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This is a list of ambassadors of the United States to Hungary
Until 1867 Hungary had been part of the Austrian Empire, when the empire became Austria-Hungary. Hungary had no separate diplomatic relations with other nations. The United States had diplomatic relations with the empire and Austria-Hungary through the legation in Vienna.
The empire was dissolved following World War I, and the United States established separate diplomatic relations with Austria and Hungary in 1921, reopening the embassy in Vienna and establishing a legation in Budapest. Ulysses Grant-Smith opened the U.S. legation on December 26, 1921 and remained the chief of mission as chargé d'affaires until an ambassador was commissioned the following year.
For ambassadors to Austria-Hungary prior to the dissolution of the empire, see United States Ambassador to Austria.
The United States Embassy in Hungary is located on Szabadság tér (Liberty Square) in the Pest part of Budapest.
The first representative from the United States to Denmark was appointed in 1827 as a Chargé d'Affaires. There followed a series of chargés and ministers until 1890 when the first full ambassador (Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary) was appointed. The title was changed to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary in 1946.
A sea (or lake/river) captain (also called a master or a shipmaster) is a licensed mariner in ultimate command of the vessel. The captain is responsible for its safe and efficient operation, including cargo operations, navigation, crew management and ensuring that the vessel complies with local and international laws, as well as company and flag state policies. All persons on board, including officers and crew, other shipboard staff members, passengers, guests and pilots, are under the captain's authority and are his ultimate responsibility.
A ship's captain commands and manages all ship's personnel, and is typically in charge of the ship's accounting, payrolls, and inventories. The captain is responsible for compliance with immigration and customs regulations, maintaining the ship's certificates and documentation, compliance with the vessel's security plan, as mandated by the International Maritime Organization. The captain is responsible for responding to and reporting in case of accidents and incidents, and in case of injuries and illness among the ship's crew and passengers.
A ship's captain must have a master's license or certificate, issued by the ship's flag state, or a
A school counselor is a counselor and an educator who works in elementary, middle, and high schools to provide academic, career, college access, and personal/social competencies to K-12 students. The interventions used include developmental school counseling curriculum lessons and annual planning for every student, and group and individual counseling.
Older, dated terms for the profession were "guidance counselor" or "educational counselor" but "school counselor" is preferred due to professional school counselors' advocating for every child's academic, career, and personal/social success in every elementary, middle, and high school (ASCA, 2005). In the Americas, Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Pacific, the terms school counselor, school guidance counselor, and guidance teacher are also used with the traditional emphasis career development. Countries vary in how a school counseling program and school counseling program services are provided based on economics (funding for schools and school counseling programs), social capital (independent versus public schools), and School Counselor certification and credentialing movements in education departments, professional associations, and
The Ambassador of the United States to Algeria is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Algeria.
Until 1962, Algeria had been under the dominion of France. Independence from France was formally declared on July 3, 1962. The United States and France both formally recognized Algeria on that same day. The Algerian government had recognized the United States in 1795, but formal diplomatic relations had not been established.
The U.S. has had consular representation in Algeria intermittently since 1796. On September 29, 1962, diplomatic relations between Algeria and the United States were formally established when the U.S. Consulate General in Algiers was raised to embassy status. William J. Porter was appointed as the first chargé d'affaires ad interim pending appointment of an ambassador to Algiers. He was promoted to ambassador on November 29, 1962.
Algeria severed diplomatic relations with the United States on June 6, 1967, in the wake of the June 1967 Arab-Israeli War. A U.S. Interests Section was established in the Swiss Embassy. The United States and Algeria reestablished diplomatic relations, and their respective embassies in
The Archbishop of York is a high-ranking cleric in the Church of England, second only to the Archbishop of Canterbury. He is the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of York and metropolitan of the Province of York, which covers the northern portion of England (north of the Trent) as well as the Isle of Man. The archbishop is a member ex officio of the House of Lords, and is styled Primate of England. (The Archbishop of Canterbury is "Primate of All England".)
His throne is in York Minster in central York and his official residence is Bishopthorpe Palace in the village of Bishopthorpe, outside York. The incumbent, since 5 October 2005, is John Sentamu. He signs +Sentamu Ebor: (since both John and Sentamu are his forenames).
There was a bishop in York from very early Christian times. Bishops of York were present at the Councils of Arles and Nicaea. However, this early Christian community was later destroyed by the pagan Saxons and there is no direct succession from these bishops to the post-Augustinian ones.
The diocese was refounded by Paulinus (a member of Augustine's mission) in the 7th century. Notable among these early bishops is Wilfrid. These early bishops of York acted as diocesan
The Treasurer of the United States is an official in the United States Department of the Treasury that was originally charged with the receipt and custody of government funds, though many of these functions have been taken over by different bureaus of the Department of the Treasury. Responsibility for oversight of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the United States Mint, and the United States Savings Bonds Division (now the Savings Bond Marketing Office within the Bureau of the Public Debt) was assigned to the Treasurer in 1981. As of 2002 the Office of the Treasurer underwent a major reorganization. The Treasurer now advises the Director of the Mint, the Director of the Bureau of Engraving and Printing, the Deputy Secretary and the Secretary of the Treasury on matters relating to coinage, currency and the production of other instruments by the United States. The Treasurer's signature, as well as the Treasury Secretary's, appear on Federal Reserve notes.
Eager to appoint a woman to a prominent political position, President Harry S. Truman appointed Georgia Neese Clark Treasurer in 1949. Since then, every subsequent Treasurer has been a woman, and six of the past ten Treasurers
Ensign ( /ˈɛnsən/) is a junior rank of a commissioned officer in the armed forces of some countries, normally in the infantry or navy. As the junior officer in an infantry regiment was traditionally the carrier of the ensign flag, the rank itself acquired the name.
"Ensign" is enseigne in French, Fähnrich in German (whereby despite the fact that "Fähnrich" has a parallel etymology, it is not a junior officer but only an officer cadet rank), and chorąży in Polish, each of which derives from a term for a flag. The Spanish alférez and Portuguese alferes is a junior officer rank below lieutenant associated with carrying the flag, and so is often translated as "ensign". Unlike the rank in other languages, its etymology has nothing to do with flags.
The NATO rank code is OF-1 (junior).
In Argentina, the rank of ensign is used by both the air force and the gendarmerie. It is, however, used differently in the two services. The air force uses the rank for newly qualified officers, while the gendarmerie uses "ensign" ranks as an equivalent for the army's "lieutenant" ranks.
The other armed forces of Argentina have ranks equivalent to ensign: subteniente (which can be translated into English
Research and experimental development is formal work undertaken systematically to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humanity, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications (OECD (2002) Frascati Manual: proposed standard practice for surveys on research and experimental development, 6th edition. It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories. A research project may also be an expansion on past work in the field. To test the validity of instruments, procedures, or experiments, research may replicate elements of prior projects, or the project as a whole. The primary purposes of basic research (as opposed to applied research) are documentation, discovery, interpretation, or the research and development of methods and systems for the advancement of human knowledge. Approaches to research depend on epistemologies, which vary considerably both within and between humanities and sciences.
There are several forms of research: scientific, humanities, artistic, economic, social, business, etc.
Scientific research relies on
A regent, from the Latin regens, "[one] reigning", or regency council is a person or group of persons selected to act as head of state because the ruler is a minor, not present, or debilitated. The period of rule of a regent or regents is referred to as a regency.
In a monarchy, a regent usually governs due to one of these reasons, but may also be elected to rule during the interregnum when the royal line has died out. This was the case in the Kingdom of Finland and the Kingdom of Hungary, where the royal line was considered extinct in the aftermath of World War I. In Iceland, the regent represented the King of Denmark as sovereign of Iceland until the country became a republic in 1944. In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (1569–1795), kings were elective, which often led to a fairly long interregnum. In the interim, it was the Lithuanian Roman Catholic Primate (the Archbishop of Vilnius) who served as the regent, termed the "interrex" (Latin: ruler "between kings" as in ancient Rome). In the small republic of San Marino, the two Captains Regent, or Capitani Reggenti, are elected semi-annually (they serve a six-month term) as joint heads of state and of government.
The history of Ambassadors of the United States to Poland began in 1919.
Until the end of the Great War, Poland had been partitioned between Russia, Germany, and Austria-Hungary. After the war and the collapse of the empires, Poland became an independent republic in 1918.
The United States recognized the Second Polish Republic and established diplomatic relations. The first U.S. Minister to Poland was Hugh S. Gibson, appointed in 1919.
Diplomatic relations were maintained throughout the years of World War II with the government-in-exile of Poland resident in London.
The U.S. Embassy in Poland is located in Warsaw.
Note: From 1930 onward, the U.S. envoy to Poland had the rank of ambassador.
Note: President Roosevelt nominated James Michael Curley for the post in 1933 but withdrew the nomination before the Senate acted upon it.
Note: The following officers served as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim: Herbert E. Wilgis, Jr. (February–July 1983); and John R. Davis, Jr. (September 1983–January 1987). Davis was appointed as Chargé d'Affaires on January 9, 1987 and subsequently appointed as ambassador.
In Major League Baseball, the general manager (GM) of a team typically controls player transactions and bears the primary responsibility on behalf of the ballclub during contract discussions with players.
The general manager is also normally the person who hires and fires the coaching staff, including the field manager who acts as the head coach. In baseball, the term manager used without qualification almost always refers to the field manager, not the general manager.
