A mountaineer is anyone who climbs mountains, either for sport or exploration.Most mountaineers currently listed are those who can claim first ascent for a peak. You can help by adding other mountaineers.
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David Lim is a Singaporean mountaineer and motivational speaker who led the first Singapore Mount Everest Expedition in 1998. Between 1994 and 1998, he led and organised a team from the flat tropical island nation to the top of Everest. Sustaining an injury on the summit push, he did not make the summit himself though two other team members succeeded in making the top on May 25, 1998. A week after his return, and not related to the climb, he was stricken with Guillain-Barré Syndrome, a rare nerve disorder where the immune system attacks the peripheral nerves. Paralysed from eyes down, he spent six months in hospitals, and emerged partially disabled in both legs.
He returned to mountaineering, and since 1999, has led more than 15 expeditions, including the first all-Singapore ascent of Argentina's Aconcagua (6962m), and the world's third solo of Ojos del Salado, the highest volcano in the world (6893m). In summer 2005, he led the first Southeast Asian team to climb virgin peaks in the Tien Shan mountain range on the Kazakh-Kyrgyz border. The team summitted three peaks, now officially recognised as Temasek, Singapura I, and Ong Teng Cheong peaks.
He has also authored two books,
Mark Joseph Inglis, ONZM (born 27 September 1959) is a mountaineer, researcher, winemaker and motivational speaker. He holds a degree in Human Biochemistry from Lincoln University, New Zealand, and has conducted research in Leukemia. He is also an accomplished cyclist and, as a double leg amputee, won a silver medal in the 1 km time trial event at the Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games.
In addition to being a goodwill ambassador for the Everest Rescue Trust, Inglis has created a New Zealand based charitable trust Limbs4All. He has also created a range of sports drinks and energy gels named PeakFuel.
Inglis began work as a professional mountaineer in 1979 as a search and rescue mountaineer for Aoraki/Mount Cook National Park. In 1982 Inglis and climbing partner Philip Doole were stuck in an snow cave on Aoraki/Mount Cook for 13 days due to an intense blizzard. The rescue of the two climbers was a major media event in New Zealand. Both men's legs became badly frost bitten while awaiting rescue. Following Inglis' rescue, both his legs were amputated below the knee. He returned to Mt. Cook in 2002 and reached the summit successfully on 7 January of that year, after a previous attempt was
Ukyo Katayama (片山 右京, Katayama Ukyō, born May 29, 1963) is a Japanese racing driver, most notable for competing six years in Formula One. Despite struggling with under-funded teams throughout his career, Katayama's performances impressed on several occasions, and was popular in the F1 paddock for his unshakeably sunny disposition and self-deprecating sense of humour ("It is possible to do more with this car - the only problem is my driving!")
He participated in 97 Grands Prix, debuting on March 1, 1992. He scored a total of five championship points, all of them for the Tyrell team in 1994.
He also competed in the 1999 24 Hours of Le Mans, finishing 2nd overall and 1st in the GTP class.
Katayama was born in Tokyo. He first raced in Europe in 1986 in France before returning home to win the Japanese F3000 series in 1991.
His sponsors, Japan Tobacco, arranged a Formula One seat for Katayama in 1992 with Cabin brand, with the Larrousse team. The car was unreliable and a distinct midfielder, with team-mate Bertrand Gachot getting the lion's share of the team's meagre resources. However, Katayama impressed by running in 5th at the Canadian GP until his engine blew, but was eventually left
James W. Whittaker, also known as Jim Whittaker (born in Seattle, Washington on February 10, 1929 ) is an American mountaineer.
As a member of the American Mount Everest Expedition 1963 led by Norman Dyhrenfurth, he was the first American to reach the summit of Mount Everest. He summited on May 1, 1963 with the Sherpa Nawang Gombu (a nephew of Tenzing Norgay). They ran out of oxygen but managed to reach the summit. Once there, Whittaker planted a US flag at the top.
He is the twin brother of Lou Whittaker, a mountain guide who is often mistakenly credited with that achievement.
Whittaker graduated from West Seattle High School and Seattle University.
He was the first full-time employee of Recreational Equipment Inc. and was the company's CEO in the 1960s. Now, Whittaker is chairman of the Board of Magellan Navigation, a company that produces handheld global positioning system (GPS) units.
In 1965 he guided Robert Kennedy up the newly-named Mount Kennedy.
He led the Earth Day 20 International Peace Climb that brought together climbers from the United States, USSR and China to summit Mount Everest. In addition to putting more than a dozen climbers on the summit, the expedition hauled
Aron Lee Ralston (born October 27, 1975) is an American outdoorsman, engineer and motivational speaker.
He is widely known for having survived a canyoneering accident in south-eastern Utah in 2003, during which he was forced to amputate his own right arm with a dull multi-tool in order to free himself from a dislodged boulder, which had trapped him there for five days and seven hours. Even after he had escaped, he still had to climb down a 65 foot (around 20m) sheer cliff face to reach safety.
The incident is documented in Ralston's autobiography Between a Rock and a Hard Place, and is the subject of the film 127 Hours.
Ralston was born on October 27, 1975, in Indianapolis, but he and his family moved to Denver when he was age 11. He is a graduate of Cherry Creek High School in Greenwood Village, Colorado. He received his college degree from Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, finishing with degrees in mechanical engineering and French, with a minor in piano. At Carnegie Mellon, he served as a resident assistant, studied abroad, and was an active intramural sports participant. He left his job as a mechanical engineer with Intel in Phoenix, Arizona, in 2002 in order to pursue
Julius Johannes Ludovicus Ritter von Payer (2 September 1841 – 19 August 1915) was an Austro-Hungarian arctic explorer and an Arctic landscape artist.
Born Julius Payer, his father Franz Anton Rudolf Payer was a retired officer who died when Julius was only fourteen. Payer attended k.k. cadet school in Łobzów near Kraków (now Poland). Between 1857 and 1859 he studied at the Theresian Military Academy in Wiener Neustadt (near Vienna). In 1859 he served as a sub-lieutenant with the 36th infantry regiment in Verona, Northern Italy. He participated in the 1859 Battle of Solferino. Between 1860 and 1863 he served at the garrison in Verona, Italy. In 1863 Payer was assigned as a history teacher to the cadet school in Eisenstadt, Austria. After promotion to the rank of lieutenant first class he was posted to the garrison of Venetia.
In 1862 he started exploratory tours of the Italian Alps and Hohe Tauern in his free time. From 1864-1868 he explored the Adamello-Presanella Group and the Ortler Alps. He was the first to climb Adamello (3554m). His tours resulted in creating a detailed topographical map at a scale 1:56,000. Due to his achievements, Payer was transferred to the Austrian
Ashraf Aman (Urdu: اشرف امان , born January 15, 1943) is a Pakistani mountaineer, adventurer, and an electrical engineer. He was first Pakistani to reach the summit of K2, the second highest peak on Earth. Besides mountaineering, he has almost 35 years of experience in tourism. He operates the tourism company known as Adventure Tours Pakistan. Recently, he is the vice President of Alpine Club of Pakistan.
Aman was born in Aliabad, Hunza, Pakistan. He received the degree of B. Tech in Electrical Engineering from N.E.D. Engineering University, Karachi.
In 2008 on 26 June Ashraf Aman Visited Quetta Balochistan to supervise the National male female youth Rock-climbing training Course accompanied with Nazir Sabir and Hayatullah Khan Durrani the camp was organized by the Alpine Club of Pakistan and Chiltan Adventurers Association Balochistan as a part of promotion and development of Rock-climbing Adventure sports in youth of Pakistan.
Dr. Valentine Trant McGillycuddy (1849–1939) was a controversial pioneer of the effort to build a sustainable relationship between the United States and the Native American people. As the surveyor for the Newton-Jenney Party, McGillycuddy was the first known person to climb Harney Peak in the Black Hills of South Dakota. He then served as Contract Surgeon with General George Crook during the Battle of the Rosebud, the Battle of Slim Buttes, and the Horsemeat March.
As Assistant Post Surgeon at Fort Robinson and later as Indian Agent for the Red Cloud Agency, McGillycuddy was known to the Lakota of the modern-day Pine Ridge Indian Reservation as "Friend of Crazy Horse", and was the doctor who treated Crazy Horse at the time of his death.
While he may have been a friend to Crazy Horse, he was not so much loved by some other Lakotas, including Red Cloud, a major Sioux chief. Red Cloud's accusations of mismanagement led to several investigations of Dr. McGillycuddy's administration. Under pressure to arbitrarily fire a loyal clerk, Dr. McGillycuddy eventually resigned his post. Later, in the days leading up to the Wounded Knee Massacre, Red Cloud conceded that McGillycuddy had been a
Heinrich Harrer (German pronunciation: [ˈhaɪnʁɪç ˈhaʁɐ]; 6 July 1912 – 7 January 2006) was an Austrian mountaineer, sportsman, geographer, and author. He is best known for being on the four-man climbing team that made the first ascent of the North Face of the Eiger in Switzerland, and for his books Seven Years in Tibet (1952) and The White Spider (1959).
Heinrich Harrer was born 6 July 1912 in Hüttenberg, Austria in the district of Sankt Veit an der Glan in the state of Carinthia. His father was a postal worker. From 1933 to 1938, Harrer studied geography and sports at the Karl-Franzens University in Graz. Harrer became a member of the traditional student corporation ATV Graz.
In 1935, Harrer was designated to participate in the Alpine skiing competition at the 1936 Winter Olympics in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. The Austrian Alpine skiing team, however, boycotted the event due to a conflict regarding the skiing instructors' status as professionals. As a result, Harrer did not participate.
In 1937, Harrer won the downhill event at the World Student Championships at Zell am See.
Mountain climbing was Harrer's true passion. Knowing an extraordinary feat of climbing could win him a place
Ernst Reiss (24 February 1920, Davos – 3 August 2010, Basel) was a Swiss mountaineer, who together with Fritz Luchsinger was the first to climb the fourth highest mountain on earth in 1956.
On 18 May 1956, Reiss and Luchsinger successfully climbed the 8516 meter-high Lhotse, the fourth highest mountain on earth. Lhotse is connected to Mount Everest via the South Col on the border of Tibet and Nepal.
Reiss was a member of the 1956 Swiss Everest–Lhotse expedition. At the end of April and start of May, the expedition erected some high camps. From the last high camp at the "Geneva Spur" on 18 May, Luchsinger and Reiss climbed the summit of Lhotse mountain. Their colleagues Ernst Schmied and Jürg Marmet were successful on 23 May and one day later Dölf Reist and Hansruedi von Gunten made the second and third climb on Mount Everest.
Reiss died in Basel, Switzerland, on 3 August 2010, aged 90.
Patrick Allan Morrow, CM (born October 18, 1952 in Invermere, British Columbia) is a Canadian photographer and mountain climber who was first person in the world to have climbed the highest peaks of all seven continents: Mount McKinley in North America  , Aconcagua in South America , Mount Everest in Asia , Elbrus in Europe  , Mount Kilimanjaro in Africa  , Vinson Massif in Antarctica , and Puncak Jaya in Indonesia . Morrow was the first to summit the seven peaks on the Messner List of Seven Summits while Richard Bass was the first to complete the Bass List. Morrow was the first person to climb all the peaks on both lists. Morrow has other high altitude mountineering achievements, and in 1987, he was made a Member of the Order of Canada for exploits [that] have carried him into the top ranks of international mountaineering. Professionally Morrow was a still photographer until about 2001 when he transitioned to video.
Patrick Morrow, 1986, Beyond Everest - Quest For the Seven Summits, Camden House, 175 pgs, 125 colour photos, soft cover, ISBN O-920656-46-3.
Thomas Jefferson Dryer (1808–1879) was a newspaper publisher, Freemason, mountain climber, and politician in the Western United States.
He was born on January 10, 1808, in Ulster County, New York. Dryer founded the Weekly Oregonian, which has survived as the daily Oregonian, and served as its publisher. He was also the editor of the California Courier in San Francisco, California.
Dryer made the first documented ascent of Mount St. Helens on August 27, 1853, with three companions. He has also been reported as the first to climb Mount Hood, on August 8, 1854; those reports have been disputed. In 1856, Dryer served in the Territorial Legislature representing Multnomah and Washington Counties as a Whig. The following year, he was elected and served at the Oregon Constitutional Convention.
Dryer was appointed U.S. Commissioner to the Kingdom of Hawaii in 1861 by President Abraham Lincoln, through the influence of Senator Edward Baker. Dryer was buried at Lone Fir Cemetery in Portland.
Luis Trenker (born Alois Franz Trenker, 4 October 1892 - 13 April 1990) was a German-language South Tyrolean (Austrian-Italian) film director, architect, and actor.
Trenker was born Alois Franz Trenker on 4 October 1892 in Urtijëi (German: St. Ulrich in Gröden), then part of the County of Tyrol in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Trenker studied architecture from 1912 until the outbreak of World War I. He fought on the Austrian side, serving mainly in the Alps opposite the Italian Alpinis. He wrote several books based upon his war experiences, the most important of which were Fort Rocca Alta and Berge in Flammen, the latter of which was made to a movie in 1931.
After the war, he resumed his studies, and worked in Bolzano (Bozen) as an architect forming a business partnership with the Austrian architect Clemens Holzmeister.
His first contact with film came in 1921, when he helped director Arnold Fanck on one of his mountain films. The main actor could not perform the stunts required, and so Trenker assumed the leading role. He gradually assumed more roles on the set, and by 1928 was directing, writing and starring in his own films. By now he had abandoned his job as an architect to
Fred Beckey (born Wolfgang Beckey, 14 January 1923) is an American mountaineer and author, who has made hundreds of first ascents, more than any other North American climber.
"Beckey," as he is known to his climbing companions, was born near Cologne, Germany, and his family emigrated to the United States when he was three, ending up in Seattle, Washington. He started climbing in the North Cascades as a teenager, learning the basic concepts from The Mountaineers but quickly going on to harder climbs.
He attended the University of Washington and received a degree in business administration. He worked as a delivery truck driver, which left him time for climbing.
Unlike Jim Whittaker, a fellow Seattleite and the first American to reach the top of Mount Everest in 1963, Beckey shied away from the large team efforts, preferring smaller alpine-style undertakings. Beckey seemed a likely choice as a member for the large, 1963 American Everest Expedition, but he was not chosen, even though he had been to Lhotse in 1955 with the International Himalayan Expedition.
In the late 1940s, he asked The Mountaineers of Seattle to publish his first climbing guidebook for the local peaks. They turned
Owen Glynne Jones (2 November 1867 – 28 August 1899) was a Welsh rock-climber and mountaineer. He established many new routes in the Lake District and elsewhere, often climbing with George and Ashley Abraham, brothers who photographed the climbs for posterity.
Jones was born in London, England, the son of a Welsh carpenter-builder, and took a first-class Honours degree in experimental physics. Not able to obtain a professorship, he became physics master at the City of London School. He began climbing in 1888, and was among those pioneers who first perceived rock climbing as a sport. As a climber, he had an athletic climbing style, and is considered by many to be one of the first "rock gymnasts". Although Jones said little in his writings about his training tactics – other than working with dumbbells – there are several stories regarding his gymnastic feats
He joked and called himself, "the Only Genuine Jones", and he was famous at Wasdale Head in the Lake District for his gymnastic stunts around the inn. As a rock climber, however, he drew disapproval from some of his colleagues – particularly Aleister Crowley – for his use of a top-rope to explore difficult pitches before
Richard "Dick" Bass (1929-) is the owner of Snowbird Ski Resort in Utah and the first man to climb the "Seven Summits," the tallest mountain on each continent.
Born in Tulsa, Oklahoma in 1929, Bass moved with his family to Texas in 1932. After graduating from the St. Mark's School of Texas, he enrolled at Yale University at 16 and graduated in 1950 with a degree in geology. After completing his graduate work at the University of Texas, Bass served two years with the U.S. Navy on board the aircraft carrier USS Essex during the Korean War. In 1953, he returned to Texas to join in the running of the family oil and gas business and ranching operations.
In 1971, Bass opened the Snowbird Ski Resort. He became prominent in the industry due to his self-proclaimed “blanket curiosity, nonstop verbosity and hyper-enthusiasm.”
Together with Frank Wells, one-time president of Walt Disney, Bass conceived of the adventure challenge of summiting each of the seven continents: Denali (Mt. McKinley), North America; Aconcagua, South America; Mt. Elbrus, Europe; Mount Kilimanjaro, Africa; Vinson Massif, Antarctica; Mount Kosciuszko, Australia; and Mt. Everest, Asia.
Bass became the first person to
William Earl "Smoke" Blanchard (March 3, 1915 – June 23, 1989) was an American mountaineer, climber, trekking leader, guide, world traveler, writer, Buddhist, and a truck driver. He was born in Montana and moved to Portland, Oregon in his early childhood and discovered a love for mountains in the shadow of Mount Hood. He spent his formative mountaineering years on Mount Hood during the mid to late 1930s. He was present during the "Golden Age" of climbing on Mount Hood, and under the tutelage of Gary Leech became a proponent of climbing solo and establishing new routes on the mountain.
Smoke made his first trip to the Yosemite Valley in 1937 and later that summer stumbled into the Eastern Sierra town of Bishop. He relocated there from Portland before 1942 and by 1943 had "discovered" the Buttermilks: an area of rocks that became his playground, and the training ground for young climbers like Doug Robinson, Galen Rowell, and Don Jenson.
In 1967, he married Su Ahlstrom after proposing to her on the top of Mount Hood. She had two children from a previous marriage, Glen and Lorelle, and Smoke had one son, Robert, from a previous marriage. Su died in 1976.
He was widely known in the
James Eccles FGS (1838 – 6 June 1915) was an English mountaineer and geologist who is noted for making a number of first ascents in the Alps during the silver age of alpinism.
Eccles was born in Blackburn in 1838, the eldest son of Edward Eccles of Liverpool.
He was on the board of Blackburn School, and a minute recording a donation of his to the Blackburn Museum and Art Gallery styles him as "James Eccles, J.P." He was elected a member of the Manchester Geological Society in 1866, becoming a vice-president in 1872. He was a Fellow of the Geological Society from 1867 to 1915.
Eccles married in 1863 and moved to London by 1874, where he lived at 15, Durham Villas, Fillimore Gardens, Kensington. A notice in the London Gazette states that on 2 November 1874 Eccles, together with John William Eccles and Robert Langley Wilson, presented a petition to the Lord Chancellor for the winding up of the British Timber Company. He died in 1915, leaving £163,334 in his will.
Eccles began climbing in the Alps in the 1860s and made an early ascent of the Matterhorn on 20 July 1869 from the Breuil side, employing J. A. Carrel and Bich as guides, together with two Chamoniards with whom he would
Count Ardito Desio (18 April 1897 – 12 December 2001) was an Italian explorer, mountain climber, geologist, and cartographer.
Desio was born in Palmanova, Friuli, Italy. He attended the Middle Schools of Udine and Cividale and the University of Florence (1916–1920), during the First World War also served in the military corps of the alpini and was captured by the Austrians on Mount Pasubio. Graduating with a degree in Natural Sciences (Geology). He made advanced studies in Geology at the same University from 1921 to 1923, and was also assistant in that matter in that university, as well as in those of Pavia (1923–1924) and Milan (1924–1927). He was Lecturer in Physical Geography, Geology and Paleontology (1928–1931), Professor of Geology at the University of Milan, and Applied Geology at the Engineering School of Milan (a position he held from 1932 to 1972). Concurrent to these positions, he served as a consultant geologist for the Edison Company for hydroelectric plants in Italy, Spain, Switzerland, Greece, Turkey and Brazil, and the same capacity for the Public Power Corporation of Greece. In 1973 he became Professor Emeritus at the University of Milan.
Desio began geological
Emanuel Meyer Mohn (15 February 1842 – 26 April 1891) was a Norwegian educator, known for writing about and illustrating mountains in Norway.
He was born in Bergen to Albert Henrik Mohn (1811–1894) and Ida Neumann (1814–1864). He was a brother of Henrik and Jakob Mohn, and on the maternal side he was a grandson of bishop Jacob Neumann. He did not marry. He was a granduncle of Frank and Albert Henrik Mohn, and an uncle-in-law of Nils Yngvar Ustvedt.
He enrolled in higher education in 1864, and graduated with the cand.mag. degree in 1869. He worked as a school teacher in Bergen, Stavanger, Christiania and Aalesund before holding his final job at Bergen Cathedral School from 1884 to 1889. He is best known as a contributor to the popularity of outdoors life in Norway, specifically mountaineering. He wrote in the yearbook of the Norwegian Trekking Association between 1871 and his death, and was also an illustrator. He ascended several mountains, but one of the downpoints came when he, trekking together with William Cecil Slingsby, did not manage to first ascend the Store Skagastølstind. He does hold co-credit for the first ascent of other mountains, such as Torfinnstindene.
Khoo Swee Chiow (Chinese: 邱瑞昭; pinyin: Qiū Ruìzhāo; Pe̍h-ōe-jī: Khu Suī-tsiau; born November 16, 1964 in Port Dickson, Malaysia) is a Singaporean adventurer, author and motivational speaker. Khoo is the 1st South East Asian and the 4th person in the world to complete The Explorers Grand Slam, that is, the South Pole, the North Pole and the Seven Summits.
Khoo climbed Mount Everest in 1998 as a member of Singapore's first Mount Everest expedition. In 1999, he skied to the South Pole as the leader of Singapore first Antarctica expedition, covering a distance of 1,125 km in 57 days. In 2001, he climbed Mount Ararat in Turkey together with six other Everest summitters from Turkey, Colombia, the United States and Mexico as part of a Peace Climb project to raise funds and promote international friendship. In that same year, he climbed Shishapangma in Tibet becoming the first South East Asian to climb an 8,000-metre peak without supplemental oxygen.
In 2002, he skied to the North Pole with Arctic guide Paul Landry and a dog named Apu, after failing the previous year due to frostbite on a finger. Khoo becomes the first South East Asian and the fourth person in the world to complete "The
Sharon Adele Wood (born May 18, 1957), a Canadian mountaineer and guide, was the first North American woman to reach the summit of Mount Everest.She is not only a mountaineer, but also a mother and a mentor.
Lieutenant Colonel Sir Thomas Livingstone Mitchell (15 June 1792 – 5 October 1855), surveyor and explorer of south-eastern Australia, was born at Craigend in Stirlingshire, Scotland. In 1827 he took up an appointment as Assistant Surveyor General of New South Wales. The following year he became Surveyor General and remained in this position until his death. Mitchell was knighted in 1839 for his contribution to the surveying of Australia.
Born in Scotland on 15 June 1792, he was son of John Mitchell of Carron Works and was brought up from childhood by his uncle, Thomas Livingstone of Parkhall, Stirlingshire. On the death of his uncle, he Joined the British army in Portugal as a volunteer, at the age of sixteen. On 24 June 1811, at the age of nineteen, he received his first commission as ensign in the old 95th Rifles (now Rifle Brigade). He was present at the storming of the fortresses of Ciudad Rodrigo and Badajos, and subsequently served on the general staff of Lord Wellington, to whose discrimination he owed his first commission and all promotion afterwards in the army. For his services during the war he received the Peninsular medal and five clasps, and promotion to a company in
Achille Compagnoni (26 September 1914 – 13 May 2009) was an Italian mountaineer and skier. Together with Lino Lacedelli, on 31 July 1954 he was the first man to reach the summit of K2.
Compagnoni was born in Santa Caterina di Valfurva, in the province of Sondrio (Lombardy).
On the successful K2 expedition, Compagnoni's decision to place the final camp (IX) at a higher location than formerly agreed was a source of controversy. Compagnoni alleged that Walter Bonatti had used some of the oxygen supply intended for the summit, causing it to run out on summit day. Walter Bonatti disputed this, and was cleared in the Italian courts in 1994.
Bonatti and Hunza climber, Mahdi, climbed up to deliver oxygen to Compagnoni and Lacedilli for their summit attempt. Mahdi's condition had deteriorated. Unable to downclimb safely with Mahdi, Bonatti needed the shelter of Camp IX's tent. The tent was placed high up, over a dangerous traverse to the left - not at the agreed upon location. Unable to safely traverse to the tent, Bonatti and Mahdi endured a forced bivouac in the open at 8100 meters; it cost Mahdi his fingers and toes. Compagnoni explains his decision to move the tent was to avoid an
Arne Dekke Eide Næss (27 January 1912 – 12 January 2009) was a Norwegian philosopher who inspired the Deep Ecology movement. Næss asserted that environmental groups of the time were only addressing 'shallow' ecological issues which did not aim to change the institutional causes of these problems, but rather only address the symptoms. He emphasized the equal right of all living things to thrive.
Næss cited Rachel Carson's 1962 book Silent Spring as being a key influence in his vision of deep ecology. Næss combined his ecological vision with Gandhian nonviolence and on several occasions participated in direct action. In 1970, together with a large number of demonstrators, he chained himself to rocks in front of Mardalsfossen, a waterfall in a Norwegian fjord, and refused to descend until plans to build a dam were dropped. Though the demonstrators were carried away by police and the dam was eventually built, the demonstration launched a more activist phase of Norwegian environmentalism. In 1958, Arne Næss founded the interdisciplinary journal of philosophy Inquiry.
Næss had been a minor political candidate for the Norwegian Green Party and in 1939 he was the youngest person to be
Eggert Ólafsson (1726–1768) was an Icelandic explorer, writer and conservator of the Icelandic language.
He was the son of a farmer from Svefneyjar in Breiðafjörður. He studied natural sciences, Classics, Grammar, Law and Agriculture at the University of Copenhagen.
Ólafsson wrote on a wide range of topics. His writing has made him known for his pro-conservation stance on the Icelandic language, which has undergone significant change since the 18th century.
He went on a research trip around Iceland with Bjarni Pálsson (who later became Iceland's Director of Health) between 1752 and 1757. During this trip, they visited a great number of Icelandic natural sites and proposed geographical and infrastructural improvements to the regions they visited.
Ólafsson and his wife, Ingibjörg Halldórsdóttir, drowned in 1768 when going back home from a winter sojourn in Sauðlauksdalur. Matthías Jochumsson wrote a commemorative poem titled "Eggert Ólafsson" in his honour. Icelandic romantic poet Jónas Hallgrímsson also wrote a poem for Ólafsson; titled "Hulduljóð", it was never finished.
Henry Patrick Marie, Count Russell-Killough (1834–1909) was one of the pioneers of Pyrenean exploration, known for his obsession with the Vignemale.
Born in Toulouse of an Irish father and a French mother, he undertook his first distant voyage at the age of 23, to North America. In 1858 he climbed Pic de Néouvielle in the Néouvielle massif from Barèges, as well as the Ardiden, and made three ascents of Monte Perdido. In 1859 he made his second voyage, which lasted three years. He travelled to Saint Petersburg, Moscow, Irkutsk and Beijing, crossing the Gobi Desert twice and descending the Amur River. He stayed in Shanghai and Hong Kong, then travelled on to Australia and New Zealand. He spent a year in India and returned to France by Cairo and Constantinople.
From 1861, Russell became devoted to the exploration of the Pyrenees. On his own or in the company of his guides, he made numerous first ascents, surviving financially on his personal fortune and his investments. He is especially known for his ascents of the Vignemale, which he climbed for the first time on 14 September 1861 with the guide Laurent Passet. In 1864 in Bagnères-de-Bigorre, together with Charles Packe, Farnham
Kit DesLauriers (born 1969) is a champion American skier and the first person to ski down the Seven Summits.
She was born in Albany, New York and grew up in Westport, Massachusetts and Long Island, New York. Her grandfather built the first chairlift at Stowe Mountain in Vermont. By the time she visited Telluride, Colorado with her family during a ski vacation, she was already an avid skier, having fallen in love with the sport on her very first downhill run at the age of 14. Then, prior to starting high school, her family moved to Arizona. DesLauriers graduated from the University of Arizona with a degree in environmental political science, where she took up trail running and rock climbing. While pursuing her college degree in Arizona, Kit also obtained a scholarship from the National Outdoor Leadership School and in the summer of 1991, Kit spent a semester in Alaska. During college, she also modeled for a while so she could travel to Europe and further her ski skills, especially at Verbier. After college, she moved to Telluride, Colorado where she lived for nearly ten years. She also spent lots of time in Indian Creek, Utah. In Telluride, she volunteered extensively with the San
Augusto Gansser-Biaggi (October 28, 1910 – January 9, 2012) was a Swiss geologist who specialised in the geology of the Himalayas. He was born in Milan.
His geological researches were global in scope:
He got the Tibetan variant of malaria at the First Swiss Himalaya Expedition, and thereafter a lifelong resistance. He circumambulated Mount Kailash disguised as a pilgrim, discovering at the foot of the mountain the origin of one rock seen in the Indian part of the Himalayas and a sensation: seafloor rocks on its South side (ophiolites). Later on, he interpreted this Indus-Yarlung-Tsangpo Suture Zone (ISZ) as the border between the Indian and the Eurasian Plate.
Iran: using his field notes and relief pictures taken by the Iranian Air Force, he chose a 50x 12 km area. Four drillings were not able to go through a huge salt and gypsum layer. Only Number 5 was successful, the largest known 'wildcat' oil gusher, North of Qom (Iran) on 26 August 1956 (3,000 m deep, 80,000 tons oil/day). The gas got lighted up on 13 September, sometime later the well closed itself.
From 1958 until 1977, he was professor of Geology at the University and the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zurich,
Johann Wolfgang "Hans" Gmoser, CM (July 7, 1932 - July 5, 2006) is a founder of modern mountaineering in Canada. Born in Austria in 1932, he came to Canada in 1951, and since then has been a major driving force behind the growing popularity of climbing, skiing and guiding.
In the 1950s he pioneered new rock climbs, most notably Grillmair Chimneys (1952), Calgary Route (1953) - with Franz Dopf leading, and Diretissima (1957) on Yamnuska. He made the third (and first Canadian) ascents of both Mount Alberta (1958) and Brussels Peak (1960). He participated in what may have been the first ascent of Alaska's Mount Blackburn in 1958, and led very successful expeditions to Mount Logan (east ridge) in 1959, and to Mount McKinley (Wickersham Wall) in 1963. In 1961 he climbed a difficult new route on the south face of Mount Louis. He was described as, "a good leader. He always had plans and he did his darndest to make his dreams come true."
Gmoser was a very capable and ambitious mountain guide. For years he travelled throughout North America, presenting his films and devoting vast amounts of energy toward promoting the Canadian mountain experience. In 1963 he was a founding member of the
Lynn Hill (born 1961) is a United States rock climber, known as a top sport climber of the 1980s and famous for making the first free ascent of the Nose Route on El Capitan in Yosemite Valley.
