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The Plymouth Barracuda is a two-door car that was manufactured by the Plymouth division of the Chrysler Corporation from 1964–1974.
The first-generation Barracuda, a fastback A-body coupe based on the Plymouth Valiant, had a distinctive wraparound back glass and was available from 1964–1966.
The second-generation 1967–1969 Barracuda, though still Valiant-based, was heavily redesigned. Second-generation A-body cars were available in fastback, notchback, and convertible versions.
The 1970–1974 E-body Barracuda, no longer Valiant-based, was available as a coupe and a convertible, both of which were very different from the previous models. The final model year for the Barracuda was 1974.
Automotive trends in the early-mid 1960s had all the U.S. manufacturers looking at making sporty compact cars. Chrysler's A-body Plymouth Valiant was chosen for the company's efforts in this direction.
Ford's Mustang, which significantly outsold the Barracuda, gave to this type of vehicle its colloquial name "pony car", but the Barracuda fastback's release on 1 April 1964 beat the Mustang by two weeks.
Plymouth's executives had wanted to name the car Panda, an idea that was unpopular with the car's
The Chevrolet Chevelle was a mid-sized automobile produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors in three generations for the 1964 through 1977 model years. Part of the GM A-Body platform, the Chevelle was one of Chevrolet's most successful nameplates. Body styles include coupes, sedans, convertibles and station wagons. Super Sport versions were produced through the 1973 model year, and Lagunas from 1973 through 1976. After a three year absence, the El Camino was reintroduced as part of the new Chevelle lineup. The Chevelle also provided the platform for the Monte Carlo introduced in 1970. The Malibu, the top of the line model through 1972, replaced the Chevelle nameplate for the redesigned, downsized 1978 models.
The Chevelle was intended to compete with the Ford Fairlane, and to return to the Chevrolet lineup a model similar in size and concept to the popular 1955-57 models. Enthusiasts were quick to notice that the Chevelle’s 115-inch (2,900 mm) wheelbase was the same as that of the 1955-57 Chevy. Two-door hardtop coupes, and convertibles, four-door sedans, and four-door station wagons were offered throughout the entire run. In line with other Chevrolet series, the
The Chevrolet Bel Air is a full-size automobile that was produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors for the 1950–1975 model years. Hardtops in the Chevrolet Deluxe Styleline model range were designated with the Bel Air name from 1950 to 1952, but it was not a distinct series of its own until the 1953 model year. Bel Air production continued in Canada for its home market only through the 1981 model year.
In 1950, Chevrolet came up with a revolutionary style that would set a pattern for decades. The Bel Air Hardtop (on the DeLuxe line) was styled as a convertible with a non-detachable solid roof. Models like this had been around since the 1920s, including early Chevrolets, with no degree of success. But the newly revised idea, sweeping the GM line from Chevrolet to Cadillac, had finally found its era. First year production reached only 76,662 as buyers cautiously tested the revised concept. The car cost $1,741 and weighed 3,225 lb (1,463 kg). Front suspension was independent, named "knee-action".
In 1953 Chevrolet renamed its series and the Bel Air name was applied to the premium model range. Two lower series, the 150 and 210, also emerged. The 1953 Chevrolet was advertised
The AMC Matador is a mid-size car that was built and sold by American Motors Corporation (AMC) from 1971 to 1978. The Matador came in two generations: 1971 to 1973 and a major redesign from 1974 to 1978. The second-generation four-door and station wagon models did not share the design of the coupe that was introduced in 1974.
The Matador replaced the AMC Rebel, which had been marketed since 1967. With a facelift and a new name, the AMC Matadors were available as a two-door hardtop as well as a four-door sedan and station wagon. The sedan and wagon models "offered excellent value and were fairly popular", including as a prowl car. The Matador received a redesign in 1974, in part to meet new safety and crash requirements as well as a completely different model "to contend with the bull market for plush mid-size coupes that sprang up after the end of the muscle car era." The Matador was based on AMC's "senior" automobile platform shared with the full-size Ambassador line.
American Motors advertising assured that the Matador was not just a name change and facelift, but in reality, it was the 1970 Rebel restyled with a longer front clip and a new interior. The 1971 Matadors acquired a
The Shelby Mustang is a high performance variant of the Ford Mustang which was built by Shelby American from 1965 through 1970. Following the introduction of the fifth generation Ford Mustang, the Shelby nameplate was revived in 2007 for new high performance versions of the Mustang.
The 1965–1966 cars were the smallest and lightest of the GT 350 models. These cars are often called "Cobras", which was the Ford-powered AC-based two-seat sports car also produced by Shelby American during the same period. Both models use the Cobra emblem, similar paint scheme, and the optional "Cobra" valve covers on many GT350s that were part of a marketing tie-in by Shelby, as well as one of his iconic symbols. All 1965–66 cars featured the K-Code 271 hp (202 kW; 275 PS) 289 cu in (4.7 L), modified to produce 306 hp (228 kW; 310 PS). Marketing literature referred to this engine as the ""Cobra hi-riser" due to its high-riser intake manifold. Beginning as a stock Mustang with a 4-speed manual, the cars were shipped to Shelby American, where they received the high-riser manifolds, had their stock Ford Falcon live rear axles replaced with heavy-duty Ford Galaxie rear axles, and were given larger,
The 1965 Skylark Gran Sport was the intermediate Buick Skylark with the Gran Sport option added. Although a 300 cu in (4,916 cc) V8 was already offered in the Skylark, the Gran Sport had the largest engine permitted by GM - a 400 cu in (6,555 cc) Buick V8. This engine was actually 401 cu in (6,570 cc), but called a "400" by Buick because that was the maximum engine size limit set by General Motors for the intermediate body cars. This engine produced 325 hp (242 kW) and 445 lb·ft (603 Nm) and was known as the "nailhead" engine. Buick sold more than 15,000 Skylarks with the Gran Sport option that first year, and almost as many the next. It was renamed the GS 400 in 1967, and the Gran Sport became its own model in (about) that same year along with a new "400" engine quite different from the famously reliable but becoming-obsolete nailhead engine design that was first introduced in 1953. Sales fell somewhat in the face of increasingly higher-performance and more popular muscle cars from other marques when compared to those from the more stodgy and expensive Buick. Buick, however stepped it up a notch when introducing the Stage 1 option in 1969. This limited production (less than 1,500
The Ford Torino is an intermediate automobile produced by the Ford Motor Company for the North American market between 1968 and 1976. The car was named after the city of Turin (Torino, in Italian), which is considered the Detroit (primary automobile production city) of Italy. The Torino was initially an upscale version of the intermediate sized Ford Fairlane, which Ford produced between 1962 and 1970. After 1968, the Fairlane name was retained for the base models with lower levels of trim than those models which wore the Torino name. During this time, the Torino was considered a subseries to the Fairlane. By 1970 Torino had become the primary name for Ford's intermediate, and the Fairlane was now a subseries of the Torino. In 1971 the Fairlane name was dropped altogether and all Ford intermediates were called Torino. This name was one of several originally proposed for the Mustang while in development. The Torino was essentially a twin to the Mercury Montego line.