Before the 1960s, and in some rare cases today, a person with the general manager title in sports has also borne responsibility for the non-player operations of the ballclub, such as ballpark administration and broadcasting. Ed Barrow, George Weiss and Gabe Paul were three baseball GMs noted for their administrative skills in both player and non-player duties.
This is a list of United States Ambassadors to the Lao People's Democratic Republic, or Laos. The Embassy at Laos was established on August 22, 1950. The Embassy has been mainly concerned of the outspead of the Bird Flu, which has been reported in many parts of Southern Asia.
The Deputy Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (formerly known as Associate Director) is a senior United States government position in the Federal Bureau of Investigation. The office is second in command to the Director of the Federal Bureau of Investigation, and takes over responsibilities as Director should his/her office be absent or vacant. The office is also the highest position attainable within the FBI without being appointed by the President of the United States. Responsibilities as Deputy Director include assisting the Director and leading prominent investigations. All other FBI executives and Special Agents in Charge report to the Director through the Deputy Director. The office is currently held by Sean M. Joyce, who was promoted to the position in September 2011.
Past Deputy Directors include Timothy P. Murphy, John S. Pistole, Bruce J. Gebhardt, Thomas J. Pickard, William Esposito, Weldon L. Kennedy, Larry A. Potts, David G. Binney, Floyd I. Clarke, W. Mark Felt (later revealed to be Deep Throat), Cartha Deloach, and Clyde Tolson. From 1978 to 1987, the position of Deputy Director was not filled due to William H. Webster's decision to divide the Deputy's
Major general or major-general is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. A major general is a high-ranking officer, normally subordinate to the rank of lieutenant general and senior to the ranks of brigadier and brigadier general. Where relevant, major general has a NATO code of OF-7, and is considered to be a two-star rank. A major general in most armies commands a division, however in some countries he commands a brigade.
In the old Austro-Hungarian Army, the major general was called a generalmajor. Today's Austrian Federal Army still uses the same term.
In the Canadian Forces, the rank of major-general (MGen) (major-général or Mgén in French) is an Army or Air Force rank equal to a rear-admiral of the Navy. A major-general is a general officer, the equivalent of a naval flag officer. A major-general is senior to a brigadier-general or commodore, and junior to a lieutenant-general or vice-admiral. Prior to 1968, the Air Force used the rank of air vice-marshal instead.
The rank insignia for a major-general is two gold maple leaves beneath crossed sword and baton, all surmounted by St. Edward's Crown. It is worn on the
The Assistant Secretary of State for European and Eurasian Affairs is a position within the American Department of State that leads the Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs charged with implementing American foreign policy in Europe and Eurasia, and with advising the Under Secretary for Political Affairs on matters relating to diplomatic missions within that area. The current Assistant Secretary is Philip Gordon.
Originally, the Department of State first established a Division of Western European Affairs in 1909, which handled European nations primarily bordering on the Atlantic Ocean and their colonies. The Division of Near Eastern Affairs handled relations with most Central, Eastern, and Southern European countries until after World War I. During the interwar period, responsibility for much of Central and Eastern Europe shifted to the Division of European Affairs, although Greece, Turkey, and Cyprus were handled as part of the Near East until April 18, 1974. Following World War II, the Department completed the transfer of responsibility for the former colonies of European nations, except Canada, to the Bureaus of Near Eastern, South Asian, African Affairs, and Far Eastern
A plumber is a tradesperson who specializes in installing and maintaining systems used for potable (drinking) water, sewage, and drainage in plumbing systems. The term dates from ancient times, and is related to the Latin word for lead, "plumbum."
The word "plumber" dates from the Roman Empire. In Roman times lead was known as plumbum in Latin (hence the abbreviation of 'Pb' for lead on the periodic table of the elements). Roman roofs used lead in conduits and drain pipes and some were also covered with lead, lead was also used for piping and for making baths. In medieval times anyone who worked with lead was referred to as a plumber as can be seen from an extract of workmen fixing a roof in Westminster Palace and were referred to as plumbers "To Gilbert de Westminster, plumber, working about the roof of the pantry of the little hall, covering it with lead, and about various defects in the roof of the little hall". Thus a person with expertise in working with lead was first known as a Plumbarius which was later shortened to plumber.
Years of training and/or experience are needed to become a skilled plumber; some jurisdictions also require that plumbers be licensed.
In the airline industry, a baggage handler is a person who loads and unloads baggage (suitcases or luggage), and other cargo (airfreight, mail, counter-to-counter packages) for transport via aircraft. With most airlines, the formal job title is "Fleet Service Agent or Clerk", though the position is commonly known as a "Ramp Agent", due to the job's location on the airport ramp (tarmac), amongst airline employees.
Within the airline industry, baggage handler is often referred to as a "Rampie" or "Ramper": one who handles cargo on the "ramp" (outside the airline industry, the ramp is popularly referred to as the "tarmac", a term popularized by the media) Although the technical term is AOA (Aircraft Operation Area). Offensive terms for Rampie/Ramper are "Ramp Rat," "Bag Smasher", "Bag Jockey", "Luggage Monkey", and "Thrower."
A baggage handler also work jobs which are out of view of the flying public. Some of those places are the bag room, operations (or load control), and the air freight warehouse. Some of these jobs have union representation and due to this baggage handlers can be very well compensated with an above average pay scale and good medical, retirement and benefits
A treasurer is the person responsible for running the treasury of an organization. The adjective for a treasurer is normally "tresorial". The adjective "treasurial" normally means pertaining to a treasury, rather than the treasurer.
The Treasury of a country is the department responsible for the country's economy, finance and revenue. The Treasurer is generally the head of the Treasury, although, in some countries (such as the U.K. or the U.S.) the treasurer reports to a Secretary of the Treasury, or Chancellor of the Exchequer. In Australia, the Treasurer is a senior Minister and usually the second most important member of the Government after the Prime Minister. From 1867 to 1993, the Ministry of Finance (Ontario) was called the Treasurer of Ontario.
Originally the word referred to the person in charge of the treasure of a noble; however, it has now moved into wider use. In the UK during the 17th Century, a position of Lord High Treasurer was used on several occasions as the third great officer of the Crown. Now the title First Lord of the Treasury is the official title of the British Prime Minister.
In corporations, the Treasurer is the head of the corporate treasury department.
The Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard (MCPOCG) is a unique non-commissioned rank in the United States Coast Guard.
The holder of this rank and post is the senior enlisted member of the U.S. Coast Guard, equivalent to the Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy, Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, Sergeant Major of the Army, Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force, and Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and is considered protocol equivalent to a vice admiral.
The MCPOCG is appointed by the Commandant of the Coast Guard to serve as a spokesperson to address the issues of enlisted personnel to the highest positions in the Coast Guard. As such the MCPOCG is the senior enlisted advisor to the Commandant of the Coast Guard. The MCPOCG's exact duties vary, depending on the Commandant, though generally devotes much time traveling throughout the Coast Guard observing training and communicating to sailors and their families. The normal tour of assignment is four years, which runs concurrently with the Commandant of the Coast Guard. The first member to hold this post was Charles Calhoun, and the current MCPOCG is Michael P. Leavitt.
The finance minister is an executive or cabinet position in a government.
A minister of finance (also called financial affairs, the treasury, the economy, or economic affairs) has many different jobs in a government. The minister forms the government budget, stimulate the economy, and control finances. Finance ministers are often found in state or provincial governments if that country has a form of federalism. Although in many cases, especially the Anglo-American world, the posts are merged, the Finance and Economy are separate ministries across most of the globe. Economic affairs are usually handle a ministry or department of commerce.
The powers of a finance minister vary between governments. Sometimes the finance minister is the most powerful cabinet post, like in Canada or New Zealand. In Australia, the finance minister is junior to the Treasurer - the Treasurer is responsible for economic matters and is assisted by the Minister for Finance and Deregulation (formerly Finance and Administration) who heads a separate department. Other times they are unpopular posts if they must raise taxes or cut spending.
In the United States, the finance minister is called the Secretary of the
A news presenter (also known as newsreader, newscaster, anchorman or anchorwoman, news anchor or simply anchor) is a person who presents news during a news program in the format of a television show, on the radio or the Internet.
News presenters can work in a radio studio, television studio and from remote broadcasts in the field especially weather forecasters.
A newscaster (short for "news broadcaster") is a presenter of news bulletins. This person may be working in the field of broadcast journalism as a journalist and electronic news gathering (ENG) as well as a participant in compiling the script with a television producer to be delivered in a news bulletin.
Prior to the television era, radio-news broadcasts often mixed news with opinion and each presenter strove for a distinctive style. These presenters were referred to as commentators. The last major figure to present commentary in a news broadcast format in the US was Paul Harvey.[Dunning, John. "The Encyclopedia of Old Time Radio."] Today, commentary is generally presented in the longer-form talk show format. The term "newscaster" came into common use to distinguish presenters of straight news broadcasts from
The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (USDP) is a high level civilian official in the United States Department of Defense. The Under Secretary of Defense for Policy is the principal staff assistant and adviser to both the Secretary of Defense and the Deputy Secretary of Defense for all matters concerning the formation of national security and defense policy. The position is considered the number three office in the Department of Defense, after the Secretary of Defense and Deputy Secretary of Defense.
The Under Secretary is appointed from civilian life by the President with the consent of the Senate to serve at the request of the President and is currently serving in that position.
The position was created by President Jimmy Carter in October of 1977.
