Brown, a prominent hardware merchant and banker, purchased four lots at the corner of 24th and Broadway in Galveston, on which to build a home. Referencing architectural pattern books current at the time, he modified several plans to design his future home. Using slave labor and skilled European craftsmen, Brown proceeded to build one of the first brick structures in Texas.
The three-story house was built in Victorian Italianate style, with deep eaves, long windows and ornate verandas that were topped by lintels made of cast iron. The brick walls were made thirteen inches thick, to help protect against humidity and add strength to the structure. The interior of the home was laid out and designed around a central hall floor plan. Brown's wife, Rebecca Ashton, named the home in honor of one of her ancestors, Lt. Isaac Ashton, a hero in the U.S. Revolutionary War.
The house was completed in 1861. When the American Civil War began, the home became
Mansfield College, Oxford is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. The college comprises approximately 210 undergraduates, 130 graduates, 35 visiting students and 50 academic staff.
The college was originally founded in 1838 as Spring Hill College, Birmingham, a college for Nonconformist students. In the late nineteenth century, although students from all religious denominations were legally entitled to attend universities, they were forbidden by statute from taking degrees unless they conformed to the Church of England.
In 1871, the Universities Tests Act abolished all religious tests for non-theological degrees at Oxford, Cambridge and Durham Universities. For the first time the educational and social opportunities offered by Britain's premier institutions were open to all Nonconformists. The Prime Minister who enacted these reforms, William Ewart Gladstone, encouraged the creation of a Nonconformist college at Oxford.
Spring Hill College moved to Oxford in 1886 and was renamed Mansfield College after its greatest donors, George and Elizabeth Mansfield. It was the first Nonconformist college to open in Oxford. Initially the college accepted male
Wolfson College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford in England. Located in north Oxford along the River Cherwell, Wolfson is an all-graduate college with over sixty governing body fellows, in addition to both research and junior research fellows. It caters to a wide range of subjects, from the humanities to the social and natural sciences. The college has an international character and student body.
The current president of Wolfson College is Hermione Lee. The liberal philosopher Sir Isaiah Berlin was the college's first president, and was instrumental in its founding. The college houses The Isaiah Berlin Literary Trust and the annual Isaiah Berlin Lecture.
As of 2006, the college had a financial endowment of £33.5 million.
Wolfson's first president Sir Isaiah Berlin, the influential political philosopher and historian of ideas, was instrumental in the college's founding in 1965.
The college began its existence with the name Iffley College, which offered a new community for graduate students at Oxford, particularly in natural and social sciences. Twelve other colleges of the university provided grants to make the establishment of Iffley possible. As of 1965, the
Balliol College ( /ˈbeɪliəl/), founded in 1263, is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England.
Traditionally, the undergraduates are amongst the most politically active in the university, and the college's alumni include three former prime ministers. H. H. Asquith (a graduate of Balliol and British Prime Minister) once wryly described Balliol men as possessing "the tranquil consciousness of an effortless superiority." Adam Smith, a graduate student of the college, is perhaps its best known alumnus. As of 2009, Balliol had an endowment of £64 m.
The College was founded in about 1263 (leading some to argue that it is the University's oldest college, a claim contested by University College and Merton College) by John I de Balliol under the guidance of the Bishop of Durham. After his death in 1268, his widow, Dervorguilla of Galloway (their son and grandson both became Kings of Scotland) made arrangements to ensure the permanence of the college in that she provided capital and in 1282 formulated the college statutes, documents that survive to this day.
Along with many of the ancient colleges, Balliol has evolved its own traditions and customs over the
Harris Manchester College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom. Formerly known as Manchester College, it is listed in the University Statutes (V.1) as Manchester Academy and Harris College, and at University ceremonies it is called Collegium de Harris et Manchester.
Located in Mansfield Road in central Oxford, Harris Manchester is one of very few mixed-sex higher education colleges in the UK whose undergraduate places are exclusively for mature students (aged 21 or over). It is the smallest of the constituent full colleges of the University of Oxford, and as of 2010 had an estimated financial endowment of £12 million.
The college started as the Manchester Academy in Manchester in 1786. Originally run by English Presbyterians, it was one of several dissenting academies that provided religious nonconformists with higher education, as at the time the only universities in England, Oxford and Cambridge, were restricted to Anglicans. The Manchester Academy was modelled on the well-known Warrington Academy. It taught radical theology as well as modern subjects, such as science, modern languages, language, and history. This did not mean that
St John's College is a constituent college of the University of Oxford, one of the larger Oxford colleges with approximately 390 undergraduates, 250 postgraduates and over 100 academic staff. It was founded in 1555 by Sir Thomas White, a merchant. St John's is the wealthiest college in Oxford, with a financial endowment of £313 million as of 2010.