Most Torinos were conventional cars, and generally the most popular models were the 4-door sedans and 4-door hardtops. However, Ford produced some high-performance versions of the Torino by fitting them with large
The Chevrolet Chevy II/Nova is a compact automobile manufactured by the Chevrolet division of General Motors produced in five generations for the 1962 through 1979, and 1985 through 1988 model years. Nova was the top model in the Chevy II lineup through 1968. The Chevy II nameplate was dropped, Nova becoming the nameplate for the 1969 through 1979 models. Built on the X-body platform, the Nova was replaced by the 1980 Chevrolet Citation introduced in the spring of 1979. The Nova nameplate returned in 1985, produced through 1988 as a NUMMI manufactured, subcompact based on the front wheel drive, Japan home-based Toyota Sprinter.
Chevrolet designer Clare MacKichan recalled about creating the Chevy II: "There was no time for experimentation or doodling around with new ideas from either the engineers or from us in design; And it had to be a basic-type car." The 1962 Chevy II rode a 110-inch wheelbase, compared to 109.5 for the Ford Falcon, at which Chevy's new compact was aimed. "I think that was the quickest program we ever did at any time," he continued. "We worked night and day on that car, and it didn't take very long to run it through our shop because we had a deadline." And
The first Plymouth Duster was a semi-fastback version of the Plymouth Valiant automobile, produced in the US from 1970 to 1976.
The Duster name was later revived for optional trim packages on certain versions of the 1979-1980 Plymouth Volare, 1985-1987 Plymouth Turismo, and 1992-1994 Plymouth Sundance.
The Duster competed with Ford's slightly smaller semi-fastback Maverick compact that was also introduced in 1970, and the slightly larger semi-fastback Chevrolet Nova whose design was introduced in 1968. While the Maverick and Nova were offered in a 4-door configuration, Chrysler managers used the Duster nameplate only for the 2-door coupe. The traditional Valiant name was retained on the 4-door sedan and 2-door hardtop. The Duster resulted from the Plymouth planning staff's desire to use their allotted 1970 restyling money for something different than the usual two and four-door Valiants. The Valiant platform was used, with front end sheetmetal the same, but completely different from the cowl back. The Duster was also created to fill the slot that was formerly occupied by the Valiant-based Barracuda. When the Barracuda moved from its A-body platform to the new E-body platform in
The AMC Rebel (known as the Rambler Rebel in 1967) is a mid-size car produced by American Motors Corporation (AMC) from 1967 to 1970. It replaced the Rambler Classic. The Rebel was replaced by the similar AMC Matador for the 1971 model year. The Rebel was positioned as the high-volume seller in the independent automaker's line of models. The Rebel was based on AMC's "senior" automobile platform shared with the full-size Ambassador line.
For the U.S. and Canadian markets, the Rebel was built at AMC's "West Assembly Line" (along with the Ambassador) in Kenosha, Wisconsin and at Brampton, Ontario, Canada (Bramalea - Brampton Assembly Plant).
The Rebel was also assembled from Complete knock down (CKD) kits under license in Europe (by Renault), in Mexico (by Vehiculos Automotores Mexicanos), in Australia (by Australian Motor Industries) and in New Zealand (Campbell Motor Industries in Thames). Rebels continued to be sold in these and other international markets under the "Rambler" brandname.
The Rebel name was introduced by AMC in 1957 as a special model with a big V8 engine: the Rambler Rebel, the first factory-produced lightweight muscle car, and the first hint that muscle cars would
The Plymouth GTX was introduced as the Belvedere GTX in 1967 by the Plymouth division to be a "gentleman's" muscle car.
It was to be an exceptional blend of style and performance. What differentiated it from a normal Belvedere was its special grille and rear fascia, shared with the Satellite, as well as mock hood scoops, chrome "pit stop" fuel filler cap and optional racing stripes. For the performance aspect of the vehicle, a heavy duty suspension system was made standard. Standard too was Plymouth's 440 cu in (7.2 L) V8 called the "Super Commando 440". The engine was rated at 375 hp (280 kW). Buyers in 1967 could pay an extra US$546 and replace the 440 with Chrysler's 426 cu in (7.0 L) Hemi. The 426 was nicknamed the "Elephant."
In 1968, after one year of production, the GTX was given a completely new look. A new hour glass body replaced the more box like body of 1967. The Road Runner was introduced by Plymouth as a performance version of the Belvedere. There were major changes made in the design of all the Plymouth B-bodies. The Road Runner's base engine was the new 383 cu in (6.3 L) "Super Commando" V8 (renamed the "Road Runner 383"), while the high performance 440 was still
The Rambler (later AMC) Marlin is a two-door, mid-sized fastback car made in the United States by the American Motors Corporation (AMC) from 1965 to 1967. A halo model for the company, it was marketed as a personal luxury car.