Originally from Detroit, Michigan, she grew up in southern California. Hill started climbing as a 14 year old on a climbing trip with her sister and her sister's fiancé. During the early 1980s she became part of the climbing community centered around Camp 4 in Yosemite Valley. She participated in various television productions, such as being a candidate in the TV show Survival of the Fittest.
In 1979, Lynn Hill became the first woman to establish a 5.12+/5.13, Ophir Broke in Ophir, Colorado. In 1984 at The Gunks she performed an onsight first ascent of Yellow Crack 5.12R/X. From 1986 to 1992 Lynn Hill was one of the world's top sport climbers, winning over 30 international titles, including five victories at the Arco Rock Master. In 1991, she set another landmark by becoming the first woman to redpoint a consensus 5.14, Masse Critique in Cimai, France.
After ending her career as a professional competitive climber, Hill went back to traditional rock climbing. In 1993, together with her partner
Walter Bonatti (Bergamo, 22 June 1930 – Rome, 13 September 2011) was an Italian mountain climber. He is noted for a solo climb of a new route on the south-west pillar of the Aiguille du Dru in August 1955 and the first solo winter ascent of the Matterhorn north face in 1965.
Bonatti was born in Bergamo. Famed for his climbing panache, he pioneered little known and technically difficult climbs in the Alps, Himalayas and Patagonia. At the age of 21, Bonatti in 1951 made the first ascent of the Grand Capucin, an extraordinary red granite pinnacle in the Mont Blanc massif, from 20 to 23 July. This was the climb that brought him to public notice. Aged 18, he had made the fourth ascent of the formidable North Face of the Grandes Jorasses with very poor equipment over a period of two days. Among his notable climbs were a solo climb of a new route on the south-west pillar of the Aiguille du Dru in August 1955, the first ever ascent of Gasherbrum IV in 1958 and the first solo winter ascent of the Matterhorn north face in 1965. Bonatti was awarded the French Legion d'Honneur for saving the lives of two fellow-climbers in a disaster in the Alps. He authored a number of books about climbing
William Cecil Slingsby (1849-1929) was an English mountain climber and alpine explorer.
Slingsby first visited Norway in 1872 and fell in love with the country. He has been called the discoverer of the Norwegian mountains, and the father of Norwegian mountaineering (insofar as he seems to be the first who actively pursued climbing in Norway and was the first person on several mountains). Together with Norway's early skilled mountain climber Kristian Bing (1862-1935), he is considered to be have been a pioneer explorer of Jostedalsbreen, the largest glacier in continental Europe.
Slingsby is perhaps most famous for being the first on "Storen", or Store Skagastølstind (2405 m) in 1876, the third highest mountain in Norway. It was considered impossible to climb then, but Slingsby defied popular notion and climbed the mountain, for the last part alone. His crossing of the 1,550-meter-high (5,800 ft) Keiser Pass, Norway, on skis in 1880 also helped inspire the sport of ski mountaineering.
He also spoke and wrote strongly about several other mountains for example Slogen. His classic book on climbing in Norway, Norway: the Northern Playground, was first published in 1904 and republished
Julius Kugy (19 July 1858 — 5 February 1944) was an Austrian - Italian mountaineer and writer of Slovene origin. He wrote mostly in German. He is renowned for his travelogues from the Julian Alps, in which he reflected on the relationship between man, nature, and culture. During all his life, he opposed competing nationalist ideologies in the northern Adriatic area, insisting on the need of peaceful co-existence among Slavic, Italian and German peoples.
Julius Kugy was born in Gorizia, then part of the Austrian Empire (now in Italy) to Slovene parents. His father was a Carinthian Slovene whose original surname was Kogej. His mother was the daughter of the Slovene poet Jovan Vesel Koseski. Kugy was educated in a multi-lingual environment. From an early age he was fluent in the three major languages of his native Gorizia and Gradisca region: Italian, German and Friulian. During his childhood he would spend the summers in his father's native village of Lipa near Arnoldstein in Carinthia's Gail Valley, where he developed his interest in nature and mountains.
Julius attended the German language secondary school in Trieste and continued his studies at the University of Vienna, graduating
Jean Louis Rodolphe Agassiz (May 28, 1807 – December 14, 1873) was a Swiss paleontologist, glaciologist, geologist and a prominent innovator in the study of the Earth's natural history. He grew up in Switzerland and became a professor of natural history at University of Neuchâtel. Later, he accepted a professorship at Harvard University in the United States.
Louis Agassiz was born in Môtier (now part of Haut-Vully) in the canton of Fribourg, Switzerland. Educated first at home, then spending four years of secondary school in Bienne, he completed his elementary studies in Lausanne. Having adopted medicine as his profession, he studied successively at the universities of Zürich, Heidelberg and Munich; while there he extended his knowledge of natural history, especially of botany. In 1829 he received the degree of Doctor of Philosophy at Erlangen, and in 1830 that of doctor of medicine at Munich. Moving to Paris he fell under the tutelage of Alexander von Humboldt and Georges Cuvier, who launched him on his careers of geology and zoology respectively. Previously he had not paid special attention to the study of ichthyology, but it soon became the great focus of his life's work.
George Keith (1638/9 – March 27, 1716) was a Scottish missionary.
Born in Peterhead, Aberdeenshire, Scotland, to a Presbyterian family, he received an M.A. from the University of Aberdeen. Keith joined the Religious Society of Friends (Quakers) in the 1660s, accompanying George Fox, William Penn, and Robert Barclay on a mission to the Netherlands and Germany in 1677.
In 1685, three years after Barclay had been made the nonresident governor of the Province of East Jersey (part of the present-day American state of New Jersey), Keith traveled there to take the post of Surveyor-General. In 1686 he ran the first survey to mark out the border between West Jersey and East Jersey. He moved to Philadelphia in 1688 to serve as headmaster at the Friends School there.
For his survey work, the Proprietors gave him large grants of land including seven hundred acres in Monmouth County where he founded the town of Freehold (which broke off and became Marlboro). He established his home in a Quaker settlement near Topanemus where he helped to build a meeting house in which he preached to the people on the Quaker faith.
Around 1691 Keith decided that Quakers had strayed too far from orthodox
Juan Eusebio Oiarzabal Urteaga (born 30 March 1956) commonly known as Juanito Oiarzabal is a noted Spanish Basque mountaineer and has written four books on the subject. He was the sixth man to reach all 14 eight-thousander summits, and the fourth in reaching them without supplementary oxygen. He was the first person to conquer the top 3 summits twice (Everest + K2 + Kangchenjunga), and the oldest climber to summit Kangchenjunga, at almost 53. In 2004, he lost all his toes to frostbite after summiting K2.
In 2009 he announced he wants to become the first person in history to reach a "double 14", summiting each 8000er twice. In April 2010 he reached 24 eight-thousanders, after climbing Annapurna, a world record. In 2011 he climbed Lhotse for a second time, which was his 25th eight-thousander. He is followed by Ed Viesturs who has reached 21 summits and Phurba Tashi Sherpa with 28.
His success in the Himalayas is well-known, but less well known is that before starting on those ascents he had already accumulated a curriculum which is among the best of Spain. He undertook ascents on all the Spanish mountain masses, on the hardest routes. He even discovered some routes of great
Matthias Zurbriggen (15 May 1856 in Saas-Fee – 21 June 1917 in Geneva) was one of the great 19th-century alpinists and mountain guides. He climbed throughout the Alps, and also in South America, the Himalayas and New Zealand. He made a considerable number of first ascents, the best known of which is Aconcagua, the highest peak in the Americas.
The Zurbriggen Ridge on Aoraki/Mount Cook in New Zealand is named after him. On 14 March 1895 Zurbriggen made the first ascent of the ridge and in the process made the second ascent of the mountain and the first solo ascent. He missed the honour of claiming the first ascent of Mount Cook, which was achíeved on Christmas Day 1894 by a party of New Zealanders determined to prevent the first ascent being credited to a foreigner.
Later in life, his fortune declined. He lived his last decade as a vagrant in his home country, and was found hanged in Geneva in 1917, an apparent suicide.
Adam Ondra (born February 5, 1993 in Brno) is a Czech rock climber. He also participates in sport climbing and bouldering competitions.
Adam started climbing at the age of six, his parents are climbers and they share their passion with him. In 1999 (at age six) at Rovinj in Croatia Adam climbed 6a/5.9 routes with bolts every half meter. In 2001 (at age eight) he onsighted 7b+/5.12c routes and in 2002 (at age nine) he onsighted 7c+/5.13 and redpointed 8a/5.13b. He onsighted 8a/5.13b routes in 2003 (at age ten). In 2004 (at age eleven) Adam climbed several 8a+/5.13c onsight and 8c/5.14b redpoints. In 2005 (at age twelve) he onsighted 8b/5.13d routes. Then he became famous on climbing magazines and in 2006 he managed to climb his first 9a/5.14d Martin Krpan at Misja Pec.
In 2007 and 2008 he won the IFSC Youth World Championship category Youth B.
In 2009, at age sixteen, he could compete in the IFSC Lead Climbing World Cup: in his debut year he won the World Cup beating Spanish Patxi Usobiaga and Japanese Sachi Amma.
In 2010 he won also the IFSC Bouldering World Cup beating Austrian Kilian Fischhuber and Japanese Tsukuru Hori, and becoming the first athlete in history to win both the
Samuel Taylor Coleridge (21 October 1772 – 25 July 1834) was an English poet, literary critic and philosopher who, with his friend William Wordsworth, was a founder of the Romantic Movement in England and a member of the Lake Poets. He is probably best known for his poems The Rime of the Ancient Mariner and Kubla Khan, as well as for his major prose work Biographia Literaria. His critical work, especially on Shakespeare, was highly influential, and he helped introduce German idealist philosophy to English-speaking culture. He coined many familiar words and phrases, including the celebrated suspension of disbelief. He was a major influence, via Emerson, on American transcendentalism.
Throughout his adult life, Coleridge suffered from crippling bouts of anxiety and depression; it has been speculated by some that he suffered from bipolar disorder, a condition as yet unidentified during his lifetime. Coleridge suffered from poor health that may have stemmed from a bout of rheumatic fever and other childhood illnesses. He was treated for these concerns with laudanum, which fostered a lifelong opium addiction.
Coleridge was born on 21 October 1772 in the country town of Ottery St Mary,
Geoffrey Winthrop Young D.Litt. (1876 – 1958) was a British climber, poet and educator, and author of several notable books on mountaineering. Young was the middle son of Sir George Young, 3rd Baronet (see Young Baronets) of Formosa Fishery Cookham, a noted classicist and charity commissioner. His mother, formerly Alice Eacy Kennedy, was the daughter of Dr Evory Kennedy of Belgard Co. Dublin and had previously lived in India as Lady Lawrence, wife of Sir Alexander Lawrence, Bt, nephew to the Viceroy, Lord Lawrence. Widowed when Sir Alexander died in a bridge collapse, Alice returned to England, marrying Sir George in 1871. Winthrop's brother Edward became the 1st Lord Kennet.
Educated at Marlborough, Young began rock climbing shortly before his first term at Trinity College, Cambridge, where he studied Classics and won the Chancellor's Medal for English Verse two years running. While there, Young wrote a humorous college climbing guide called The Roof-Climber's Guide to Trinity, in part a parody of early alpine guidebooks, in part a useful reference work for those, like him, who were keen to clamber up Cambridge's highest spires.
During the Edwardian Period, and up until the
John Norman Collie FRS (10 September 1859 – 1 November 1942), commonly referred to as J. Norman Collie, was a British scientist, mountaineer, and explorer.
He was born in Alderley Edge, Cheshire, the second of four sons. In 1870 the family moved to Clifton, near Bristol and John was educated initially at Windlesham in Surrey and then in 1873 at Charterhouse School. The family money had been made in the cotton trade, but in 1875 the American Civil War resulted in their financial ruin when their American stock was burnt. Collie had to leave Charterhouse and transfer to Clifton College, Bristol where he realised he was completely unsuited for the classics. He attended University College in Bristol and developed an interest in chemistry.
He earned a PhD in chemistry under Johannes Wislicenus at Würzburg in 1884. Returning to England, he taught three years at Cheltenham Ladies College before joining University College London (UCL) as an assistant to William Ramsay. His early work was the study of phosphonium and phosphine derivatives and allied ammonium compounds. Later he made important contributions to the knowledge of dehydracetic acid, describing a number of very remarkable
Oscar Johannes Ludwig Eckenstein (9 September 1859 – 1921) was an English rock climber and mountaineer, and a pioneer in the sport of bouldering. Inventor of the modern crampon, he was an innovator in climbing technique and mountaineering equipment, and the leader of the first serious expedition to attempt to climb K2.
Eckenstein's father was a Jewish socialist from Bonn who had fled Germany following the failed revolution of 1848. His mother was English.
His sisters were Lina Dorina Johanna Eckenstein, the famous feminist it:Lina Eckenstein and Amelia, who was to marry Dr Cyrax.
He was a railway engineer, and worked for the International Railway Congress Association founded in Brussels in 1885. He was an early and active member of the National Liberal Club. Interested in the life of explorer Richard Burton, he collected an extensive collection of documents about his life, which he donated to the Royal Asiatic Society before his death.
In 1918 O.E. married Margery Edwards. There were no children.
Eckenstein climbed in the English Lake District with George and Ashley Abraham, though their relationship was not always smooth, and in North Wales with Geoffrey Winthrop Young and J. M.
Yvon Chouinard (born November 9, 1938) is a rock climber, environmentalist and outdoor industry businessman, noted for his contributions to climbing, climbing equipment and the outdoor gear business. His second company, Patagonia, is known for its environmental focus. According to Fortune magazine, Chouinard is arguably the most successful outdoor industry businessman alive today.
Chouinard is also a surfer, kayaker, falconer and fly fisherman, particularly fond of tenkara fly-fishing. He is a writer, first on climbing issues and ethics, and more lately on mixing environmentalism and sound business practice in the concept of a slow company. He has been on the cover of Fortune, and has been featured on CNBC's Squawk on the Street.
Chouinard's father was a French-Canadian handyman, mechanic, plumber. In 1946, he and his family moved from Maine to Southern California. His early climbing partners included Royal Robbins and Tom Frost. A Sierra Club member, in his youth he founded the Southern California Falconry Club, and it was his investigations of falcon aeries that led him to rock climbing. To save money, and make adaptations for the way he was climbing, he decided to make his own
Christian Almer (29 March 1826 – 17 May 1898) was a Swiss mountain guide and the first ascentionist of many prominent mountains in the western Alps during the golden and silver ages of alpinism.
Almer was born in Grindelwald, Canton of Bern, where he also died. In 1846 he married Margaritha Kaufmann, and their son Ulrich Almer (8 May 1849 – 4 September 1940) was a well-known guide in his own right.
Almer gave his dog Tschingel to the 17-year-old W. A. B. Coolidge after a failed attempt on the Eiger.
He died at Grindelwald in 1898.
Franz Senn (19 March 1831 in Längenfeld (Ötztal) - 31 January 1884 in Neustift im Stubaital) was a pastor, whose concern for the poverty of his parishioners lead him to encourage tourism into the Stubai, and in particular he fostered the early development of mountaineering in the region. He was a founding member of the Austrian and German alpine associations. The Franz Senn Hütte and the Sennkogel are named after him.
Heracleo Salumbides Oración (born 1974) reached the summit of Mount Everest on May 17, 2006, at the age of 32. He reached the summit at 3:30pm (local time), together with 15 other climbers. He is a sportsman from the town of Lucbán, province of Quezon, Philippines.
Oración was a member of the First Philippine Mount Everest Expedition, whose quest to conquer Everest was supported by the ABS-CBN television network, among other entities. Oración however reached the summit separately apart from his other teammates.
Oración is a Philippine triathlete who has won various adventure races. Recently, his team Coastguard-Sandugo placed second in the Philippines' adventure race, the Carrera Habagat.
Prior to adventure racing, Oración worked as a lifeguard at the Shangri-La Hotel in Mactan Island, Cebu. He quit his job to pursue his passion full-time. Along with Emata, he is currently an enlisted officer at the Philippine Coast Guard.
However, Mount Everest chronicler Elizabeth Hawley said on June 14, 2006 that another Filipino climber, Dale Abenojar, is the first to summit on May 15, two days before Leo Oracion. Consequently, The Himalayan DataBase published by American Alpine Club had
Annie Smith Peck (19 October 1850 in Providence, Rhode Island – 18 July 1935 in New York, New York) was an American mountaineer.
Peck was born into a wealthy family, which made it possible for her to get a good education. She attended the Rhode Island Normal School, graduating in 1872. She enrolled at the University of Michigan, graduating in 1878 with a major in Greek and Classical Languages, after which she went to Europe, where she continued her schooling at Hannover and Athens. In 1885, she discovered her enthusiasm for mountaineering. From 1881 to 1892 she was a pioneering professor in the field of archaeology and Latin at Purdue and Smith College. She began to make money on the lecture circuit, and by 1892 she gave up teaching and made her living by lecturing and writing about archeology, mountaineering and her travels. She scaled a number of moderate-sized mountains in Europe and in the United States, including Mount Shasta. In 1895, she climbed the Matterhorn and suddenly became quite well known.
She began to climb, lecture and explore in Latin America. She promoted Pan-Americanism (peace between the Americas) and geographic education through her lectures, articles and
Horace-Bénédict de Saussure (17 February 1740 – 22 January 1799) was a Genevan aristocrat, physicist and Alpine traveller, often considered the founder of alpinism, and considered to be the first person to build a successful solar oven.
Saussure was born in Conches, near Geneva, in 1740.
His early interest in botanical studies led him to undertake journeys among the Alps, and from 1773 onwards he directed his attention to the geology and physics of that region. This work did much to clear up the topography of the snowy portions of the Alps, and to attract the attention of tourists to spots like Chamonix and Zermatt.
In 1760 he first visited Chamonix, and offered a reward to the first man to reach the summit of Mont Blanc, at the time unscaled. He made an unsuccessful attempt himself in 1785, by the Aiguille du Goûter route. Two Chamonix men, Dr Michel Paccard and Jacques Balmat attained the summit in 1786, by way of the Grands Mulets, and in 1787 Saussure himself made the third ascent of the mountain.
In 1788 he spent 17 days making observations on the crest of the Col du Géant (3,371 m). In 1774 he mounted the Crammont, and again in 1778, in which year he also explored the
David Breashears (born December 20, 1955) is an American mountaineer and filmmaker. In 1985, he became the first American to reach the summit of Mount Everest twice. He is perhaps most famous for guiding Richard Bass to the summit of Everest, thus completing Bass's ascent of the seven highest summits on each continent.
He has worked on feature films including Seven Years in Tibet and Cliffhanger, as well as on the award-winning documentary Red Flag over Tibet. In 1983 he transmitted the first live pictures from the summit of Mount Everest and in 1985 he became the first American to reach its summit more than once. He is the recipient of four Emmy awards for achievement in cinematography.
Breashears has made eight expeditions to Everest, reaching the summit five times. He has climbed to the summit of 24,494 ft (7,466 m) Ama Dablam in the Himalayas, and is known in climbing circles for free climbing some of the most technically challenging rock walls in Colorado as a young man.
In 1996 he co-directed, photographed, and co-produced the acclaimed IMAX film Everest and contributed still photos to the best selling book Everest: Mountain Without Mercy. In 1998 he was a director and
Melchior Anderegg (28 March 1828–8 December 1914), from Zaun, Meiringen, was a Swiss mountain guide and the first ascensionist of many prominent mountains in the western Alps during the golden and silver ages of alpinism. His clients were mostly British, the most famous of whom was Leslie Stephen, the writer, critic and mountaineer; Anderegg also climbed extensively with members of the Walker family, including Horace Walker and Lucy Walker, and with Florence Crauford Grove. His cousin Jakob Anderegg was also a well-known guide.
First ascents by Melchior Anderegg
Other noteworthy climbs by Melchior Anderegg
Anderegg was also a professional wood carver and owned a shop in Zermatt that sold his carvings (of bears, groups of chamois, and eagles, amongst other subjects), as well as 'Photographs of all the great peaks around Zermatt', alpenstocks, snow spectacles ('blue, green, and neutral tint') and Whymper's guides.
William Franklin Raynolds (March 17, 1820 – October 18, 1894) was a U.S. Army officer, explorer, engineer, Mexican War and Civil War veteran who is best known for leading the 1859-1860 Raynolds Expedition while serving as a member of the U.S. Army Corps of Topographical Engineers. Raynolds was also a temporary Brevet Brigadier General in 1865 for meritorious services during the Civil War and retired from the Corps of Engineers a full Colonel on March 17, 1884, after a 40-year military career.
During the 1840s and 1850s, and again after his participation in the American Civil War, William Raynolds was the head engineer on a number of lighthouse construction projects as well as riverway improvements. In 1846, while stationed in Veracruz, Mexico immediately after the Mexican-American War, Raynolds and several other U.S. Army personnel were the first to summit Pico de Orizaba, the tallest mountain in Mexico, and inadvertently set what may have been the American alpine altitude record for the subsequent 50 years. In 1859, Raynolds was placed in charge of the first U.S. Government sponsored expedition to venture into what was to later become Yellowstone National Park. A heavy snowpack
Hermann von Barth (1845–1876) was a famous German mountaineer.
Hermann von Barth was born on 5 June 1845 at Eurasburg Castle. He initially studied law in Munich, where he was affiliated to the Corps Franconia. As a junior lawyer he began in 1868 in Berchtesgaden to explore the still largely unconquered Berchtesgaden Alps. From 1873 he studied natural sciences and, in 1876, deranged by fever, he committed suicide whilst on a research expedition in Africa. He died on 7 December 1876 in Sao Paolo de Loanda, Portuguese Angola.
Von Barth is most well known for his exploration of the Karwendel mountains. In summer 1870 he climbed, alone, 88 peaks (12 for the first time, including the Birkkarspitze, Kaltwasserkarspitze, Lalidererspitze, Große Seekarspitze, Grubenkarspitze, Dreizinkenspitze, Eastern Karwendelspitze, Vogelkarspitze, Wörner, Kuhkopf). In 1871 he switched to the Wetterstein mountains and was the first to climb many peaks there as well. By 1869 he had explored the Allgäu Alps, climbing 44 summits, 3 of which were previously unconquered. He typically climbed alone. In 1874 he published the book Aus den Nördlichen Kalkalpen ("From the Northern Limestone Alps"), in which he
Gertrude Margaret Lowthian Bell, CBE (14 July 1868 – 12 July 1926) was an English writer, traveller, political officer, administrator, archaeologist and spy who explored, mapped, and became highly influential to British imperial policy-making due to her extensive travels in Greater Syria, Mesopotamia, Asia Minor, and Arabia. Along with T. E. Lawrence, Bell helped establish the Hashemite dynasties in what is today Jordan as well as in Iraq. She played a major role in establishing and helping administer the modern state of Iraq, utilizing her unique perspective from her travels and relations with tribal leaders throughout the Middle East. During her lifetime she was highly esteemed and trusted by British officials and given an immense amount of power for a woman at the time. She has also been described as "one of the few representatives of His Majesty's Government remembered by the Arabs with anything resembling affection".
Bell was born in Washington Hall, County Durham, England - now known as Dame Margaret Hall - to a family whose wealth enabled her travels. She is described as having "reddish hair and piercing blue-green eyes, with her mother's bow shaped lips and rounded chin,
Sir Tannatt William Edgeworth David (commonly known as Edgeworth David) KBE, DSO, FRS, (28 January 1858 – 28 August 1934) was a Welsh Australian geologist and Antarctic explorer. A household name in his lifetime, David's most significant achievements were discovering the major Hunter Valley coalfield in New South Wales and leading the first expedition to reach the South Magnetic Pole. He also served with distinction in World War I.
David was born in St. Fagans near Cardiff, Wales, the eldest son of the Rev. William David, a fellow of Jesus College, Oxford, a classical scholar and naturalist and his wife Margaret Harriette (née Thomson). His mother's cousin, William A. E. Ussher of the Geological Survey, first interested David in what was to be his life work.
At the age of 12, David went to Magdalen College School, Oxford in 1870. In 1876 he gained a classical scholarship to New College, Oxford. While there he was lectured by the famous John Ruskin and William Spooner. In 1878 he suffered a health breakdown and travelled to Canada and Australia to recuperate. Returning to Oxford, he attended lectures on geology by Sir Joseph Prestwich which stimulated his interest in the subject.
William Edward Colby (May 28, 1875 – November 9, 1964) was an American lawyer, conservationist, and first Secretary of the Sierra Club.
William Colby was born in Benicia, California and was brought up by his aunt after being orphaned at the age of six. He received his law degree from Hastings College of the Law in San Francisco, and his legal practice specialized in forestry and mining issues. In 1937, he received an Honorary Degree from Mills College, then a women's college, in Oakland, California.
Colby joined the Sierra Club in 1898, the year of his graduation from law school. He served as the club's representative in the Yosemite Valley area. In 1900, he became the club's secretary, and served (bar two years) in that post until 1946. He also served as a director of the club for 49 years.
Colby was a pioneer in the Sierra Club's outing program, and led his High Trips to the Yosemite area from 1901 to 1929; he also led the 1928 High Trip to the Canadian Rockies, and at the end of that trip was given a heartfelt fireside tribute by his fellow hikers, who included 26-year-old photographer Ansel Adams. Colby joined Sierra Club founder John Muir in lobbying the U.S. Federal
Ansel Easton Adams (February 20, 1902 – April 22, 1984) was an American photographer and environmentalist, best known for his black-and-white photographs of the American West, especially in Yosemite National Park.
With Fred Archer, Adams developed the Zone System as a way to determine proper exposure and adjust the contrast of the final print. The resulting clarity and depth characterized his photographs and the work of those to whom he taught the system. Adams primarily used large-format cameras despite their size, weight, setup time, and film cost, because their high resolution helped ensure sharpness in his images.
Adams founded the Group f/64 along with fellow photographers Willard Van Dyke and Edward Weston. Adams's photographs are reproduced on calendars, posters, and in books, making his photographs widely distributed.
Adams was born in the Western Addition of San Francisco, California, to distinctly upper-class parents Charles Hitchcock Adams and Olive Bray Adams. He was an only child and was named after his uncle Ansel Easton. His mother's family came from Baltimore and his maternal grandfather had a successful freight-hauling business, but squandered his wealth in failed
Bestor Robinson (February 9, 1898 - December 9, 1987) was a California mountaineer, environmentalist, attorney and inventor. He was a law partner of Earl Warren, later governor of California and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States. Robinson was a long time leader of the Sierra Club.
Bestor Robinson was the son of Edward Constant Robinson (originally from Oregon) and Sarah T. Merritt (daughter of James Bestor Merritt). He was born and raised in Oakland, CA at 552 Montclair Street. He attended the University of California, Berkeley (1914–1918) and went on to both Boalt (1919-1921 and then to Harvard Law (1921–1922) where he received his JD. His father was a prominent attorney and later a Superior Court Judge of Alameda County. After Law school he joined his father's law firm. Bestor went on to marry Florence Breed, daughter of powerful Republican State Senator Arthur Hastings Breed of Piedmont, CA. They had four children Ned, Merritt, Warren and Carolyn.
In 1931, Sierra Club leader Francis P. Farquhar had invited Harvard philosophy professor and Appalachian Mountain Club member Robert L. M. Underhill to come to the Sierra Nevada to teach the latest techniques of
The Reverend Walter Weston (25 December 1860 – 27 March 1940), was an English clergyman, missionary, and mountaineer.
Weston was born at 22 Parker Street, Derby, England, the sixth son of John Weston, an elastic manufacturer, and his wife, Emma Butland. He was educated at Derby School between 1876 and 1880, where he held the school record for running the mile distance (viz., four minutes, 47 seconds). He then went up to Clare College, Cambridge, graduating BA in 1883 and MA in 1887. He studied for the Church of England's priesthood at Ridley Hall, Cambridge.
Ordained a deacon in 1885, priest in 1886, Weston was appointed curate of St John's, Reading, Berkshire, in 1885. He was already a mountaineer, and in 1886 and 1887 spent periods climbing in the Alps.
Weston went to Japan as a missionary of the Church of England's Church Missionary Society in 1888, working first at Kumamoto, then serving as chaplain in Kobe from 1889 to 1895. Between 1888 and 1915 he spent a total of fifteen years there, in three long periods, including his service in Yokohama (St. Andrew's Cathedral (Yokohama)).
He began mountain climbing while expressing a strong interest in Japanese landscapes, traditions,
Warren Harding (June 18, 1924–February 27, 2002) was one of the most accomplished and influential American rock climbers of the 1950s to 1970s. He was the leader of the first team to climb El Capitan, Yosemite Valley, in 1958. The route they climbed, known as The Nose, ascends 2,900 feet up the central buttress of what is one of the largest granite monoliths in the world. Harding climbed many other first ascents in Yosemite, some 28 in all, as well as making the first true big-wall ascents in the Sierra Nevada range of California.
He was nicknamed "Batso", a reference to his remarkable penchant for spending days living on vertical cliffs and his exuberant and iconoclastic character. Harding developed specialized equipment for climbing big walls, such as the "bat tent" for sleeping, and "bat hooks" used to hook precariously on small cut-out bits of granite—examples of his B.A.T or 'Basically Absurd Technology' products. He was known for his doggedness, drinking, and farcing, as reflected in his motto Semper Farcisimus!
Harding authored the book Downward Bound: A Mad! Guide to Rock Climbing. The book contains a description of the ascent of the Nose and the Wall of Early Morning Light
Ebenezer Emmons (May 16, 1799 – October 1, 1863), was a pioneering American geologist whose work includes the naming of the Adirondack Mountains in New York as well as a first ascent of Mount Marcy.
Emmons was born at Middlefield, Massachusetts, on May 16, 1799, son of Ebenezer and Mary (Mack) Emmons. Emmons prepared for college under Rev. Mr. Halleck and entered Williams College at age 16 and graduated with the class of 1818. He later studied medicine at Albany, New York, and after taking his degree practiced as a doctor for some years in Berkshire County, Massachusetts. His interest in geology was kindled in early life, and in 1824 he had assisted Prof Chester Dewey (1784-1867) in preparing a geological map of Berkshire County, in which the first attempt was made to classify the rocks of the Taconic area. He still longed to pursue his interest in geology, so decided to attend the Rensselaer School (now Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute). There, he was inspired by the eminent professor Amos Eaton, and graduated from Rensselaer in its first class in 1826. While thus giving much of his time to natural science, undertaking professional work in natural history and geology in Williams
Edward Whymper (27 April 1840 – 16 September 1911), was an English illustrator, climber and explorer best known for the first ascent of the Matterhorn in 1865. On the descent four members of the party were killed.