On 1 May 1555, Sir Thomas White, lately Lord Mayor of London, obtained a Royal Patent of Foundation to create an eleemosynary institution for the education of students within the University of Oxford. White, a Roman Catholic, originally intended St John's to provide a source of educated Roman Catholic clerics to support the Counter-Reformation under Queen Mary, and indeed Edmund Campion, the Roman Catholic martyr, studied here.
White acquired buildings on the east side of St Giles', north of Balliol and Trinity Colleges, which had belonged to the former College of St Bernard, a monastery and house of study of the Cistercian order that had been closed during the Dissolution of the Monasteries. Initially the new St John's College was rather small and not well endowed financially. During the reign of Elizabeth I the fellows lectured in
Wadham College is one of the constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in the United Kingdom, located at the southern end of Parks Road in central Oxford. Wadham is a liberal and progressive college, renowned for its left-wing politics and the diversity of its student body. It was founded by Nicholas and Dorothy Wadham, wealthy Somerset landowners, during the reign of King James I. As of 2009, it has an estimated financial endowment of £66 million, and in 2011/2012 ranked 4th in the Norrington Table.
The college was founded by Dorothy Wadham (née Petre) in 1610, using money left by her husband Nicholas Wadham for the purpose of endowing an Oxford college. In a period of only four years, she gained royal and ecclesiastical support for the new college, negotiated the purchase of a site, appointed the west country architect William Arnold, drew up the college statutes, and appointed the first warden, fellows, scholars, and cook. Although she never visited Oxford, she kept tight control of her new college and its finances until her death in 1618.
Notable members of the college in its early years include Robert Blake, Cromwell's admiral and founder of British sea-power in the
Christ Church (Latin: Ædes Christi, the temple or house (ædēs) of Christ, and thus sometimes known as The House), is one of the largest constituent colleges of the University of Oxford in England. As well as being a college, Christ Church is also the cathedral church of the diocese of Oxford, namely Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford.
Like its sister college, Trinity College, Cambridge, it was traditionally considered the most aristocratic college of its university.
Christ Church has produced thirteen British prime ministers, which is equal to the number produced by all 45 other Oxford colleges put together and more than any Cambridge college (and two short of the total number for the University of Cambridge, fifteen).
The college is the setting for parts of Evelyn Waugh's Brideshead Revisited, as well as Lewis Carroll's Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. More recently it has been used in the filming of the movies of J. K. Rowling's Harry Potter series and also the film adaptation of Philip Pullman's novel Northern Lights (the film bearing the title of the US edition of the book, The Golden Compass). Distinctive features of the college's architecture have been used as models by a
Jesus College (in full: Jesus College in the University of Oxford of Queen Elizabeth's Foundation) is one of the colleges of the University of Oxford in England. It is in the centre of the city, on a site between Turl Street, Ship Street, Cornmarket Street and Market Street. The college was founded by Elizabeth I on 27 June 1571 for the education of clergy, though students now study a broad range of secular subjects. A major driving force behind the establishment of the college was Hugh Price (or Ap Rhys), a churchman from Brecon in Wales. The oldest buildings, in the first quadrangle, date from the 16th and early 17th centuries; a second quadrangle was added between about 1640 and about 1713, and a third quadrangle was built in about 1906. Further accommodation was built on the main site to mark the 400th anniversary of the college, in 1971, and student flats have been constructed at sites in north and east Oxford.
The life of the college was disrupted by the English Civil War. Leoline Jenkins, who became principal after the war in 1661, put the college on a more stable financial footing. Little happened at the college during the 18th century, and the 19th century saw a decline in
St Michael at the North Gate is a church in Cornmarket Street, at the junction with Ship Street, in central Oxford, England. The church is so-called because this is the location of the original north gate of Oxford when it was surrounded by a city wall.
Originally built around 1000–1050, with the tower of 1040 still in existence, the church is Oxford's oldest building. The church tower is Saxon. The architect John Plowman rebuilt the north aisle and transept in 1833.
The Oxford Martyrs were imprisoned in the Bocardo Prison by the church before they were burnt at the stake in what is now Broad Street nearby, then immediately outside the city walls, in 1555 and 1556. Their cell door can be seen on display in the church's tower.
St Michael at the North Gate is the current City Church of Oxford. That title was originally held by St Martin's Church at Carfax, and then by All Saints Church in the High Street when St Martin's Church was demolished in 1896. City Church status passed to St Michael's when All Saints Church was declared redundant in 1971 (it was subsequently converted into the library of Lincoln College, Oxford). The City Church is where the Mayor and Corporation of Oxford