The fastback roof design was previewed on the 1964 Rambler Tarpon show car, based on the compact Rambler American. 1965 and 1966 model year production Marlins were fastback versions of the mid-sized two-door hardtop Rambler Classic, and 1967 brought a major redesign in which the car was given the new, longer AMC Ambassador full-size chassis. This version had a longer hood and numerous improvements including more interior room and new V8 engines.
As consumer per capita income increased in the early 1960s, the U.S. automobile market expanded. Whereas American Motors’ profitable marketing strategy under George W. Romney had concentrated on compact, economical cars, Romney’s successor as CEO, Roy Abernethy, saw larger, more prestigious and luxurious models as a new profit opportunity. The objective was to compete with the ”Big Three” automobile manufacturers (General Motors, Ford, and Chrysler) by expanding AMC’s model lines into additional market segments;
The Plymouth Road Runner was a muscle car built by the Plymouth division of the Chrysler Corporation in the United States between 1968 and 1980. In 1968, the first muscle cars were, in the opinion of many, moving away from their roots as relatively cheap, fast cars as they gained options. Although Plymouth already had a performance car in the GTX, designers decided to go back to the drawing board and reincarnate the original muscle car concept. Plymouth wanted a car able to run 14-second times in the quarter mile (402 m) and sell for less than US$3000. Both goals were met, and the low-cost muscle car hit the street. The success of the Road Runner would far outpace the upscale and lower volume GTX, with which it was often confused.
Paying $50,000 to Warner Brothers to use the name and likeness of their Road Runner cartoon character (as well as a "beep, beep" horn, which Plymouth paid $10,000 to develop), and using the Chrysler B platform as a base (the same as the Belvedere, Satellite, and GTX), Plymouth set out to build a back-to-basics muscle car. Everything essential to performance and handling was beefed-up and improved; everything nonessential was left out. The interior was
The Ford Mustang Mach 1 was a performance model of the Ford Mustang that was introduced in August 1968 as a 1969 model. The newly restyled 1969 Mustang had two bodystyles, and the Mach 1 package was only available on the fastback version. The Mach 1 title adorned performance styled Mustang offerings until the end of the Mustang II in 1978. But collectors and Mustang fans only regard the 1969 to 1973 Mach 1s as "true" Mach 1s.
As part of a Ford heritage program, the Mach 1 title returned in 2003 as a high performance version of the Mustang with many visual connections to the originals. Ford discontinued the Mach 1 after the 2004 model year, when the Mustang was once again replaced with a new model.
Ford first used the name "Mach 1" in its 1959 display of a concept "Levacar" called the Ford Rotunda. This concept vehicle used a cushion of air as propulsion on a circular dais.
The Ford Mustang was successfully introduced in April 1964 as a sporty "Pony car" to attract younger buyers into Ford products. After only a few short years of development, Ford saw the need to create performance Mustangs to compete with GM and their release of the Chevrolet Camaro and Pontiac Firebird.
The Oldsmobile Toronado was a two-door coupe produced by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors from 1966 to 1992.
The name "Toronado" has no meaning, and was originally invented for a 1963 Chevrolet show car. Conceived as Oldsmobile's full-size personal luxury car and competing directly with the Ford Thunderbird, the Toronado is historically significant as the first front-wheel drive automobile produced in the United States since the demise of the Cord in 1937.
The Toronado was structurally related to the 1966 rear-wheel-drive Buick Riviera and the following year's Cadillac Eldorado, although each had quite different styling. The Toronado continued to share its E-body platform with the Riviera and Eldorado for most of its 28-year history.
The original Toronado began as a design painting by Oldsmobile stylist David North in 1962. His design, dubbed the "Flame Red Car," was for a compact sports/personal car never intended for production. A few weeks after the design was finished, however, Oldsmobile division was informed it would be permitted to build a personal car in the Riviera/Thunderbird class for the 1966 model year, and North's design was selected. For production economy,
The Dodge Super Bee was a limited-production muscle car from Dodge, produced from 1968 until 1971. The Super Bee model was resurrected for the 2007, 2008, and 2009 Dodge Charger Super Bee models.
The original Dodge Super Bee was based on the design of the Dodge Coronet. The original was a two-door coupe produced from 1968 until 1970. It was the company's low-priced muscle car, a cousin of the Plymouth Road Runner, priced at USD$3,027. The name "Super Bee" was derived from the "B" Body designation assigned to Chrysler's mid-sized cars, including the Coronet, Roadrunner, and Charger.
Plymouth's Road Runner sold well enough to prompt Dodge Division General Manager Robert McCurry, to request the creation of a competitor from the Dodge Styling office; at the time, both divisions were competing to be the "Chrysler Performance Division". The designers were assigned the task of creating a name and identity for the Dodge version, with senior designer, Harvey J. Winn, winning the "contest" with the name "Super Bee" and a new logo design based on the Dodge "Scat Pack" Bee medallion. The design of the first Super Bee was influenced by the 1968 Coronet convertible and the show car was built at
The Machine is an automobile (2,326 built in 1970) produced by American Motors Corporation (AMC). It is a muscle car version of the AMC Rebel. The Machine featured factory performance enhancements with serious power at a budget price.
The Machine was announced to dealers by then Vice-President William Pickett on August 5, 1969. The letter stated the company's intention to finish all of the first one thousand Machine with the "Red Streak" graphics kit, making it one of the most distinctive cars ever built by any company at any time. Each dealer could commit to one Rebel Machine and advised to display in their showrooms, not on their lots. One known exception to this was Empire Motors in Sudbury, Ontario. They delivered more Machines than any other dealer with a total of 60 units. Their technique was to have the son and the nephew of the owner take the cars from the trailer to the local dragstrip, disconnect the exhaust pipes and race them. They made the sales deals on location. Sudbury is a mining town and in those days a Rebel Machine was attractive for young miners with money and nowhere to spend it. A number of the cars in the area are still owned by their original owners.