Edward Whymper was born in London, England on 27 April 1840 to Josiah Wood Whymper and Elizabeth Claridge. He was the second of eleven children, his older brother being the artist and explorer Frederick Whymper. He was trained to be a wood-engraver at an early age. In 1860, he made extensive forays into the central and western Alps to produce a series of commissioned alpine scenery drawings. Among the objects of this tour was the illustration of an unsuccessful attempt made by Professor Bonney's party to ascend Mont Pelvoux, at that time believed to be the highest peak of the Dauphiné Alps. Whymper successfully completed the ascent of Mont Pelvoux in 1861, the first of a series of expeditions that threw much light on the topography of an area at that time very imperfectly mapped. From the summit of Mont Pelvoux, Whymper discovered that it was overtopped by a neighbouring peak, subsequently named the Barre des Écrins, which, before the annexation of Savoy added Mont Blanc
Fanny Bullock Workman (January 8, 1859 - January 22, 1925) was an American geographer, cartographer, explorer, and mountaineer, notably in the Himalayas. She was born in Worcester, Massachusetts and usually travelled in conjunction with her husband Dr. William Hunter Workman. She was one of the claimants, in the first decade of the 1900s, of the women's altitude record, vigorously defending her claim against that of Annie Peck. Her claim was based on an ascent of Pinnacle Peak, a subsidiary peak in the Nun Kun massif of the western Himalaya. She is the co-author, with William Hunter Workman, of Ice-Bound Heights of the Mustagh: An account of two seasons of pioneer exploration and high climbing in the Baltistan Himalaya (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1905).
Dr. Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden (September 7, 1829 – December 22, 1887) was an American geologist noted for his pioneering surveying expeditions of the Rocky Mountains in the late 19th century. He was also a physician who served with the Union Army during the Civil War.
Ferdinand Hayden was born in Westfield, Massachusetts. As a young boy he was fascinated with all nature and wildlife, the likes of which led him into the field of medicine. He worked in Cleveland under J. P. Kirtland and thereafter in Albany, NY, where he worked under James Hall, of the Geological Survey of New York.
He graduated from Oberlin College in 1850 and from the Albany Medical College in 1853, where he attracted the notice of Professor James Hall, state geologist of New York, through whose influence he was induced to join in an exploration of Nebraska Territory, with Fielding B. Meek to study geology and collect fossils.
Hall sent him on his first geological venture in the summer of 1853. Being of independent mind Hayden ended his commission with Hall, and with the encouragement of S. F. Baird, and a partial sponsorship from the Smithsonian Institution, he spent the remainder of the 1850s on various
John Long (born 1957) is an acclaimed American rock climber and author whose stories, ranging from adventure yarns to literary fiction, have been translated into many languages. He has more than forty titles and two million books in print. A 1974 graduate of Upland High School in Upland, California, Long studied humanities at the University of LaVerne (graduating with departmental honors), Claremont Graduate School and Claremont School of Theology.
Long joined then unknown teenage climbers John Bachar, Rick Accomazzo, Richard Harrison, Tobin Sorenson, Robs Muir, Gib Lewis, Jim Wilson, and Mike Graham as founding members of an elite group known as the "Stonemasters," who redefined world rock climbing standards and adventuring at large. As the result of the groups countless exploits, from the French Alps to the North Pole, combined with Long’s popular writings in books and magazines, the Stonemaster ethos was central in birthing the “extreme” adventure sports culture that quickly spread through surfing, skating, skiing and eventually, most every outdoor pursuit. Twenty years later, companies such as Patagonia, Levi's and many more were recruiting Long’s narratives and Stonemaster
Ludwig Purtscheller (October 6, 1849 in Innsbruck - March 3, 1900 in Bern, Switzerland) was an Austrian mountaineer and teacher.
In the late 19th century he was known as the best mountaineer in the Alps, where he had climbed over 1,700 mountains. He is best known for his first ascent of Kilimanjaro in 1889, together with the German mountaineer Hans Meyer and Yohani Kinyala Lauwo.
He died when trying to climb the Aiguille du Dru in the French Alps near Mont Blanc.
Michel Auguste Croz (22 April 1830, Le Tour, Chamonix valley – 14 July 1865, Matterhorn) was a French mountain guide and the first ascentionist of many mountains in the western Alps during the golden age of alpinism. He is chiefly remembered for his death on the first ascent of the Matterhorn and for his climbing partnership with Edward Whymper.
Croz began his guiding career in 1859 when he was engaged by William Mathews for an ascent of Mont Blanc. As well as making the first ascent of some of the most significant unclimbed mountains in the Alps – the Grande Casse, Monte Viso, the Barre des Écrins and the Aiguille d'Argentière – he also made the first traverse of many previously uncrossed cols, including the col des Ecrins, the col du Sélé and the col du Glacier Blanc in the Massif des Écrins (all in 1862 with Francis Fox Tuckett, Peter Perren and Bartolomméo Peyrotte). In 1863, he climbed the Grandes Rousses with William Mathews, Thomas George Bonney and his brother Jean-Baptiste Croz, and in 1864 he made the first traverse of the brèche de la Meije and the first traverse of the col de la Pilatte (with Edward Whymper, Horace Walker, A. W. Moore and Saas-Fee guide Christian
Reinhold Messner (born 17 September 1944) is a mountaineer, adventurer and explorer from the Italian autonomous province of South Tyrol, "whose astonishing feats on Everest and on peaks throughout the world have earned him the status of the greatest climber in history." He is renowned for making the first solo ascent of Mount Everest without supplemental oxygen and for being the first climber to ascend all fourteen "eight-thousanders" (peaks over 8,000 metres (26,000 ft) above sea level). He is the author of at least 63 books (in German, 1970–2006), many of which have been translated into other languages.
Born in Brixen (Bressanone), Italy, Messner is a native speaker of German and Italian, and also fluent in English. He grew up in Villnöß and spent his early years climbing in the Alps and fell in love with the Dolomites. His father, Josef Messner, was a teacher. He was also very strict and sometimes severe with Reinhold. Josef led Reinhold to his first summit at the age of five. Reinhold had eight brothers and one sister: he later climbed with his brother Günther and made Arctic crossings with his brother Hubert.
When Reinhold was 13, he began climbing with his brother Günther,
Hristo Prodanov (Bulgarian: Христо Проданов) (February 24, 1943 - April 21, 1984) was a Bulgarian mountaineer. He was the first Bulgarian to climb Mount Everest but died on the descent.
Prodanov was still a student when he became involved in mountaineering. He began work as a metallurgical engineer in Kremikovtzi AD in 1976.
Prodanov had his first 7000 m ascent on August 6, 1967 when he climbed Lenin Peak. He had previously climbed several peaks in the Alps.
His major successes were related to Hindu Kush (1976) and Lhotse. In 1981, he was the first Bulgarian to climb Lhotse without the use of supplementary oxygen.
Prodanov received several awards, including:
Jean Buridan (in Latin, Johannes Buridanus) (ca. 1300 – after 1358) was a French priest who sowed the seeds of the Copernican revolution in Europe. He developed the concept of impetus, the first step toward the modern concept of inertia, and an important development in the history of medieval science. His name is most familiar through the thought experiment known as Buridan's ass (a thought experiment which does not appear in his extant writings).
Born, most probably, in Béthune, France, Buridan studied and later taught at the University of Paris. Unusually, he spent his academic life in the faculty of arts, rather than obtaining the doctorate in Theology that typically prepared the way for a career in Philosophy. He further maintained his intellectual independence by remaining a secular cleric, rather than joining a religious Order. By 1340, his confidence had grown sufficiently for him to launch an attack on his predecessor, William of Ockham. Buridan also wrote on solutions to paradoxes such as the liar paradox. An ordinance of Louis XI., in 1473, directed against the nominalists, prohibited the reading of his works.
The bishop Albert of Saxony, himself renowned as a logician,
Peter Aufschnaiter (2 November 1899 – 12 October 1973) was an Austrian mountaineer, agricultural scientist, geographer and cartographer.
Born in Kitzbühel, Austria, Peter Aufschnaiter went to high school in Kufstein. During his school education he was drafted into military service in the First World War in 1917. After he finished his final exams in 1919 he went to Munich, Germany to study agriculture.
In his early years he began climbing and later, in Munich, Aufschnaiter became acquainted with several German alpinists of the time. He took part in expeditions to the Kangchenjunga (1929 and 1931) in Sikkim and had first contacts with Tibetans and the Tibetan language.
After the Machtergreifung of 30 January 1933 he joined the Nazi Party. From 1936 he worked full-time for the German Himalaya Foundation established that year by Paul Bauer.
After several attempts at the Nanga Parbat, Aufschnaiter led a small four man expedition in 1939, including Heinrich Harrer, to the Diamir Face with the aim of finding an easier route to the peak. Having concluded that the face was viable, they were at the end of August in Karachi waiting for a freighter to take them home. The ship being long
Bob Kamps (1931–2005) was an American rock climber whose climbing career spanned five decades. Born in Wisconsin, he began climbing in California in 1955, and was a member of that cadre of Yosemite pioneers who first ascended many of its great walls in the 1950s and 1960s. He was particularly adept on steep rock faces, and was among the first to shift attention from aid climbing to free climbing. Over the years he made more than 3,100 climbs. Many were first ascents or first free ascents.
Kamps' interests ranged from ten-foot boulders to high mountain walls. He bouldered at Stoney Point at Chatsworth, California, for fifty years. His companions in the 1950s and 1960s included Royal Robbins, Yvon Chouinard, Mark Powell, and Dave Rearick. After his death in 2005, a memorial service was held there. Kamps bouldered almost everywhere he climbed for any length of time, and John Gill joined him on numerous occasions in the Tetons and Black Hills.
Kamps climbed extensively in California, Arizona, Colorado, Wyoming, and South Dakota. His climbing partners included Mark Powell, Dave Rearick, Tom Higgins, and Yvon Chouinard. In the Tetons in 1958, Kamps teamed with Chouinard to make the first
Edward Shirley Kennedy (usually known as E. S. Kennedy) (1817 – 1898) was an English mountaineer and author, and a founding member of the Alpine Club.
Kennedy was a gentleman of independent means, who attended Caius College, Cambridge as a Fellow-Commoner in his mid-thirties.
During an ascent of the Finsteraarhorn on 13 August 1857, Kennedy discussed the formation of a national mountaineering club with William Mathews, who had corresponded with F. J. A. Hort about the idea in February 1857. At the end of that year, Kennedy was chairman of the meeting at which the Alpine Club was founded (the meeting was attended by twenty of the leading British alpinists of the day, and was held at Ashley's Hotel in London on 22 December 1857). Kennedy was made vice-president, with John Ball as president.
Kennedy served as President of the Club between 1860 and 1863.
A wood engraving by Edward Whymper of The Alpine Club at Zermatt in 1864 shows Kennedy with John Ball, William Mathews, T. G. Bonney, John Tyndall, Alfred Wills (the Alpine Club's third president), and Ulrich Lauener. Kennedy appears as a man of above average height, with a full beard, carrying a long plain wooden staff, several inches
James David Forbes FRS FRSE FGS (20 April 1809 – 31 December 1868) was a Scottish physicist and glaciologist who worked extensively on the conduction of heat and seismology. Forbes was a resident of Edinburgh for most of his life, educated at the University and a professor there from 1833 until he became principal of the United College of St. Andrews in 1859.
He invented the seismometer in 1842.
Forbes was born at 86 George Street in Edinburgh, the fourth son of Sir William Forbes, 7th Baronet, of Monymusk and Pitsligo (1773–1828) and Williamina Belches of Invermay. His brothers were the advocate and agriculturalist Sir John Stuart Hepburn Forbes of Fettercairn and Pitsligo and the banker Charles Forbes.
He entered the University of Edinburgh in 1825, and soon afterwards began to contribute papers to the Edinburgh Philosophical Journal anonymously under the signature "Δ". At the age of nineteen he became a fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, and in 1832 he was elected to the Royal Society of London. A year later he was appointed professor of natural philosophy in Edinburgh University, in succession to Sir John Leslie and in competition with Sir David Brewster, and during his
Janusz Adam Onyszkiewicz (Polish pronunciation: [ˈjanuʂ ɔnɨʂˈkʲɛvʲitʂ], born 1937) is a Polish mathematician, alpinist, politician and was a vice-president of the European Parliament's Foreign Affairs Committee from January 2007 until mid-2009.
Janusz Onyszkiewicz was born on 18 December 1937 in Lwów (then Poland, now Lviv, Ukraine). He graduated in mathematics from Warsaw University. He became a famous mathematician and a alpinist in the 1970s. In the 1980s, he became the spokesman for the anti-communist Solidarity movement. He became popular among foreign journalists because of his fluent English. After the introduction of martial law in Poland on 13 December 1981, he was arrested and interned.
After the fall of communism in 1989, Onyszkiewicz became a member of the Polish Sejm. He served all subsequent terms from May 1989 until 2001. In the spring of 1990, Onyszkiewicz and Bronisław Komorowski became the first civilian vice-ministers of defence in the communist-dominated Ministry of Defence. Later, Onyszkiewicz was Minister of Defence twice, in the cabinets of Hanna Suchocka (1992–1993) and Jerzy Buzek (1997–2000).
Initially, he was a member of the Obywatelski Klub
Armando Aste (born January 6, 1926) is one of the most influential Italian alpinists of the postwar period.
Aste was born in Rovereto near Trento, Trentino. He led the first Italian ascent of the Eiger north face in 1962, together with Pierlorenzo Acquistapace, Gildo Airoldi, Andrea Mellano, Romano Perego and Franco Solina. He also climbed for the first time the South Tower of Paine in Patagonia, one of the three Torres del Paine. Due to his numerous ascents in the Italian Dolomites, climbing routes have been named after him (e.g. the Aste-Susatti route in the Monte Civetta, near Belluno, Italy, first ascent by Armando Aste and Fausto Susatti on July 26–28, 1954).
Further selected first ascents in the Dolomites by Armando Aste were:
His most important books are Pilastri del Cielo (Nordpress, Italy, 2000) and Cuore di Roccia (Manfrini Stampatori, Italy, 1988).
Jake Meyer (born 20 January 1984) is a British climber. He achieved fame by becoming the youngest Briton to climb Mount Everest in 2005, aged 21 years 4 months. In doing so, Meyer also became the youngest Briton to complete the Seven Summits challenge.
His "youngest Briton to climb Mount Everest" record was broken in 2006 by Rob Gauntlett who was 19 at the time.
From Tetbury in Gloucestershire, England, Meyer was educated at Beaudesert Park School, Cheam School and Marlborough College, then embarked on the study of Environmental Geoscience at Bristol University, where he was also a member of Bristol University Officer Training Corps. He has since been commissioned into the Royal Wessex Yeomanry as an Armoured Troop Leader.
Meyer began climbing at 13. Aged 15, he saw in the new millennium with his father from the crater rim of his first summit, Kilimanjaro. At 18, he climbed Mount Elbrus in Southern Russia, Europe's highest peak. In 2002, he was awarded with a Winston Churchill Memorial Trust travelling fellowship to climb Denali (aged 19), Aconcagua (aged 18) and Mount Kosciuszko (aged 19), the highest peaks in North and South America and Australia. He then climbed Mount Vinson,
Jean-Antoine Carrel (1829, Valtournenche, Aosta Valley – 1890) was an Italian mountain climber. He had done climbs with Edward Whymper and was his rival when he attempted to climb the Matterhorn for the first time. Carrel was in the group that became the first Europeans to reach the summit of Chimborazo (volcano) in 1880. He died from exhaustion when guiding a party on the south side of the Matterhorn. Hea was also a member of the Bersagliere.
Josef Naus (1793–1871) was an officer and surveying technician, known for leading the first ascent of Germany's highest mountain, the Zugspitze. Variations of his name are Karl Naus or Joseph Naus.
Naus was born on 29 August 1793 in Lechaschau / Tyrol or, according to other sources, Reutte. He was the son of a judge and came from a family that had probably immigrated from Belgium or the Netherland to Tyrol in the 17th century. As a young man Naus studied surveying. He joined the Bavarian Army in 1813 and did wartime service against Napoleon in 1814/15 he did wartime service against Napoleon, before joining the Royal Topographic Bureau.
In 1820, together with a group of officers and men, Lieutenant Naus was given the task of producing the Werdenfels map for the Topographic Atlas of Bavaria. In the course of this work, on 27 August 1820, Naus made the first recorded ascent of the Zugspitze with his assistant, Maier, and mountain guide, Johann Georg Tauschl.
In September 2006 the German Alpine Club announced that the first ascent of the Zugspitze could have been made before the middle of the 18th century. The basis of this speculation was the rediscovery of an historic map from the
Mathias Zdarsky (Czech: Matyáš Žďárský; 25 February 1856, in Kožichovice (Czech: Czech: Kožichovice), Třebíč District of Austria, present Czech Republic – 20 June 1940, in St. Pölten, Austria) was an early ski pioneer and is considered one of the founders of modern Alpine skiing technique. He was probably Austria's first ski instructor. He was also a teacher, painter and sculptor.
Inspired by Norway's Fridtjof Nansen's 1888 crossing of Greenland, he adapted skis for use on alpine terrain. In 1890 he developed a steel binding (the "Lilienfelder Stahlsohlenbindung"), which made steep mountain slopes and gate runs possible. Zdarsky felt the earlier bindings did not hold the foot firmly enough, and so he designed binding with a strong, sprung, steel sole, which is the basis of modern ski bindings. As in the earlier Norwegian skiing, he used only one ski pole. Unlike today, the skier steered by using their elbows.
In January 1905, Zdarsky demonstrated a steep downhill descent, and was among the first to publicize this development in Central Europe. To show the superiority of his ski technology, he skied the "Breite Ries" at Schneeberg, Austria. On 19 March 1905 he organized the first
André Michaux (8 March 1746 – (estimated) 11 October 1802) was a French botanist and explorer.
Michaux was born in Satory, now part of Versailles, Yvelines. After the death of his wife within a year of their marriage he took up the study of botany and was a student of Bernard de Jussieu. In 1779 he spent time studying botany in England, and in 1780 he explored Auvergne, the Pyrenees and northern Spain. In 1782 he was sent by the French government, as secretary to the French consul on a botanical mission to Persia. His journey began unfavourably, as he was robbed of all his equipment except his books; but he gained influential support in Persia after curing the shah of a dangerous illness. After two years he returned to France with a fine herbarium, and also introduced numerous Eastern plants into the botanic gardens of France.
He was appointed by Louis XVI as botanist under the General Director of the Bâtiments du Roi and sent to the United States in 1785 with an annual salary of 2000 livres, to make the first organized investigation of plants that could be of value in French building and carpentry, medicine and pasture forage. He traveled with his son Francois André (1770–1855)
Clarence R. King (January 6, 1842 – December 24, 1901) was an American geologist, mountaineer, and art critic. First director of the United States Geological Survey, from 1879 to 1881, King was noted for his exploration of the Sierra Nevada. He was born in Newport, Rhode Island.
In 1862, King graduated from the Sheffield Scientific School of Yale College with a Ph.B. in chemistry. While at Yale, he studied with James Dwight Dana. After graduation King traveled on horseback to California with his good friend and classmate, James Terry Gardiner. In California he joined the California Geological Survey without pay, where he worked with William H. Brewer, Josiah D. Whitney and Richard D. Cotter. In 1864, King and Richard Cotter reported the first ascent of Mount Tyndall.
In the mid-1850s, King began to read works by John Ruskin and associated with a group of American artists, writers, and architects who followed Ruskin's thinking. Through this group he became aware of the British Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood. In 1863, with John William Hill and Clarence Cook, he helped to found the Society for the Advancement of Truth in Art, an American group similar to the Pre-Raphaelite Brotherhood,
David Ross Brower (July 1, 1912 – November 5, 2000) was a prominent environmentalist and the founder of many environmental organizations, including the Sierra Club Foundation, the John Muir Institute for Environmental Studies, Friends of the Earth (1969), the League of Conservation Voters, Earth Island Institute (1982), North Cascades Conservation Council, and Fate of the Earth Conferences. From 1952 to 1969 he served as the first Executive Director of the Sierra Club, and served on its board three times: from 1941–1953; 1983–1988; and 1995-2000. As a younger man, he was a prominent mountaineer.
Brower was born in Berkeley, California. He was married to Anne Hus Brower (1913 – 2001) whom he met when they were both editors at the University of California Press in Berkeley.
Most notably of Brower's children, Kenneth Brower would go on to author a number of books, most notably The Starship and the Canoe about Freeman Dyson and his son George Dyson.
Brower came to the environmental movement as a result of his interest in mountaineering. In 1933, Brower spent seven weeks in the High Sierra with George Rockwood. After a close call with a loose rock while climbing in the Palisades, he met
Jacob Primer Leese (August 19, 1809, St. Clairsville, Ohio - February 1, 1892, San Francisco, California) was a San Francisco pioneer, who built the first permanent house in San Francisco. He married General Vallejo’s sister, moved to Sonoma, and acquired extensive land holdings.
Jacob Primer Leese was born in Ohio and became active in the Santa Fe, New Mexico trade in 1830. Leese first came to California from New Mexico in 1833, but did not remain (and for a time transported mules between New Mexico and Southern California). He returned in July 1834, and settled in Los Angeles and went into partnership with Hugo Reid.
Two years later he formed a partnership with two established Monterey merchants, William S. Hinckley and Nathan Spear for the purpose of starting a store in Yerba Buena (now known as San Francisco). In 1836, he was the second permanent settler on the peninsula, and he built for his residence (at what is now Dupont and Clay), the first substantial structure in Yerba Buena. It was preceded only by a tent house put up by William A. Richardson in 1835, the year before Leese arrived. Leese built a store in 1837 on Montgomery Street near Sacramento Street which did
Sir Leslie Stephen, KCB (28 November 1832 – 22 February 1904) was an English author, critic and mountaineer, and the father of Virginia Woolf and Vanessa Bell.
Stephen was born at Kensington Gore in London, the brother of James Fitzjames Stephen and son of Sir James Stephen. His family had belonged to the Clapham Sect, the early 19th century group of mainly evangelical Christian social reformers. At his father's house he saw a good deal of the Macaulays, James Spedding, Sir Henry Taylor and Nassau Senior. After studying at Eton College, King's College London and Trinity Hall, Cambridge, where he graduated B.A. (20th wrangler) in 1854 and M.A. in 1857, Stephen remained for several years a fellow and tutor of his college. He recounted some of his experiences in a chapter in his Life of Fawcett as well as in some less formal Sketches from Cambridge: By a Don (1865). These sketches were reprinted from the Pall Mall Gazette, to the proprietor of which, George Smith, he had been introduced by his brother. It was at Smith's house at Hampstead that Stephen met his first wife, Harriet Marian (1840–1875), daughter of William Makepeace Thackeray, with whom he had a daughter, Laura Makepeace
Michael Reardon was a professional American Free Solo Climber, filmmaker, motivational speaker and writer. Reardon perished after being swept to sea by a rogue wave, shortly after climbing a sea cliff in County Kerry, Ireland.
Michael Reardon was one of only a few professional Free Solo climbers. He traveled the world looking for the next ultimate solo climb, giving motivational speeches and presenting slideshows.
Reardon was known for leaving mementos for those who follow him. Examples include plastic tigers attached to bolts and over-sized panties in summit registers.
He lived with his wife Marci and daughter Nikki in Oak Park, California.
Reardon started climbing as a child on the boulders in his grandfather’s backyard. Together with his cousins, both his climbing skills and his interest in climbing were challenged and developed. Bouldering in a backyard turned to 3-day hikes in the Appalachian Mountains, and then to ridgerunning in the Rocky Mountains. Reardon eventually found himself in California where his climbing skills were fostered even further.
Reardon’s first formal climb was at Tahquitz, CA on a 1,000-foot route called Whodunit (5.9), with a “crusty old climber.” As
Nazir Sabir Urdu: نذیر صابر is a Pakistani mountaineer. He was born in Ramanji a small hamlet in Chiporsun, upper Hunza known as Gojal. He has climbed Mount Everest and four of the five 8000 m peaks in Pakistan, including the world’s second highest mountain K2 also known as Chogori in 1981, Gasherbrum II 8035m and Broad Peak 8050m in 1982, Gasherbrum I (Hidden Peak) 8068m in 1992 and he became the first from Pakistan to have climbed Everest on May 17, 2000 as a team member on the Mountain Madness Everest Expedition led by Christine Boskoff from USA that also included the Everest famed Peter Habeler of Austria and eight Canadians.
Nazir started off his climbing career with a Japanese expedition to the 7284m Passu Peak in Hunza in 1974. In 1975 he was part of a German Expedition as a trainee that attempted Nanga Parbat (8125m) and only went to 6700m up the S W Ridge. On July 17, 1976 he made the first ascent of 6660m virgin Paiyu followed by Col. Manzoor Hussain and Major Bashir with the first Pakistani expedition organized by the Alpine Club of Pakistan.
In 1977 Nazir Sabir joined the largest Japan/Pakistan joint expedition to K2, attempting the traditional South East Abruzzi Ridge.
Yaşar Uğur Uluocak (1962–2003) was a multi-talented Turkish outdoorsman, mountaineer, photographer and editor.
Born in 1962 in Ankara, Turkey, Uğur attended Saint Joseph High School in Istanbul, and graduated in Mechanical Engineering from Istanbul Technical University.
Uğur started mountain climbing in 1984 with the mountaineering club at Istanbul Technical University (ITUDAK). Uğur was a complete sportsman. He competed four years in rowing, ranking in first place. He was a middle and long distance runner for eight years, and a scuba diver and cyclist for the last two years. As a globally known mountaineer, he trained many young sportsmen both in theoretical and practical ways.
From 1999 on, Uğur worked as a photographer, expedition coordinator and editor for the Turkish nature and outdoor sports magazine "Atlas". He not only wrote about his mountaineering adventures but also on mountaineering ethics and history with his friend Ahmet Köksal.
Uğur was an influential figure in the Turkish mountaineering community, with a very strong and dedicated personality and an extremely high intellectual capacity. He was fluent in five languages.
Professionally, he was a lecturer at the Marmara
Professor Charles Ernest Fay (1846 – 1931) was an American Alpinist, born at Roxbury, Massachusetts. He graduated in 1868 at Tufts College and became instructor in mathematics there in 1869, and professor of modern languages in 1871. He was president of the New England Modern Language Association in 1905.
Fay first visited the Canadian Rockies in 1890, and was a pioneer in the development of mountaineering in the Canadian Rockies and the Selkirks. He served as president of the Appalachian Mountain Club in 1878, 1881, 1893, and 1905, and was a founder and the first president of the American Alpine Club (1902-1904).
Fay was one of a party of four attempting to climb Mount Lefroy in 1896 when Phillip Stanley Abbott became the first mountaineering fatality in the Canadian Rockies. Fay made an, “impassioned defence of mountaineering at the inquiry into Abbot’s death that put an end to the grumbling in political circles that mountaineering ought to be banned in Canada.” Fay returned in 1897 to summit both Mounts Lefroy and Victoria.
The Alpine Club of Canada has named the Fay Hut located in Kootenay National Park after Charles Fay.
Fay continued climbing and mountaineering until well
Khachatur Abovian (October 15 [O.S. October 3] 1809 – April 14 [O.S. April 2] 1848 (date disappeared); Armenian: Խաչատուր Աբովյան, Armenian pronunciation: [χɑtʃʰɑtuɾ ɑbɔvjɑn]) was an Armenian writer and national public figure of the early 19th century who mysteriously vanished in 1848 and was presumed dead. He was an educator, poet and an advocate of modernization. Considered as the father of modern Armenian literature, he is best remembered for his novel Verk Hayastani (Wounds of Armenia), which set the trend in both style and genre for subsequent literature. Written in 1841 and published posthumously in 1858, it was the first novel published in the modern Armenian language using the Eastern Armenian dialect instead of Classical Armenian.
Abovian was far ahead of his time and virtually none of his works was published during his lifetime. Only after the establishment of the Armenian SSR was Abovian accorded the recognition and stature he merited. Abovian is regarded as one of the foremost figures not just in Armenian literature but Armenian history at large. Abovian's influence on Western Armenian literature was not as strong as it was on Eastern Armenian, particularly in its
William Mathews (1828–1901) was an English mountaineer, botanist, land agent and surveyor, who first proposed the formation of the Alpine Club of London in 1857.
Mathews had corresponded with F. J. A. Hort about the idea of founding a national mountaineering club in February 1857 and took the idea up with E. S. Kennedy on an ascent of the Finsteraarhorn on 13 August 1857 (the fifth ascent of the mountain and the first British ascent). Ad-hoc meetings at Mathews's house near Birmingham proceeded during November, and the meeting at which the Alpine Club was founded took place on 22 December 1857 at Ashley's Hotel in London, chaired by Kennedy.
Mathews was the fifth President of the Alpine Club, serving from 1868–1871.
Charlie Fowler (February 18, 1954 - December 4, 2006 (estimated)) was an American mountain climber, writer, and photographer. He was one of North America’s most experienced mountain climbers, and successfully climbed many of the world’s highest peaks. Along with his climbing partner, Christine Boskoff, he went missing in southwestern China sometime between November 11 and December 4, 2006. His body was found on a remote mountain on December 27, 2006, and was officially identified a day later.
Fowler was born in North Carolina and grew up in Virginia, where he graduated from the University of Virginia with a degree in environmental science in 1975. He spent the next 12 years in Boulder, Colorado, before moving to Telluride, Colorado, in 1987 and settling in Norwood, Colorado, in 1992.
In 1977 he gained fame after free soloing the Direct North Buttress route on Middle Cathedral Rock in Yosemite National Park, followed by the first free solo ascent of the Diamond on Colorado's Longs Peak in 1978. The route he chose, initially called the Integral Route, was renamed the Casual Route after Fowler's bold climb.
He became a member of the American Mountain Guides Association in 1986, and
Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (20 July 1919 – 11 January 2008) was a New Zealand mountaineer, explorer and philanthropist. On 29 May 1953, Hillary and Nepalese Sherpa mountaineer Tenzing Norgay became the first climbers confirmed as having reached the summit of Mount Everest. They were part of the ninth British expedition to Everest, led by John Hunt. Hillary was named by Time magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.
Hillary became interested in mountaineering while in secondary school, making his first major climb in 1939, reaching the summit of Mount Ollivier. He served in the Royal New Zealand Air Force as a navigator during World War II. Prior to the 1953 Everest expedition, he had been part of the British reconnaissance expedition to the mountain in 1951, as well as an unsuccessful attempt to climb Cho Oyu in 1952. As part of the Commonwealth Trans-Antarctic Expedition he reached the South Pole overland in 1958. Subsequently, he also travelled to the North Pole.