Mr. James N. Miller was Senate Confirmed on 24 May 2012 as the Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (USDP). Mr. James N. Miller was originally appointed by President Barack Obama and Senate Confirmed in February 2009 as the Principal Deputy Assistant Under Secretary of Defense for Policy (PDUSDP). Upon departure of the former USDP, Ms. Michèle Flournoy, Mr. James N. Miller was selected as replacement for the outgoing incumbent and
The Chief of Staff of the Air Force (acronym: CSAF, or AF/CC) is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. § 8033) held by a four-star general in the United States Air Force, and is the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Air Force, and as such is the principal military advisor and a deputy to the Secretary of the Air Force; and is in a separate capacity a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and thereby a military advisor to the National Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, and the President. The Chief of Staff is typically the highest-ranking officer on active-duty in the U.S. Air Force unless the Chairman and/or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are Air Force officers.
The Chief of Staff of the Air Force is an administrative position based in the Pentagon, and while the Chief of Staff does not have operational command authority over Air Force forces proper (that is within the purview of the Combatant Commanders who reports to the Secretary of Defense), the Chief of Staff does exercise supervision of Air Force units and organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Air Force.
The current Chief of Staff of the Air Force is
The Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. § 5033) held by a four-star admiral in the United States Navy, and is the most senior naval officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Navy. The office is a military adviser and deputy to the Secretary of the Navy. In a separate capacity as a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (10 U.S.C. § 151) the CNO is a military adviser to the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, and the President. The Chief of Naval Operations is typically the highest-ranking officer on active-duty in the U.S. Navy unless the Chairman and/or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are naval officers.
The Chief of Naval Operations is an administrative position based in the Pentagon, and while the CNO does not have operational command authority over Naval forces as the title implies (that is nowadays within the purview of the Combatant Commanders who report to the Secretary of Defense), the CNO does exercise supervision of Navy organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Navy.
The current Chief of Naval Operations is Admiral Jonathan W. Greenert.
The CNO reports directly
A freelancer, freelance worker, or freelance is somebody who is self-employed and is not committed to a particular employer long term. These workers are often represented by a company or an agency that resells their labor and that of others to its clients with or without project management and labor contributed by its regular employees. Others are completely independent. "Independent contractor" would be the term used in a higher register of English.
Fields where freelancing is common include; music, journalism, publishing, screenwriting, filmmaking, acting, photojournalism, cosmetics, fragrances, editing, event planning, event management, copy editing, proofreading, indexing, copywriting, computer programming, web design, graphic design, website development, consulting, tour guiding, video editing, video production and translating.
Freelance practice varies greatly. Some require clients to sign written contracts, while others may perform work based on verbal agreements, perhaps enforceable through the very nature of the work. Some freelancers may provide written estimates of work and request deposits from clients.
Payment for freelance work also varies greatly. Freelancers may
The Serjeant Painter was an honorable and lucrative position with the British monarchy. It carried with it the prerogative of painting and gilding all of the King's residences, coaches, banners, etc. and it grossed over £ 1,000 in a good year by the 18th century. The work itself involved painting the palaces, coaches, royal barges, and all sorts of decorations for festivities, which often had to be designed as well. The actual involvement of the Serjeant Painters in this gradually declined. The post itself fell out of use in the 18th century.
The post of serjeant-painter came into being with the appointment of John Browne in 1511–12. In the time of Henry VIII they seem to have acted as at least foremen for the actual workers; from 1527 better artists were made "King's Painter", like Lucas Horenbout. They may have also painted portraits. George Gower was appointed by Elizabeth I in 1581 and in 1603 James I appointed John de Critz at £40 a year (a good salary) together with another - first Leonard Fryer, and from 1610 Robert Peake the Elder. Gower and De Critz were reputable artists, as was Peake, and these appointments mark a stage in the divorce of the position from the actual work
This is a list of United States ambassadors to Tajikistan.
Until 1991, Tajikistan had been a constituent republic of the Soviet Union as the Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic. On December 25, 1991, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan declared its independence and became the Republic of Tajikistan. The United States government recognized Tajikistan on the same day. Diplomatic relations were established on February 19, 1992 in an announcement by President Bush. A temporary embassy was opened by Chargé d'Affaires ad interim Edmund McWilliams on March 13, 1992 in the Avesto Hotel, pending the appointment of an ambassador. The first ranking ambassador was Stanley Tuemler Escudero, who presented his credentials on October 19, 1992.
On October 25, 1992, six days after Ambassador Escudero’s arrival, Embassy Dushanbe was closed and all U.S. personnel were withdrawn because of the civil war in Tajikistan. The embassy was reopened on March 11, 1993.
In 1998, after the embassy bombings in Africa, Embassy Dushanbe American personnel were temporarily relocated to Almaty, Kazakhstan, due to heightened Embassy security standards. American Embassy Dushanbe has since returned to
The Bishop of Oxford is the diocesan bishop of the Church of England Diocese of Oxford in the Province of Canterbury; his seat is at Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford. The present incumbent, the 42nd, is John Lawrence Pritchard, who ceremonially began his work on 8 June 2007.
The origins of Christianity in this part of England go back at least to the 7th century, when Saint Birinus brought his mission to the West Saxons in 634. The West Saxon King Cynegils was baptised in the River Thames near the present site of Dorchester Abbey, where the original See was established.
The see was transferred in 1092 to Winchester, before being absorbed into the Diocese of Lincoln, the vast extent of which covered much of central and eastern England from the River Thames to the Humber.
King Henry VIII, acting now as head of the Church in England, established by Act of Parliament in 1542 six new dioceses, mostly out of the spoils of the suppressed monasteries. These six were Bristol, Chester, Gloucester, Oxford, Peterborough and Westminster. This intervention by Henry VIII saw a new see located at Osney in Oxfordshire in 1542 before finally being moved to its present location in the City of Oxford in
In commercial aviation, the first officer is the second pilot (sometimes referred to as the "co-pilot") of an aircraft. The first officer is second-in-command of the aircraft, to the captain who is the legal commander. In the event of incapacitation of the captain, the first officer will assume command of the aircraft.
Control of the aircraft is normally shared equally between the first officer and the captain, with one pilot normally designated the "pilot flying" (PF) and the other the "pilot not flying" (PNF), or "pilot monitoring" (PM), for each flight. Even when the first officer is the flying pilot, however, the captain remains ultimately responsible for the aircraft, its passengers, and the crew. In typical day-to-day operations, the essential job tasks remain fairly equal.
Many airlines promote by seniority only within their own company, the first officer may at times have more flight experience than the captain, by virtue of having experience from other airlines or the military. Traditionally, the first officer sits on the right-hand side of a fixed-wing aircraft ("right seat") and the left-hand side of a helicopter (the reason for this difference is related to the fact
Brigadier general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general. When appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is typically in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops (four battalions). In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general.
In some countries, this rank is given the name of brigadier, which is often considered to not be a general-officer rank, but is usually equivalent to brigadier general in the armies of nations that use the rank.
The rank can be traced back to the militaries of Europe where a brigadier general, or simply a brigadier, would command a brigade in the field. An alternative rank of "brigade general" was first used in the French revolutionary armies.
In the first quarter of the 20th century, British and Commonwealth armies used the rank of brigadier general as a temporary appointment, or as an honorary appointment on retirement; in the 1920s this practice changed to the use of brigadier, which is not classed as a general officer.
Brazil and a few countries uses major general as the
A war correspondent is a journalist who covers stories firsthand from a war zone. In the 19th century they were also called Special Correspondents.
Their jobs require war correspondents to deliberately go to the most conflict-ridden parts of the world. Once there they attempt to get close enough to the action to provide written accounts, photos, or film footage. Thus, being a war correspondent is often considered the most dangerous form of journalism. On the other hand, war coverage is also one of the most successful branches of journalism. Newspaper sales increase greatly in wartime and television news ratings go up. News organizations have sometimes been accused of militarism because of the advantages they gather from conflict. William Randolph Hearst is often said to have encouraged the Spanish-American War for this reason. (See Yellow journalism)
Only some conflicts receive extensive worldwide coverage, however. Among recent wars, the Kosovo War received a great deal of coverage, as did the Persian Gulf War. Many third-world wars, however, tend to receive less substantial coverage because corporate media are often less interested, the lack of infrastructure makes reporting more
A brakeman is a rail transport worker whose original job it was to assist the braking of a train by applying brakes on individual wagons. The advent of through brakes on trains made this role redundant, although the name lives on in the United States where brakemen carry out a variety of functions both on the track and within trains.
In the US, the brakeman was a member of a railroad train's crew responsible for assisting with braking a train when the conductor wanted the train to slow down. A brakeman's duties also included ensuring that the couplings between cars were properly set, lining switches, and signaling to the train operators while performing switching operations. The brakemen rode in the caboose, the last car in the train, which was built specially to allow a crew member to apply the brakes of the caboose quickly and easily, which would help to slow the train. In rare cases, such as descending a long, steep grade, brakemen might be assigned to several cars, and be required to operate the brakes while the train was moving from atop the train. Brakemen were also required to watch the train when it was underway to look for signs of hot box, (a dangerous overheating of
The United States Ambassador to Bangladesh is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Bangladesh.