The Dodge Charger is a mid-size automobile produced by Chrysler. The 1966–1974 Chargers were on the Chrysler B platform. The 1975–1978 Chargers were based on the Chrysler Cordoba.
In the early sixties many were exploring new ideas in the personal luxury and specialty car segments. Chrysler, slow to enter the specialty car market, selected their Dodge Division to enter an untapped market for a bigger model to fit between the "pony car" Ford Mustang and the "personal luxury" Ford Thunderbird. The intention was to use the B-body for a sporty car with fastback look while sharing as much of their existing hardware as possible.
Burt Bouwkamp, Chief Engineer for Dodge during the 1960s and one of the men behind the Dodge Charger, related his experience during a speech in July 2004.
The 1966 and 1967 Dodge Chargers were all fastback vehicles. They shared a chassis and front-end sheet-metal with their mid-sized Dodge Coronet brethren. These first two years of the Dodge Charger are also the only two models which displayed the Fratzog Emblem on the grill as well as the trunk hatch.
On January 1, 1966, viewers of the Rose Bowl were first introduced to the new "Leader of the Dodge Rebellion",
The Ford Torino Talladega was a car produced by the Ford Motor Company during the first few weeks of 1969, only. Ford's Talladega was named after the Talladega Superspeedway racetrack in Alabama, which also made its debut in 1969. The Ford Talladega was a special, more aerodynamic version of the Ford Torino / Fairlane Cobra. It was produced specifically to make Ford even more competitive in NASCAR stock car racing, and it was sold to the public only because homologation rules required a certain minimum number of cars (500 in 1969) be produced and made available for sale to the public. It is believed that a total of 754 Talladegas may have been built, although the Talladega/Spoiler Registry can only account for a maximum of 750. This number includes all prototypes, pilot cars, and production cars built, plus a special post-production car that was built for the president of Ford Motor Company, Semon Emil "Bunkie" Knudsen, in March 1969. The Bunkie Knudsen car was significantly different from all of the homologation cars with regard to options and color. This Talladega was even built at a different plant: Ford's Lorain, OH plant on March 20, 1969. However, all production examples were
The Pontiac Grand Prix is an automobile that was produced by the Pontiac division of General Motors. First introduced as part of Pontiac's full-size model offering for the 1962 model year, the Grand Prix name was also applied to cars in the personal luxury car market segment and the mid-size offering, slotting below the large Bonneville in the company's lineup.
Picking up where the Pontiac Ventura model left off, the Grand Prix first appeared in the Pontiac line for 1962. It was essentially a standard Pontiac Catalina coupe with minimal outside chrome trim and a sportier interior (bucket seats and a center console). The performance-minded John De Lorean, head of Advanced Engineering at Pontiac, contributed greatly to the development of both the Grand Prix and the GTO. Early models had full access to the Pontiac performance option list, including the factory-race Super Duty 421 powertrain installed in a handful of 1962 and 1963 cars.
The full-size Catalina-based Grand Prix did very well through the 1960s, and is often credited with the move towards minimal exterior trim seen in the 1960s. Yet its clear resemblance to the other full-size Pontiacs caused some to consider it a lesser
The short-lived Plymouth Road Runner Superbird was a highly modified version of the Plymouth Road Runner with well known graphics and horn. It was the factory's follow up stock car racing design for the 1970 season to the Dodge Charger Daytona of 1969, and incorporated many engineering changes and modifications (both minor and major) garnered from the Daytona's season in competition on the track. The car's primary rival was the Ford Torino Talladega, which in itself was a direct response to the Mopar aero car. It has also been speculated one motivating factor in the production of the car was to lure Richard Petty back to Plymouth. Both of the Mopar aero cars famously featured a protruding, aerodynamic nosecone, a high-mounted rear wing and, in the case of the Superbird, a horn which mimicked the Road Runner cartoon character.
Developed specifically for NASCAR racing, the Superbird, a modified Road Runner, was Plymouth's follow-on design to the Charger Daytona fielded by sister company Dodge in the previous season. The Charger 500 version that began the 1969 season was the first American car to be designed aerodynamically using a wind tunnel and computer analysis, and later was
Dodge, an American automobile brand, has produced three separate vehicles with the name Dodge Charger Daytona, all of which were modified Dodge Chargers. The name is taken from Daytona Beach, Florida, which was an early center for auto racing and still hosts the Daytona 500, one of NASCAR's premier events. The first use of the Daytona name on a car was on a version of the Studebaker Lark. The Daytona was the performance model of the compact Lark and it was produced from 1963-1966.
With the failure of the 1969 Dodge Charger 500 on the highbanks of the superspeedways (tracks of a mile, or more in length), the 1969 Dodge Charger Daytona was created. It was intended to be a high-performance, limited-edition version of the Dodge Charger produced in the summer of 1969 for the sole purpose of winning high profile NASCAR races. It won its first race out, the inaugural Talladega 500 in the fall, although it was a rather hollow victory as all of the top names had left the track on Saturday in a boycott of the 1969 Talladega race. Buddy Baker in the #88 Chrysler Engineering Dodge Charger Daytona was the first driver in NASCAR history to break the 200 mph mark on March 24, 1970 at Talladega.
The Pontiac Firebird was built by the Pontiac division of General Motors between 1967 and 2002. The Firebird was introduced the same year as the automaker's platform-sharing model, the Chevrolet Camaro. This coincided with the release of the 1967 Mercury Cougar, which shared its platform with another pony car, the Ford Mustang.
The vehicles were powered by various four-cylinder, six-cylinder, and V8 engines sourced from several GM divisions. While primarily Pontiac-powered until 1977, Firebirds were built with several different engines from nearly every GM division until 1982 when GM began to discontinue engines it felt were unneeded and either spread successful designs from individual divisions among all divisions or use new engines of corporate architecture.