Following his ascent of Everest he devoted most of his life to helping the Sherpa people of Nepal through the Himalayan Trust, which he founded. Through his efforts, many
Alan Wilson Watts (6 January 1915 – 16 November 1973) was a British philosopher, writer, and speaker, best known as an interpreter and populariser of Eastern philosophy for a Western audience. Born in Chislehurst, he moved to the United States in 1938 and began Zen training in New York. Pursuing a career, he attended Seabury-Western Theological Seminary, where he received a master's degree in theology. Watts became an Episcopal priest but left the ministry in 1950 and moved to California, where he joined the faculty of the American Academy of Asian Studies.
Living on the West Coast, Watts gained a large following in the San Francisco Bay Area while working as a volunteer programmer at KPFA, a Pacifica Radio station in Berkeley. Watts wrote more than 25 books and articles on subjects important to Eastern and Western religion, introducing the then-burgeoning youth culture to The Way of Zen (1957), one of the first bestselling books on Buddhism. In Psychotherapy East and West (1961), Watts proposed that Buddhism could be thought of as a form of psychotherapy and not just a religion. Like Aldous Huxley before him, he explored human consciousness in the essay, "The New Alchemy" (1958),
Alexander Burgener (1845, Saas Fee – 8 July 1910, near the Berglihütte) was a Swiss mountain guide and the first ascentionist of many mountains and new routes in the western Alps during the silver age of alpinism.
Together with Albert Mummery, he made the first ascent of the Zmuttgrat on the Matterhorn on 3 September 1879, and of the Grands Charmoz (1880) and the Aiguille du Grépon in the Mont Blanc Massif (5 August 1881). With another British alpinist, Clinton Thomas Dent, he made the first ascent of the Lenzspitze (August 1870) and the Grand Dru (12 September 1878),
He was killed by an avalanche on 8 July 1910 near the Berglihütte in the Bernese Alps.
Dale Sto. Tomas Abenojar (born April 27, 1963) is an AFP special forces graduate, a certified AFP military instructor, a Filipino mountaineer and an adventure sportsman and a mountain guide by profession. On May 30, 2006, he was recognized by veteran Himalayan expedition chronicler Elizabeth Hawley as "the first Filipino" to reach the summit of Mount Everest. According to Hawley Dale reached the summit on May 15, 2006. Abenojar was certified by the China Tibet Mountaineering Association (CTMA) on May 20, 2006 to have summitted Everest via the North Col on May 15, 2006 at 10:45 a.m. Beijing time.
Dale Abenojar is the 2,614th Everest summiteer. In contrast, Leo Oracion is the 2,740th Everest summiteer. Both Abenojar and Oracion is in the full list of successful ascents of Mount Everest from 1953 to 13 February 2009 in pdf file submitted by German Himalayan Archivist and former adventurestats.com compiler Eberhard Jurgalski of 8000ers.com . The Himalayan DataBase published by American Alpine Club had included Dale in the list of Everest North summitteers for Spring 2006 on May 15,.
On August 4, 2006, Dale's documentary film "CHID IN EVEREST" was shown to family, friends, supporters,
Horace Walker (1838 – 1908) was an English mountaineer who made many notable first ascents, including Mount Elbrus and the Grandes Jorasses.
Born in 1838, Walker was the son of Liverpool lead merchant and mountaineer Francis Walker (1808–1872) and brother of Lucy Walker (1836–1916), the first woman to climb the Matterhorn.
Walker was President of the Alpine Club in 1891-1893.
The Horace Walker glacier and Horace Walker hut in the Southern Alps of New Zealand are named after him.
In commemoration of his first ascent of the Grandes Jorasses on 30 June 1868, Walker gives his name to Pointe Walker (4,208 m), the highest summit of the mountain; this lends its name to the Walker Spur, the most well-known buttress on the north face and one of the great north faces of the Alps.
Oliver Perry-Smith (October 11, 1884 in Philadelphia – 13 May 1969) was an American rock climber, mountaineer and skier who moved to Dresden in 1902 to attend a technical university.
He became well-known in the Sächsische Schweiz for the first ascents of major sandstone rock towers such as:
and first ascents of several climbing routes that are still very popular today, e. g.:
(All grades Saxon rating)
In total "he made more than 90 ascents in Saxon Switzerland, 33 of which are rated VI or above; there were 32 first ascents, 13 solo climbs and 36 additional ones on which he led".
On a trip to the Alps in 1908 he and his friend Rudolf Fehrmann made a number of first ascents.
In the Alps "his repeated ascents include also Weisshorn, Matterhorn, Dent Blanche, Zinalrothorn, Wellenkuppe, Obergabelhorn, Kleine Zinne".
Beside his achievements in climbing, he also won the Austrian championship in cross-country-skiing and ski-jumping in 1914.
There are a number of anecdotes depicting Perry-Smith as a rather unusual character:
In the year 1914 Oliver Perry-Smith returned to the US, never to visit Saxony again.
William A. Libbey III (March 27, 1855 – September 6, 1927) was an American professor of physical geography at Princeton University. He was twice a member of the U.S. Olympic Rifle Team, and rose to the rank of colonel in the New Jersey National Guard. He is also known for his first ascent of Mount Princeton in 1877.
He was born in Jersey City, New Jersey to William Libbey, Jr., a wealthy New York City merchant, and Elizabeth Marsh (Libbey). Libbey graduated from Princeton in 1877 and that summer went on the Princeton scientific expedition to the West. It was there that on the afternoon of July 17, 1877, at 12:30 pm he reached the summit of Mount Princeton. Following his summer in the West, Libbey studied in Berlin and Paris.
Libbey returned and received his doctorate in geology in 1879, the first awarded by Princeton. In 1880 he was appointed as director of the Elizabeth Marsh Museum of Geology and Archaeology as well as an associate professor to teach physical geography. In 1883 he was appointed as a full professor and continued to teach the physical geography classes.
In 1878 Libbey was involved with the controversy concerning whether the Acoma people had once lived on Enchanted
António de Saldanha was a Castilian-Portuguese 16th century captain. He was the first European to set anchor in what is now called Table Bay, South Africa, and made the first recorded ascent of Table Mountain.
Chroniclers Gaspar Correia (p. 412) and Fernão Lopes de Castanheda (p. 157) identify António de Saldanha as a "Castilian nobleman" who arrived in Portugal around 1497, in the household service of the queen Maria of Aragon. His original Spanish name is unknown, 'Saldanha' being probably just a reference to the Castilian town of Saldaña, from where he might have been originally from.
Being a man of "some nautical experience", Saldanha was appointed to head a squad of three vessels, part of Afonso de Albuquerque's fleet bound for India to reinforce the Portuguese settlement at Cochin. Although accompanying the India fleet, Saldanha's squad was said to have been given separate instructions to patrol the mouth of the Red Sea, and prey on Arab shipping.
Saldanha's three-ship squad (himself, Rui Lourenço Ravasco and Diogo Fernandes Pereira) set out of Lisbon in early May 1503, intending to catch up with Albuquerque's main fleet, which had gone on ahead. Poor pilotage, however, led
Fritz Wiessner (February 26, 1900 – July 3, 1988) was a pioneer of free climbing. Born in Dresden, Germany, he emigrated to New York City in 1929. He became a U.S. citizen in 1935.
Wiessner started climbing with his father in the Austrian Alps before World War I. At the age of 12, he climbed the Zugspitze, the highest peak in Germany. In the 1920s, he established hard climbing routes in Saxony and the Dolomites that have a present-day difficulty rating of up to 5.11. This was at a time when the hardest free climbing grade in the United States was 5.7. At the age of 25, he made the first ascent of the Fleischbank in Tyrol, which was proclaimed the hardest rock climb done at that time.
Wiessner was not an imposing physical specimen; he stood 5'6" tall, balding, slope-shouldered and stocky, with a wide and friendly grin. His specialty lay in wide crack climbing, or offwidth, a technique that demanded both technical mastery and uncommon strength.
In 1931, Wiessner made contact with members of the American Alpine Club and immediately set a new standard in American rock climbing. Across North America, he established an incredible list of first ascents at such climbing areas as Ragged
Janne Corax, born 1967, is a Swedish cyclist, mountaineer and explorer. He has travelled in 110 countries and cycled more than 82,500 km. He lives in Målilla in southern Sweden. He is an authority on Tibet, across which he has made several long and unsupported expeditions.
In 2003 he and Nadine Saulnier made the first ever cycle crossing of the uninhabited and trackless 5,000 metre high Chang Tang plateau of Northern Tibet. The crossing resulted in a 30-minute film, called "Too Tired", part of the series "Into The Unknown" on National Geographic's international channel. The crossing was also reported in Japanese Alpine News.
Corax has achieved first ascents of several very remote 6,000 metre Tibetan mountains.
John Muir (21 April 1838 – 24 December 1914) was a Scottish-born American naturalist, author, and early advocate of preservation of wilderness in the United States. His letters, essays, and books telling of his adventures in nature, especially in the Sierra Nevada mountains of California, have been read by millions. His activism helped to preserve the Yosemite Valley, Sequoia National Park and other wilderness areas. The Sierra Club, which he founded, is now one of the most important conservation organizations in the United States. One of the most well-known hiking trails in the U.S., the 211-mile (340 km) John Muir Trail, was named in his honor. Other places named in his honor are Muir Woods National Monument, Muir Beach, John Muir College, Mount Muir, Camp Muir and Muir Glacier.
In his later life, Muir devoted most of his time to the preservation of the Western forests. He petitioned the U.S. Congress for the National Park bill that was passed in 1890, establishing both Yosemite and Sequoia National Parks. Because of the spiritual quality and enthusiasm toward nature expressed in his writings, he was able to inspire readers, including presidents and congressmen, to take action to
Louis François Élisabeth Ramond, baron de Carbonnières (January 4, 1755 Strasbourg – May 14, 1827), was a French politician, geologist and botanist. He is regarded as one of the first explorers of the high mountains of the Pyrenees who can be described as a pyrénéiste.
Louis Ramond was born in Strasbourg, to Pierre-Bernard Ramond (1715–1796), treasurer of war, and Reine-Rosalie Eisentraut (1732–1762).
He studied law at the University of Strasbourg in 1775 and became a lawyer in February 1777. In Strasbourg he became friends with another student, Jakob Michael Reinhold Lenz (1751–1792), a writer belonging to the then-fashionable Sturm und Drang movement. During this period Ramond discovered German Romantic literature, in particular Goethe's The Sorrows of Young Werther; this book inspired him to become a writer and in 1777 he published the Werther-influenced Les Dernières aventures du jeune d’Olban (The Last Adventures of Young Olban). Ramond undertook a voyage to Switzerland in May 1777 where he met writers and poets, as well as scientists: the theologian Johann Kaspar Lavater (1741–1801), and the zoologists Albrecht von Haller (1708–1777) and Charles Bonnet (1720–1793); he also
Mohammadreza Khalilighazi (محمّدرضا خليلي قاضي in Persian) (b. June 22, 1967, Tabriz, Iran) is an Iranian famous mountain climber, mountaineering instructor and ecotourism leader since 1995. He has studied and taught computer science since 1986, being an IT professional and expert on SQL Server and .Net developer especially on C# Programming Language . He has published some books and several scientific papers. He worked in The Academy of Persian Language and Literature from December 2001 to December 2006 as a computer administrator in the Lexicography Group in advanced computational lexicography research field and he is a member of IT and computer high commission.
He works and study in astronomical and computational basis of calendars, especially the Iranian calendar and the Islamic calendar since 1985.
He founded Mountain Guide Committee (MGC) in 2002 and Mountain Ecotourism Committee (MEC) in 2006 for the Iran Mountaineering and Sport Climbing Federation (IMSCF).
He is the founder and manager of one of the most famous climbing and ecotourism weblogs which has name Iranian Climbers Society (IRCIS).
The website Iran Ecotourism was founded by him in 2006. He immigrated to Canada
Tytus Chałubiński (Radom, 29 December 1820 – 4 November 1889, Zakopane) was a Polish physician and co-founder of the Polish Tatra Society.
Chałubiński established tuberculosis sanatoria in Zakopane, in the Tatra Mountains. He was a professor at the Medical-Surgical Academy and Principal School in Warsaw.
Dean Potter (born January 18, 1972 in the United States) is an American free climber, alpinist, BASE jumper, BASEliner, and highliner who grew up in New Hampshire. He is noted for hard first ascents, free solo ascents, speed ascents, and enchainments in Yosemite and Patagonia.
Dean Potter has made several new routes and solo ascents in Patagonia.
In July 2006, he climbed The Reticent Wall, one of the hardest routes on El Capitan, in 34 hours and 57 minutes with Ammon McNeely and Ivo Ninov, shaving five days off the existing time.
Potter is known for his exploits in highlining and BASE jumping. He was introduced to slacklining by Chongo, aka Charles Victor Tucker III, one of the first three people to highline across Lost Arrow Spire. Potter has completed a variety of highline crossings without benefit of a safety lanyard, backup line, or BASE-jumping parachute. Some of these include lines suspended as much as 3,000 feet above the ground in Yosemite National Park. He has also done a few of the most thrilling base jumps in the world.
Controversy surrounded Potter after his 2006 climbing of Delicate Arch in Arches National Park, for which he lost his sponsorship from the Patagonia
Albert Bierstadt (January 7, 1830 – February 18, 1902) was a German-American painter best known for his lavish, sweeping landscapes of the American West. In obtaining the subject matter for these works, Bierstadt joined several journeys of the Westward Expansion. Though not the first artist to record these sites, Bierstadt was the foremost painter of these scenes for the remainder of the 19th century.
Bierstadt was part of the Hudson River School, not an institution but rather an informal group of like-minded painters. The Hudson River School style involved carefully detailed paintings with romantic, almost glowing lighting, sometimes called luminism. An important interpreter of the western landscape, Bierstadt, along with Thomas Moran, is also grouped with the Rocky Mountain School.
Bierstadt was born in Solingen, Germany. His family moved to New Bedford, Massachusetts, in 1831. He developed a taste for art early and made clever crayon sketches in his youth. In 1851, he began to paint in oils. He studied painting with the members of the Düsseldorf school of painting in Düsseldorf from 1853 to 1857. He taught drawing and painting briefly before devoting himself to
George Karl Ludwig Preuss (born 1803), Anglicized as Charles Preuss, was a surveyor and cartographer who accompanied John C. Fremont on his exploratory expeditions of the American west, including the expedition where he and Fremont were the first to record seeing Lake Tahoe from a mountaintop vantage point as they traversed what is now Carson Pass in February 1844. He participated in expeditions until he reached the age of 50. One year later, in 1854, he committed suicide.
Pruess Lake (sic), in west-central Utah (south of Garrison, Utah) is named after him.
His diary of the Fremont expedition was featured on a 2008 episode of This American Life. It contrasted Fremont's exuberance with Preuss' sober, often humorously melancholy opinions of the expedition.
Gottlieb Samuel Studer (5 August 1804, Langnau im Emmental – 22 December 1890, Vienna) was a Swiss mountaineer, notary public and draughtsman.
Studer was the son of Sigmund Gottlieb Studer. After the death of his father, the Studer family moved to Bern, where Studer was secretary to the cantonal justice and police department, later becoming prefect (Regierungsstatthalter) of the city of Bern.
In September 1843 he made the first ascent of the Wildhorn (3,248 m) in the Bernese Alps.
Together with the geologist Theodor Simler and Dr Melchior Ulrich, Studer was inspired by the establishment of the British Alpine Club in 1857 to form a Swiss counterpart. This led to the founding on 19 April 1863 of the Swiss Alpine Club (SAC) at a meeting in the Bahnhofbuffet Olten, the railway restaurant in the Swiss town of Olten. The club was 'a broader and more democratic association than the Alpine Club'. Studer was president of the Bern section of the SAC from 1863–1873, and he was honorary president from 1873 to his death.
In 1866 Studer left the service of the state and dedicated himself to the history of Alpine exploration. The years 1869–1871 were spent writing Über Eis und Schnee, a
Hale Dixon Tharp was a miner during the California Gold Rush, and the first non-Native American to enter Giant Forest, in what is now Sequoia National Park.
Tharp was born in Michigan in 1828. In 1851, a widow from Illinois, Chloe Ann Smith Swanson, hired Tharp to take her and her four sons to California in a covered wagon with two teams of oxen. They settled in Placerville, where Tharp married Swanson. Tharp then began mining in California’s Gold Country.
In the summer of 1856, Tharp went to Tulare County to establish a preemption homestead, with the intent to return later to ranch cattle. He built a shake and brush shack near the confluence of the Kaweah River and Horse Creek, east of Visalia and south of Three Rivers. He then returned to Placerville.
Two years later, Tharp, along with his brother-in-law John Swanson, returned to his homestead and built a log cabin and barn, Cattle Cabin. Tharp then sought cattle summer pasturage. Led by the local Yokut Indians, Tharp "discovered" Crescent Meadow and Log Meadow near the Giant Forest. He claimed grazing rights there for several years.
Tharp's Log is a home Tharp built in a hollowed Giant sequoia (Sequoiadendron gigantuem) log at
Sir Halford John Mackinder PC (15 February 1861 – 6 March 1947) was an English geographer and is considered one of the founding fathers of both geopolitics and geostrategy.
He was born in Gainsborough, Lincolnshire, England, the son of a doctor, and educated at Queen Elizabeth's Grammar School, Gainsborough (now Queen Elizabeth's High School), Epsom College and Christ Church, Oxford. At Oxford he started studying natural sciences, specialising in zoology under Henry Nottidge Moseley, who had been the naturalist on Challenger expedition. When he turned to the study of history, he remarked that he was returning "to an old interest and took up modern history with the idea of seeing how the theory of evolution would appear in human development". He was a strong proponent of treating both physical geography and human geography as a single discipline. Mackinder served as President of the Oxford Union in 1883.
In 1887, he published "On the Scope and Methods of Geography", a manifesto for the New Geography. A few months later, he was appointed as Reader in Geography at the University of Oxford, where he introduced the teaching of the subject. As Mackinder himself put it, "a platform has
Jacques Cartier (December 31, 1491 – September 1, 1557) was a French explorer of Breton origin who claimed what is now Canada for France. He was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas", after the Iroquois names for the two big settlements he saw at Stadacona (Quebec City) and at Hochelaga (Montreal Island).
Jacques Cartier was born in 1491 in Saint-Malo, the port on the north-west coast of Brittany. Cartier, who was a respectable mariner, improved his social status in 1520 by marrying Mary Catherine des Granches, member of a leading family. His good name in Saint-Malo is recognized by its frequent appearance in baptismal registers as godfather or witness.
In 1534, the year the Duchy of Brittany was formally united with France in the Edict of Union, Cartier was introduced to King Francis I by Jean le Veneur, bishop of Saint-Malo and abbot of Mont-Saint-Michel, at the Manoir de Brion. The king had previously invited (although not formally commissioned) the Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano to explore the eastern coast of North America on behalf of France in 1524. Le
John Wesley Powell (March 24, 1834 – September 23, 1902) was a U.S. soldier, geologist, explorer of the American West, professor at Illinois State University, and director of major scientific and cultural institutions. He is famous for the 1869 Powell Geographic Expedition, a three-month river trip down the Green and Colorado rivers that included the first known passage through the Grand Canyon.
Powell served as second director of the US Geological Survey (1881–1894) and proposed policies for development of the arid West which were prescient for his accurate evaluation of conditions. He was director of the Bureau of Ethnology at the Smithsonian Institution, where he supported linguistic and sociological research and publications.
Powell was born in Mount Morris, New York, in 1834, the son of Joseph and Mary Powell. His father, a poor itinerant preacher, had emigrated to the U.S. from Shrewsbury, England, in 1830. His family moved westward to Jackson, Ohio, then Walworth County, Wisconsin, before settling in Illinois in rural Boone County.
Powell studied at Illinois College, Wheaton College and Oberlin College, acquiring a knowledge of Ancient Greek and Latin. Powell had a restless
Steve Roper is a noted climber and historian of the Sierra Nevada in the United States. He along with Allen Steck are the founding editors of the Sierra Club journal Ascent.
Roper is the winner of the Sierra Club's Francis P. Farquhar Mountaineering Award for 1983. He is also, with Allen Steck, the recipient of the American Alpine Club's Literary Award (1995).
Sir Hugh Low, GCMG (10 May 1824 - 18 April 1905) was a British colonial administrator and naturalist. After a long residence in various colonial roles in Labuan, he became the first successful British administrator in the Malay Peninsula. His methods became models for future administrators. He made the first documented ascent of Mount Kinabalu in 1851. Both Kinabalu's highest peak as well as the deep gully on the other side of the mountain are named after him.
Low was born in Upper Clapton, England, the son of a Scottish horticulturist, also named Hugh. At an early age, he acquired botanical expertise working in the family nursery. At 20, his father sent him on a collecting expedition to South East Asia. He based himself in Singapore but soon joined Sir James Brooke, the White Rajah, in Sarawak. In the months following he became well enough acquainted with interior of Sarawak to write a definitive book on it on his return home. In 1847, Brooke was appointed Governor of the recently established British colony of Labuan and Consul General of Borneo. He gave Low the post of Colonial Secretary (1848-1850). In 1848, Low returned to Far East, meeting and marrying on the way Catherine
Lino Lacedelli (4 December 1925 – 20 November 2009) was an Italian mountaineer.
Lacedelli was born in Cortina d'Ampezzo (Province of Belluno).
His climbing career began as a young teenager when he followed a mountain guide up a local summit. He soon came under the tutelage of Luigi 'Bibi' Ghedina, one of the best Dolomite rock climbers of the age. In 1946 he was accepted into the prestigious Cortina Squirrels club. Lacedelli was known for fast ascents of difficult routes, including: the Constantini-Apollonio South Face Direct (500m V+ A2) on the Pilastro di Rozes (repeat with Ghedina); the first ascent of the Southwest Face of Cima Scotoni (Fanis Group) with Guido Lorenzi; first one-day ascent of the Solda Route on the SW Face of the Marmolada di Penia (with Lorenzi); and the fourth ascent of the Gabriel-Livanos Diedre on the Cima su Alto with Beniamino Franceschi.
In 1951, he achieved international recognition by completing, in the Mont Blanc area, the second ascent of the Bonatti-Ghigo on the east face of the Grand Capucin with Bibi Ghendina in 18-hours, just weeks after the four-day first ascent. He became an obvious choice for the 1954 Italian K2 expedition led by Ardito
Marie Marvingt (20 February 1875 – 14 December 1963) was a French athlete, mountaineer, and aviator, and the most decorated woman in the history of France. She won numerous prizes for her sporting achievements and was the first woman to climb many of the peaks in the French and Swiss Alps. She was a record-breaking balloonist, a pioneering aviator and during World War I became the first woman to fly combat missions as a bomber pilot. She was also a qualified surgical nurse, was the first trained and certified Flight Nurse in the world, and worked for the establishment of air ambulance services throughout the world.
Marie Marvingt was born on 20 February 1875 in Aurillac in the Cantal département of France, although her family moved to Metz, at that time part of Germany, from 1880-1889. The family moved to Nancy in the Meurthe-et-Moselle département in 1889, where she lived for the rest of her life.
She was encouraged to participate in sports by her father, Felix, and at the age of 5 she could already swim 4000m. She enjoyed many other sports including water polo, horse riding, athletics, boxing, martial arts, fencing, shooting, tennis, golf, hockey, football, winter sports, and
William Wines Phelps (February 17, 1792 – March 7, 1872) was an early leader of the Latter Day Saint movement. He was an assistant president of the church in Missouri, scribe to Joseph Smith, Jr., and a church printer, editor, and song-writer
Born in Hanover Township, New Jersey, his father Enon Phelps and mother Mehitable Goldsmith moved the family to Homer, New York, in 1800. As a child, he attended public schools. As a young man, he traveled to Ohio, but soon returned to Homer, where he began publishing the Western Courier.
On April 28, 1815, he married Stella Waterman (later called Sally). He next moved to Trurnansburgh, Tompkins Co. New York, where in 1823 he founded the Lake Light. In 1827 he relocated to Canandaigua, New York, where he began publishing and edited the anti-Masonic newspaper Ontario Phoenix through 1828. Phelps has been referred to by Dean Jessee as "one of [the] founders" of the anti-Masonic movement in New York.
Well educated as a young man, Phelps was an aspirant for the office of lieutenant governor of New York at the time when he purchased a copy of the Book of Mormon from Parley P. Pratt on April 9, 1830—just three days after the early Latter Day Saint
William Christie Gosse (Hertfordshire, England, 1842–12 August 1881), was an Australian explorer, who was born in and migrated to Australia with his father Dr. William Gosse in 1850. He was educated at J.L. Young's Adelaide Educational Institution and in 1859 he entered the Government service of South Australia. He held various positions in the survey department, including Deputy Surveyor-General. He died of a heart attack on 12 August 1881, aged 38, after a long illness.
Although Gosse's exploration was not groundbreaking, he filled in many details in the central map. He named the Musgrave Ranges and was able correctly to lay down the position of some of the discoveries of Ernest Giles. On 19 July 1873 he reached Uluru and gave it the name Ayers Rock.
Gosse married Agnes "Aggie" Hay (1853-1933), a daughter of Alexander Hay and his first wife Agnes née Kelly (1818-1870) on 22 December 1874. (Hay's second wife, Agnes Grant née Gosse, was William's sister.) William and Aggie had three children:
A brother-in-law, and also nephew, William Gosse Hay (1875-1945) was an author.
A sister-in-law, and also niece, Helen (1877-1909), and her mother (William's sister), were lost at sea on the
Alain Robert (born as Robert Alain Philippe on 7 August 1962), is a French rock and urban climber, from Digoin, Saône-et-Loire, Bourgogne, France. Known as "the French Spider-Man" (after the comic character Spider-Man), or "the Human Spider", Robert is famous for scaling skyscrapers using no climbing equipment except for a small bag of chalk and a pair of climbing shoes.
Because authorities will not normally give him permission for such dangerous exploits, Robert usually appears at dawn on the site of whichever giant skyscraper he has chosen to climb. His exploits attract crowds of onlookers who stop to watch him climb. As a consequence, Robert has been arrested many times, in various countries, by law enforcement officials waiting for him at the end of his climb.
His physical conditioning and expert climbing technique allow him to climb using the small protrusions of building walls and windows (such as window ledges and frames). Over the course of his climbing career, he has become so used to cramming his fingers into the cracks of ledges and hanging from balconies that he is actually unable to completely straighten his fingers. Many of his climbs provide him no opportunity to
Allan Cunningham (13 July 1791 – 27 June 1839) was an English botanist and explorer, primarily known for his travels in Australia to collect plants.
Cunningham was born in Wimbledon, Surrey, the son of Allan Cunningham (head gardener at Wimbledon Park House), who came from Renfrewshire, Scotland, and his English wife Sarah (née Juson/Jewson née Dicken). Allan Cunningham was educated at a Putney private school, Reverend John Adams Academy and then went into a solicitor's office (a Lincoln's Inn Conveyancer). He afterwards obtained a position with William Townsend Aiton superintendent of Kew Gardens, and this brought him in touch with Robert Brown and Sir Joseph Banks.
On Banks' recommendation, Cunningham went to Brazil with James Bowie between 1814 and 1816 collecting specimens for Kew Gardens. On 28 September 1816 he sailed for Sydney where he arrived on 20 December 1816. He established himself at Parramatta. Among other explorations, he joined John Oxley's 1817 expedition beyond the Blue Mountains to the Lachlan and Macquarie rivers and shared in the privations of the 1,200 miles (1,930 km) journey. He was able to collect specimens of about 450 species and gained valuable
Major Harold William "Bill" Tilman, CBE, DSO, MC and Bar (14 February 1898–1977) was an English mountaineer and explorer, renowned for his Himalayan climbs and sailing voyages.
Tilman was born on 14 February 1898 in Wallasey in Cheshire, the son of a well-to-do sugar merchant John Hinkes Tilman and his wife Adeline Schwabe (née Rees). He was educated at Berkhamsted Boys school. At the age of 18, Tilman was commissioned into the Royal Field Artillery and fought in the First World War, including the Battle of the Somme, and was twice awarded the Military Cross for bravery. His climbing career, however, began with his acquaintance with Eric Shipton in Kenya, East Africa, where they were both coffee growers. Beginning with their joint traverse of Mount Kenya in 1929 and their ascents of Kilimanjaro and the fabled "Mountains of the Moon" Ruwenzori, Shipton and Tilman formed one of the most famed partnerships in mountaineering history. When it came time to leave Africa, Tilman was not content with merely flying home but rode a bicycle across the continent to the West Coast where he embarked for England.
He later volunteered for service in the Second World War, seeing action in North
Albert Frederick Mummery (10 September 1855, Dover, Kent, England – 24 August 1895, Nanga Parbat), was an English mountaineer and author. Although most notable for his many and varied first ascents put up in the Alps, Mummery, along with J. Norman Collie, Hastings, and two Gurkhas are also known to have been the first men in recorded history to have attempted to summit one of the Himalayan eight-thousanders - the fourteen highest peaks in the world.
Their innovative, light-weight endeavour upon Nanga Parbat in 1895 was to prove ill-fated with Mummery and both Gurkhas losing their lives in an avalanche whilst reconnoitring the mountain's Rakhiot Face. The mountain would go on to earn its reputation as a "man-eater" as thirty-one men would lose their lives on its slopes before the first ascent was made by the legendary Austrian Mountaineer Hermann Buhl in 1953. Buhl, the only man in history to have made the first ascents of more than one of the 8,000 metre peaks, described Mummery as "One of the greatest mountaineers of all time".
Mummery's father was a tanner and mayor of Dover. The tanning business was prosperous enough for Mummery to devote most of his energies to climbing and
Ammon McNeely (born June 3, 1970) is an American rock climber, who holds the most Speed Climbing World Records and First One Day Ascents on El Capitan in Yosemite. Other interests are: BASE jumping, wingsuiting, skydiving, surfing, skateboarding, trail running, mountain biking and snowboarding.
Ammon has been the conductor of many ascents on El Capitan, most of them in a day (under 24 hrs): Plastic Surgery Disaster, Wall of the Early Morning Light, Atlantic Ocean Wall, and most recent climbing one of the hardest routes on El Capitan, The Reticent Wall along with Dean Potter & Ivo Ninov in 34 hours and 57 minutes, shaving the existing time by more than five days.
He is recognized as having climbed El Capitan by the second highest number of routes - 72 times via 54 routes, behind Steve Gerberding who has climbed it via 57 different routes.
McNeely is the first (Nate Brown is the only other one) to have climbed all three routes on The Streaked Wall in Zion National Park, ascending all three routes with a First One Day Ascent.