Since the Mughal Dynasty ceased after the take over by the Crown, the emergence and dissolvement of the Bengal Presidency and the Bengal Province under the British Empire took place. With the termination of British rule in 1947, Bengal was divided into two provinces, West and East Bengal. East Bengal had become a part of Pakistan, named East Pakistan and remained so until 1971. On 26th March 1971, East Pakistan officially seceded, and was to be called Bangladesh and declared itself independent through a radio transmission from Kalurghat, Chittagong. An official interim government was establish on April 10th 1971, that was called Probashi Sharkar led by Prime Minister Tajuddin Ahmed and the Commander in Chief of BDF General M.A.G. Osmani. The administration took refuge in India. After the war ended with West Pakistan, Bangladesh Forces(BDF) and the interim government remained under Indian control in Bangladesh through until March 17th 1971. After the deparure of the Indian forces and administration officially in March 19th, many nations
The following is a list of United States Ambassadors, or other Chiefs of Mission, to Honduras. The title given by the United States State Department to this position is currently Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Togo.
Until 1955 French Togoland was a United Nations Trust Territory mandated by the U.N. to France. In 1955, French Togoland became the autonomous Republic of Togo within the French Community (Communauté française), although it retained its UN trusteeship status. In 1960 Togo severed its constitutional ties with France, shed its UN trusteeship status, and became fully independent as the Togolese Republic.
The United States immediately recognized Togo and moved to establish diplomatic relations. The State Department established an embassy in Yaoundé in nearby Cameroon on January 1, 1960, with Bolard More as Chargé d'affaires ad interim. The Yaoundé embassy was simultaneously accredited to Togo. The embassy in Lomé was established on April 27, 1960, with Jesse M. MacKnight as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim. On June 23, 1960, Leland Barrows was appointed as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Cameroon with separate accreditation to Togo while remaining resident in Yaoundé. In 1961 a separate ambassador was appointed solely for Togo and resident at Lomé. The United States has maintained diplomatic relations with Togo
The Deputy Secretary of Veterans Affairs, in the United States government, is the chief operating officer of the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, responsible for a nationwide system of health care services, benefits programs, and national cemeteries for America's veterans and their dependents. The Deputy Secretary is the second-highest-ranking officer in the Department and succeeds the Secretary of Veterans Affairs in the event of his resignation, death, or otherwise inability to fulfill his duties.
The Deputy Secretary of Veterans Affairs is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The position was created with the creation of the Department of Veterans Affairs in October 1988.
W. Scott Gould is currently Deputy Secretary.
Since the creation of the Department in 1989, the following people have served as Deputy Secretary:
^ Acted as Secretary during their tenure. See the list of Secretaries for dates.
The Sergeant Major of the Army (SMA) is a unique non-commissioned rank in the United States Army. The holder of this rank is the most senior enlisted member of the Army, unless an Army NCO is serving as the Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman, when in that case that NCO will be the most senior enlisted and the SMA will be the second-most senior enlisted member of the Army. The SMA is appointed to serve as a spokesman to address the issues of enlisted soldiers to all officers, from Warrant Officers and Lieutenants to the Army's highest positions. As such, they are the senior enlisted advisor to the Chief of Staff of the US Army. The exact duties vary depending on the Chief of Staff, though much of the SMA's time is spent traveling throughout the Army, observing training and talking to soldiers and their families.
Kenneth O. Preston held the rank from January 15, 2004, through February 28, 2011, the only incumbent to serve longer than four years. SMA Preston was succeeded by Command Sergeant Major Raymond F. Chandler III, on March 1, 2011.
While the SMA is a non-commissioned officer, the billet is the protocol equivalent of a lieutenant general.
The rank and position were based
The following is a list of Ambassadors of the United States, or other Chiefs of Mission, to Belize. The title given by the United States State Department to this position is currently Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
The United States of America has maintained many high level contacts with Turkey since the nineteenth century.
Turkey severed diplomatic relations with the United States on April 20, 1917, after the United States declared war against Germany on April 4, 1917. Normal diplomatic relations were reestablished in 1927.
A standard-bearer is a person (soldier or civilian) who bears an emblem called an ensign or standard, i.e. either a type of flag or an inflexible but mobile image, which is used (and often honoured) as a formal, visual symbol of a state, prince, military unit, etc.
This can either be an occasional duty, often seen as an honour (especially on parade), or a permanent charge (also on the battlefield); the second type has even led in certain cases to this task being reflected in official rank titles such as Ensign and Cornet.
Many terms exist, often specifying the type of standard borne (in various cases named in parentheses after the bearer).
Cfr. also :
The Ambassador of the United States of America to the State of Japan (Japanese: 日本駐在アメリカ合衆国大使 (Nihon chūzai amerika gassyūkoku taishi)) is the ambassador extraordinary and plenipotentiary from the United States of America to Japan.
Since the opening of Japan by Commodore Matthew C. Perry, in 1854, the U.S. maintained diplomatic relations with Japan, except for the ten-year period following the attack on Pearl Harbor and the subsequent declaration of war on Japan by the United States. The United States maintains an embassy in Tokyo, with consulates-general in Osaka, Nagoya, Sapporo, Fukuoka, and Naha.
In recent years, the post has been held by many significant American politicians, including Mike Mansfield, Walter Mondale, Tom Foley and Howard Baker.
The current ambassador to Japan is John Roos who was nominated by President Barack Obama and confirmed by the Senate on August 7, 2009. Roos presented his credentials to His Imperial Majesty Akihito, Emperor of Japan, on August 20, 2009.
The following is a list of chiefs of mission.
Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary
Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary
Captain is the name most often given in English-speaking navies to the rank corresponding to command of the largest ships. The NATO rank code is OF-5, equivalent to an army full colonel.
The equivalent rank in some navies translates as "ship captain" (e.g. French capitaine de vaisseau and Italian capitano di vascello), "captain of sea and war" (Portuguese capitão de mar e guerra), "captain at sea" (e.g. German Kapitän zur See, Dutch kapitein-ter-zee) or "captain of the first rank" (Russian - капитан 1-го ранга).
The command of a ship is often given to the naval rank equivalent to a commissioned officer between commander (OF-4) and commodore or rear admiral (OF-6). The naval rank should not be confused with the army, air force or marine rank of captain, which has a NATO code of OF-2.
Any naval officer who commands a ship (titled commanding officer, or CO) is addressed by naval custom as "captain" while aboard in command. Officers with the rank of captain travelling aboard a vessel they do not command should be addressed by their rank and name (e.g., "Captain Smith"), but they should not be referred to as "the captain" to avoid confusion with the vessel's captain. According to US
The Chief of Staff of the Army (abbreviated as CSA) is a statutory office (10 U.S.C. § 3033) held by a four-star general in the United States Army, and is the most senior uniformed officer assigned to serve in the Department of the Army, and as such is the principal military advisor and a deputy to the Secretary of the Army; and is, in a separate capacity, a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (10 U.S.C. § 151), and thereby a military advisor to the National Security Council, the Secretary of Defense, and the President. The Chief of Staff is typically the highest-ranking officer on active-duty in the U.S. Army unless the Chairman and/or the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff are Army officers.
The Chief of Staff of the Army is an administrative position based in the Pentagon, and while the Chief of Staff does not have operational command authority over Army forces proper (that is within the purview of the Combatant Commanders who reports to the Secretary of Defense), the Chief of Staff does exercise supervision of Army units and organizations as the designee of the Secretary of the Army.
The current Chief of Staff of the Army is General Raymond T. Odierno.
A Naval Flight Officer (NFO) is an aeronautically designated commissioned officer in the United States Navy or United States Marine Corps that specializes in airborne weapons and sensor systems. NFOs are not pilots (Naval Aviators) per se, but they may perform many "co-pilot" functions, depending on the type of aircraft. Until 1966, their duties were performed by both officer and senior enlisted Naval Aviation Observers (NAO).
In 1966, enlisted personnel were removed from NAO duties (but continued to serve in enlisted aircrew roles), while NAO officers received the newly established NFO designation, and the NFO insignia was introduced. NFOs in the Navy all begin thier careers as Unrestricted Line Officers (URL), eligible for command at sea and ashore in the naval aviation communities. They are also eligible to hold senior flag rank positions, including command of carrier strike groups, joint task forces, numbered fleets, naval component commands and unified combatant commands.
A small number of Navy NFOs may later to opt for a lateral transfer to the Restricted Line (RL) as Aeronautical Engineering Duty Officers (AEDO), while continuing to retain their NFO designation and active
The Ambassador of the United States to the United Arab Emirates is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of the United Arab Emirates (UAE).
The United Arab Emirates is a federation of seven emirates, each ruled by an emir. Until 1971 the sheikhdoms had been protectorates of the United Kingdom, known as the Trucial States. On December 1, 1971 The U.K. ended its relationship with the Trucial States and the sheikhdoms became independent. On December 2 the sheikhdoms united to form the United Arab Emirates.
The United States recognized the independence of the United Arab Emirates the next day, December 3. Diplomatic relations were established on March 20, 1972, when Envoy William A. Stoltzfus, Jr. presented his credentials to the government of the United Arab Emirates. Stoltzfus was concurrently accredited to Bahrain, Kuwait, Qatar, and Oman, and the UAE while resident at the U.S. Embassy in Kuwait. During Stolzfus’ tenure as non-resident Ambassador, the embassy in Abu Dhabi was established on May 15, 1972, with Philip J. Griffin as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. The first ambassador solely accredited to the UAE was Michael Sterner, who
The Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asian Affairs is the head of the Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs within the United States Department of State, which handles U.S. foreign policy and relations in Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Kyrgyzstan, Kazakhstan, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, and Uzbekistan.
The position of Assistant Secretary of State for South Asian Affairs was renamed when responsibility for policy for five countries, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Tajikistan and Turkmenistan, was transferred from the Bureau of European and Eurasian Affairs to the Bureau of South Asian Affairs, which became the Bureau of South and Central Asian Affairs. Richard A. Boucher was sworn in as the first to hold the current title on February 21, 2006 after the previous Assistant Secretary, Christina B. Rocca, left the Department.