The first generation Firebirds had a characteristic Coke bottle styling. Unlike its cousin, the Chevrolet Camaro, its bumpers were integrated into the design of the front end and its rear "slit" taillights were inspired by the Pontiac GTO. Both a two-door hardtop and a convertible were offered through the 1969 model year. Originally the car was a "consolation prize" for Pontiac, who had initially wished to produce a two-seat
The Yenko Super Camaro was a modified Chevrolet Camaro prepared by Yenko Chevrolet, under the command of Don Yenko. The originals were all first-generation Camaros. When the Camaro debuted, a General Motors corporate edict prevented it from carrying an engine larger than 400 in³ (6.6 L) V8; this put the Camaro at a serious disadvantage to the Ford Mustang, Plymouth Barracuda and the Dodge Dart since neither Ford nor Plymouth/Dodge had a such a limit. Don Yenko, however, knew there was a market for an ultra powerful Camaro and found ways around the GM limit.
Yenko ordered L-78 equipped SS Camaros and swapped in the Chevrolet Corvette's L-72 427 in³ (7.0 L) V8. The cars came with a 4.10 rear end and heavy-duty suspension. The exact number of cars produced is 54. Yenko also installed a fiberglass replacement hood similar to the "Stinger" hood featured on 1967 big-block Corvettes.
Don Yenko's Camaros were equipped with a 427ci L-72 in them with either an M21 or M22 transmission. The horsepower was rated at 423 hp (315 kW). Yenko Camaros were not allowed to race for Chevrolet on the drag strip because they were not made by Chevrolet. Chevy's answer to this was the Copo Camaro, or
The Ford Ranchero was a coupe utility produced between 1957 and 1979. Unlike a pickup truck, the Ranchero was adapted from a two-door station wagon platform that integrated the cab and cargo bed into the body. A total of 508,355 units were produced during the model's production run. It was adapted from full-size, compact and intermediate automobiles by the Ford Motor Company for the North American market.
During the 1970s the Ranchero name was used in the South African market on a rebadged Australian Ford Falcon utility. These vehicles were sent to South Africa in CKD form. In Argentina a utility version of the locally produced Ford Falcon was also called the Ranchero.
The Ford Ranchero sold well enough to spawn a competitor from General Motors in 1959, the Chevrolet El Camino.
The first Ford Model T and Model A pickup trucks were created from sedans by placing a truck box behind the body of a car truncated behind the driver's seat. In 1934 Ford Australia's designer Lew Bandt modified a coupe with a smoothly integrated loadbed that could be used like a car to drive to church or to deliver pigs to market. This created the coupe utility which remains a popular body style as the "ute"
The Dodge Challenger is the name of three different generations of automobiles marketed by the Dodge division of Chrysler.
The first generation Dodge Challenger was a pony car built from 1970 to 1974, using the Chrysler E platform and sharing major components with the Plymouth Barracuda. The second generation, from 1978 to 1983, was a badge engineered Mitsubishi Galant Lambda. The third, and current generation, was introduced in 2008 as a rival to the evolved fifth generation Ford Mustang and the reintroduced fifth generation Chevrolet Camaro.
The first car that carried the Challenger name was the mid-year introduction of a limited edition 1959 Dodge Silver Challenger. This was a six-cylinder or V8 model available only in silver paint and only on a two-door body. It came with extra features at no cost, including premium white wall tires, full wheel covers, electric windshield wipers, as well as an upgraded interior with luxury fabrics and wall-to-wall deep pile carpeting.
The Challenger was described in a book about 1960s American cars as Dodge's "answer to the Mustang and Camaro." It was one of two Chrysler E-body cars, the other being the slightly smaller Plymouth Barracuda.
The Boss 302 Mustang is a high performance variant of the Ford Mustang originally produced in 1969 and 1970, and revived in the 2012 model year. It was produced for the Trans Am racing series.
The Camaro/Mustang rivalry had begun in 1967 with the introduction of the Chevrolet Camaro by General Motors. The Camaro was the largest threat to the lead Ford had in the "pony car" field, a market segment largely created by Ford with the introduction of the Mustang in mid-year 1964. The performance of the Mustang with 289 and 390 engines was not up to the Camaro, with its small block and big block V8. In an effort to improve the Mustang's image, Ford made optional the 428 Cobra Jet V8 in mid-year 1968, and in 1969, the Ford Boss 302 engine. The 302 was a composite engine using the "tunnel port" Windsor block and large Cleveland heads. This optional engine was available for the express purpose of meeting the homologation guidelines to compete in the Trans-Am series.
The Boss 302 Mustang was designed by Larry Shinoda, a former GM employee. The car featured reflective "c-stripe" and the fake rear fender scoops of the regular 1969 Mustangs was eliminated. Optional were black horizontal rear
The Pontiac GTO is an automobile built by Pontiac Division of General Motors in the United States from 1964 to 1974, and by GM subsidiary Holden in Australia from 2004 to 2006. It was a classic muscle car of the 1960s and 1970s. From 1964 until midway through 1973 it was closely related to the Pontiac Tempest/Le Mans and for the 1974 model year it was based on the Pontiac Ventura. The 21st century GTO is essentially a left-hand drive Holden Monaro, itself a coupe variant of the Holden Commodore.
The GTO was the brainchild of Pontiac engineer Russell Gee, an engine specialist; Bill Collins, a chassis engineer; and Pontiac chief engineer John DeLorean. In early 1963, General Motors' management issued an edict banning divisions from involvement in auto racing. At the time, Pontiac's advertising and marketing approach was heavily based on performance, and racing was an important component of that strategy. With GM's ban on factory-sponsored racing, Pontiac's young, visionary management turned its attention to emphasizing street performance.
In his autobiography “Glory Days,” Pontiac chief marketing manager Jim Wangers, who worked for the division’s contract advertising and public
The GMC Sprint is a coupe utility that was produced by the GMC division of General Motors for the 1971–1977 model years. The Sprint was renamed Caballero for the 1978 model year and was produced through 1987. The rear-wheel-drive car based pickups were sold by GMC Truck dealers mainly in the United States and Canada. The Sprint/Caballero is GMC's version of the Chevrolet El Camino. Trim designations, emblems, and wheel trim differentiate the GMC from the Chevrolet. The GM A platform was downsized for 1978, but the Caballero used the Chevrolet Malibu station wagon's longer-wheelbase chassis. In 1982, the vehicle became the G platform as the A platform switched to front-wheel drive.