Ammon is also a slackliner and pioneered many highlines throughout the US
Some of his other El Capitan speed climbing accomplishments include:
Arthur Oliver Wheeler (May 1, 1860 – May 20, 1945) was born in Ireland and immigrated to Canada in 1876 at the age of 16. He became a land surveyor and surveyed large areas of western Canada, including photo-topographical surveys of the Selkirk Mountains and the British Columbia-Alberta boundary along the continental divide through the Canadian Rockies. In 1906, he and journalist Elizabeth Parker were the principal founders of the Alpine Club of Canada (ACC). He was its first president, from 1906 to 1910, and editor of the Canadian Alpine Journal from 1907 to 1930. He remained Honorary President of the ACC from 1926 until his death in 1945. The Arthur O. Wheeler hut of the ACC is named after him.
Wheeler was born on May 1, 1860 at The Rocks, the Wheeler family estate near Kilkenny, Ireland. He was educated at Ballinasloe College, County Galway, and at Dulwich College, London. The family fell upon hard times in Ireland, and in 1876 they sold their estates and moved to Canada, where his father took up the post of harbour master in Collingwood, Ontario. In 1876, at the age of 16, Wheeler met noted land surveyor, Lauchlan Alexander Hamilton, and became his apprentice. In 1877, Wheeler
Brian Blessed ( /ˈblɛsɪd/; born 9 October 1936) is an English actor, known for his sonorous voice and "hearty, king-sized portrayals".
The son of William Blessed, a socialist miner, and Hilda Wall, Blessed was born at the Montague Hospital in the town of Mexborough, Yorkshire. He attended Bolton on Dearne Secondary Modern School, but after his father suffered an industrial accident, he was forced to leave school early at 14 and spent several years working at a variety of jobs, ranging from undertaker to plasterer's assistant. At the age of eighteen, he suffered a nervous breakdown, from which he gradually recovered with the help of friends and family. He completed his National Service as a parachutist in the Royal Air Force. He began his acting training at the Bristol Old Vic Theatre School, alongside Patrick Stewart. He has written about his early life in his autobiography, Dynamite Kid (1992).
An early role was that of PC 'Fancy' Smith in the BBC police drama Z-Cars from 1962 to 1965. In 1966, Blessed appeared in "Incident at Vichy" at the Phoenix Theatre in London. Blessed had small roles in such cult shows as The Avengers (1967, 1969) and the original Randall and Hopkirk
Dan Mazur (born October 15, 1960) is a contemporary mountain climber most widely known for leading Greg Mortenson's 1993 K2 expedition in "Three Cups of Tea" and for the rescue of Lincoln Hall, an Australian climber on Mount Everest on May 25, 2006. Lincoln Hall had been 'left for dead' by another expedition team the previous day at around 8600 meters on Everest after collapsing and failing to respond to treatment on the descent from the summit. Mazur and his fellow climbers - Andrew Brash (Canada), Myles Osborne (UK) and Jangbu Sherpa (Nepal) - in abandoning their own attempt on the summit in order to save Hall's life epitomised the noblest traditions of mountaineering. Their sacrifice was underscored by the death of a British climber; David Sharp, who died a few days before Hall was discovered, lower down on the same route. Approximately 40 people said they saw Mr. Sharp in distress and walked past him, but no one rescued David Sharp, and he subsequently died. Sir Edmund Hillary, who made the first ascent of Everest in 1953 with Sherpa Tenzing Norgay, spoke out against those 40 people, and said that nothing like that would have happened in his day.
Daniel Lee Mazur was born in
Douglas Keith Scott CBE, known as Doug Scott (born 29 May 1941), is an English mountaineer noted for the first ascent of the south-west face of Mount Everest on 24 September 1975. Scott and Dougal Haston were the first Britons to climb Everest during this expedition. In receiving one of mountaineering's highest honours, the Lifetime Achievement Piolet d'Or, his personal style and climbs were described as "visionary".
Scott was born in Nottingham, England and started climbing at the age of 12, his interest sparked by a school trip to the White Hall outdoor activities centre near Buxton.
Scott's mountaineering career includes over 30 expeditions to inner Asia and he is regarded as one of the world's leading high altitude and big wall climbers. He is best known for his first ascent of the south-west face of Everest with Dougal Haston in an expedition led by Chris Bonington. All of his other climbs have been in the lightweight alpine style.
Highlights of Scott's climbing career include
Scott has climbed the Seven Summits, the highest peak on each of all seven continents. He is a past President of the Alpine Club and was made a CBE in 1994. In 1999 he was awarded the Patron’s Medal of
Joachim Vadian (November 29, 1484 – April 6, 1551), born as Joachim von Watt, was a Swiss Humanist and scholar and also mayor and reformer in St. Gallen.
Vadian was born in St. Gallen into a family of wealthy and influential linen merchants. After having gone to school in St. Gallen, he moved to Vienna at the end of 1501, where he took up studies at faculty of arts the university, in particular under Conrad Celtis. In Vienna, he changed his name to "Joachimus Vadianus"; like so many other humanists, he preferred a Latin name to express his admiration for the classic masters. He evaded the outbreak of the bubonic plague of 1506/07 by moving to Villach where he worked as a teacher and studied music. A study trip through northern Italy brought him to Trent, Venice, and Padua, where he met the Irish scholar Mauritius Hibernicus.
In 1509 completed his studies with the degree of Master of Arts and returned for a short while to St. Gallen, where he studied the scriptures in the library of the abbey of St. Gall. He returned to Vienna, where he had some success as a writer. From 1512 on, he held the chair of poetry at the university of Vienna—he had gained some reputation as the author of
Lester Halbert Germer (October 10, 1896 – October 3, 1971) was an American physicist. With Clinton Davisson, he proved the wave-particle duality of matter in the Davisson–Germer experiment, which was important to the development of the electron microscope. These studies supported the theoretical work of De Broglie. He also studied thermionics, erosion of metals, and contact physics. He was awarded the Elliott Cresson Medal in 1931.
A former fighter pilot in World War I, Germer subsequently worked at Bell Labs in New Jersey.
In 1945 (at the age of 49), Germer launched a side career as a rock climber. He climbed widely around the Northeast United States, and especially at New York's Shawangunk Ridge. Although the Appalachian Mountain Club was dominant in the area at the time, and strictly regulated rock climbing, Lester was never associated with the club, and found himself in conflict with the leading climber in the area Hans Kraus, who was head of the AMC's Safety Committee. He was once turned down for climbing certification with the comment "Likes people too much and is too enthusiastic." Lester was known for being generous and friendly. He was once called "A one man climbing
Paul Preuss (spelled Preuß in German; pronounced Proyce) (19 August 1886 – 3 October 1913) was an Austrian alpinist who achieved recognition for his bold solo ascents and for his advocacy of an ethically "pure" alpinism.
Paul Preuss was born in the mountain town of Altaussee, Austria on August 19, 1886. His father, Eduard, a Hungarian of Jewish descent, taught music; his mother, Caroline Lauchheim, an Alsatian, had been a private tutor for a baron. They met when Eduard was engaged to give Caroline's wards music lessons. Based in Vienna, Eduard Preuss and family (including two older sisters, Sophie and Mina) spent summers in Altaussee, following the migratory patterns of the vacationing Viennese upper class that employed him. As a boy, Preuss would often accompany his father, an amateur botanist, on his rambles throughout the local mountains of Altaussee. Never a robust child, at the age of six, Preuss was struck with a polio-like virus that left him partially paralyzed and confined to a bed or a wheelchair throughout that winter and spring. Once sufficiently recovered, the boy practiced gymnastic exercises and took walks to increase his strength. Though his father died when Preuss
Paul Pritchard (born 1967 in Bolton, Lancashire) was one of the leading British climbers of the 1980s and 1990s. He started climbing at 16 in his native Lancashire, and within a year had started to repeat some of the hardest routes in the county, as well as beginning his own additions.
Pritchard made many ascents of outstanding problems in the Wilton Quarries, Anglezarke and Hoghton as well as playing a pivotal role in the early development of both Craig y Longridge and Thorn Crag and engaging in extensive exploration of Malham Cove.
In 1986 He moved to Llanberis in North Wales, climbing extensively on the slate of the Llanberis quarries and on the sea cliffs at Gogarth. He gained a reputation for climbing hard and very poorly protected routes such as Super Calabrese (E8 6b) at Gogarth, still considered one of the most serious routes in the UK. In 1990, he began mountaineering, and subsequently climbed many difficult mountain routes around the world.
On Friday 13 February 1998, Pritchard's life changed drastically when he was hit by a large boulder as he was climbing the Totem Pole, a slender sea stack off the coast of Tasmania. He was left suffering from hemiplegia, a condition
Royal Robbins (born February 1935) is one of the pioneers of American rock climbing. After learning to climb at Tahquitz he went on to make first ascents of many big wall routes in Yosemite. As an early proponent of boltless, pitonless clean climbing, he, along with Yvon Chouinard, was instrumental in changing the climbing culture of the late 1960s and early 1970s by encouraging the use and preservation of the natural features of the rock. He went on to become a well-known kayaker.
Following his success as a climber, Robbins founded an eponymous outdoor apparel company with his wife Liz Robbins. He now lives in Modesto, California.
In 1971, Robbins completed the second ascent, with Don Lauria, of the Wall of Early Morning Light on El Capitan, with the (controversial) intention of erasing the route as they climbed it.
Their ascent closely followed the 1970 first ascent by Warren Harding and Dean Caldwell, completed with a heavy-handed reliance on bolts - a method that offended Robbins and other clean climbing advocates. Harding had left all his bolts in the rock; Robbins and Lauria used the bolts to repeat the climb; and Robbins then chopped the heads off the bolts behind them.
Thomas Wright Blakiston (27 December 1832 – 15 October 1891) was an English explorer and naturalist.
Born in Lymington, Hampshire, England, Blakiston was the son of Major John Blakiston, second son of Sir Matthew Blakiston, 2nd Baronet (see Blakiston baronets for earlier history of the family). His mother was Jane, daughter of Reverend Thomas Wright, Rector of Market Bosworth, Leicestershire. Blakiston explored western Canada with the Palliser Expedition between 1857 and 1859. In 1861 he traveled up the Yangtze River in China, going further than any Westerner before him. He spent the next part of his life in Japan and became one of the major naturalists in that country. He moved to the United States in 1885. Blakiston died aged 58 of pneumonia in October 1891 while in San Diego, California and is buried in Green Lawn Cemetery, Columbus, Ohio.
Blakiston was the first person to notice that animals in Hokkaidō, Japan's northern island, were related to northern Asian species, whereas those on Honshū to the south were related to those from southern Asia. The Tsugaru Strait between the two islands was therefore established as a zoogeographical boundary, and became known as "Blakiston's
William Grant Stairs (1 July 1863 – 9 June 1892) was a Canadian-British explorer, soldier, and adventurer who had a leading role in two of the most controversial expeditions in the history of the colonisation of Africa.
Born in Halifax, Nova Scotia, the sixth child and third son of John Stairs and Mary Morrow, he attended school at Fort Massey Academy in Halifax, Merchiston Castle School in Edinburgh, Scotland, and the Royal Military College of Canada in Kingston, Ontario, Student # 52
After graduating as a trained engineer, Stairs spent three years working for the New Zealand Trigonometrical Survey in northern New Zealand. In 1885, he accepted the offer of a commission in the British Royal Engineers and trained in Chatham, England. In 1891 he transferred to the Welsh Regiment.
Captain Stairs was appointed to the Emin Pasha Relief Expedition led by Henry Morton Stanley, at the time the most celebrated living explorer of Africa. Stairs sailed from London on 20 January 1887 and met Stanley in Suez on 6 February. Their expedition started from Banana at the mouth of the Congo River on 19 March and ended in Bagamoyo, Tanzania on 5 December 1889. Stairs was appointed second-in-command
Arthur Westlake Andrews (1868 – 1959) was a British geographer, poet, rock-climber, and mountaineer.
He trained as a geographer (FRGS 1896) and became a teacher of geography and history in Southwark. In 1913 he published 'a text-book of geography', reprinted in 1922.
As a climber, his first contribution appears to have been, in 1899, the route now called 'Andrews' renne' on Storen, Norway.
He is especially remembered for two later climbing contributions :- for his co-authorship, with J. M. A. Thomson in 1909 of the first rock-climbing guide-book, to the cliffs of Lliwedd, in Snowdonia; and for being the 'father' of Cornish sea cliff climbing, beginning with an early ascent (1902) of the Bosigran Ridge Climb (aka Commando Ridge grid reference SW413368) followed by Ledge Climb (also Bosigran) in 1905. With E. C. Pyatt he later produced the first official (Climbers' Club) Cornish climbing guide, in 1950.
He is also believed (ref 1) to have had a project to traverse all the British coastline, between the high and low water marks, aided where necessary by a rope, starting in Cornwall.
In later years he appears to have turned to poetry inspired by the scenery of West Penwith,
Andrew "Sandy" Comyn Irvine (8 April 1902 – 8 June 1924) was an English mountaineer who took part in 1924 British Everest Expedition, the third British expedition to the world's highest (8,848 m) mountain, Mount Everest.
While attempting the first ascent of Mount Everest, he and his climbing partner George Mallory disappeared somewhere high on the mountain's northeast ridge. The pair were last sighted only a few hundred metres from the summit.
Irvine was born in Birkenhead, Cheshire, one of six children of William Ferguson Irvine (1869–1962) by Lilian Davies-Colley (1870–1950). His father's family had Scottish and Welsh roots, whilst his mother was from an old Cheshire family. He was a cousin of journalist and writer Lyn Irvine, and also of pioneering female surgeon Eleanor Davies Colley and of political activist Harriet Shaw Weaver.
He was educated at Birkenhead School and Shrewsbury School, where he demonstrated a natural engineering acumen, able to improvise fixes or improvements to almost anything mechanical. During the First World War, he created a small stir at the War Office by sending them a design for an interrupter gear to allow a machine gun to fire from a
Johann Jacob Friedrich Wilhelm Parrot (14 October 1792 – 15 January 1841) was a Livonian naturalist and traveller.
Parrot was born in Karlsruhe. He studied medicine and natural science at the University of Dorpat and, in 1811, undertook an expedition to the Crimea and the Caucasus with Maurice Engelhardt. There he used a barometer to measure the difference in sea level between the Caspian Sea and Black Sea.
On his return he was appointed assistant doctor and, in 1815, surgeon in the Russian army. In 1816 and 1817, he visited the Alps and Pyrenees. In 1821, he was professor of physiology and pathology, then in 1826 professor of physics at the University of Dorpat, and in 1828 Parrot undertook another voyage to Kakheti and Armenia. In 1837 he went to Tornio in northern Finland to observe oscillations of a pendulum and terrestrial magnetism. He invented a gasometer and a baro-thermometer. In Livonia he popularised the Catalonian sundial, a small, cylindrical, pocket-sized instrument, approximately 8 cm in length and 1.5 cm in diameter.
On 27 September 1829, Parrot, a pioneer of scientific mountaineering, whilst professor of physics of the University of Dorpat, reached the summit of
John Charles Frémont or Fremont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, and the first candidate of the anti-slavery Republican Party for the office of President of the United States. During the 1840s, that era's penny press accorded Frémont the sobriquet The Pathfinder. He is sometimes called The Great Pathfinder. He retired from the military and moved to the new territory California, after leading a fourth expedition which cost ten lives seeking a rail route over the mountains around the 38th parallel in the winter of 1849.
He became one of the first two U.S. Senators elected from the new state in 1850. He was soon bogged down with lawsuits over land claims between the dispossessions of various land owners during the Mexican-American War, and the explosion of Forty-Niners immigrating during the California Gold Rush. He lost the 1856 presidential election to Democrats James Buchanan and John C. Breckenridge when Democrats warned his election would lead to civil war.
During the American Civil War he was given command of the armies in the west but made hasty decisions (such as trying to abolish slavery without consulting the federal
Riccardo Cassin (2 January 1909 – 6 August 2009) was an Italian mountaineer, developer of mountaineering equipment and author.
Born at San Vito al Tagliamento, Friuli, Cassin was one of the leading mountaineers of the inter-war period; in all, Cassin made a total of 2,500 ascents, of which over 100 were first ascents. In 1940 he married Irma, with whom he had three sons – Valentino, Pierantonio and Guido.
Cassin started mountaineering around 1930 together with a group known as the Ragni di Lecco (spiders of Lecco). In 1934, he made the first ascent of the Piccolissima of the Tre Cime di Lavaredo. In 1935, after having repeated Emilio Comici's route on the north-west face of the Civetta, he climbed the south-eastern ridge of the Trieste Tower and, with Vittorio Ratti, made a new route of the north face of Cima Ovest di Lavaredo. In 1937, Cassin made his first climb on the granite of the Western Alps. Over the course of three days, 14–16 July, he made the first ascent of the north-east face of Piz Badile in the Val Bregaglia (Bergell), Switzerland, accompanied by Ratti, Gino Esposito, M. Molteni and G. Valsecchi, the latter two of whom died of exhaustion and exposure on the descent.
Stefan Glowacz (born on March 22, 1965 in Bavaria, Germany) is a professional rock climber and adventurer. He started climbing at the age of 15 and advanced to one of the world's best sports climbers only few years later. Since 1993 he has been devoted to natural challenges including expeditions to remote places in Canada, Patagonia, Antarctica.
Aleksandr Danilovich Aleksandrov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Дани́лович Алекса́ндров, alternative transliterations: Alexandr or Alexander (first name), and Alexandrov (last name)) (August 4, 1912–July 27, 1999), was a Soviet/Russian mathematician, physicist, philosopher and mountaineer.
Aleksandrov graduated from the Department of Physics of Leningrad State University. His advisors there were Vladimir Fok, a physicist, and Boris Delaunay, a mathematician. In 1933 Aleksandrov worked at the State Optical Institute (GOI) and at the same time gave lectures at the Department of Mathematics and Mechanics of the University. He completed his Ph.D. in 1935 at the University and later in 1937 — a D.Sc. dissertation. He became a professor at the University, while also working at LOMI, the Leningrad Department of the Steklov Mathematical Institute (now PDMI, Petersburg Department of the Mathematical Institute). In 1951 he became a member of Communist Party. Appointed the rector of the university in 1952, Aleksandrov remained in this position until 1964. In 1946 he became a corresponding member, and in 1964 — a full member of the USSR Academy of Sciences. Since 1975 he was also a member of the
Alexander Murray, CMG (2 June 1810 – 18 December 1884) was a Scottish geologist.
Murray was born in Crieff, Perthshire, Scotland. He worked as a geologist in the United Kingdom and Canada, before coming to Newfoundland in 1864 to become the first director of the Geological Survey of Newfoundland. His first major task was to produce a reliable topographical map of the interior of the island. Murray did detailed work in the area between Hall's Bay and St. George's Bay, as well as the area surrounding Conception, Placentia and St. Mary's Bays. He also mapped parts of the Great Northern Peninsula and central Newfoundland.
Murray produced the first geological map of Newfoundland and his reports of rich resources in the island's interior were an important factor in the decision to build the trans-island railway in 1881.
Poor health caused him to return to Scotland in 1883.
Angelo Dibona (1879–1956) was an Italian mountaineer. He is remembered as one of the great pioneers of climbing in the Dolomites and is responsible for many first ascents throughout the Alps. The Aiguille Dibona in France and the Campanile Dibona in Italy are named after him.
Dibona was born in Cortina d'Ampezzo in 1879. From 1905 he was a mountain guide and a ski instructor in the Cortina area, and he became known for pioneering routes in the Dolomites, making more than 70 first ascents and becoming the leading climber during the heyday of climbing in the Dolomites. In 1910 he made the second ascent of the Christomannosturm in the Trentino-Alto Adige/Südtirol, 13 years after its first ascent. Dibona's route included a 600 m (2,000 ft) high rock face with fifth-degree passages. He made notable ascents of a number of peaks in other parts of the Alps in the early 1900s.
One of his most notable first ascents was of the Pain de Sucre du Soreiller, a 3,130 m (10,270 ft) granite peak in the French Massif des Écrins, which he soloed in 1908 and again climbed in 1913 with Guido Mayer (an Austrian client with whom he climbed many peaks in the Dolomites and other parts of the Alps). This
Sir Robert Charles Evans M.D., DSc, (19 October 1918 – 5 December 1995), was a British mountaineer, surgeon, and educator.
Born in Liverpool, he was raised in Wales and became a fluent Welsh language speaker. Educated at Shrewsbury School and Oxford University, where he studied medicine, he qualified as a doctor in 1942 and joined the Royal Army Medical Corps. He had previously climbed many of the classic routes in the Alps and put this experience to good use during travels in Sikkim and the Himalaya during the war. After demobilisation in 1947, he was a surgeon in Liverpool until 1957.
Evans was John Hunt's deputy leader on the first ascent of Everest in 1953. With Tom Bourdillon, he made the first ascent of the South Summit, coming within three hundred feet of the main summit of Everest on 26 May 1953, but was forced to turn back. Everest was summited by their teammates Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay three days later, on 29 May 1953.
Evans was the leader of the expedition which first climbed Kangchenjunga, the world's third highest peak, in 1955.
He served as the Principal of the University College of North Wales (now called Bangor University), from 1958 to 1984. He was
Douglas Robert Hadow (30 May 1846 – 14 July 1865) was a British novice mountaineer who died on the descent after the first ascent of the Matterhorn.
Hadow was born in 1846 at 49 York Terrace, Regent's Park, London, the son of Patrick Douglas Hadow (Chairman of the P. & O. Steam Navigation Company) and Emma Harriett Nisbet (daughter of Robert Parry Nisbet, of Southbroom House, Wiltshire), who married at Southbroom on 28 January 1845. Hadow's paternal great-grandfather was George Hadow, professor of Hebrew and Oriental Languages at the University of St Andrews, and one of his younger brothers was Frank Hadow, who won the Wimbledon championship in 1878.
Hadow was educated at Harrow School, where he and six of his brothers who also attended the school were known as the 'Harrow Hadows'.
In 1865, at the age of nineteen, Hadow undertook his first trip to the Alps as a protégé to Charles Hudson, a clergyman from Skillington and a leading advocate of guideless climbing. Together they made a swift ascent of Mont Blanc and a number of other climbs; these ascents – together with the backing of a climber of Hudson's stature – persuaded Edward Whymper that Hadow was a suitable companion for an
Field Marshal Sir George Stuart White VC, GCB, OM, GCSI, GCMG, GCIE, GCVO, (6 July 1835 – 24 June 1912) was an officer of the British Army and recipient of the Victoria Cross, the highest and most prestigious award for gallantry in the face of the enemy that can be awarded to British and Commonwealth forces
White was born at Rock Castle, Portstewart, County Londonderry, son of James White of Whitehall, Co. Antrim and Frances Ann Stewart. His mother was a daughter of George Stewart, Surgeon-General to the British Forces in Ireland, and his wife Frances, daughter of Colonel William Stewart M.P., of Killymoon Castle, Co. Tyrone.
He was educated at Bromsgrove School, Worcestershire and later at King William's College on the Isle of Man. From 1850 White attended the Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst where he achieved the rank of Under Officer.
After graduating from Sandhurst, White was commissioned into the 27th (Inniskilling) Regiment of Foot in 1853 and saw service in the Indian Mutiny.
He fought in the Second Anglo-Afghan War in 1879 as second-in-command of the 92nd Regiment of Foot (later The Gordon Highlanders).
He was 44 years old when the following deeds took place in
Markus Kronthaler (April 5, 1967 - July 8, 2006) was an Austrian mountaineer and climber. Kronthaler was born in Kufstein, Tyrol. He was an officer in the alpine section of Austria's Gendarmerie, which he left in 2003 to become a professional climber. Surviving a free fall of 150 meters (450 ft) into snow in January 2006, Kronthaler led a new expedition to Chogolisa and Broad Peak, Pakistan, in May 2006. He died of exhaustion on Broad Peak after reaching the summit on July 8. His body was left on the mountain.
In the summer of 2007, an Austrian mountaineering team climbed Broad Peak to retrieve Kronthaler's corpse, which was brought to Austria and cremated. This was the highest ever body recovery from a mountain. His urn was buried in Kufstein.
Sir Rutherford Alcock KCB (May 1809 – 2 November 1897) was the first British diplomatic representative to live in Japan.
Alcock was the son of the physician, Dr. Thomas Alcock, who practised at Ealing, near London. He was named John Rutherford Alcock, but dropped the John very early. As he grew up, Alcock followed his father into the medical profession. In 1836, he became a surgeon in the marine brigade which took part in the Carlist War, gaining distinction through his services. Alcock was made deputy inspector-general of hospitals. He retired from this service in 1837.
In 1844, he was appointed consul at Fuchow in China, where, after a short official stay at Amoy, he performed the functions, as he expressed it, " of everything from a lord chancellor to a sheriff's officer." Fuchow was one of the ports opened to trade by the Treaty of Nanking, and Alcock had to perform an entirely new role with regard to the Chinese authorities. In doing so, he earned a promotion to the consulate at Shanghai. He worked there until 1846 and made it a special part of his duties to superintend the established Chinese government and lay out the British settlement, which had developed into such an
William Bradford Shockley Jr. (February 13, 1910 – August 12, 1989) was an American physicist and inventor. Along with John Bardeen and Walter Houser Brattain, Shockley co-invented the transistor, for which all three were awarded the 1956 Nobel Prize in Physics.
Shockley's attempts to commercialize a new transistor design in the 1950s and 1960s led to California's "Silicon Valley" becoming a hotbed of electronics innovation. In his later life, Shockley was a professor at Stanford and became a staunch advocate of eugenics.
Shockley was born in London, England to American parents, and raised in his family's hometown of Palo Alto, California, from age three. His father, William senior, was a mining engineer who speculated in mines for a living, and spoke eight languages. His mother, Mary, grew up in the American West, graduated from Stanford University, and became the first female US Deputy mining surveyor.
He received his Bachelor of Science degree from the California Institute of Technology in 1932. While still a student, Shockley married Iowan Jean Bailey in August 1933. In March 1934 Jean had a baby girl, Alison; she also had a son, Richard (Dick) who also became a physicist.
Albert Hale Slyvester (aka Albert H. Sylvester, Hal Sylvester and A.H. Sylvester) (1871 – September 14, 1944) was a pioneer surveyor, explorer, and forest supervisor in the Cascade Range of the U.S. state of Washington. He was a topographer for the United States Geological Survey (USGS) in the Snoqualmie Ranger District between 1897 and 1907. Then, from 1908 to 1931, he served the United States Forest Service as the first forest supervisor of Wenatchee National Forest. His work involved the first detailed surveying and mapping of large portions of the Cascade Range in Washington, over the course of which he gave names to over 1,000 natural features. The surveying work often required placing cairns and other survey targets on top of mountains. He made the first ascents of a number of mountains in Washington. Over the course of his career he explored areas previously unknown to non-indigenous people. One such area, which Sylvester discovered, explored, and named, is The Enchantments. In 1944, while leading a party of friends to one of his favorite parts of the mountains, Sylvester was mortally wounded when his horse panicked and lost his footing on a steep and rocky slope.
Asahel Curtis (1874–1941) was a Pacific Northwest photographer.
Asahel Curtis was born in 1874 in Minnesota to Johnson Asahel Curtis (1840–1887), a reverend; and Ellen Sheriff (1844–1912).
Asahel's father was Johnson Asahel Curtis (1840–1887) who was a reverend, and an American Civil War veteran. He was born in Ohio and his father was born in Canada and his mother in Vermont. Asahel's mother was Ellen Sheriff (1844–1912) who was born in Pennsylvania, and both her parents were born in England. Asahel had the following siblings: Raphael Curtis (1862-c1885) aka Ray Curtis; Eva Curtis (10 May 1870 Whittaker, WI-1967, Tacoma Co, WA); and Edward Sheriff Curtis (1868–1952).
In 1880 the family was living in Cordova, Le Sueur County, Minnesota and Johnson Curtis was working as a retail grocer. When Edward and Asahel were just teenagers, a homemade camera was the only suggestion of what their future professions would be when they moved to Washington Territory. In 1885 at the age of seventeen Edward took his interest in photography and became an apprentice photographer in St. Paul, Minnesota.
When the Curtis family moved to Washington in 1888, Edward and Asahel were just teenagers. As their
Jamling Tenzing Norgay (Tibetan: བྱམས་གླིང་བསྟན་འཛིན་ནོར་རྒྱས, Wylie: Byams-gling Bstan-'dzin Nor-rgyas) (b. April 23, 1965 in Darjeeling) is an Indian-Nepalese Sherpa mountain climber.
He is the son of Tenzing Norgay (who first climbed Mount Everest in 1953 with Sir Edmund Hillary) and Daku, his third wife. Jamling Tenzing Norgay himself later followed in his father's footsteps and climbed Everest in 1996 with a team led by David Breashears that also included mountaineer Ed Viesturs and Araceli Segarra, an experience documented in the 1998 IMAX film, Everest. In 2002, he and Peter Hillary, the son of Edmund Hillary, were part of an expedition to climb Everest and commemorate the 50th anniversary of the first ascent.
Norgay went on to write Touching My Father's Soul, a book documenting his experiences on the summit attempt. The book was notable for the frankness with which it discussed the relationship between the often wealthy climbers and the Sherpas who obtain their incomes from assisting expeditions. Norgay's book was the first to discuss from the Sherpas' point of view the disastrous May 1996 climbing season, in which twelve climbers died. It noted, for example, that little
John Middendorf (born 1959 in New York City) is a big wall climber and inventor of climbing equipment.
In the 1980s, he climbed the hardest walls of Yosemite (including El Capitan and Half Dome), and in 1992 he climbed the largest rock wall in the world, Great Trango Tower
He achieved worldwide recognition in the climbing world in 1992 when he climbed the East Face of Great Trango Tower (6286 m a.s.l.) in Karakoram, Pakistan, with Xaver Bongard. As a lightweight, two man team, they were the first to climb about 5000-feet vertical rock face of Great Trango to the summit (in fact, to the lower, East Summit of Great Trango, 6231 m) and make it down alive. (The East Face of Great Trango was climbed in 1984 via neighbor route, Norwegian Pillar, by the team of best Norwegian climbers, but the summiters died on the descent; next two ascents of this route not reached the true top of the wall, the East Summit of Great Trango.)
The Grand Voyage, 4400 feet high, along with the slightly higher Norwegian Pillar on the same face, have been noted as "perhaps the hardest big-wall climbs in the world" (see Trango Towers). The 1992 new route required 15 days and nights to climb and three days to
Saint Brendan of Clonfert or Bréanainn of Clonfert (c. 484 – c. 577) (Irish: Naomh Breandán; Icelandic: Brandanus) called "the Navigator", "the Voyager", or "the Bold" is one of the early Irish monastic saints. He is chiefly renowned for his legendary quest to the "Isle of the Blessed," also called Saint Brendan's Island. The Voyage of Saint Brendan could be called an immram (Irish navigational story). He was one of the Twelve Apostles of Ireland.