The day before Niger's independence on August 3, 1960, the first American Chargé d'Affaires ad interim, Donald R. Norland, presented his credentials to take effect the following day. The first United States ambassador to Niger, R. Borden Reams was appointed that October 14 and presented his credentials on November 23.
Note: Donald R. Norland (resident in Abidjan) presented credentials as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim, August 2, 1960, to take effect from August 3, 1960. During Reams' tenure as non-resident Ambassador, the Embassy in Niamey was established February 3, 1961, with Joseph W. Schutz as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.
The Deputy Secretary of Commerce is a high ranking position within the United States Department of Commerce. It was created on December 13, 1979, when President Jimmy Carter sent a letter to the U.S. Senate and nominated Luther H. Hodges, Jr., who then currently held the title of Under Secretary of Commerce. The Deputy Secretary serves as the Department’s chief operating officer, with responsibility for the day-to-day management of its approximately $6.5 billion budget, 13 operating units, and 38,000 employees. In that capacity, the Deputy Secretary is also a member of the President’s Management Council.
The Deputy Secretary serves as the principal deputy of the Secretary of Commerce in all matters affecting the Department and performs continuing and special duties as the Secretary may assign including, as may be specified by the Secretary, the exercise of policy direction and general supervision over operating units not placed under other Secretarial Officers or other Department officials. In addition, the Deputy Secretary acts as Secretary if the Secretary has died, resigned, or is otherwise unable to perform the functions and duties of the office of Secretary.
Rebecca M. Blank
A product manager investigates, selects, and develops products for an organization, performing the activities of product management.
A product manager considers numerous factors such as intended demographic, the products offered by the competition, and how well the product fits with the company's business model. Generally, a product manager manages one or more tangible products. However, the term may be used to describe a person who manages intangible products, such as music, information, and services.
A product manager's role in tangible goods industries is similar to a program director's role in service industries.
Diverse interpretations regarding the role of the product manager are the norm. The product manager title is often used in many ways to describe drastically different duties and responsibilities. Even within the high-tech industry where product management is better defined, the product manager's job description varies widely among companies. This is due to tradition and intuitive interpretations by different individuals.
In the financial services industry (banking, insurance etc.), product managers manage products (for example, credit card portfolios), their profit and
The Under Secretary for Benefits, in the United States Department of Veterans Affairs, directs the Veterans Benefits Administration through regional offices in 50 states, the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, and the Philippines. The Under Secretary is responsible for the administration of benefits provided by the Department to veterans and dependents, including compensation, pension, education, home loan guaranty, vocational rehabilitation, and life insurance. The incumbent Under Secretary is Allison A. Hickey, who was sworn in on June 6, 2011.
The Under Secretary is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The occupant of the position is required to be appointed without regard to political affiliation and solely on the basis of his or her demonstrated ability in fiscal management and the administration of programs within the Veterans Benefits Administration or programs of similar content and scope. The Under Secretary is appointed for terms of four years, and reappointment is possible for successive periods. The President is required to communicate his reasons to Congress if the Under Secretary for Benefits is removed from office. Whenever there is a vacancy in
The United States first established diplomatic relations with the Baltic states (Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia) in 1922. One ambassador, resident in Riga, Latvia, was appointed to all three nations. Relations with the three nations were broken after the Soviet invasion of the republics in 1940 at the beginning of World War II. The United States never recognized the legitimacy of the Soviet occupation of the Baltic states, nor the legitimacy of the governments of those states under Soviet occupation. Hence, diplomatic relations were not resumed until 1992 after the collapse of the Soviet Union.
The U.S. Embassy in Latvia is located in Riga.
Note: Soviet forces occupied Riga on June 17, 1940, which effectively ended the U.S. diplomatic presence in those nations. Ambassador Wiley departed Riga on July 25, 1940.
Note: Earl L. Packer was serving as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim when all U.S. diplomatic officials were withdrawn and the legation in Riga was officially closed on September 5, 1940.
Note: The United States announced its readiness to reestablish relations with Latvia on September 2, 1991. Embassy Riga was established October 2, 1991 with Ints M. Silins as Chargé d'Affaires ad
The United States Ambassador to Rwanda is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Rwanda.
Until 1962 Rwanda had been a part of the United Nations Trust Territory of Ruanda-Urundi under the trusteeship of Belgium. In June 1962 the UN General Assembly terminated the Belgian trusteeship and granted full independence to Rwanda and Burundi. The United States immediately recognized the Rwandan government on its independence day, July 1, 1962, and moved to establish diplomatic relations. The U.S. Embassy in the capital Kigali was established on July 1, 1962, with David J.S. Manbey as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. Charles D. Withers was appointed as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary to Rwanda on March 9, 1963.
A receptionist is an employee taking an office/administrative support position. The work is usually performed in a waiting area such as a lobby or front office desk of an organization or business. The title "receptionist" is attributed to the person who is specifically employed by an organization to receive or greet any visitors, patients, or clients and answer telephone calls.
The business duties of a receptionist may include answering visitors' inquiries about a company and its products or services, directing visitors to their destinations, sorting and handing out mail, answering incoming calls on multi-line telephones or, earlier in the 20th century, a switchboard, setting appointments, filing, records keeping, keyboarding/data entry and performing a variety of other office tasks, such as faxing or emailing. Some receptionists may also perform bookkeeping or cashiering duties. Some, but not all, offices may expect the receptionist to serve coffee or tea to guests, and to keep the lobby area tidy.
A receptionist may also assume some security guard access control functions for an organization by verifying employee identification, issuing visitor passes, and observing and reporting
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Morocco. Morocco was the first country to recognize the United States of America in 1797, but diplomatic relations were not established until 1905. In 1912 Morocco came under the control of France and Spain as protectorates. The United States did not initially recognize the French and Spanish protectorates over Morocco. However, in 1917 upon U.S. entry into the First World War, the U.S. government recognized the protectorates. The U.S. Minister at Tangier was downgraded to the status of Diplomatic Agent. In 1956 the U. S. recognized Morocco’s independence, established an embassy in Rabat, and appointed a ranking ambassador, Cavendish W. Cannon.
The following is a list of United States Ambassadors, or other Chiefs of Mission, to Nicaragua. The title given by the United States State Department to this position is currently Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.
The Associate Attorney General is the third-ranking official in the United States Department of Justice. The Associate Attorney General advises and assists the Attorney General and the Deputy Attorney General in policies relating to civil justice, federal and local law enforcement, and public safety matters. The Associate Attorney General is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The incumbent Associate Attorney General is Thomas J. Perrelli.
The Office of the Associate Attorney General oversees the Antitrust Division, the Civil Division, the Environment and Natural Resources Division, the Tax Division, the Office of Justice Programs, the Community Oriented Policing Services, the Community Relations Service, the Office of Dispute Resolution, the Office of Violence Against Women, the Office of Information and Privacy, the Executive Office for United States Trustees, and the Foreign Claims Settlement Commission.
The Office of the Associate Attorney General was created on March 10, 1977 by Attorney General Order No. 699-77. Several recent former Associate Attorneys General include Jay B. Stephens, Acting Associate Attorney General Peter D. Keisler, Raymond C. Fisher,
The Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs is the head of the Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs within the United States Department of State. The Assistant Secretary guides operation of the U.S. diplomatic establishment in the countries of the Asia-Pacific region and advises the Secretary of State and the Under Secretary for Political Affairs on matters relating to the area. The current Assistant Secretary is Kurt M. Campbell, who was sworn in on June 2, 2009.
The Department of State established the position of Assistant Secretary of State for Far Eastern Affairs in 1949, after the Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of Government recommended that certain offices be upgraded to bureau level and after Congress increased the number of Assistant Secretaries of State from six to ten. On November 1, 1966, the Department by administrative action changed the incumbent's designation to Assistant Secretary for East Asian and Pacific Affairs. The Division of Far Eastern Affairs, established in 1908, was the first geographical division to be established in the Department of State.
In many team sports which involve scoring goals, a goalkeeper (termed goaltender, netminder, goalie, or keeper in some sports) is a designated player charged with directly preventing the opposing team from scoring by intercepting shots at goal. Such positions exist in hurling, association football, Gaelic football, international rules football, handball, field hockey, ice hockey, netball, water polo, bandy, lacrosse, floorball, and other sports.
Usually special rules apply to the goalkeeper that do not apply to the other players. These rules are often instituted to protect the goalkeeper, being an obvious target for dangerous or even violent actions. In certain sports, such as ice hockey and lacrosse, goalkeepers are required to wear special equipment like heavy pads and a face mask to protect their bodies from the impact of the playing object (e.g. a puck).
In some sports, goalkeepers may have the same rights as other players; in football, for example, the keeper is allowed to kick the ball just as any other player, but may also handle it in a restricted area. In other sports goalkeepers may be limited in the actions they are allowed to take or the area of the field where they may
Infantry is the branch of the army that fights on foot. Infantrymen are land-based soldiers who are specifically trained for the role of fighting on foot to engage the enemy face-to-face and have historically borne the brunt of the casualties of combat in wars. As the oldest branch of combat arms, they are still the backbone of modern armies. Infantry units have more physically-demanding training than other branches of armies, and place a greater emphasis on discipline, physical strength, fitness and spontaneous sustained aggression. The infantryman himself, with or without his personal weapon, is considered a weapon system.