In 1971, GM began producing the GMC Sprint, their version of the Chevrolet El Camino. This light-duty pickup truck was identical to the El Camino except for nameplates, and the chassis for both cars was based on the Chevrolet Chevelle station wagon/4-door sedan wheelbase. Sprint's first year was also the first year for mandated lower-octane unleaded fuel which necessitated a reduction in engine compression, and GM's A.I.R. system, a "smog pump", was added to control tailpipe emissions. Power and
The Chrysler 300 is a full-size sedan first shown at the 2003 New York Auto Show as a concept car. Sales in the U.S. began in the spring of 2004 as an early 2005 model year car. Designed by Ralph Gilles, the new 300 was built as a high-end sedan while the SRT-8 model was designed to be the high-performance version. The Chrysler 300 is also marketed in Australia, as the first full-size Chrysler vehicle sold there since the Valiant was discontinued in 1981.
The car is sold in Europe as the Lancia Thema. However, it remains branded as the Chrysler 300C in the United Kingdom, Australia, and Ireland.
The Chrysler 300 is based on the rear-wheel drive Chrysler LX platform which features components derived from the W211 Mercedes-Benz E-Class of 2003 to 2009. For years it was incorrectly believed that the LX platform shared components from the older Mercedes W210, but it has been recently revealed by an LX chassis engineer that it wasn't the case. "One thing that a lot of people said at the time and probably still think is that when we were doing that car, that we were just giving the old E-class stuff and that’s not true at all. They were doing the new E-class, which is called the 211,
The Plymouth Belvedere is an American automobile model which was produced by Plymouth from 1954 to 1970.
Introduced on March 31, the 1951 Plymouth Cranbrook Belvedere arrived as a two-door pillarless hardtop. It was Plymouth's first vehicle of such design and was built in response to Chevrolet's Bel Air. That vehicle, the first two-door hardtop in the low-priced American market, was introduced in 1950 and ended that model year with great success.
The Cranbook Belvedere was not a separate model. Rather, it was the specific name only used for the two-door hardtop version of the Cranbrook. Being built on that car's 118.5 in (3,010 mm) wheelbase gave the two-door Belvedere very favorable proportions. Powering the Belvedere was the familiar flathead straight-6 engine. Displacement was 217.8 in (3.6 L), the compression ratio was a relatively low 7.00:1, and output was 97 hp (72 kW) (SAE gross). First-year prices started at US$2,114.
For 1952, Plymouth kept the Cranbrook Belvedere largely unchanged. The biggest alteration was to the color scheme; to further distinguish the top-level Belvedere from other Plymouths, the two toning now flowed from the roof over the beltline onto the trunk,
The Coronet was a full-size car from Dodge in the 1950s, initially the division's highest trim line but, starting in 1955, the lowest trim line. In the 1960s, the name was transferred to Dodge's mid-size entry.
The Dodge Coronet was introduced with the division's first postwar body styles. Lower trim lines were the Wayfarer and Meadowbrook. The only engine for Dodge was a 230-cubic-inch (3,800 cc) flat-head straight six cylinder engine with a single barrel Stromberg carburetor, producing 103 horsepower (77 kW) (gross). The stock Dodge Coronet was a smooth running car, and the six-cylinder engine could power the car to 90 miles per hour (140 km/h)+ . A limited production model was a four-door, eight passenger limousine, an extended version of the stock Dodge Coronet. One of the most notable features of the first-generation Coronet was a three-speed, fluid-driven transmission that was operated by a foot pedal on the floor. It required no shifter. It had full instramentation.
Dodge received a facelift for 1950 but like the 1949 models were still divided into Wayfarer, Meadowbrook and Coronet lines. The 1950 models can be identified easily by the new grille design which featured 3
The Pontiac Tempest was an entry-level compact produced by the Pontiac Motor Division of General Motors, introduced in September 1960 for the 1961 model year.
Sharing the new monocoque (unibody) Y platform with the Buick Special and Skylark, and Oldsmobile F-85 and Cutlass, the model also appeared under the LeMans nameplate (largely beginning with the 1962 model year, though Pontiac also manufactured a few 1961 Le Mans coupes).
For 1964, the platform was redesigned with a full-size frame, and renamed A-body. The Tempest name was discontinued after the 1970 model year in favor of Le Mans, a nameplate previously used for upmarket versions of that series.
Despite sharing some of the Oldsmobile's sheet metal, the original Tempest featured an innovative drivetrain — a rear-mounted transaxle coupled to a torque shaft arcing in a 3 in (76 mm) downward bow within a longitudinal tunnel — coupling the forward engine and rear transmission into one unit and eliminating vibration. The arrangement, known as "rope drive", had been previously used in the 1951 Le Sabre concept car.
The combination of the rear-mounted transaxle and the front-mounted engine gave the car very nearly an ideal 50/50
The Chevrolet Camaro is an automobile manufactured by General Motors under the Chevrolet brand, classified as a pony car and some versions also as a muscle car. It went on sale on September 29, 1966, for the 1967 model year and was designed as a competing model to the Ford Mustang. The car shared its platform and major components with the Pontiac Firebird, also introduced for 1967.
Four distinct generations of the Camaro were developed before production ended in 2002. The nameplate was revived again on a concept car that evolved into the fifth-generation Camaro; production started on March 16, 2009.
Before any official announcement, reports began running during April 1965 within the automotive press that Chevrolet was preparing a competitor to the Ford Mustang, code-named Panther. On June 21, 1966, around 200 automotive journalists received a telegram from General Motors stating, "...Please save noon of June 28 for important SEPAW meeting. Hope you can be on hand to help scratch a cat. Details will follow...(signed) John L. Cutter – Chevrolet Public Relations – SEPAW Secretary." The following day, the same journalists received another General Motors telegram stating, "Society for
The Holden Monaro is a Muscle car that was produced by GM Holden Ltd, an Australian subsidiary of General Motors, between 1968 and 1977 and between 2001 and 2005. Since 1968, three generations of the Monaro have been produced.