Saint Brendan's feast day is celebrated on 16 May by Catholics, Anglicans, and Eastern Orthodox Christians.
In 484 Brendan was born in Ciarraighe Luachra near the port of Tralee, in County Kerry, in the province of Munster, in the south-west of Ireland. He was baptised at Tubrid, near Ardfert, by Saint Erc. For five years he was educated under Saint Ita, "the Brigid of Munster", and he completed his studies under Saint Erc, who ordained him priest in 512. Between the years 512 and 530 Brendan built monastic cells at Ardfert, and, at the foot of Mount Brandon, Shanakeel— Seana Cill, usually translated as "the old church"— also called Baalynevinoorach.
From here he is supposed to have set out on his famous seven-year voyage for Paradise.
Cesare Maestri (born 2 October 1929) is an Italian mountaineer and writer.
He was born in Trento in the Italian province of Trentino. He began climbing in the Dolomites, where he repeated many famous routes, often climbing them solo and free, and put up many new routes of the hardest difficulty, for which he was nicknamed the "Spider of the Dolomites". He became an Alpine Guide in 1952. His notable solos include the Solleder route on the Civetta, the Solda-Conforto Route on the Marmolada, and the southwest ridge of the Matterhorn in winter.
In 1959, Maestri, together with Cesarino Fava and Austrian guide Toni Egger, travelled to Patagonia to attempt the north-east ridge of the unclimbed Cerro Torre. The three climbed up a steep corner below the Col of Conquest (between Cerro Torre and Torre Egger), then Fava turned back and Maestri and Egger headed for the summit. Six days later Fava found Maestri lying face down and almost buried in the snow. They returned to base camp and claimed that Maestri and Egger had reached the summit but Egger had been swept to his death by an avalanche as they were descending.
Over time, many climbers have started doubting Maestri's 1959 account, as it
Lt-Col. Edward Lisle Strutt CBE, DSO (8 February 1874 – 7 July 1948) was a British soldier and mountaineer, and President of the Alpine Club from 1935–38.
Strutt was the son of Hon. Arthur Strutt and Alice Mary Elizabeth Philips de Lisle. His paternal grandfather was Edward Strutt, 1st Baron Belper. On 10 October 1905 he married Florence Nina, daughter of John Robert Hollond MP DL, of Wonham, Bampton, Devon. They had no children.
Educated at Beaumont College, Windsor, then at Christ Church, Oxford, and Innsbruck University, Strutt served in the Boer War and the First World War, gaining many decorations and attaining the rank of Lieutenant-Colonel in the Royal Scots.
Strutt commanded a detachment of soldiers from the Honourable Artillery Company that escorted the family of Charles I, the last Austro-Hungarian Emperor-King, to safety in Switzerland in 1919, after having served as the family's protector at Eckartsau on the personal initiative of King George V. Strutt was also involved in a Hungarian Habsburg restoration bid in February 1921 and as a communication link between the Habsburg Imperial and Royal couple aboard the HMS Cardiff, on their way to exile in Madeira, and their
Paul Grohmann (12 June 1838, Vienna - 29 July 1908, Vienna) was an Austrian mountaineer and writer.
Grohmann was a pioneer in exploring technically challenging mountains and is thought to have made more first ascents of Eastern Alps summits than anyone else. Among these are the four highest summits in the Dolomites. In 1862, Grohman, Friedrich Simony and Edmund von Mojsvár founded the Austrian Alpine Club. This was the second mountaineering club in the world, following the founding of the British Alpine Club in 1857.
In 1875 he published a detailed map of the Dolomites (Karte der Dolomit-Alpen) and, in 1877, the travel book Wanderungen in den Dolomiten, which significantly stimulated mountain tourism in the area.
In his honor, the as yet unclimbed Sasso di Levante in the Langkofel Dolomites was renamed Grohmannspitze in 1875. The west peak of the Kellerspitzen in the Carnic Alps, which he first-ascended in 1868, is also known as Grohmannspitze. Already in 1898, 10 years before his death, the town of Urtijëi erected a monument to honor his many first ascents in the Dolomites. Since 1984 there is a Grohmann street in Vienna's Donaustadt district.
Among the many peaks he and his
Robert Lock Graham Irving (17 February 1877 – 10 April 1969), was an English schoolmaster, writer and mountaineer. As an author, he used the name R. L. G. Irving, while to his friends he was Graham Irving.
Irving was the son of an Anglican clergyman. He was educated at Winchester College and New College, Oxford. He returned to Winchester as a master, teaching French and mathematics and becoming 'Master in College', in charge of the ancient house for the holders of foundation scholarships, and founded a climbing group known as the Winchester Ice Club.
He had a son, Robert Irving (1913–1991), and a daughter, Clare. His son became a distinguished conductor and was musical director of the New York City Ballet, 1958 to 1989, as well as following in his father's footsteps as an amateur mountaineer. In 1991, his daughter's name was Clare Peters.
Irving died on 10 April 1969, a few months into his ninety-third year.
In The Romance of Mountaineering, Irving writes that he was introduced to mountains at an early age: "My earliest recollections of a summer holiday centre round the ascent of a Welsh hill." Several years later he began exploring the hills on his own:
Irving became a member of
Ulrich Inderbinen (December 3, 1900, Zermatt, Valais – June 14, 2004) was a Swiss mountain guide famous for his longevity and love for mountain climbing. He had been on the top of Matterhorn over 370 times and made his last ascent of it when he was 90.
Babu Chiri Sherpa (June 22, 1965 – 29 April 2001) was a Sherpa mountaineer from Nepal. He was a legendary guide who reached the summit of Mount Everest ten times. He held 2 world records on Everest. He spent 21 hours on the summit of Everest without auxiliary oxygen, and he made the fastest ascent of Everest in 16 hours and 56 minutes.
Babu Chiri Sherpa was born in Taksindu, a small Sherpa village near Salleri, the headquarters of Solukhumbu District in Nepal. As a child he spent most of his time helping his parents on their farm. Babu Chiri was uneducated as no schools existed in his or surrounding villages.
As a boy, Chiri was amazed by the mountains that surrounded his village. Many Sherpas support themselves by guiding and portering in the mountains. The legend of Tenzing Norgay, and Norgay himself, influenced Chiri. He always dreamed of reaching the pinnacles of those great peaks one day.
He began his career as a climber at the age of 16 when he procured a job as a trekking porter. On his first portering assignment he scaled the notorious Ambhu Labtsa pass. He summited Mera Peak (6472 m) in four hours in 1985.
Chiri eventually found work portering for Everest expeditions. It
Daniel (Dan) Alan Byles FRGS MP (born 24 June 1974 in Hastings, East Sussex) is an English mountaineer, sailor, ocean rower, polar adventurer and Conservative Party politician. He is currently the Member of Parliament (MP) for North Warwickshire, having been elected at the 2010 general election.
In 1997 he took part in the first ever Atlantic Rowing Race, the Port St Charles Barbados Atlantic Rowing Race, successfully crossing the Atlantic Ocean unsupported in a 23-foot (7 m) wooden rowing boat in 101 days with his mother Janice Meek. In 2007 he and his mother were united in adventure once again when, together with team mate Richard Profit, they successfully walked and skied 350 miles (563 km) from Resolute, Nunavut to the Magnetic North Pole in 20 days and 5 hours. He holds two Guinness World Records. Byles is married to Prashanthi Reddy. In June 2011 Byles and Prashanthi announced that their first child, a daughter, had been born.
Byles spent his early childhood as an expatriate in Bahrain and Saudi Arabia before returning to England at age nine to the Cotswold market town of Chipping Norton. Helped by a government funded scholarship, the Assisted Places Scheme, Byles attended
John Angelo Jackson (March 21, 1921 – July 2, 2005) was an English mountaineer, explorer and educationalist.
He was brought up and educated in Nelson, Lancashire. Before World War II, he was apprenticed in pharmacy. However, at the outbreak of war, he left to volunteer for the R.A.F. in which he served for six years. He flew with No. 31 Squadron RAF in India and Burma, flying in much needed supplies to the 14th Army who were stranded behind Japanese lines, for which he was mentioned in despatches.
After the war he became a schoolmaster. He taught geography and science in Nelson and Redcar, during which time he would voluntarily undertake extracurricular activities after school hours and weekends introducing his students to the mountains.
He was an avid and skilful photographer, something that lasted all his life, much of this work was used in lecture tours around the world, books that he wrote, pictures and detailed information for books that other people wrote, magazine articles, the BBC etc.
He started climbing on the Yorkshire Moors, and later moved to the Lake District and Scotland. His experience as a first-class rock climber was crucial to becoming Instructor and later Chief
Karl Unterkircher (27 August 1970, Sëlva - 15 July 2008) was an Italian mountaineer. He is mostly known for opening new mountain routes. In 2004, he was the first alpinist to climb the two highest peaks on Earth (Mount Everest and K2) without oxygen in the same year. Karl made the second ascent of Mount Genyen, China, (first ascent by Japanese in 1987) and the first ascent of the North face of Gasherbrum II (together with Daniele Bernasconi and Michele Compagnoni). He also climbed the Jasemba, Nepal, (together with Hans Kammerlander). He has received several awards including the Cavaliere Ordine al Merito della Repubblica Italiana.
On 15 July 2008 he fell into a crevasse during an attempt to open a new route to the top of Himalayan mountain Nanga Parbat and is presumed dead. "Karl Unterkircher was the new star of mountain climbing", commented Reinhold Messner when told of his death.
was conferred for the first time in July 2010 in Sëlva to the Swiss rock climber Ueli Steck. The second edition took place on 6 July 2012.. The winner of this award were Marina Kopteva, Galina Chibitok and Anna Yasinskaya (Ukraine) - new opening of the northwest wall route Great Trango Tower
Charles Hudson (4 October 1828 – 14 July 1865) was an Anglican chaplain and mountain climber from Skillington, Lincolnshire, England.
Hudson was one of the most important climbers of the golden age of alpinism. An immensely strong walker, he is considered a pioneer of guideless and winter climbing in the western Alps, having made the first guideless ascent of Mont Blanc in 1855, the first official ascent of Mont Blanc du Tacul with Edward John Stevenson, Christopher and James Grenville Smith, E. S. Kennedy, Charles Ainslie and G. C. Joad on 8 August 1855, a guideless ascent of the Breithorn and a near ascent of the Aiguille du Goûter solo in winter, being forced back close to the summit by fresh snow. Amongst his guided climbs were the first ascent of Monte Rosa in 1855, the first completed passage of the Mönchjoch in 1858, the first ascent of Mont Blanc by the Goûter route (incomplete) in 1859 with E. S. Kennedy and party, and the second ascent of the Aiguille Verte (the first by the Moine ridge) in 1865 (with T. S. Kennedy and Michel Croz).
During the first ascent of the Matterhorn on 14 July 1865 Hudson was killed in the notorious accident during the descent. Edward Whymper was
Dave MacLeod is a Scottish rock climber. In April 2006, he established the climb "Rhapsody" on Dumbarton Rock which, at a grade of E11 7a, was possibly the hardest traditional climbing route in the world at the time, and looks set to be confirmed as the most difficult in Scotland.
"Rhapsody" is the true finish to the line of "Requiem", graded E8 6b. "Requiem" was climbed in 1983 by Dave Cuthbertson and was one of the hardest rock climbs in the world at the time. It follows a crackline which fades out to a seam at half height. "Requiem" follows a flake heading rightwards to finish, while "Rhapsody" climbs the line of the crack all the way to the top. The top half of the crack gives 8c+ climbing and takes no more protection. MacLeod took many long falls from this runout, three from the last move in which he fell 70 feet and injured himself by hitting the rock at the end of the fall.
"Rhapsody" has now been repeated by at least two other climbers and has not yet been downgraded suggesting that the controversial high grade is justified.
The ascent of "Rhapsody" is the subject of the movie E11 (2006) directed by Paul Diffley and produced by Hot Aches Productions. MacLeod has since
Gary Hemming (1934 – 1969) was a noted American mountaineer. Together with Royal Robbins he made the first ascent of the American Direct route on the Aiguille du Dru in Chamonix in 1962, and was widely known in France for his role as a rescuer of a party on the same mountain in 1966, earning him the moniker "le Beatnik".
Hemming was also part of the group which put up the first ascent of the south face of the Aiguille Du Fou (with John Harlin, Tom Frost and Stewart Fulton) a spire of sheer rock long deemed to be unclimbable.
Hemming died from a self-inflicted gunshot wound outside the Jenny Lake campground in Grand Teton National Park in 1969. Hemming is widely thought to be one of the models for the character named Rand in the James Salter book Solo Faces.
Ivano Ghirardini (born 1 May 1953) is an Italian-born French mountaineer.
He was born in Montefiorino in Emilia-Romagna. He left Italy with his family in 1954 and was naturalized in 1972.
He attended school in Marseille, earning a Baccalaureate in mathematics. He learned to climb in Château-Arnoux-Saint-Auban and at Sisteron.
In 1975, he made his first solo winter ascent of the north face of the Grandes Jorasses via the Shroud (Le Linceul). In January 1977, he attempted a winter solo ascent of the Matterhorn, but failed due to a storm. However, he was successful on his second attempt in December of the same year. He soloed the Grandes Jorasses again in January 1978 (the Croz Spur), and then the north face of Eiger in March 1978, thereby becoming the first mountaineer to solo all three of the "trilogy" (the north faces of the Matterhorn, Grandes Jorasses and Eiger) in winter.
He attempted K2 twice in 1979, both times having to give up due to stormy conditions. He made a solo bivouac without oxygen at 8,300m.
In 1980, Ghirardini climbed Mitre Peak in the Karakoram in Pakistan, again solo. He is the only mountaineer to date to have done so.
First solo climb of the south wall, in four
John Torrey (August 15, 1796 – March 10, 1873) was an American botanist.
Torrey was born in New York City. He showed a fondness for mechanics, and at one time planned to become a machinist, but when he was 15 or 16 years of age his father received an appointment to the state prison at Greenwich Village, New York, where he was tutored by Amos Eaton, then a prisoner and later a pioneer of natural history studies in America. He thus learned the elements of botany, as well as something of mineralogy and chemistry. In 1815 he began the study of medicine with Wright Post, qualifying in 1818. He opened an office in New York City, and engaged in the practice of medicine, at the same time devoting his leisure to botany and other scientific pursuits.
In 1817, he became one of the founders of the New York Lyceum of Natural History (now the New York Academy of Science), and one of his first contributions to this body was his Catalogue of Plants growing spontaneously within Thirty Miles of the City of New York (Albany, 1819). Its publication gained for him the recognition of foreign and native botanists. In 1824 he issued the only volume of his Flora of the Northern and Middle States.
Lord Francis William Bouverie Douglas (8 February 1847 – 14 July 1865) was a novice, British mountaineer. After sharing in the first ascent of the Matterhorn, he died in a fall on the way down from the summit.
Born in Scotland at Cummertrees, Dumfries, Douglas was the son of Archibald William Douglas, 8th Marquess of Queensberry and his wife Caroline, daughter of General Sir William Robert Clayton, Bt. (1786–1866), member of parliament for Great Marlow. He had an older sister, Lady Gertrude Georgiana Douglas (1842-1893); an older brother, John Sholto Douglas, Viscount Drumlanrig (1844–1900), later the ninth Marquess of Queensberry; a younger brother, Lord Archibald Edward Douglas (1850–1938), who became a clergyman; and a younger brother and sister, the twins Lord James Douglas (d. 1891) and Lady Florence Douglas (1855-1905), who married Sir Alexander Beaumont Churchill Dixie, 11th Baronet.
In 1860, Douglas's father, Lord Queensberry, , died stupidly, but his death was widely believed to have been suicide. In 1862, his mother, Lady Queensberry, converted to Roman Catholicism and took her children to live in Paris.
Douglas was educated at the Edinburgh Academy.
At the beginning of
Pasang Lhamu Sherpa (10 December 1961 – 22 April 1993) was the first Nepali woman to climb the summit of Mount Everest.
She was born into a mountaineering family and was involved in climbing from her teens. She had successfully climbed Mont Blanc, Cho Oyu, and others. She had attempted Everest three times before, but did not succeed until April 22, 1993 when she reached the summit by the South Col via the Southeast Ridge route.
The morning of April 22, 1993, was bright and clear and remained and so till Pasang reached the top of the 8,848 m. peak with five Sherpas, Sonam Tshering Sherpa, Lhakpa Noru Sherpa, Pemba Dorje Sherpa and Dawa Tashi Sherpa. Meanwhile, a member of the team and five times Everest Sumitter, Sherpa Sonam Tshering got seriously sick at south summit and, despite Pasang Lhamu's efforts to help, did not survive his illness. While descending from the summit, tragedy struck the team. The weather, as often happens in the mountains, suddenly turned bad, causing her to lose her life on the south summit. She was fully aware of the peril, but that did not deter Pasang from getting to her goal, even if it meant sacrificing her life. Vladas Vitkauskas helped move her body
Sir Paweł Edmund Strzelecki KCB CMG FRGS MRS (Polish pronunciation: [ˈpavɛw ˈɛdmunt stʂɛˈlɛt͡skʲi]; 24 June 1797 – 6 October 1873) was a Polish explorer and geologist who in 1845 also became a British subject.
Strzelecki was born in Głuszyna (then part of South Prussia, today part of Nowe Miasto, Poznań), Greater Poland, in 1797, the third child of Franciszek Strzelecki, a Polish nobleman (Szlachta) leasing land, and his wife, Anna Raczyńska. In Australia Strzelecki was called a 'Count', though there is no proof that he actually approved or used such a title himself.
Strzelecki served shortly in the Prussian army in the 6th Regiment of Thuringischen (but this claim is unlikely, because the 6th Regiment seems to have formed after 1860) Uhlans, at the time known as 'Polish Regiment' because so many Poles served on the staff.(unsubstantiated - Strzelecki also claimed to be a count, however there is no evidence that he was entitled to this title.) However the stiff Prussian drill did not agree with his character and he submitted his resignation and returned home. There are some suggestions that he deserted the Regiment but in the official history of the Regiment the name Strzelecki
Tenzing Norgay, GM (late May 1914 – 9 May 1986) born Namgyal Wangdi and often referred to as Sherpa Tenzing, was a Nepali Sherpa mountaineer. Among the most famous mountain climbers in history, he was one of the first two individuals known to have reached the summit of Mount Everest, which he accomplished with Edmund Hillary on 29 May 1953. He was named by Time Magazine as one of the 100 most influential people of the 20th century.
There are conflicting accounts of his early life. The account that he gave in his autobiography, accepted for several years, is that he was a Sherpa born and brought up in Tengboche, Khumbu in northeastern Nepal.
Khumbu lies near Mount Everest, which the Tibetans and Sherpas call Chomolungma which in Tibetan means Holy Mother. He was a Buddhist, the traditional religion of the Sherpas and Tibetans.
His exact date of birth is not known, but he knew it was in late May by the weather and the crops. After his ascent of Everest on 29 May, he decided to celebrate his birthday on that day thereafter. His year of birth according to the Tibetan Calendar was the Year of the Rabbit, making it likely that he was born in 1914.
He was originally called "Namgyal
Diego de Ordaz (also Diego de Ordás), born in Castroverde de Campos, Zamora province, Spain, in 1480, died in Venezuela in 1532, was a Spanish explorer and soldier.
Diego de Ordaz arrived in Cuba at a young age. Serving under the orders of Diego Velázquez, he participated in the earliest exploratory expeditions to Colombia And Panamá.
De Ordaz accompanied Hernán Cortés on his expedition of conquest to the Mexican mainland. He was recognized for his contribution to the victory over the Aztecs obtained at the Battle of Centla near Río Grijalva in Tabasco on March 25, 1519.
Together with two comrades, he was the first European to climb to the top of the volcano Popocatépetl - a feat which made a great impression on the indigenous allies accompanying Cortės. In recognition of De Ordaz's military deeds, the emperor Charles V on October 22, 1525 issued a decree permitting him to use a coat-of-arms featuring a view of the volcano.
De Ordaz participated in the Spanish conquest of Tenochtitlán, the Aztec capital. When prior to the final conquest, the Spaniards were forced to flee from the capital in a nocturnal action known as La Noche Triste ("the sad night"), De Ordaz was
Greg Mortenson is an American humanitarian, professional speaker, writer, and former mountaineer. He is the co-founder and executive director of the non-profit Central Asia Institute as well as the founder of the educational charity Pennies for Peace. Mortenson is the author or co-author of the New York Times Bestsellers Three Cups of Tea and Stones into Schools: Promoting Peace with Books, Not Bombs, in Afghanistan and Pakistan. In April 2011, he was accused of fabrication in his non-fiction books and of financial improprieties at his charity, Central Asia Institute.
Greg Mortenson was born to Lutheran missionary parents in St. Cloud, Minnesota. Through the leadership of the Lutheran Church, Mortenson's father, Irvin ("Dempsey"), was a fundraiser for and development director of the Kilimanjaro Christian Medical Centre, Tanzania's first teaching hospital. Mortenson's mother, Jerene, was the founding principal of International School Moshi. Mortenson spent his early childhood and adolescence in Tanzania, East Africa, where he learned to speak Swahili fluently. In the early 1970s, when he was 15 years old, Mortenson and his family left Tanzania and moved back to Minnesota. He
Jim Wickwire (born June 8, 1940) was the first American to summit K2, the second highest mountain in the world (8,611 m - 28,251 feet). K2 is notable for its steep pyramidal relief, dropping quickly in almost all directions, and the inherent danger in climbing it. Wickwire is also known for surviving an overnight solo bivouac on K2 at an elevation above 27,000 ft/8,200 m; considered "one of the most notorious bivouacs in mountaineering history". Between 1977 and 1982, Wickwire lost four climbing partners to fatal accidents on three separate mountains.
Wickwire was raised in a small town called Ephrata in Washington State, by a mother who was an alcoholic and an emotionally restrictive father. As a boy he viewed the tales of climbers on mountains as a "magical" escape..
K2 has been termed the "Savage Mountain" in writings about its high altitude climbing. Among its dangers are its notorious weather conditions, stretches of technical climbing on rock and ice, marked cliff exposures, and enormous, high-altitude serac. It has the second-highest fatality rate among the "eight thousanders" for those who climb it. For every four people who have reached the summit, one has died trying.
John Tyndall FRS (2 August 1820 – 4 December 1893) was a prominent 19th century physicist. His initial scientific fame arose in the 1850s from his study of diamagnetism. Later he studied thermal radiation, and produced a number of discoveries about processes in the atmosphere. Tyndall published seventeen books, which brought state-of-the-art 19th century experimental physics to a wider audience. From 1853 to 1887 he was professor of physics at the Royal Institution of Great Britain in London.
Tyndall was born in Leighlinbridge, County Carlow, Ireland. His father was a local police constable, descended from Gloucestershire emigrants who settled in southeast Ireland around 1670. Tyndall attended the local schools in County Carlow until his late teens, and was probably an assistant teacher near the end of his time there. Subjects learned at school notably included technical drawing and mathematics with some applications of those subjects to land surveying. He was hired as a draftsman by the government's land surveying & mapping agency in Ireland in his late teens in 1839, and moved to work for the same agency in England in 1842. In the decade of the 1840s, a railroad-building boom was
Joseph Nisbet LeConte (February 7, 1870 – February 1, 1950) was a noted explorer of the Sierra Nevada. He was also a cartographer, a photographer and a professor of mechanical engineering.
LeConte was born in Oakland, California to Joseph and Caroline (Nisbet) LeConte. He went by "Little Joe" among friends, because he was of short stature and the son of geology professor Joseph LeConte. He often went by J. N. LeConte in photographs and articles. He entered the University of California, Berkeley in 1887, earning a B.S. degree in 1891. He received a Master of Mechanical Engineering from Cornell University in 1892, and was appointed assistant professor of mechanical engineering at U.C. Berkeley that August, beginning by teaching kinematics of machinery.
Starting in 1912, he taught analytical mechanics for over 20 years. German physicist Wilhelm Röntgen discovered x-rays in 1895, and his first research paper was published at the end of December. An Austrian newspaper reported the results a week later. After reading those reports, LeConte found cathode ray tubes that his late uncle John LeConte had obtained for the university's physics lab. LeConte and his associates were able to
Dr. Karl Prusik (1896 - 1961) (also spelled Prussik) was an Austrian mountaineer, with Czech origins, who is known as the inventor of the prusik knot. He died in May 1961 at the age of 65.
The benefit of the knot is that, when weighted, it grips the rope that it is tied around. When the weight is removed, it is free to slide. This enables it to be used in a number of self rescue situations or for ascending a rope.
Prusik served twice as president of the Austrian Alpine Club (OeAV), and is credited with pioneering over 70 new ascents and routes.
The knot is also seen spelled incorrectly as prussic.
Keizo Miura (三浦 敬三, Miura Keizō, February 15, 1904 – January 5, 2006) was a Japanese skiing legend. He was a skiing teacher and photographer of mountain landscapes. He was notable for his fitness and outdoor-sport undertakings at advanced age; he was the oldest person to climb the Kilimanjaro, at age 77 and descended a Gletscher of the Mont Blanc at age 99 together with his oldest son Yuichiro and grandson Yuta. Yuichiro Miura was also the oldest person to climb Mount Everest and the Himalayas, at age 70 and later at age 75. Keizo Miura has written two books on his health-routine, one of them co-written with his physician. On February 15, 2004, Keizo Miura celebrated his centennial birthday with a ski descent together with more than 170 friends and family members, including four generations of his family, at Snowbird ski resort in Salt Lake City, Utah, USA.
Lionel Terray (25 July 1921, Grenoble, Isère – 19 September 1965) was a French climber who made many first ascents, including Makalu in the Himalaya (with Jean Couzy on 15 May 1955) and Cerro Fitzroy in the Patagonian Andes (with Guido Magnone in 1952).
A climbing guide and ski instructor, Terray was active in mountain combat against Germany during World War II. After the war, he became well known as one of the best Chamonix climbers and guides, noted for his speedy ascents of some of the most notorious climbs in the French, Italian, and Swiss Alps: the Walker Spur of the Grandes Jorasses, the south face of the Aiguille Noire de Peuterey, the north-east face of Piz Badile, and the north face of the Eiger. Terray, frequently with climbing partner Louis Lachenal, broke previous climbing speed records.
Terray was a member of Maurice Herzog's 1950 expedition to the Nepalese Himalayan peak, Annapurna, the highest peak climbed at the time, and the first 8000-meter peak climbed (although British climbers George Mallory, Andrew Irvine, George Finch, Geoffrey Bruce, Henry Morshead, Edward Norton and Howard Somervell had reached higher altitudes on Mount Everest during the 1920s). Terray did
Francesco Petrarca (20 July 1304 – 19 July 1374), known in English as Petrarch, was an Italian scholar and poet, and one of the earliest humanists. Petrarch is often called the "Father of Humanism". In the 16th century, Pietro Bembo created the model for the modern Italian language based on Petrarch's works, as well as those of Giovanni Boccaccio, and, to a lesser extent, Dante Alighieri. Petrarch would be later endorsed as a model for Italian style by the Accademia della Crusca. Petrarch's sonnets were admired and imitated throughout Europe during the Renaissance and became a model for lyrical poetry. He is also known for being the first to develop the concept of the "Dark Ages".
Petrarch was born in the Tuscan city of Arezzo in 1304. He was the son of Ser Petracco. His given name was Francesco Petracco. The name was Latinized to Petrarca and later was Anglicized to Petrarch. Petrarch's younger brother was born in Incisa in Val d'Arno in 1307. Dante was a friend of his father.
Petrarch spent his early childhood in the village of Incisa, near Florence. He spent much of his early life at Avignon and nearby Carpentras, where his family moved to follow Pope Clement V who moved there
Toni Kurz (January 13, 1913 in Berchtesgaden, Germany – July 22, 1936 on Eiger, Switzerland) was a German mountain climber of the early 20th century who had many first ascents with his childhood friend Andreas Hinterstoisser. Both died in tragic circumstances in 1936 as one of the four-man team making a second attempt to scale the North Face of the Eiger.
During the ascent, his companion, Willy Angerer, was injured by falling rocks loosened by the warmth of the rising sun as they crossed the first ice field. As a result of Willy Angerer's worsening condition and their slow progress across the second ice field, they abandoned the attempt on the Eiger and decided to descend. A further challenge arose when Kurz and his comrades failed to retrace their route across the area now known as the Hinterstoisser Traverse and had to climb downwards. As the result of another avalanche, Hinterstoisser himself became disconnected, plummeted down the mountain, and perished. Later, Willy Angerer, now climbing below Kurz, was smashed against the wall, dying instantly. Edi Rainer, the climber who had been securing the other two, was pulled against the wall and died minutes later of asphyxiation.
Walter Harper (January 1, 1892 – October 25, 1918) an Alaska Native, was the first person to reach the summit of Mount McKinley/Denali, the highest mountain in North America. He reached the summit on Saturday, 7 June 1913, followed by the other members of the team, Harry Karstens, Hudson Stuck, and Robert Tatum. Walter Harper named Harper Glacier, adjacent to Karstens' Ridge, after his father Arthur Harper.
The youngest of eight children, Walter Harper was the son of Jennie Harper, an Athabascan Indian from the Koyukuk region, and Arthur Harper, a Scotsman from Scotland. He died in the sinking of the SS Princess Sophia on October 25, 1918.
Major-General William Wasbrough Foster DSO CMG VD (October 1, 1875 - December 2, 1954) was a noted mountaineer, Conservative Party politician, business man, and chief constable in British Columbia, Canada in addition to his distinguished military career.
Known as Billy to friends and family, Foster was born in Bristol, England. He studied engineering at Wycliffe College before emigrating to British Columbia in 1894, where he became involved in the lucrative lumber business. He served with the Canadian Pacific Railway as a superintendent and police magistrate in Revelstoke, manager for the Globe Lumber Company on Vancouver Island, President of the Conservative Party of British Columbia, provincial Member of the Legislative Assembly, and Minister of Public Works prior to the Great War. Foster was an avid mountaineer, and was on the first expeditions to climb Mount Robson and Canada's highest peak, Mount Logan. Foster served as the president of the Alpine Club of Canada and has a mountain on Vancouver Island named in his honour, Mount Colonel Foster. He was also an honorary initiate of the BC Alpha chapter of the Phi Delta Theta Fraternity at the University of British Columbia. In
Elaine Hamilton-O'Neal, (October 13, 1920 – March 15, 2010), professionally known as Elaine Hamilton, was an internationally known American abstract painter and muralist born near Catonsville, Maryland. She was professionally admired by the influential French critic Michel Tapié de Céleyran and exhibited internationally in solo and multiple-artist exhibits in the United States, Mexico, South Asia, Japan, and throughout Europe. She showed twice in the Venice Biennale and won first prize at the 1968 Biennale de Menton in France. She is known for the work of her final stylistic phase, known as action painting.