Infantrymen are easily distinguished from soldiers trained to fight on horseback (cavalry), in tanks, or in technical roles such as armourers or signallers. Rudimentary infantry skills such as basic individual movement techniques, shooting positions and field craft are fundamental to the training of every soldier. Infantry can access and maneuver in terrain inaccessible to vehicles and tanks, and employ infantry support weapons that can provide firepower in the absence of artillery. Their combat insertion techniques include, airborne, air assault, amphibious
The President of the University of Maryland, College Park manages the day to day operations of the University of Maryland, College Park. The President is expected to work cooperatively with the University Senate and the University System of Maryland Board of Regents to effectively manage the university.
The school was known as the Maryland Agricultural College from its founding until the state of Maryland assumed control of the university in 1916. It was then renamed the Maryland State College.
The name of the school was changed to the "University of Maryland" in 1926.
Following the departure of Wilson Homer Elkins, the Chancellor assumed the responsibilities of the President.
In 1989, the office of the President was re-established following the re-organization of the public schools of Maryland under the new University System of Maryland.
A sapper, also called pioneer or combat engineer, is a combatant or soldier who performs a variety of military engineering duties such as bridge-building, laying or clearing minefields, demolitions, field defenses and general construction, as well as road and airfield construction and repair. They are also trained to serve as infantry personnel in defensive and offensive operations. A sapper's duties are devoted to tasks involving facilitating movement of allied forces and impeding those of enemies.
The term "sapper" is used in the British Army, Polish Army, Commonwealth nations and U.S. military.
A sapper, in the sense first used by the Assyrian Army in the early 7th Century BC, was one who excavated trenches under defensive fire to advance a besieging army's position in relation to the works of an attacked fortification, which was referred to as sapping the enemy fortifications.
Saps were excavated by brigades of trained sappers or instructed troops. When an army was defending a fortress with cannon, they had an obvious height and therefore range advantage over the attacker's guns. The attacking army's artillery had to be brought forward, under fire, so as to facilitate effective
In the American Radio Relay League (ARRL) and the Radio Amateurs of Canada (RAC), the section manager is an elected volunteer who implements and manages ARRL / RAC programs in the section, which is an administrative division of the organization that consists of a state, or part of state for the ARRL and a province, part of a province or group of provinces for the RAC. The section manager is elected by the members of the organization who reside in the Section and holds office for a two-year term. There are no term limits.
ARRL / RAC programs include emergency communications, message traffic relay, technical activity / problem-solving / radio-frequency interference investigation and mitigation, volunteer monitoring, government relations, public relations in the general community, information services for amateurs, and cooperation with affiliated clubs. For each of these areas, the section manager appoints a leadership official to oversee the specific pertinent activities. These leadership individuals are collectively referred to as the cabinet.
Cabinet positions include:
The section manager also appoints volunteers to serve within these program areas to include official emergency
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Egypt.
The United States first established diplomatic relations with Egypt in 1848, when President James K. Polk appointed Daniel Smith McCauley as the first envoy to Egypt with the title Consul General. McCauley and his family were transported to Egypt aboard the USS Constitution in 1849.
Relations between Egypt and the United States have been continuous since 1848, except for the period between 1967 and 1974. The then United Arab Republic severed relations with the U.S. following the 1967 Arab–Israeli War; Egypt restored relations following the 1973 Arab-Israeli War.
The United States Embassy in Egypt is located in Cairo.
A United States diplomatic representative to Romania has existed since 1880. The United States formally recognized Romania in 1878, following the Treaty of Berlin; diplomatic relations were opened in 1880, and American diplomats were sent to the country. Until the early 20th century, most ambassadors to Romania were also responsible for Greece, Serbia, and occasionally Bulgaria. No US Embassy was established in Romania for some time, ambassadors typically operated out of Athens until about 1905, at which point an embassy was established in Bucharest.
The main US embassy in Romania remains in Bucharest and is located at Strada Tudor Arghezi 7-9. For several years during World War II, following the death of Ambassador Franklin Mott Gunther there was no American ambassador to Romania. The latter country became an Axis country, and declared war on the Allies (see Romania during World War II). Preceded by American representation in the Allied Commission after 1945, the diplomatic mission was reopened in 1947. In 1994, the US embassy was expanded, and a branch office was opened in Cluj-Napoca. The current ambasador is Mark H. Gitenstein.
Admiral is the rank, or part of the name of the ranks, of the highest naval officers. It is usually considered a full admiral (equivalent to full general) and above vice admiral and below admiral of the fleet (or fleet admiral). It is usually abbreviated to "Adm" or "ADM". Where relevant, admiral has a NATO code of OF-9, and is a four-star rank.
The word "admiral" in Middle English comes from Anglo-French amiral, "commander", from Medieval Latin admiralis, admirallus. These themselves come from Arabic "amir", or amir-al- أمير الـ, "commander of the" (as in amir-al-bahr أمير البحر "commander of the sea"). Crusaders learned the term during their encounters with the Arabs, perhaps as early as the 11th century.
The Norman Roger II of Sicily (1095–1154), employed a Greek Christian known as George of Antioch, who previously had served as a naval commander for several North African Moslem rulers. Roger styled George in Abbasid fashion as "Amir of Amirs", i.e. "Commander of Commanders", with the title becoming Latinized in the 13th century as "ammiratus ammiratorum".
The Sicilians and later Genoese took the first two parts of the term and used them as one word, amiral, from their Aragon
In the Latter Day Saint movement, an Apostle is a "special witness of the name of Jesus Christ who is sent to teach the principles of salvation to others." In many Latter Day Saint churches, an Apostle is a priesthood office of high authority within the church hierarchy. In many churches, apostles may be members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles of the church. In most Latter Day Saint churches, modern-day apostles are considered to have the same status and authority as the Biblical Apostles.
In the Latter Day Saint tradition, Apostles and prophets are believed to be the foundation of the church, with Jesus Christ himself the chief cornerstone. The Articles of Faith, written by Joseph Smith, Jr., also mentions Apostles: "We believe in the same organization that existed in the Primitive Church, namely, apostles, prophets, pastors, teachers, evangelists, and so forth."
In The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church), Apostle is the highest priesthood office of the Melchizedek Priesthood. The President of the Church is always an Apostle, as are the members of the Quorum of the Twelve Apostles. In practice, counselors in the First Presidency are almost always Apostles
A brigadier general in the United States Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, is a one-star general officer, with the pay grade of O-7. Brigadier general ranks above a colonel and below major general. Brigadier general is equivalent to the rank of rear admiral (lower half) in the other uniformed services.
U.S. Code of law explicitly limits the total number of general officers who may be on active duty. The total of active duty general officers is capped at 230 for the Army, 208 for the Air Force, and 60 for the Marine Corps. Some of these slots are reserved by statute.
For promotion to the permanent grade of brigadier general, eligible officers are screened by a promotion board consisting of general officers from their branch of service. This promotion board then generates a list of officers it recommends for promotion to general rank. This list is then sent to the service secretary and the joint chiefs for review before it can be sent to the President, through the defense secretary, for consideration. The President nominates officers to be promoted from this list with the advice of the Secretary of Defense, the service secretary, and if applicable, the service's chief of staff or
Conducting is the art of directing a musical performance by way of visible gestures. The primary duties of the conductor are to unify performers, set the tempo, execute clear preparations and beats, and to listen critically and shape the sound of the ensemble. Orchestras, choirs, concert bands and other musical ensembles often have conductors.
The principal conductor of an orchestra or opera company is sometimes referred to as a music director or chief conductor, or by the German words Kapellmeister or Dirigent. Conductors of choirs or choruses are sometimes referred to as choral director, chorus master, or choirmaster, particularly for choirs associated with an orchestra. Conductors of military bands and other bands may hold the title of bandmaster, or drum major. Respected senior conductors are sometimes referred to by the Italian word, maestro ("master" as in "one who has mastered the art").
An early form of conducting is cheironomy, the use of hand gestures to indicate melodic shape. This has been practiced at least as far back as the Middle Ages. In the Christian church, the person giving these symbols held a staff to signify his role, and it seems that as music became more
Ministry of Foreign and European Affairs (French: Ministère des Affaires étrangères et européennes (MAEE)), is France's foreign affairs ministry, with the headquarters located on the Quai d'Orsay in Paris close to the National Assembly of France. The Minister of Foreign and European Affairs (French: Ministre des Affaires étrangères et européennes) in the government of France is the cabinet minister responsible for the foreign relations of France, and took its current title in 2007. "Quai d'Orsay" is often used as a metonym for the ministry. Part of the ministry's central administration is located in Nantes.
The current minister is Laurent Fabius
Secretaries to the King became specialized, writing correspondence to foreign governments, and negotiating peace treaties. The four French secretaries of state where foreign relations were divided by region, in 1589, became centralized with one becoming first secretary responsible for international relations. The Ancien Régime position of Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs became Foreign Minister around 1723, and was renamed Minister of Foreign Affairs in 1791 after the French Revolution. All ministerial positions were abolished in 1794
The Rector of the University of Dundee is elected by the matriculated students of the University. From 1967 (when the University gained independence from the University of St. Andrews) to 2010 the Rector was automatically a full member of the University Court (the University Governing body). The Rector also had the right to appoint an Assessor, who was also a full member of the University Court. Following changes made to the University Charter in August 2010, the Rector must choose to either take up full membership of Court or appoint an Assessor who has full voting rights. If the Rector chooses not take up full membership of Court, he retains the right to receive Court papers and attend its meetings but not to vote. The present holder of the position is Mr Brian Cox, CBE. Brian Cox has chosen not to take up full membership of Court, and his Assesor, Mike Arnott, therefore has full voting rights on Court.