Named after the Monaro region in New South Wales (although pronounced differently), the Monaro was introduced in July 1968 as a two-door pillarless hardtop coupe available in three models: the basic Monaro coupe, Monaro 'GTS' coupe and Monaro 'GTS 327' coupe. The GTS versions had "full instrumentation" which included a tachometer mounted on the centre console. This proved to be a bad location as the drivers knee would obstruct the view and it often rattled (Spotlight on Holden Monaro Page 6-7). The cars could be ordered with a choice of six-cylinder engines of 161 cu in (2,640 cc) capacity (base only) or two versions of 186 cu in (3,050 cc) capacity (GTS with the uprated 186S only), or a 307 cu in (5,030 cc) capacity Chevrolet-sourced V8. The exclusive 'GTS 327' model was powered by the 250 bhp (186 kW) Chevrolet 327 cu in (5,360 cc) V8.
The HK Monaro GTS327 also saw Holden's first victory in the Bathurst 500 in 1968 when Bruce McPhee and co-driver Barry
The Holden Torana is a car that was manufactured by General Motors–Holden's (GM-H), the Australian subsidiary of General Motors (GM) from 1967 to 1980. The name comes from an Aboriginal word meaning "to fly". The first Torana (HB series) appeared in 1967 and was a four-cylinder compact vehicle with origins in the British Vauxhall Vivas of the mid 1960s.
Whilst the 1969-73 (LC and LJ series) cars included more popular, longer-wheelbase six-cylinder versions, and with the 1974-77 (LH and LX series) cars adding eight-cylinder versions to the mix, a range of four-cylinder versions continued for the entire production life of the Torana (with later versions being marketed as the Holden Sunbird from November 1976).
Changing tack in Australian motor sport, Holden released the LC Torana GTR XU-1 in 1970, with performance enhanced drivetrain and handling. From this time through to the release of the Holden Commodore, the Torana remained Holden's most successful sports/performance vehicle, with many victories garnered in rallying and circuit racing.
The introduction of the VB Commodore in 1978 was preceded by the arrival of the updated UC Torana/Sunbird twins but with no sports versions or V8
In the 60s Ford was struggling to keep up with Chrysler in NASCAR racing, so they created the Blue Crescent, a big block, with large intake and exhaust ports in the cylinder head thus imparting upon it the street name Shot Gun.
Kar Kraft was contracted by ford to create the Boss 429, because Ford was stretching its self thin across a number of projects. Kar Kraft at the time was in the process of creating the Trans-Am Boss 302. Production on the Boss 429 began in 1963 in Brighton, Michigan at Kar-Kraft's factory; the cars were transported to this plant directly from the auto maker's plant and the work begain. First the mounts for the front suspension were chopped and displaced to create room for the block and exhaust manifolds. Next the battery was repositioned to the trunk and a stiff sway bar was added to rear end.
One of the problems with the Boss 429 was it was so front heavy that it had trouble transferring the engine's power the to the ground, because the tires in the back would start spinning if power was applied too quickly. While it had better handling than may other big block cars in its era; was hands-down outclassed by the Boss 302 and the 428 Cobra Jet.
The Mercury Cyclone was produced from 1964 to 1971, beginning as an option for the 1964 Mercury Comet, and continuing as a Mercury Comet Cyclone until 1968 when the Comet part of the name was dropped, and it became the Mercury Cyclone. After 1971 it became the "performance" model of Mercury Montego (Mercury Montego Cyclone). The Mercury Montego already had a performance model called Cyclone since 1968.
The Mercury Cyclone saga was started in 1964 with a 289-cid (4735-cc) 210-hp (156.5-kW) engine. When the '64 model was brought out, it was designed to look sporty. So it had a spoked steering wheel, bucket seats and some of the engine parts were chromed, as that was part of the style of early muscle cars.
For 1965 the engine was updated to the four-barrel carburetor version of the 289-cid unit, which strangely enough only produced 200-hp (149.1-kW). Also for the first time the '65 Cyclone had a few performance options, including a handling package, special fan and a "Power Transfer" rear axle.
Sculpturing, running the length of the car, was the major styling change for the '66 Cyclone, which was based on the Ford Fairlane's body. Also new engines were introduced in 1966. The 390-ci
The Plymouth Satellite was an automobile introduced in 1965 as the top model in Plymouth's mid-size Belvedere line. The Satellite remained the top of the line model until the 1967 model year, where it became the mid-price model with the GTX taking its place as the top model. The Fury name was moved to Plymouth's mid-size models for 1975, at which time the Satellite name disappeared. The Satellite was built on Chrysler's mid-size "B" platform.
When a new, larger Plymouth Fury was introduced for 1965 on Chrysler's full-size C platform, the Plymouth Belvedere name was moved to Plymouth's "new" mid-size line for 1965, in what was really a continuation of Plymouth's full-size 1962–1964 models. The Belvedere Satellite was the top trim model in the series, above the Belvedere I and II. It was only available as a two-door hardtop or convertible. Offered with bucket seats and center console as standard, the Satellite was available exclusively with V8 engines. For 1965, the standard engine was the 273 c.i.d., and optional choices were the 318, and 361, 383 and 426 "Commando" engines. This 426 had the wedge combustion chamber design, and is not the 426 "Hemi" offered in 1966. The front end
The AMC Hornet was a compact automobile made by the American Motors Corporation (AMC) in one generation beginning with the 1970 model year and continuing through the 1977 model year. The Hornet replaced the compact Rambler American marking the end of the Rambler marque in the American and Canadian markets. Hornets were also marketed in foreign markets, as well as assembled under license agreements with AMC that included Vehículos Automotores Mexicanos (VAM), Australian Motor Industries (AMI), and by Toyota S.A. Ltd. in South Africa.