Hamilton is also a high mountain climber with over 30 years experience climbing the Himilayas. She had climbed K2, which is part of the Karakoram Range and known as the Savage Mountain due to the difficulty of ascent, with the second highest fatality rate among those who attempt to climb it. For every four people who have reached the summit, one has died trying. Over the years, Hamilton made nine different trips to different mountains of the Himalayas. She also visited the former kingdom of Sikkim as a guest of Tashi Namgyal, the ruling Chogyal (King) of Sikkim and the royal
Adolphus Warburton Moore (1841–1887) (known generally as A. W. Moore) was a British civil servant and mountaineer.
The son of Major John Arthur Moore and Sophia Stewart Yates,, Moore was an India Office official from 1858–1887, holding the role of Assistant Secretary, Political Department from 1875–1885. He was also private secretary to Lord Randolph Churchill.
Moore made a first ascent during his first visit to the Alps in 1862 and immediately became a central figure in the golden age of alpinism.
Moore's first ascents include:
This last route, the Brenva Spur, was the first to be climbed on the remote southern side of Mont Blanc and exceeded in difficulty anything that had thus far been attempted on the mountain. Moore's description of the Brenva ascent is, according to Claire Engel, 'amongst the finest Alpine tales in existence'.
Moore went to the Caucasus with Douglas Freshfield, Charles Comyns Tucker and the guide François Devouassoud in 1868, making the first ascent by a non-native of Mount Elbrus (the lower of the two summits), the highest mountain in the Caucasus, and the first ascent of Kazbek with the same party.
Both Pic Moore and Col Moore on the Brenva face side of
Jacques Balmat, called le Mont Blanc (1762–1834) was a mountaineer, a Savoyard mountain guide, and born a citizen of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
He was born in the Chamonix valley. A chamois hunter and collector of crystals, Balmat completed the first ascent of Mont Blanc with physician Michel-Gabriel Paccard on August 8, 1786. For this feat, the king of Sardinia gave him the honorary title le Mont Blanc.
Balmat and Paccard's ascent of Mont Blanc was a major accomplishment in the early history of mountaineering. C. Douglas Milner wrote "The ascent itself was magnificent; an amazing feat of endurance and sustained courage, carried through by these two men only, unroped and without ice axes, heavily burdened with scientific equipment and with long iron-pointed batons. The fortunate weather and a moon alone ensured their return alive."
Eric Shipton wrote "Theirs was an astounding achievement of courage and determination, one of the greatest in the annals of mountaineering. It was accomplished by men who were not only on unexplored ground but on a route that all the guides believed to be impossible."
Gaston Rébuffat praised Balmat's climbing abilities, describing him as "This man,
James Hall (September 12, 1811 – August 7, 1898) was an American geologist and paleontologist. He was a noted authority on stratigraphy and had an influential role in the development of American paleontology.
Hall was born in Hingham, Massachusetts, the oldest of four children. His parents, James Hall Sr. and Sousanna Dourdain Hall, had emigrated from England two years earlier. Hall developed an early interest in science and enrolled in Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, a recently established college that emphasized student participation and focused on science. He was a student of Amos Eaton and Ebenezer Emmons, both notable geologists. Hall graduated with honors in 1832, received his masters degree in 1833, and remained at Rensselaer to teach chemistry and later geology.
In 1836 a multi-year survey was established to collect information on the geology and natural history of New York. For purposes of the survey, the state was divided into four districts and Hall became assistant geologist for Ebenezer Emmons, chief of the Second District. Hall’s initial assignment was to study iron deposits in the Adirondack Mountains. The following year the survey was reorganized and Hall put in
Kenton Cool (born 30 July 1973) is an English mountaineer, alpinist and UIAGM mountain guide. He is one of Britain’s leading alpine climbers with record hard first ascents and ten successful Everest summits, including leading Sir Ranulph Fiennes' 2008 and 2009 Expeditions. He has completed 18 successful expeditions in the Greater Ranges. Cool is married and lives in Quenington in the UK and near Chamonix in France.
Kenton Cool graduated from the University of Leeds in 1994 after studying BSc Geological Sciences. Cool was first introduced to mountaineering at Scouts where he read about the first ascent on Mount Everest in 1953 by Sir Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay. An obsession with rock climbing developed at Leeds University and, on graduating, he moved to Sheffield to pursue this further. In 1996, he suffered a fall from a rock face and shattered both heel bones. A year of surgery and therapy saw him become determined to regain his climbing form and he joined the British Mountain Guides scheme. Cool is now based in the Alps and Greater Ranges of the Himalaya as a fully qualified IFMGA Guide and Expedition Leader.
In 2003, Cool was nominated alongside climbing partners for the
David Douglas (25 June 1799 – 12 July 1834) was a Scottish botanist. He was born to John Douglas, a stonemason, and Jean Drummond. He worked as a gardener, and explored the Scottish Highlands, North America, and Hawaii, where he died.
The son of a stonemason, he was born in the village of Scone north-east of Perth, Scotland. He attended Kinnoull School and upon leaving he found work as an apprentice to William Beattie, head gardener at the estate of the 3rd Earl of Mansfield at Scone Palace. He spent seven years at this position, completing his apprenticeship, and then spent a winter at a college in Perth to learn more of the scientific and mathematical aspects of plant culture. After a further spell of working in Fife (during which time he had access to a library of botanical and zoological books) he moved to the Botanical Gardens of Glasgow University and attended botany lectures at the University of Glasgow. William Jackson Hooker, who was Garden Director and Professor of Botany, was greatly impressed with him and took him on an expedition to the Highlands before recommending him to the Royal Horticultural Society of London.
Hooker recommended Douglas to London's Royal
Archibald Menzies ( /ˈmɪŋɪs/ MING-iss, see Yogh; 15 March 1754 – 15 February 1842) was a Scottish surgeon, botanist and naturalist.
Menzies was born at Easter Stix (or Styx) in the parish of Weem, in Perthshire. While working with his elder brother William at the Royal Botanic Gardens, he drew the attention of Dr John Hope, professor of botany at Edinburgh University, who encouraged him to study medicine there. Having qualified as a surgeon, Menzies served as assistant to a doctor in Caernarvon, then joined the Royal Navy as assistant surgeon on HMS Nonsuch. Present at Battle of the Saintes (12 April 1782), in peacetime Menzies served on Halifax Station in Nova Scotia.
In 1786 Menzies was appointed surgeon on board the Prince of Wales (Captain James Colnett), on a fur-trading voyage round Cape Horn to the northern Pacific. This ship, in company of Princess Royal (Captain Duncan), visited North America, China and Hawaii (the Sandwich Isles) several times; Menzies collected a number of new plants on this voyage, and also ensured that none of the crew died of illness. Menzies returned to Great Britain in 1789. He was elected a fellow of the Linnean Society in 1790.
In 1790, Menzies
Carlo Mauri (1930-1982) was an Italian mountaineer and explorer.
Mauri was born in Lecco. Among his early climbs in the Alps two stand out: the first winter ascent of the via Comici route on the northern face of Cima Grande di Lavaredo; and the first solitary ascent of the Poire of Mont Blanc.
Numerous expeditions abroad followed. In 1956 he reached the summit of Monte Sarmiento in Tierra del Fuego and in 1958, as a member of Riccardo Cassin’s expedition in Karakorum, he and Walter Bonatti made the first ascent of Gasherbrum IV (7,925 m).
In 1969 and again in 1970 he was a member of Thor Heyerdahl's expedition which crossed the Atlantic Ocean in Ra I and Ra II, vessels made of papyrus.
Following the Ra expeditions, Mauri took part in many others including following the route of Marco Polo in the Asian steppes and exploring Patagonia and the Amazon. He also made several documentary films of his travels, some of them produced for the Italian state broadcaster RAI.
Again with Heyerdahl he took part in the Tigris expedition of 1977.
He was a member of the “Gruppo Ragni Grignetta di Lecco” climbers group.
After an accident where he suffered a broken leg, Mauri became the first Italian
Conrad Gesner (Konrad Gesner, Conrad Geßner, Conrad von Gesner, Conradus Gesnerus, Conrad Gesner; 26 March 1516 – 13 December 1565) was a Swiss naturalist and bibliographer. His five-volume Historiae animalium (1551–1558) is considered the beginning of modern zoology, and the flowering plant genus Gesneria (Gesneriaceae) is named after him. He is denoted by the author abbreviation Gesner when citing a botanical name.
Born and educated in Zürich, Gessner was the son of a furrier. After the death of his father at the Battle of Kappel (1531), he was very short of money. He had good friends, however, in his old master, Oswald Myconius, and subsequently in Heinrich Bullinger, and he was enabled to continue his studies at the universities of Strassburg and Bourges (1532–1533); in Paris, he found a generous patron in the person of Job Steiger of Berne.
In 1535, religious unrest drove him back to Zürich, where he made an imprudent marriage. His friends again came to his aid, enabled him to study at Basel (1536), and in 1537 obtained for him the professorship of Greek at the newly founded academy of Lausanne (then belonging to Berne). Here he had leisure to devote himself to scientific
Florence Crauford Grove (1838–1902) was an English mountaineer and author, sometimes known as F. Crauford Grove.
Grove became an experienced alpinist in the late 1850s and joined the Alpine Club of London soon after it was formed in 1857, later serving as its President from 1884 to 1886. He was one of the best British climbers of his day and is remembered for opposing guideless climbing during the 1870s. An article on the founders of the Alpine Club in the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography calls him a "gentleman traveller of independent means".
Because of his first name, Grove is sometimes mistakenly thought of as a woman. His second name is Crawford.
Grove's book is illustrated with six plates by Edward Whymper, from photographs by Horace Walker, and a folding map. Chapters cover the Upper Rion, the valley of the Upper Tcherek river, the Bezingi glacier and the Kotchan Tau Group (both in Kabardino-Balkaria, Russia), Tchegem and the Gorge of the Djilki-Su, Urusbieh, the first ascent of Mount Elbruz (in Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay–Cherkessia), and the Nakhar Pass (in Georgia).
The Frosty Caucasus was republished in a facsimile edition by Adamant Media Corporation in
Francis Fox Tuckett FRGS (10 February 1834 – 20 June 1913) was an English mountaineer. He was vice-president of the Alpine Club from 1866 to 1868, and a Fellow of the Royal Geographical Society.
Tuckett was born in 1834 at the Old House, Frenchay Common, near Bristol, the eldest child of Francis and Mariana Tuckett.
His father, Francis Tuckett of Frenchay (1802–1868), was a world traveller as well as a leather merchant, horticulturalist, social reformer, philanthropist and Quaker. Himself the son of Philip Debell Tuckett (1749–1816), Francis Tuckett married Mariana Fox (1807–1863), a daughter of Robert Were Fox the Elder (1754–1818) and a member of the notable Fox family of Falmouth, on 29 March 1833. Francis Tuckett was in Naples when he died in 1868.
Tuckett's grandfather Robert Were Fox the Elder was a Quaker ship broker and business man in Cornwall, while his uncle Robert Were Fox the Younger (1789–1877) was a geologist and natural philosopher who became a Fellow of the Royal Society.
Francis Fox Tuckett was the eldest of five children, and his parents' only son. His eldest sister Elizabeth Fox Tuckett, born in 1835, died young, and his other sisters were a second Elizabeth Fox
Henry Hudson (c. 1560s/70s – 1611) was an English sea explorer and navigator in the early 17th century.
Hudson made two attempts on behalf of English merchants to find a prospective Northwest Passage to Cathay (today's China) via a route above the Arctic Circle. Hudson explored the region around modern New York metropolitan area while looking for a western route to Asia under the auspices of the Dutch East India Company. He explored the river which eventually was named for him, and laid thereby the foundation for Dutch colonization of the region.
Hudson discovered a strait and immense bay on his final expedition while searching for the Northwest Passage. In 1611, after wintering on the shore of James Bay, Hudson wanted to press on to the west, but most of his crew mutinied. The mutineers cast Hudson, his son and 7 others adrift; the Hudsons, and those cast off at their side, were never seen again.
Details of Hudson’s birth and early life are mostly unknown. Some sources have identified Hudson as having been born in about 1565, but others date his birth to around 1570. Other historians assert even less certainty; Mancall, for instance, states that '[Hudson] was probably born in the
Lou Whittaker (born in Seattle, Washington on February 10, 1929) is a mountaineer and glacier-travel guide.
Whittaker and his twin brother Jim were born and raised in Seattle.
Besides his worldwide climbing experience, he became the most experienced guide for climbing Mount Rainier with over 250 summits and established Rainier Mountaineering, Inc., developed a group of successful climbing-related businesses at the Rainier Base Camp in Ashford, Washington, adjacent to Mount Rainier National Park, and led the training of several generations of Rainier guides, many of whom continue to guide and climb elsewhere. He also led the first American ascent of the North Col of Mount Everest in 1984.
He has recorded his experiences in Lou Whittaker - Memoirs of a Mountain Guide, written with Andrea Gabbard. He is also the founder of Rainier Mountaineering, Inc, a Washington state guiding company.
Friedrich Wilhelm Heinrich Alexander von Humboldt ( listen (help·info) September 14, 1769 – May 6, 1859) was a Prussian geographer, naturalist and explorer, and the younger brother of the Prussian minister, philosopher and linguist Wilhelm von Humboldt (1767–1835). Humboldt's quantitative work on botanical geography laid the foundation for the field of biogeography.
Between 1799 and 1804, Humboldt travelled extensively in Latin America, exploring and describing it for the first time in a manner generally considered to be a modern scientific point of view. His description of the journey was written up and published in an enormous set of volumes over 21 years. He was one of the first to propose that the lands bordering the Atlantic Ocean were once joined (South America and Africa in particular). Later, his five-volume work, Kosmos (1845), attempted to unify the various branches of scientific knowledge. Humboldt supported and worked with other scientists, including Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac, Justus von Liebig, Louis Agassiz, Matthew Fontaine Maury and, most notably, Aimé Bonpland, with whom he conducted much of his scientific exploration.
Humboldt was born in Berlin in the Margraviate
Bonnie Prudden (January 29, 1914 – December 11, 2011) was a leading American rock climber in the 1940s and 1950s, with 30 documented first ascents to her credit in New York's Shawangunks mountains.
Along with Hans Kraus, she was a pioneering advocate of physical fitness and later developed a form of trigger point therapy called Myotherapy.
A tomboy as a child, her father lost the family money in the Great Depression. Her mother was an alcoholic, prone to going on weekend-long binges. Growing up, her escape was in physical adventure. She was a natural climber, and delighted in climbing trees, walls, houses. A favorite escapade was escaping the house by climbing out of her second story bedroom window and traversing a six inch ledge. The nuns at her parochial school disapproved of Prudden's activities, believing strenuous physical exercise and muscles to be inappropriate for a young lady. She was a professional dancer starting at age 10 (including a stint as a concert dancer on Broadway), as well as a gymnast, a competitive swimmer, diver, and horseback rider.
She married Dick Hirschland, a mountaineer, in 1935. Their honeymoon ascent of the Matterhorn in Switzerland was her first
Charles Cromwell Ingham (1796 or 1797 – 10 December 1863) was an Irish portrait painter and later founder of the New York National Academy of Design during the 19th century.
Ingham was a descendant of a man who went to Ireland as an officer in Cromwell's army (hence his middle name). He was born in Dublin in 1796 or 1797, studying art from 1809 to 1813 at The Dublin Institution with William Cuming before immigrating to the United States in 1816 or 1817. Settling in New York City, he distinguished himself by his oil painting, but also in watercolor on ivory, a standard medium for miniature portraits since the 18th century. His work in oil is marked by a high finish achieved by successive glazings.
Ingham occupied a front rank with his brother as a portrait painter known for his paintings of young women of New York's upper class, painting over 200 portraits between 1826 and 1845, such as those including portraits as Flower Girl (1846), Day Dream, and Portrait of a Child. Later founding the National Academy of Design, he would serve as its vice president for a number of years until his death in New York on 10 December 1863, at the age of 67.
Chris Omprakash Sharma (born April 23, 1981 in Santa Cruz, California) is an American rock climber.
Chris Omprakash Sharma was raised in Santa Cruz, California, son of Gita Jahn and Bob Sharma. He started rock climbing when he was 12 at the Pacific Edge climbing gym. Sharma went to Mount Madonna school and attended Soquel High School for one year.
At age 14, Sharma won the Bouldering Nationals. A year later, he completed a 5.14c climb, which was the highest-rated climb in North America at the time.
Sharma then moved to Bishop, California, where he climbed The Mandala, a bouldering problem rated V12.
In July 2001, Sharma completed the extension of the established route Biographie in Ceüse, located in the Hautes-Alpes Department of France and renamed it Realization, ignoring the French tradition that equippers and not climbers name routes. At the time of the first ascent, Biographie was widely considered to be the first consensus 5.15a (9a+) in the world. He has since established or completed many routes at or above 5.15, including La Rambla and Es Pontas (a deep water soloing project in Mallorca). In 2008 Sharma climbed the 250-foot line (76 m), Jumbo Love, at Clark Mountain in
Johann Karl Ernst Dieffenbach (Gießen 27 January 1811 - Gießen 10 January 1855) was a German physician, geologist and naturalist, the first trained scientist to live and work in New Zealand, where he travelled widely under the auspices of the New Zealand Company, returning in 1841–42 and publishing in English his Travels in New Zealand in 1843.
Dieffenbach had gained a degree at the university of Giessen and then, accused by authorities in the Grand Duchy of Hesse of being subversive, he fled, first to Zurich, where he received a degree in medicine before being expelled in 1836 for politics and duelling; in 1837 he arrived in London, where he eked out a living teaching German, but gained a reputation by his contributions to medical and scientific journals and made friendships with geologists Charles Lyell and Richard Owen among others. Recommendations put him aboard the Tory bound for New Zealand, travelling in the capacity of surgeon, surveyor and naturalist.
During the 1840s he was a correspondent of Charles Darwin, whose Journal of Researches Dieffenbach translated into German and published, with Darwin's notes and corrections, as Naturwissenschaftlichen Reisen (Brunswick,
John Ball (20 August 1818 – 21 October 1889) was an Irish politician, naturalist and Alpine traveller.
Ball was born in Dublin, the eldest son of Nicholas Ball and his wife Jane Sherlock. He was educated at Oscott College near Birmingham, and at Christ's College, Cambridge, where he was 41st Wrangler but as a Roman Catholic could not be admitted to a BA degree. He showed in early years a taste for natural science, particularly botany; and after leaving Cambridge he travelled in Switzerland and elsewhere in Europe, studying his favourite pursuits, and contributing papers on botany and the Swiss glaciers to scientific periodicals.
In 1846 Ball was made an assistant poor-law commissioner, but resigned in 1847, and in 1848 stood unsuccessfully as a parliamentary candidate for Sligo. In 1849 he was appointed second poor-law commissioner, but resigned in 1852 and successfully contested the Carlow County constituency in the Liberal interest. In 1854, while grave doubts were raised in well-informed quarters about entering a war with Russia, the voice of the people found expression in Ball who assured the government that justification of the Crimean war was vast, high and noble: 'the
John Gill (born 1937) is an American mathematician who has achieved recognition for his rock-climbing. He is considered the Father of Modern Bouldering by many climbers.
As a child, Gill lived in several Southern cities, including Atlanta, Georgia, where he graduated from Bass High School in 1954 and attended Georgia Tech 1954-1956. He graduated from the University of Georgia with a degree in mathematics in 1958, and entered the USAF as a second lieutenant. He attended a special graduate meteorology program at the University of Chicago 1958-1959, then was assigned to Glasgow AFB, Montana, until 1962. He resigned from the USAF Reserves as a captain several years later. After obtaining an MA in mathematics from the University of Alabama in 1964, Gill became an instructor at Murray State University 1964-1967. In 1967 he enrolled as a graduate student at Colorado State University, and received his PhD in classical complex analysis in 1971. In 2000, Gill retired as professor of mathematics from the University of Southern Colorado. During his career as a college teacher, in his spare time he wrote and published approximately thirty individually-authored research papers in the analytic
John (Fritz) Sumner (b. Blackburn 13 March 1936, d. 2004) was the pre-eminent exploratory climber in his chosen domain of Mid Wales, climbing cutting-edge routes on the remote crags and cliff-faces south of southern Snowdonia starting in the mid-1950s.
Henry Peter "Harry" Karstens (1878 – November 28, 1955) was the first superintendent of Mount McKinley National Park (now known as Denali National Park), from 1921 to 1928. He was the guide and climbing leader of the first complete ascent of Mount McKinley in 1913, with expedition members Hudson Stuck, Walter Harper, and Robert Tatum.
Harry Karstens was born in Chicago and went north during the Klondike gold rush in 1897. As a packer, he hauled miner's supplies over the Chilkoot Pass on his back. Unsuccessful as a miner, he started a freight business, hauling freight with dog teams. As a contract mail carrier he was paid $75 per month. With freighter and mail carrier Charles McGonagall he pioneered portions of the Valdez to Fairbanks mail route. In addition to dog teams, he also ran riverboats.
In 1907, Karstens accompanied hunter, conservationist, and naturalist Charles Sheldon, on hunting trips into the Toklat River region. Sheldon, the chairman of the Boone and Crockett Club, then successfully campaigned to have the area set aside as a national park. In 1917, Denali National Park was created.
Henry Lewis Pittock (March 1, 1835 - January 28, 1919) was an Oregon (U.S.) pioneer, newspaper editor, publisher, and wood and paper magnate. He was active in Republican politics and Portland, Oregon civic affairs, a Freemason and an avid outdoorsman and adventurer. He is frequently referred to as the founder of The Oregonian, although it was an existing weekly before he reestablished it as the state's preeminent daily newspaper.
Born in England, the son of Frederick and Susanna Bonner Pittock, Henry grew up from the age of four in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, where his father had moved the family and established a printing business. The third of eight children, he attended public schools and apprenticed in his father's print shop from the age of twelve. He left home at seventeen with his brother, Robert, and inspired by frontier adventure stories, joined two other families to emigrate to the West. He is reported to have made most of the journey barefoot.
Pittock arrived destitute in the Oregon Territory in October, 1853, and was rebuffed in his attempts to become a printer for the Oregon Spectator in Oregon City, the first and largest newspaper published in the territory. Declining
William Henry Jackson (April 4, 1843 – June 30, 1942) was an American painter, Civil War veteran, geological survey photographer and an explorer famous for his images of the American West. He was a great-great nephew of Samuel Wilson, the progenitor of America's national symbol Uncle Sam.
Jackson was born in Keeseville, New York, on April 4, 1843, as the first of seven children to George Hallock Jackson and Harriet Maria Allen. Harriet, a talented water-colorist, was a graduate of the Troy Female Academy, later the Emma Willard School. Painting was his passion from a very young age. By age 19 he had become a skillful, talented artist of American pre-Civil-War Visual Arts, of whom Orson Squire Fowler wrote as being "excellent as a painter".
After his boyhood in Troy, New York and Rutland, Vermont, in October 1862 Jackson at the age of 19 joined as a private in Company K of 12th Vermont Infantry of the Union Army Jackson spent much of his free time sketching drawings of his friends and various scenes of Army camp life that he sent home to his family as his way of letting them know he was safe. Later he fought in the American Civil War for nine months, including (only) one major
Krzysztof Wielicki (born January 5, 1950 in Szklarka Przygodzicka, municipality Ostrzeszów, Poland) is a Polish retired alpine and high-altitude climber. He is the fifth man to climb all fourteen eight-thousanders and the first ever to climb Mount Everest, Kangchenjunga, and Lhotse in the winter. He is a member of The Explorers Club.
Charles Frederick Hoffmann (1838–1913) was a German-American topographer working in California U.S. from 1860 to 1880.
Hoffmann was born in Frankfurt, Germany, 1838. After receiving an education in engineering, he emigrated to America. In 1857 he was topographer for Frederick Lander’s survey to the Rocky Mountains. He came to California in 1858. He was recruited by Josiah Whitney to join the California Geological Survey because of his valuable skill as a topographer. Hoffmann is largely responsible for introducing topography to the United States. He helped explore the Sierra Nevada of California, from 1860 through 1870, and 1873 through 1874. As a member of the Survey, Hoffmann created the official maps from the expeditions made by the survey team. Hoffmann achieved a number of first ascents in the Sierra Nevada:
In 1870 he married Lucy Mayotta Browne. In 1871 and 1872 he was Professor of Topographical Engineering at Harvard University. Later, he was a mining engineer at Virginia City, Nevada, San Francisco, California, and Mexico. Charles Hoffmann died 1913 in Oakland, California.
Mount Hoffmann, a high peak in central Yosemite National Park, is named after him.
Conrad Kain (August 10, 1883–February 2, 1934) was an Austrian mountain guide who guided extensively in Europe, Canada, and New Zealand, and was responsible for the first ascents of more than 60 routes in British Columbia. He is particularly known for pioneering climbs in the Purcell Mountains and the first ascents of Mount Robson (1913), Mount Louis (1916) and Bugaboo Spire (1916).
Kain was born in Nasswald, Austria. After a difficult start to his life, he moved to Canada in 1909 to lead climbs at the Alpine Club of Canada's Lake O'Hara camp. Conrad Kain is credited with over 60 first ascents but his most notable first ascent was Mount Robson in 1913 with Albert MacCarthy and William Foster. There is evidence to suggest, however, that Kain openly acknowledged that his ascent of Mount Robson in 1913 was not the first ascent, but the second. The pre-Kain ascent remains a matter of debate between Kain/Mt. Robson scholars.
Conrad wrote an autobiography titled Where the Clouds Can Go where he describes his tough years while growing up in Austria as well as his 25 years working variously as a guide for The Alpine Club of Canada, a hunter outfitter, and an assistant to W.O Wheeler for
Douglas William Freshfield (27 April 1845 – 9 February 1934) was a British lawyer, mountaineer and author, who edited the Alpine Journal from 1872 to 1880. He was an active member of the Royal Geographical Society and the Alpine Club and served as President of both organizations.
Born in London, Freshfield was the only son of Henry Ray Freshfield and his wife Jane Quinton Crawford. His father was a notable lawyer and member of the family firm of Freshfields. His mother was the daughter of William Crawford, MP for the City of London (1833–1841), who had made a fortune in the East India Company. She was an authoress and her publications included "Alpine Byways" and "A Tour of the Grisons" (the Swiss Alps now known as Graubünden).
In an interview with Adolfo Hess, Freshfield recalls that his family loved to take long holidays in the summer of up to five weeks. He recalls that when he was six, they visited Lodore Falls in the [Lake District]], where he was disappointed that the waterfall was slowed due to a sandbank. The following year they travelled to Scotland. In 1854, they travelled to the Swiss Alps, going from Basel to Chamonix. His father attached great importance to preserving
George Herbert Leigh Mallory (18 June 1886 – 8 or 9 June 1924) was an English mountaineer who took part in the first three British expeditions to Mount Everest in the early 1920s.
During the 1924 British Mount Everest Expedition, Mallory and his climbing partner Andrew "Sandy" Irvine both disappeared somewhere high on the North-East ridge during their attempt to make the first ascent of the world's highest mountain. The pair's last known sighting was only a few hundred metres from the summit.
Mallory's ultimate fate was unknown for 75 years, until his body was discovered in 1999 by an expedition that had set out to search for the climbers' remains. Whether or not Mallory and Irvine reached the summit before they died remains a subject of speculation and continuing research.
Mallory was born in Mobberley, Cheshire, the son of Herbert Leigh Mallory (1856–1943), a clergyman who changed his surname from Mallory to Leigh-Mallory in 1914. His mother was Annie Beridge (née Jebb) (1863–1946), the daughter of a clergyman in Walton, Derbyshire. George had two sisters and a younger brother Trafford Leigh-Mallory, the World War II Royal Air Force commander.
In 1896, Mallory attended Glengorse,
James, Rajah of Sarawak, KCB (born James Brooke; 29 April 1803 – 11 June 1868) was a British adventurer whose exploits in areas of the British Empire led to him becoming the first White Rajah of Sarawak.
Brooke was born in Secrole, a suburb of Benares, India. his father, Thomas Brooke, was an English Judge Court of Appeal at Bareilly, British India; his mother, Anna Maria, born in Hertfordshire, was the daughter of Scottish peer Colonel William Stuart, 9th Lord Blantyre, and his mistress Harriott Teasdale. Brooke stayed at home in India until he was sent, aged 12, to England and a brief education at Norwich School from which he ran away. Some home tutoring followed in Bath before he returned to India in 1819 as an ensign in the Bengal Army of the British East India Company. He saw action in Assam during the First Anglo-Burmese War until seriously wounded in 1825, and sent to England for recovery. In 1830, he arrived back in Madras but was too late to rejoin his unit, and resigned. He remained in the ship he had travelled out in, the Castle Huntley, and returned home via China.
Brooke attempted to trade in the Far East, but was not successful. In 1833, He inherited £30,000, which he
Prince Luigi Amedeo Giuseppe Maria Ferdinando Francesco of Savoy-Aosta ( January 29, 1873 - March 18, 1933 ), Duke of the Abruzzi (Duca degli Abruzzi), was an Italian nobleman, mountaineer and explorer of the royal House of Savoy. He is known for his Arctic explorations and for his mountaineering expeditions, particularly to Mount Saint Elias (Alaska–Yukon) and K2 (Pakistan–China). He also served as an Italian admiral during World War I.
Luigi Amedeo was a grandson of King Vittorio Emanuele II of Italy. He was born in Madrid during his father's brief reign as King Amadeo of Spain. Luigi Amedeo was the youngest of three sons born to Amedeo (otherwise known by his Italian title, the Duke of Aosta) and his consort, Maria Vittoria dal Pozzo. Shortly after his birth his father, who had reigned in Spain since 1870, abdicated and returned to Italy.
Luigi Amedeo was a member of the House of Savoy, well known in Europe since the 12th century. His uncle became King Umberto I of Italy in 1878, and his cousin became King Vittorio Emanuele III in 1900. His ducal title was taken from the central Italian region of Abruzzo.
From 1893 to 1896, Luigi Amedeo travelled around the world, including
Philemon Beecher Van Trump (1839–1916), also known as P. B. Van Trump, was an American pioneering mountaineer and writer who lived in the state of Washington. He is best known for the first ascent of Mount Rainier in 1870.
Van Trump was born in Lancaster, Ohio on December 18, 1838. He was educated at Kenyon College and the New York University. In 1867 he moved to Washington Territory as the private secretary to Marshall F. Moore, the seventh governor of the territory. Moore was Van Trump's brother-in-law.