Aside from his official duties to the university, the Rector is charged with the responsibility of representing the students of the University who elect him for a three year term. The Rector is officially installed in a ceremony soon after his election by the University's
Upon the breakup of the Soviet Union, Armenia declared its independence on August 23, 1991, having previously been the Armenian Soviet Socialist Republic, one of the constituent republics of the USSR since 1936, and part of the Transcaucasian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic since 1920.
The United States recognized Armenia on December 26, 1991. The embassy at Yerevan was opened February 3, 1992, with Steven Mann as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.
The U.S. ambassadorial post to Armenia became vacant on May 24, 2006, when the then-current ambassador, John Marshall Evans was recalled by the Bush administration, purportedly over remarks by Evans concerning the Armenian genocide. On May 23, 2006, and again on January 9, 2007, President Bush nominated Richard E. Hoagland to be the new ambassador to Armenia, but the nomination was stalled in Senate in a dispute between the Bush administration and Congress over the Armenian genocide issue. Rudolf V. Perina, the chargé d'affaires ad interim, served as the chief of the mission until August 1, 2008 when Marie L. Yovanovitch began her term as the ambassador.
John A. Heffern, a career foreign service officer, was nominated by President Obama
The United States has maintained diplomatic ties to Equatorial Guinea since independence in 1968. Until 1981, US ambassadors served as the contacts to other African countries simultaneously rather than have a separate person just for Equatorial Guinea.
In the 19th century, the area of Central Africa that now contains the nation of Equatorial Guinea was under Spanish control. The area was known as Spanish Guinea and included the small mainland area of Río Muni and the island of Fernão do Pó (or Fernando Pó), now named Bioko. Rio Muni became a Spanish protectorate in 1885 and a colony in 1900. In 1926 the island of Bioko and the mainland area of Río Muni were united as the colony of Spanish Guinea.
In 1959, the Spanish territory of the Gulf of Guinea was established as a province of Spain known as the Spanish Equatorial Region. Local elections were held and representatives elected to the Cortes Generales (Spanish parliament).
In 1963 limited autonomy was granted to Spanish Guinea and the people were able to elect members to its own legislature.
In March 1968, under pressure from Equatorial Guinean nationalists and the United Nations, Spain announced that it would grant independence
The United States Ambassador to Mauritius is the official representative of the government of the United States to the government of Mauritius. The ambassador is concurrently the ambassador to Seychelles, while resident in Port Louis, Mauritius.
This is a list of United States ambassadors to Mauritius.
The Vice Chief of Naval Operations (VCNO) is the second highest-ranking officer in the United States Navy. In the event that the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) is absent or is unable to perform his duties, the VCNO assumes the duties and responsibilities of the CNO. The VCNO may also perform other duties that the CNO assigns to him. The VCNO is appointed by the President of the United States, and must be confirmed via majority vote by the Senate. By statute, the VCNO is appointed as a four-star admiral.
This position was called Assistant for Operations in 1915, and Assistant Chief of Naval Operations in 1922. In 1942 the title became Vice Chief of Naval Operations. The current VCNO is Admiral Mark E. Ferguson III. Previous VCNOs include:
A wide receiver is an offensive position in American and Canadian football, and is the key player in most of the passing plays. The wide receiver position requires speed and agility. Only players in the backfield or the ends on the line are eligible to catch a forward pass. The two players who begin play at the ends of the offensive line are eligible receivers, as are all players in the backfield. The backs and ends who are relatively near the sidelines are referred to as "wide" receivers. At the start of play, one wide receiver may begin play in the backfield, at least a yard behind the line of scrimmage, as is shown in the diagram at the right. The wide receiver on the right begins play in the backfield. Such positioning allows another player, usually the tight end, to become the eligible receiver on that side of the line. Such positioning defines the strong side of the field. This is the right side of the field in the diagram shown.
The wide receiver (WR) or a flanker is a position in American and Canadian football is the pass-catching specialist. Wide receivers (also referred to as wideouts or simply receivers) are among the fastest and most agile players in the game, and they
The Master Chief Petty Officer of the Navy (MCPON, pronounced "mik-pon") is a unique non-commissioned rate of the United States Navy, which has with it the paygrade of E-9. The holder of this rank and post is the most senior enlisted member of the U.S. Navy, equivalent to the Sergeant Major of the Army, Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force, Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, Master Chief Petty Officer of the Coast Guard, and Senior Enlisted Advisor to the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. He is appointed by the Chief of Naval Operations to serve as a spokesman to address the issues of enlisted personnel to the highest positions in the Navy. As such, he is the senior enlisted advisor to the Chief of Naval Operations as well as the Chief of Naval Personnel. His exact duties vary, depending on the CNO, though he generally devotes much of his time to traveling throughout the Navy observing training and talking to sailors and their families. His personnel code is N00A as the senior enlisted advisor to Chief of Naval Operations and PERS-00D in his special advisory capacity to Chief of Naval Personnel/Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Manpower, Personnel and Training). In 1988,
Volunteering is generally considered an altruistic activity, intended to promote good or improve human quality of life. It is considered as serving the society through one's own interests, personal skills or learning, which in return produces a feeling of self-worth and respect, instead of money. Volunteering is also famous for skill development, socialization and fun. It is also intended to make contacts for possible employment or for a variety of other reasons.
Volunteering takes many forms and can be performed by anyone with his or her own set of skills. Many volunteers are specifically trained in the areas they work in, such as medicine, education, or emergency rescue. Other volunteers serve on an as-needed basis, such as in response to a natural disaster or for a beach-cleanup.
The verb Volunteer was first recorded in 1755, from the noun, in C.1600, "one who offers himself for military service," from M.Fr. Voluntaire. The word in the Non-military sense was first recorded during 1630s. The word Volunteering has a more recent usage, still predominantly military, coinciding with the word Community service.
In a military context, a volunteer army is a military body whose soldiers
The Assistant Secretary of State for Consular Affairs is the head of the Bureau of Consular Affairs within the United States Department of State. The Assistant Secretary of State for Consular Affairs reports to the Under Secretary of State for Management. From 1953 to 1977, the position was called Administrator of the Bureau of Security and Consular Affairs.
In professional wrestling, a manager is a secondary character paired with a wrestler (or wrestlers) for a variety of reasons. The manager is often either a non-wrestler, an occasional wrestler, an older wrestler who has retired or is nearing retirement or, in some cases, a new wrestler who is breaking into the business (or a specific company) and needs the experience in front of the crowds. The wrestler that a manager manages is called his or her charge. A wrestler's manager has nothing to do with their real-world agent.
A manager is somewhat like a storyline agent for an actor or an athlete; he helps his client to book matches and appearances, and otherwise works to further and guide their career. Within the context of storylines it is the manager who positions their charge for title opportunities, decides whom to trust as an ally, and generally acts as a mouthpiece on their wrestlers' behalf. Outside of storylines, a manager's job is to help the wrestler they're paired with get over. For this reason, managers are usually paired with wrestlers who the writers feel have great potential, but need a little help to the top. For example, if a wrestler can perform well in the ring, but
The Deputy Secretary of Education oversees and manages the development of policies in the United States Department of Education. The Deputy Secretary focuses primarily on K–12 education policy, such as No Child Left Behind, the High School Initiative, and the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act. The Deputy Secretary also has responsibility for carrying out the intergovernmental relations of the Department. The Deputy Secretary becomes Acting Secretary of Education in the event of the Secretary's absence, disability, or a vacancy in the Office of Secretary.
The Office of the Deputy Secretary coordinates the work of the Office of Elementary and Secondary Education, the Office of Innovation and Improvement, the Office of English Language Acquisition, the Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services, and the Office of Safe and Drug-Free Schools. The Deputy Secretary also oversees the Department's LEP Partnership, the Office for Small and Disadvantaged Business Utilization, and the Department's partnership with The History Channel.
The Deputy Secretary is appointed by the President and confirmed by the United States Senate. The Deputy Secretary is paid at level II of
A test pilot is an aviator who flies new and modified aircraft in specific maneuvers, known as flight test techniques or FTTs, allowing the results to be measured and the design to be evaluated.
Test pilots may work for military organizations or private, (mostly aerospace) companies. Testing military aircraft, in particular, is regarded as the most challenging and risky flying conducted in peacetime.
In the 1950s, test pilots were being killed at the rate of about one a week, but the risks have shrunk to a fraction of that, thanks to the maturation of aircraft technology, better ground-testing and simulation of aircraft performance, and, lately, the use of unmanned aerial vehicles to test experimental aircraft features. Still, piloting experimental aircraft remains more dangerous than most other types of flying.
A test pilot must be able to:
Test pilots must have an excellent knowledge of aeronautical engineering, in order to understand how they are tested and why. Test pilots must be above average pilots with excellent analytical skills and the ability to fly accurately whilst following a flight plan.
Test flying as a systematic activity started during the First World War, at the
In team sports, a captain is a title given to a member of the team. The title is frequently honorary, but in some cases the captain may have significant responsibility for strategy and teamwork while the game is in progress on the field. In either case, it is a position that indicates honor and respect from one's teammates – recognition as a leader by one's peers.
Depending on the sport, team captains may be given the responsibility of interacting with game officials regarding application and interpretation of the rules.
Various sports have differing roles for team captains.