The new Hornet became an important vehicle and platform for AMC. It served the company in one form or another for eighteen years, until the 1988 model year. It would outlast all other compact platforms from the competition that included the Chevrolet Nova, Ford Maverick, and Plymouth Valiant. The Hornet was also the basis for AMC's Gremlin, Concord, Spirit, and the innovative all-wheel drive AMC Eagle.
The Hornet name plate goes back to the mid-1950s. The name originated from the merger of Hudson Motor Company and Nash-Kelvinator Corporation in 1954. Hudson introduced the first Hudson Hornet in 1951. The automaker formed a stock car racing team centered
The Buick Wildcat was a full-size automobile produced by the Buick Division of General Motors from 1963 to 1970. It took its name from a fiberglass-bodied 1953 concept car.
In 1962 the Wildcat was a Buick Invicta subseries, mating the Invicta's longer full-size two-door hardtop Buick body (known as the "sport coupe," body production code 4647) with a high-performance 325 hp (242 kW) version of the 401 cu in (7 l) Nailhead V8, known as the Wildcat 445 for producing 445 lb·ft (603 N·m) of torque. To further distance itself from the Invicta, the Wildcat had Electra 225-like taillights, a bucket seat interior, a center console with tachometer and transmission shifter. It had the famous Dynaflow transmission shared by all full-size Buicks, plus special exterior side trim, vinyl-covered roof (new for 1962), and its own unique emblem: a stylized head of a wild cat, located on each of the C-pillars. However, the Wildcat did share the LeSabre's and Invicta's trio of VentiPorts on the front fenders, a design cue lasting only through the 1963 model year.
From 1963 to 1970 the Wildcat was its own series, no longer a subseries of the Invicta. Wildcats built starting in the 1964 model year did
Chevrolet El Camino is a coupe utility vehicle produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors for the 1959–1960 model years in response to the success of its rival, Ford Ranchero. Production resumed for the 1964–1977 model years based on the Chevelle platform, and continued for the 1978–1987 model years based on the Malibu. Although based on corresponding Chevrolet car lines, the vehicle is classified and titled in North America as a truck. GMC's badge engineered El Camino variant, the Sprint, was introduced for the 1971 model year. Renamed Caballero in 1978, it was also produced through the 1987 model year.
El Camino is Spanish for "the road" or, alternatively, "the path", or quite literally, "the walk".
Ford Australia was the first company to produce a coupe utility as a result of a 1932 letter from the wife of a farmer in Victoria, Australia asking for “a vehicle to go to church in on a Sunday and which can carry our pigs to market on Mondays”. Ford designer Lew Bandt developed a suitable solution, and the first coupe utility model was released in 1934. Bandt went on to manage Ford’s Advanced Design Department, being responsible for the body engineering of the XP, XT, XW,
The Mercury Montego was a mid-size vehicle in the Mercury line of Ford Motor Company from 1968 to 1976. The nameplate first appeared in 1967 in Canada as part of the Mercury-derived Meteor line. After 1976, the basic design of the Montego was updated and the nameplate disappeared as the Cougar expanded its lineup. During the mid-2000s, the Montego name was revived for a full-size car; it was rebranded the Sable for 2008.
The Montego was introduced for 1968 as an upscale version of the intermediate Mercury Comet, which it eventually supplanted after 1969. It was essentially a twin of the Ford Torino. The Cyclone was a high performance variant of the Montego through 1971.
The 1968 models were available in four body styles: four-door sedan, two-door hardtop, station wagon and convertible, in base and fancier MX trim. In 1969, a luxury MX Brougham trim level was added. also in 1969 there was a ski-pac special not just the mx that came with a 351, posi trac system and a heavy duty heater
For 1970, the convertible was dropped, but new four-door hardtops and woodgrained MX Villager station wagon were added to the model selection. The 1970 and 1971 Montegos (and Cyclones) were notable for
The Oldsmobile 442 (pronounced four-four-two) was a muscle car produced by the Oldsmobile division of General Motors. It was introduced as an option package for F-85 and Cutlass models sold in the United States beginning with the 1964 model year. The 442 appellation comes from the configuration of the car: a four-barrel carburetor, a four-speed manual transmission, and dual exhaust pipes. It became a model in its own right from 1968 to 1971, then reverted to an option through the mid-1970s. Oldsmobile revived the name in the 1980s on the rear-wheel drive Cutlass Supreme and early 1990s as an option package for the new front-wheel drive Cutlass.
The 442 was born out of the competition between Pontiac Division and Oldsmobile. It began as a hasty response to the Pontiac Tempest GTO, which had proved to be an unexpected success midway through the 1964 model year. It was created by performance enthusiast and Oldsmobile engineer John Beltz (also responsible for the Toronado), aided by Dale Smith and Olds Chief Engineer Bob Dorshimer.
Because of its late introduction (some three-fourths of the way through the model year) and the ambiguous nature of the GTO – which was technically a
The Pontiac 2+2 was a full size high performance automobile manufactured by Pontiac Motor Division. It debuted in 1964 as an interior trim option for the Pontiac Catalina, with special door panels, buckets seats and center console. Pontiac marketed the 2+2 as the "big brother" to the popular Pontiac GTO.
Beginning in 1965 the name Catalina was no longer found on the car, although the 2+2 was its own separate series for the 1966 model year only. The 2+2 was given the 421 cubic inch power plant, dual exhaust, heavy duty front springs as well as its own outer body trim appointments. It officially became its own series in 1966, on the same platform, but reverted again to an option in 1967 and was discontinued in the United States the same year due to poor sales. It continued as a series in Canada until 1970.
The designation 2+2 was borrowed from European sports cars (i.e. Ferrari) with seating for 4: 2 in front plus 2 in the rear. It was designated officially at Pontiac as a "regular performance" model, and was intended by Pontiac to be to the Catalina platform what the GTO was to the Lemans. Standard on the 2+2 beginning with the 1965 models was a high-compression 421 V8 powered