Van Trump first saw Mount Rainier in August, 1867, and later remembered, "That first true vision of the mountain, revealing so much of its glorious beauty and grandeur, its mighty and sublime form filling up nearly all of the field of direct vision, swelling up from the plain and out of the green forest till its lofty triple summit towered immeasurably above the picturesque foothills, the westering sun flooding with golden light and softening tints its lofty summit, rugged sides and far-sweeping flanks -- all this impressed me so indescribably, enthused me so thoroughly, that I then and there vowed, almost with fervency, that I would some day stand upon its glorious summit, if
Antoni Malczewski (3 June 1793 – 2 May 1826) was an influential Polish romantic poet, known for his only work, "a narrative poem of dire pessimism", Maria (1825).
At the times, prominent and scandalizing was his autodestructive romance with married woman, Zofia Rucińska, who suffered from mental illness.
Malczewski was born to a wealthy family in either Volhynia or Warsaw, and attended school in Krzemieniec (modern-day Kremenets, Ukraine), but did not graduate. He joined the army of the short-lived Duchy of Warsaw during the Napoleonic Wars in 1811, and remained in the army of Congress Poland under Emperor Alexander from 1815. He was wounded in the foot in a duel in 1816 and so had to leave the army.
After leaving the army, he spent several years traveling through western Europe, staying some time in Paris, climbing Mont Blanc in 1818, and spending a good portion of his inherited fortune. He returned to his estate in Volhynia in 1821, where he began an ill-fated affair with a married woman and began writing. He moved to Warsaw in 1824, where he published the poetic novel Maria at his own expense in 1825, and died in poverty the next year in unclear circumstances.
Andreas Heckmair (known as Anderl) (born 12 October 1906, Munich, Germany, died 1 February 2005, Oberstdorf, Germany) was one of the four men who first climbed the north face of the Eiger in 1938.
The most experienced mountaineer in the group (Heckmair, Ludwig Vörg, Heinrich Harrer and Fritz Kasparek), Heckmair led the most difficult pitches in the ascent, aided by the extensive kit (including new 12-point crampons) that he and Vörg had purchased using sponsors' money. Even as the most experienced climber, he still ran into several problems on the North Face of the Eiger, such as when he slipped whilst climbing out of the exit cracks. Luckily, Ludwig Vörg caught him by his feet, piercing his hand on Heckmair's crampons as he did so. The success brought Heckmair fame throughout the world, but particularly in his native Germany. The reception included an audience with Adolf Hitler (whom Heckmair had met before after working with Leni Riefenstahl). Although the Nazis used his achievement for propaganda Anderl shunned the publicity and never joined the Nazi party. After serving on the Eastern Front in World War II, he worked as a mountain guide in his native Bavaria, and was one of the
Boies Penrose (November 1, 1860 – December 31, 1921) was an American lawyer and Republican politician from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. He represented Pennsylvania in the United States Senate from 1897 until his death in 1921.
Born into a prominent Philadelphia family of Cornish descent, he was brother to Richard Penrose and Spencer Penrose, who in 1918 would build the elegant Broadmoor Hotel at Colorado Springs, Colorado. Penrose graduated from Harvard Law School in 1881, and was admitted to the Pennsylvania Bar in 1883. He took an interest in politics and began working for Matthew Quay, a Pennsylvania political boss. He was elected to the Pennsylvania House of Representatives in 1884, and was elected to the State Senate in 1886, where he served as president pro tempore from 1889 to 1891.
Penrose stepped down from his position as a State Senator in 1897 to take office as a United States Senator. Penrose was a dominant member of the Senate Finance Committee and supported high protective tariffs.
He was elected Chairman of the State Republican Party when Quay stepped-down from the position in 1903. A year later, Quay died, and Penrose was appointed to succeed him as the state's
Dave Hewitt (born 1961) is editor of The Angry Corrie, a hillwalking magazine. He is editor in chief of TACit Press, author of Walking the Watershed, his account of walking the Scottish watershed, editor of A Bit of Grit on Haystacks, a celebration of the life of Alfred Wainwright, and editor of the Sport and Outdoor sections of the online Scottish newspaper Caledonian Mercury.
He contributes to the ongoing debates surrounding access to the wild land of Scotland, bagging of hills, conservation issues etc. via radio, the print media and The Angry Corrie. Hewitt finished his round of Munros on The Saddle on 22 July 2007, accompanied by about 50 friends. This was also his 1000th Munro. He has a keen interest in cricket and politics, and is also a competitive chess player, known in Scottish chess for his love of the Trompowsky Attack and his high-risk attack-minded style.
Edurne Pasaban Lizarribar (born August 1, 1973, in Tolosa, Spain) is a Basque mountaineer, from the province of Gipuzkoa in the Basque Country. On May 17, 2010, she became the 21st person and the first woman to climb all of the fourteen eight-thousander peaks in the World. Her first 8,000 peak had been achieved 9 years earlier, on May 23, 2001, when she climbed to the summit of Mount Everest.
Pasaban summited her ninth eight-thousander, Broad Peak, on July 12, 2007 together with the Austrian climber Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner. On May 1, 2008, Pasaban summited Dhaulagiri, as did Kaltenbrunner the same day again. Both downplayed the aspect of a race between them for the first woman to climb all 14 eight-thousanders. On May 18, 2009, Pasaban climbed the Kangchenjunga with, among others, Juanito Oiarzabal and the Polish climber Kinga Baranowska. With that she exceeded Kaltenbrunner and Nives Meroi and she became the first woman in climbing twelve eight-thousanders. Gerlinde Kaltenbrunner equaled her two days later when summited Lhotse. Nives Meroi, then tried to achieve the summit in the Kangchenjunga, had to give up when her husband and fellow climber, Romano Benet, had health
Enkū (円空) (1632–1695) was a Japanese Buddhist monk and sculptor during the early Edo period. Born in Mino Province (present-day Gifu Prefecture), he wandered all over Japan, helping the poor along the way. During his travels, he carved some 120,000 wooden statues of the Buddha. No two were alike. Many of the statues were crudely carved from tree stumps or scrap wood with a few strokes of a hatchet. Some were given to comfort those who had lost family members, others to guide the dying on their journeys to the afterlife. Thousands of these wooden statues remain today all over Japan, especially in Hida and Gifu regions.
Alphen, Jan Van [et al.] Enku 1632-1695. Timeless Images from 17th Century Japan. Antwerpen, Etnografisch Museum., 1999, 192pp., 9 essays, very richly illustrated
George Bass (30 January 1771 - after 5 February 1803) was a British naval surgeon and explorer of Australia.
He was born on 30 January 1771 at Aswarby, a hamlet near Sleaford, Lincolnshire, the son of a tenant farmer, George Bass, and a local beauty named Sarah Nee Newman. His father died in 1777 when Bass was 6. He had attended Boston Grammar School and later trained in medicine at the hospital at Boston, Lincolnshire. At the age of 18 he was accepted in London as a member of the Company of Surgeons, and in 1794 he joined the Royal Navy as a surgeon.
He arrived in Sydney in New South Wales on HMS Reliance on 7 September 1795. Also on the voyage were Matthew Flinders, John Hunter, Bennelong, and his surgeon's assistant William Martin.
Bass had brought with him on the Reliance a small boat with an 8-foot (2.4 m) keel and 5-foot (1.5 m) beam, which he called the Tom Thumb on account of its size. In October 1795 Bass and Flinders, accompanied by William Martin sailed the Tom Thumb out of Port Jackson to Botany Bay and explored the Georges River further upstream than had been done previously by the colonists. Their reports on their return led to the settlement of Banks' Town.
George Lowe (born November 10, 1958 in Dunedin, Florida) is an American voice actor/comedian. He is perhaps best known for his role as the voice of Space Ghost on the Cartoon Network/Adult Swim, talk show Space Ghost Coast to Coast, a role which he played for all 110 episodes spanning fourteen years before the series ended in 2008, along with its spin-off Cartoon Planet. He continued the role on Perfect Hair Forever, but declined to reprise it for Cartoon Planet's revival, although he will be playing him again in "Death Fighter".
Lowe did occasional voice-over work for TBS throughout the late 1980s and early 1990s, as well as occasional voice-overs for Cartoon Network in the mid 1990s. Lowe's career as a voice actor officially began in 1994 with the premiere of Space Ghost Coast to Coast, in which he starred as the lead role of Space Ghost. Space Ghost Coast to Coast finished a ten year run of new episodes on Cartoon Network/Adult Swim in 2004, and was revived on Gametap for 2 seasons during 2006–2008 for an additional 16 episodes.
Lowe has performed Space Ghost's voice more than any other role in his acting career, and he has portrayed the character more often than any other
Harish Kapadia (Born 11 July 1945) is a distinguished Himalayan Mountaineer from India. He has been awarded the Patron's Medal of the Royal Geographic Society, UK and the Life Time Achievement Award for Adventure by the President of India and the King Albert Mountain Award presented by The King Albert I Memorial Foundation. He has written numerous books and articles on the Indian Himalaya.
He began climbing and trekking in the range around Bombay, the Western Ghats. His first visit to the Himalaya was almost 40 years ago. His main contribution to Himalayan climbing has been to explore unknown areas and, in number of cases, to open up climbing possibilities. Some of his major ascents have been of Devtoli (6788 m), Bandarpunch West (6102 m), Parilungbi (6166 m), in 1995, Lungser Kangri (6666 m) the highest peak of Rupshu in Ladakh. He led five international joint expeditions, four with the British and two with the French, to high peaks, such as Rimo I (7385 m), Chong Kumdan Kangri I (7071 m), Sudarshan Parbat, and the Panch Chuli and Rangrik Rang groups.
Earlier, in 1974 he fell in a crevasse at 6200 m, deep inside the formidable Nanda Devi Sanctuary. He was carried by his companions
Jean-Christophe Lafaille (31 March 1965 – 27 January 2006 [presumed]) was a French mountaineer noted for a number of difficult ascents in the Alps and Himalaya, and for what has been described as "perhaps the finest self-rescue ever performed in the Himalaya", when he was forced to descend the mile-high south face of Annapurna alone with a broken arm, after his climbing partner had been killed in a fall. He climbed eleven of the fourteen eight-thousand-metre peaks, many of them alone or by previously unclimbed routes, but disappeared during a solo attempt to make the first winter ascent of Makalu, the world's fifth highest mountain.
Born in Gap, Hautes-Alpes, Lafaille's background was in sport climbing, and as a teenager he climbed extensively at Céüse and played a part in turning it into one of the world's best known climbing venues. In 1989 he became the first Frenchman to solo a climb graded 7c+, and one of the first to climb 8c graded routes.
In the early 1990s, Lafaille qualified as a mountain guide and began mountaineering in the Alps. He made a number of difficult ascents on the Mont Blanc massif, including the first solo climb of Divine Providence on the Grand Pilier
Jens Esmark (31 January 1763 - 26 January 1839) was a Danish-Norwegian professor of mineralogy who contributed to many of the initial discoveries and conceptual analyses of glaciers, specifically the concept that glaciers had covered larger areas in the past.
Jens Esmark was born in Houlbjerg in Århus, Denmark. Esmark moved to Norway to the silver mining community of Kongsberg. He studied at the local mining academy. He completed his subsequent studies in Copenhagen and was accepted as a surveyor. Starting in 1797, Esmark was employed as a lecturer in mineralogy at the Kongsberg Mining Academy. In 1814, Esmark became Norway's first professor of geology as a professor of geology at the University of Oslo.
In August 1801 Esmark was the first person to ascend Snøhetta, highest in the mountain range Dovrefjell in southern Norway. The same year he led the first expedition to Bitihorn, a small mountain in the southernmost outskirts of Jotunheimen, Norway. In 1810 he was the first person to ascend the mountain Gaustatoppen in Telemark, Norway.
Professor Esmark theorized in 1824 that glaciers had once been larger and thicker and had covered much of Norway and the adjacent sea floor. He
Norman Clyde (April 8, 1885–December 23, 1972) was a mountaineer, mountain guide, freelance writer, nature photographer, and self trained naturalist. He is well known for achieving over 130 first ascents, many in California's Sierra Nevada and Montana's Glacier National Park. He also set a speed climbing record on California's Mount Shasta in 1923. The Bancroft Library at the University of California, Berkeley has 1467 articles written by Clyde in its archives.
Clyde was born in Philadelphia, the son of a Presbyterian minister. He attended Geneva College graduating in the Classics in June 1909. After teaching at several rural schools, including Fargo, North Dakota and Mount Pleasant, Utah, he enrolled at the University of California, Berkeley in 1911. After two years of graduate work he returned to teaching, mostly in northern California, including the towns of McCloud and Weaverville. He taught history, science and Latin. He continued graduate studies at the University of California in Berkeley in 1923 - 1924.
On June 15, 1915, Norman Clyde married Winifred May Bolster in Pasadena, California. She was a nurse at a tuberculosis hospital, and contracted the disease herself at
Torii Ryūzō (鳥居 龍藏, April 4, 1870 - January 14, 1953) was a Japanese ethnologist, anthropologist and folklorist. He was known for his anthropological investigation in Taiwan and also conducted archaeological excavations and attempted to understand prehistoric Northeast Asia.
Born in the Funaba quarter of Tokushima on the island of Shikoku, from an early age he was a passionate collector of artifacts of all kinds, and showed little inclination for formal study. Fortunately, he benefited from intelligent teachers who, despite his indifference to schooling, appreciated his lively natural curiosity, and took him with them on excursions throughout the district to study the history and material culture of his area. He thus developed a precocious ability with field studies that compensated for his lack of dedication to pure book study
In the wake of Yoshino Sakuzō's criticism of Japan's Imperial ambitions in Korea, Torii lined himself up with those who justified Japanese annexation on the grounds that the contemporary consensus worldwide in linguistics, anthropology, and archaeology was that the Korean and Japanese people were one and the same 'race/people' (dōminzoku)
Aleister Crowley (/ˈkroʊli/ KROH-lee; 12 October 1875–1 December 1947), born Edward Alexander Crowley, and also known as both Frater Perdurabo and The Great Beast 666, was an English occultist, mystic, ceremonial magician, poet and mountaineer, who was responsible for founding the religious philosophy of Thelema. In his role as the founder of the Thelemite philosophy, he came to see himself as the prophet who was entrusted with informing humanity that it was entering the new Aeon of Horus in the early 20th century.
Born into a wealthy upper-class family, as a young man he became an influential member of the esoteric Hermetic Order of the Golden Dawn after befriending the order's leader, Samuel Liddell MacGregor Mathers. Subsequently he claimed that he was contacted by his Holy Guardian Angel, an entity he named Aiwass, while staying in Egypt in 1904, and that he "received" a text known as The Book of the Law from what he claimed was a divine source, and around which he would come to develop his new philosophy of Thelema. However - later on in life he wrote in Equinox of the Gods that "I now incline to believe that Aiwass is [...] a man as I am", and analysis of the text of the Book
Arne Næss, Jr. (8 December 1937 – 13 January 2004) was a Norwegian businessman and mountaineer.
Næss was born in Germany in 1937 to Kiki Næss (1907–2001), a Norwegian physiotherapist, and German Raab (1901–1993), a German physician and a major in the Wehrmacht. Næss' mother, whose maiden name he would adopt as his own surname, was the sister of philosopher and mountaineer Arne Næss. Næss' family lived in Germany during World War II. His parents divorced after the war, and he moved to Norway with his mother.
In 1966 he married Filippa Kumlin d'Orey of Sweden, and they had one son and two daughters together, one of whom is folk/pop singer Leona Naess. After the divorce from his first wife, he had a relationship with Norwegian actress Mari Maurstad. In 1985, Næss met American singer Diana Ross on a trip to the Bahamas. He and Ross married in 1985, had two sons, Ross Næss and Evan Ross. The couple divorced in 2000.
He had two sons with his last partner, Camilla Astrup.
By age 19, Næss had already made twenty first ascents of Norwegian mountains. He then concentrated on a career in the shipping industry, starting out with his uncle Erling Dekke Næss in 1964 in New York. In the
Charles Christopher Parry (28 August 1823 – 20 February 1890) was a British-American botanist and mountaineer.
Parry was born in Gloucestershire, England, but moved to the United States with his parents in 1832, settling first in New York. He studied medicine at Columbia University, and botany under John Torrey, Asa Gray and George Engelmann.
He moved to Davenport, Iowa in 1846 where he practiced as a doctor for a short time before joining the United States and Mexican Boundary Survey (1848–1855) as surgeon and botanist. He made extensive plant collections along the U.S.-Mexico border in California, and later in Colorado, Utah and other western states, many of which proved to be new species.
Important plants he discovered include the Torrey Pine and Engelmann Spruce, which he named in honour of his mentors. Several plants are also named after him, including the Parry Pinyon, Parry's Lily and Parry's Penstemon.
Parry made the first barometric measurements of the heights of many of Colorado's mountains. Although he did not reach the summit, he estimated the height of Longs Peak, and he was the first to climb and measure Grays Peak. Parry Peak (4,082 m / 13,391 feet) in Colorado is
Clinton Thomas Dent FRCS (7 December 1850 – 26 August 1912) was an English surgeon, author and mountaineer.
The fourth surviving son of Thomas Dent, he was educated at Eton College and Trinity College, Cambridge.
Alongside Albert Mummery, Dent was one of the most prominent of the British climbers who attempted the few remaining unclimbed mountains in the Alps in the period known as the silver age of alpinism. As an alpinist, Dent was very different from Mummery:
Dent's first ascents in the Alps include the Lenzspitze (4,294 m) in the Pennine Alps in August 1870, with Alexander Burgener and a porter, Franz Burgener (of whom Dent wrote 'his conversational powers were limited by an odd practice of carrying heavy parcels in his mouth')., and the Portjengrat (Pizzo d'Andollo, 3,654 m) above the valley of Saas-Fee in 1871. On 5 September 1872 the combined parties of Dent and guide Alexander Burgener, with George Augustus Passingham, and his guides Ferdinand Imseng and Franz Andermatten, made the first ascent of the south-east ridge of the Zinalrothorn (4,221 m); this is the current voie normale on the mountain.
He then turned his attention to the Aiguille du Dru (3,754 m), a steep
Erik Weihenmayer (born September 23, 1968) is the first blind person to reach the summit of Mount Everest, on May 25, 2001. He also completed the Seven Summits in September 2002. His story was covered in a Time article in June 2001 titled Blind to Failure. He is the author of Touch the Top of the World: A Blind Man's Journey to Climb Farther Than the Eye can See, his autobiography.
After he became blind, at first, Weihenmayer did not want to use a cane or learn Braille. He wanted to prove that he could continue living as he had. He tried to play ball, but once he understood that he was incapable of doing so, he learned to wrestle. In high school he went all the way to the National Junior Freestyle Wrestling Championship in Iowa. At that time he started using a guide dog. Then he went to Boston College and graduated as an English major. He became a middle-school teacher and wrestling coach. In 1997, he married Ellie Reeve. The wedding took place at Mount Kilimanjaro in Tanzania. They have a daughter, Emma.
Erik is an acrobatic skydiver, long distance biker, marathon runner, skier, mountaineer, ice climber, and rock climber. He is a friend of Sabriye Tenberken, whom he visited in
Eugène Trutat (25 August 1840 – 6 August 1910) was a French naturalist, mountaineer, geologist and photographer, who was curator of the Museum of Toulouse.
He began taking photographs in 1859, and produced almost 15,000 over the course of the next fifty years, covering a wide range of topics.
Hazard Stevens (June 9, 1842 – October 11, 1918) was an American military officer, mountaineer, politician and writer. He received the Medal of Honor for his service in the Union army during the American Civil War at the Battle of Fort Huger. Stevens and Philemon Beecher Van Trump made the first documented successful climb of Mount Rainier on August 17, 1870.
Stevens was born in Newport, Rhode Island on June 9, 1842, the son of Isaac I. Stevens and Margaret Hazard Stevens. In 1854, his father became the first governor of the new Washington Territory and the Stevens family moved to Olympia, Washington. Both father and son volunteered in the Union army during the Civil War and served in the 79th Highlanders of the New York Volunteers. Hazard Stevens was a major and assistant adjutant general. Hazard was wounded and his father, by then a general, was killed in the Battle of Chantilly on September 1, 1862. For his contribution to the capture of Fort Huger, Virginia, on April 19, 1863, Stevens received the Medal of Honor on June 13, 1894. Stevens was mustered out of the Union Army volunteers on September 19, 1865. On January 13, 1866, President Andrew Johnson nominated Stevens for
Henry Gannett, M.E.; LL.D. (August 24, 1846 - November 5, 1914) was an American geographer who is described as the "Father of the Quadrangle" which is the basis for topographical maps in the United States.
He was born in Bath, Maine, graduated with a B.S. at Harvard University in 1869 and at the Hooper Mining School in 1870 also at Harvard.
In 1871 he was almost simultaneously offered positions with Charles Francis Hall on what would become the ill-fated Polaris Expedition or going with Ferdinand Vandeveer Hayden to survey Yellowstone National Park. He chose the Hayden adventure and would map the westen portion of the Hayden's division until 1879.
On July 26, 1872 while climbing the then unnamed highest mountain in the Gallatin Mountains, he and his party experience electric shocks following a lightning event near the summit. He was to name the mountain Electric Peak.
He married Mary E. Chase on November 24, 1874.
In 1879 he was among those lobbying for centralizing the mapping functions into one government agency. Previously individual mapmakers and agencies had to compete for money from Congress for funds for projects.
He lobbied to call the new organization "United States
Hudson Stuck (November 11, 1863 – October 10, 1920) with Harry P. Karstens co-led the first expedition to successfully climb the South Peak of Mount McKinley.
Stuck, an Episcopal Archdeacon, was born in London and graduated from King's College London. He died of pneumonia in Fort Yukon, Alaska.
Stuck and John Muir are honored with a feast day on the liturgical of the Episcopal Church in the United States of America on April 22.
Stuck was born in Paddington, London, England. He attended Westbourne Park Public School and King's College. He immigrated to Texas in 1885 where he was a cowboy near Junction City, Texas, taught in one-room schools at Copperas Creek, Texas, San Angelo, Texas, and San Marcos, Texas. In 1889 he enrolled to study theology at the University of the South in Sewanee, Tennessee. He became an Episcopal priest in 1892 first serving at Cuero, Texas and then St. Matthew's Cathedral in Dallas, Texas. In 1904 he moved to Alaska. He travelled widely in Alaska by dogsled visiting parishes and missions on behalf of the church.
Hudson Stuck, Harry Karstens, Walter Harper, Robert G. Tatum, Johnny, and Esaias departed from Nenana on March 17, 1913. They reached the summit of
James Dwight Dana (1813–1895) was an American geologist, mineralogist, volcanologist, and zoologist. He made pioneering studies of mountain-building, volcanic activity, and the origin and structure of continents and oceans around the world.
Dana was born February 12, 1813 in Utica, New York. His father was merchant James Dana (1780–1860), and mother was Harriet Dwight (1792–1870). Through his mother he was related to the Dwight New England family of missionaries and educators including uncle Harrison Gray Otis Dwight and first cousin Henry Otis Dwight. He showed an early interest in science, which had been fostered by Fay Edgerton, a teacher in the Utica high school, and in 1830 he entered Yale College in order to study under Benjamin Silliman the elder. Graduating in 1833, for the next two years he was teacher of mathematics to midshipmen in the Navy, and sailed to the Mediterranean while engaged in his duties.
In 1836 and 1837 he was assistant to Professor Silliman in the chemical laboratory at Yale, and then, for four years, acted as mineralogist and geologist of the United States Exploring Expedition, commanded by Captain Charles Wilkes, in the Pacific Ocean. His labors in
John Salathé (June 14, 1899, Niederschöntal, Switzerland–1993) was a pioneering rock climber, blacksmith and the inventor of the modern piton.
Salathé was born in Switzerland and emigrated to the United States. He had been a blacksmith before an illness and a mid-life spiritual conversion led him to devote his life to ascetic meditation, vegetarianism and rock climbing. When he began climbing in 1945, he found that traditional pitons used for climbing in the Alps were too soft to be driven into narrow cracks without buckling. In his San Mateo business, Peninsula Wrought Iron Works, Salathé used high-carbon chrome-vanadium steel, similar to that used to make Ford axles, to forge extremely strong pitons which could be hammered into the hard Yosemite granite without buckling, as well as removed without getting mangled, thus rendering them reusable. These thin pitons became known as Lost Arrows, and are still manufactured under that name by Black Diamond Equipment, Ltd.
In 1946, Salathé and Anton (Ax) Nelson climbed the southwest face of Half Dome. The two climbers spent the night on a small ledge, making it Yosemite's first climbing route to require a bivouac.
In September, 1947,
Marianne Pretorius born 2 September 1976, is a South African rock climber, specialising in big walls. In 2004 she became the first woman to scale the East face of the Central Torres del Paine in Chilean Patagonia. In February 2005 she climbed the "Compressor" route on Cerro Torre. On 21 August 2005 Pretorius, in the company of Peter Lazarus, James Pitman and Andreas Kiefer reached the top of Trango Tower in Pakistan, becoming the third woman to step on the summit.
Pretorius was born in Johannesburg, the youngest of three daughters of Johan & Alet Pretorius. She started her schooling in Plettenberg Bay and matriculated in 1994 from Florida High School in Johannesburg. From there she enrolled in a course of fashion design at the Witwatersrand Technikon, but soon changed to Fine Art. She started climbing in 1996 with the Witwatersrand Technikon Mountain Club, where Alard Hufner and Matthew Murison became her mentors and climbing companions. When they finished their studies in 1998 they set off for Europe. Pretorius and Hufner worked in the UK for 6 months and then left for the States with Mike Mason and Dermot Brogan. Here they climbed in 9 different states over a period of 5 months
Michel Gabriel Paccard (1757–1827) was a Savoyard doctor and alpinist, citizen of the Kingdom of Sardinia.
Born in Chamonix, he studied medicine in Turin. Due to his passion for botany and minerals, he met Horace-Bénédict de Saussure, who initiated the race to be the first to ascend Mont Blanc.
Gaston Rébuffat wrote "Like Saussure a devotee of the natural sciences, he has a dream: to carry a barometer to the summit and take a reading there. An excellent mountaineer, he has already made several attempts."
Paccard had a first, unsuccessful, attempt in 1783 with Marc Theodore Bourrit. In 1784, he made several attempts with Pierre Balmat. Finally, he made the first ascent of Mont Blanc with Jacques Balmat on 8 August 1786.
Balmat and Paccard's ascent of Mont Blanc was a major accomplishment in the early history of mountaineering. C. Douglas Milner wrote "The ascent itself was magnificent; an amazing feat of endurance and sustained courage, carried through by these two men only, unroped and without ice axes, heavily burdened with scientific equipment and with long iron-pointed batons. The fortunate weather and a moon alone ensured their return alive."
Eric Shipton wrote "Theirs was an
Colonel Sir Thomas Hungerford Holdich, KCMG, KCIE, CB (1843–1929) was an English geographer and president of the Royal Geographical Society. He is best known as Superintendent of Frontier Surveys in British India and author of numerous books, including The Gates of India, The Countries of the King's Award and Political Frontiers and Boundary Making.
Born in Dingley, Northamptonshire, England to the Rev. Thomas Holdich, he was educated at Godolphin Grammar School and the Royal Military Academy, obtaining a commission in the Royal Engineers in 1862. He saw active service in the Bhutan expedition of 1865, the Abyssinian campaign of 1867-68 and the Second Afghan War of 1878-79.
During peacetime, he was largely occupied with the survey of India, and served on the Afghan Boundary Commission of 1884-86, the Tasmar Boundary Commission of 1894, the Pamir Boundary Commission of 1895 and the Perso-Baluchistan Boundary Commission of 1896. He was also engaged in The Cordillera of the Andes Boundary Case by the governments of Argentina and Chile in 1892 to define the boundary along the Andes Mountains. He was awarded the Gold Medal of the Royal Geographical Society in 1887 in recognition of his
Wanda Rutkiewicz Polish pronunciation: [/ˈvanda rutˈkievitʂ/] (February 4, 1943 – May 12–13, 1992) was a Polish mountain climber. She was the first woman to successfully summit K2.
Rutkiewicz was born in Plungė, Lithuania. After World War II, her family chose to leave for Poland, settling in Wrocław in southwestern Poland's Recovered Territories, where she graduated from Wroclaw University of Technology as an electrical engineer.
Began climbing in the rocks near the Janowice Wielkie (Mount Falcon (Polish: Góry Sokole))
On 16 October 1978, she became the third woman, the first Pole and the first European woman to reach the summit of Mount Everest. In 1986 she became the first woman to successfully climb and descend K2, which she did without supplemental oxygen, as part of a small expedition led by Lilliane and Maurice Barrard. Her triumph was marred when both the Barrards died on the descent, becoming two of thirteen climbers to die on K2 that summer.
Rutkiewicz's goal was to become the first woman to summit all fourteen of the eight-thousanders. During her climbing life she successfully summitted the following mountains:
She was last seen alive by Mexican climber Carlos Carsolio
Cuthbert Wilfrid Francis Noyce (31 December 1917 – 24 July 1962) (usually known as Wilfrid Noyce (often misspelt as 'Wilfred'), some sources give third forename as Frank) was an English mountaineer and author. He was a member of the 1953 British Expedition that made the first ascent of Mount Everest.
Noyce was born in 1917 in Simla, the British hill station in India. The eldest son of Sir Frank Noyce of the Indian Civil Service and his wife, Enid Isabel, a daughter of W. M. Kirkus of Liverpool, Noyce was educated at Charterhouse, where he became head boy, and King's College, Cambridge, taking a first in Modern Languages. In the Second World War he was initially a conscientious objector, joining the Friends Ambulance Unit. However, he later chose to serve as a private in the Welsh Guards, before being commissioned as a second lieutenant in the King's Royal Rifle Corps on 19 July 1941. He later attained the rank of captain in the Intelligence Corps; John Hunt wrote that "...during a part of the war [Noyce] was employed in training air crews [in mountain techniques] in Kashmir. For a brief period he assisted me in running a similar course for soldiers". He was also employed as a
Yevgeniy Mikhaylovich Abalakov (Russian: Евгений Михайлович Абалаков; February 17 [O.S. February 4] 1907 – March 23, 1948) was a Soviet alpinist and sculptor.
Abalakov was born in Yeniseysk. He is noted for making the first ascent of the highest point of the Soviet Union - Stalin Peak (later renamed) (7495 m) on September 3, 1933 as a member of the 26th detachment of the Tajik-Pamir Sovnarkom expedition. At the beginning of the German-Soviet War Abalakov went to the front. In the spring of 1948 Abalakov died in Moscow, in obscure circumstances, while preparing for the ascent to the Victory Peak. His brother, Vitaly Abalakov, was also a famous alpinist.