A poet laureate (plural: poets laureate) is a poet officially appointed by a government, or conferring agency, who is often expected to compose poems for special events and occasions. The term dates back to the appointment of Bernard André by Henry VII of England, though analogous appointments date back to ancient Greece and (in Padua) to Albertino Mussato. In modern times, the title may also be conferred by an organization such as the Poetry Foundation, which has a designated Children's Poet Laureate. Other examples are the Pikes Peak Poet Laureate, which is designated by a "Presenting Partners" group from within the community; the Minnesota Poet Laureate chosen by the League of Minnesota Poets (est. 1934); the Northhampton Poet Laureate chosen by the Northhampton Arts Council, and the Martha's Vineyard Poet Laureate chosen by ten judges representing the Martha's Vineyard Poetry Society.
Today, over a dozen national governments continue the poet laureate tradition.
In ancient Greece the laurel was sacred to the god Apollo, and was used to form a crown or wreath of honour for poets and heroes. This custom, first revived in Padua for Albertino Mussato, was followed by Petrarch's own
Sheep husbandry is a subcategory of animal husbandry specifically dealing with the raising and breeding of domestic sheep. Sheep farming is primarily based on raising lambs for meat, or raising sheep for wool. Sheep may also be raised for milk or to sell to other farmers.
Sheep are kept in mobs in paddocks, in pens, or in a barn. Freshly shorn hoggets can be very susceptible to wet, windy weather and can quickly succumb to exposure. Sheep have to be kept dry for one to two days before shearing so that the fleece is dry enough to be pressed and to protect the health of the shearers.
Sheep, particularly those kept inside, are vaccinated after they are born. The lambs receive their first antibodies via their mother's colostrum in the first few hours of life, then a vaccination booster every six weeks for next three months, and then by booster every six months thereafter.
Weaning is a critical period in the life of young sheep. Sheep of this age need careful observation to find any weaners that are hollow, have a pale skin, or are falling behind the mob. Weaners are very susceptible to the deadly Barbers Pole worm (Haemonchus contortus), fly strike (Myiasis), scabby mouth, mycotic
In the United States Army, Air Force, and Marine Corps, colonel is a senior field grade military officer rank just above the rank of lieutenant colonel and just below the rank of brigadier general. It is equivalent to the naval rank of captain in the other uniformed services, such as the United States Navy, United States Coast Guard and the commissioned corps of the National Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration]] (NOAA).
The insignia of the rank of colonel, as seen on the right, is worn on the officer's left side (a mirror-image version is worn on the right side, such that the eagle always faces forward to the wearer's front; the left-side version is also worn centered on fatigue caps, helmets, ACU & ECWCS breasts, inter alia).
The pay grade for the rank of colonel or naval captain in the United States is O-6.
The insignia for a colonel is a silver eagle which is a stylized representation of the eagle dominating the Great Seal of the United States (which is the coat of arms of the United States). As on the Great Seal, the eagle has a U.S. shield superimposed on its chest and is holding an olive branch and bundle of arrows in its talons. However, in simplification of the
Pizza delivery is a service in which a pizzeria delivers a pizza to a customer. Delivery is normally made with an automobile, motor scooter, or bicycle.
Ordering pizza for delivery usually involves contacting a local pizza restaurant or chain by telephone or online. Online ordering has gained popularity in countries with high Internet usage such as the United States and Canada, where most pizza chains now offer online menus and instant ordering.
The pizza delivery industry has kept pace with technological developments since the 1980s beginning with the rise of the personal computer. Specialized computer software for the pizza delivery business helps determine the most efficient routes for carriers, track exact order and delivery times, manage calls and orders with PoS software, and other functions. Since 2008 GPS tracking technology has been used for real-time monitoring of delivery vehicles by customers over the Internet.
Pizzerias will often incorporate a time guarantee or a promise delivery within a predetermined period of time, perhaps specifying that late deliveries will be free of charge. For example, Domino's Pizza had a commercial campaign in the 1980s and early 1990s which
In some countries, a Senior Advisor is an appointed position by the Head of State to advise on the highest levels of national and government policy. Sometimes a junior position to this is called a National Policy Advisor. In some instances, these advisors form a Council of State or a State Council.
Senior Advisor also is a title for senior civil servants in several countries, and is also used in organisations.
The President of the Republic of China can appoint Senior Advisors to the Office of the President of the Republic of China (中華民國總統府資政) and National Policy Advisors to the Office of the President of the Republic of China (中華民國總統府國策顧問), but they do not form a council.
Senior Advisor is a title used within the Executive Branch of the United States Government for various positions.
In the Executive Office of the President of the United States, the title has been used in two different capacities:
Numerous examples of the position also exist throughout the Executive Departments and in the branch's independent agencies. For example, the FDA includes a position called the Senior Advisor for Science. The Department of the Interior includes, for example, a Senior Advisor for Alaskan
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Indonesia.
Indonesia had been a Dutch colony since 1800 as a part of the Dutch East Indies. The Dutch were expelled in March 1942 by the Japanese occupation of Indonesia. After the surrender of Japan in 1945, Sukarno declared independence on August 17, 1945. However, the Netherlands attempted to reestablish their colony during a prolonged war that lasted for four and a half years. Ultimately the struggle was unsuccessful for the Netherlands, and in December 1949, the Netherlands formally recognized Indonesian sovereignty.
The United States immediately recognized the independence of Indonesia and moved to establish diplomatic relations. A U.S. embassy was established in Jakarta on December 27, 1949 under the informal direction of a consul general. President Truman appointed H. Merle Cochran as ambassador the following day.
The United States Embassy in Indonesia is located in Jakarta, with consulates in Surabaya and Bali, and an American Presence Post in Medan
Acoustical engineering is the branch of engineering dealing with sound and vibration. It is the application of acoustics, the science of sound and vibration, in technology. Acoustical engineers are typically concerned with the manipulation and control of sound.
The primary goal of acoustical engineering is the reduction of unwanted sounds, which is referred to as noise control. Sound can have significant impacts on human health and well being, and is therefore important to control. Noise control principles are implemented into technology and design in a variety of ways. Applications include the design of noise barriers, sound absorbers, silencers, and buffer zones. The implementation of noise control technology differs in indoor and outdoor environments.
In addition to reducing unwanted sounds, acoustical engineers sometimes produce useful sounds or analyze sound waves to collect information. Examples of this include applications of ultrasonics and infrasonics, which make use of sound that cannot be heard by humans. Ultrasonic waves are acoustic waves with frequencies above the audible range (approximately 20 kHz). Applications of ultrasonics include sonar and medical imaging.
A general officer is an officer of high military rank, usually in the army, and in some nations, the air force. The term is widely used by many nations of the world, and when a country uses a different term, there is an equivalent title given.
The term "general" is used in two ways: as the generic title for all grades of general officer; and as a specific rank. Since the late twentieth century, the rank of general is usually the highest active rank of a military not at war.
The various grades of general officer are at the top of the rank structure. Lower-ranking officers are known as field officers or field-grade officers, and below them are company-grade officers. All officers who commanded more than a single regiment came to be known as "general officers". The word "general" is used in its ordinary sense in English (and other languages) as relating to larger, general, military units, rather than smaller units in particular.
There are two common systems of general ranks.
Variations of one form, the old European system, were once used throughout Europe. It is used in the United Kingdom (although it did not originate there), from which it eventually spread to the Commonwealth and
The Under Secretary for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs is a position within the U.S. Department of State that is intended to help ensure that public diplomacy is practiced in combination with public affairs and traditional diplomacy to advance U.S. interests and security. The Under Secretary oversees three bureaus at the Department of State: Educational and Cultural Affairs, Public Affairs, and International Information Programs. Also reporting to the Under Secretary are the Office of Policy, Planning and Resources for Public Diplomacy and Public Affairs and the Advisory Commission on Public Diplomacy.
The position was created on October 1, 1999, during the Clinton administration after Title XIII, Section 1313 of the Foreign Affairs Reform and Restructuring Act of 1998 (112 Stat. 2681-776). Section 2305 of the Act (112 Stat. 2681-825) increased the number of Under Secretaries of State from five to six. Subdivision A of the Act, also known as the Foreign Affairs Agencies Consolidation Act of 1998, abolished the United States Information Agency and the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency.
In baseball, the pitcher is the player who throws the baseball from the pitcher's mound toward the catcher to begin each play, with the goal of retiring a batter, who attempts to either make contact with the pitched ball or draw a walk. In the numbering system used to record defensive plays, the pitcher is assigned the number 1. Traditionally, the pitcher also bats. Starting in 1973 with the American League and spreading throughout the 1980s and 1990s, the hitting duties of the pitcher have generally been given over to the position of designated hitter, a cause of some controversy. The National League in Major League Baseball and the Japanese Central League are among the remaining leagues which have not adopted the designated hitter position.
In most cases, the objective of the pitcher is to deliver the pitch to the catcher without allowing the batter to hit the ball with the bat. A successful pitch is delivered in such a way that the batter either allows the pitch to pass through the strike zone, swings the bat at the ball and misses it, or hits the ball poorly (resulting in a pop fly or ground out). If the batter elects not to swing at the pitch, it is called a strike if any part
The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop and principal leader of the Church of England, the symbolic head of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the diocesan bishop of the Diocese of Canterbury. In his role as head of the Anglican Communion, the archbishop leads the third largest group of Christians in the world.
The current archbishop is the Most Reverend Rowan Williams. He is the 104th in a line which goes back more than 1400 years to St Augustine of Canterbury, the "Apostle to the English", in the year 597. From the time of St Augustine until the 16th century, the Archbishops of Canterbury were in full communion with the See of Rome and thus received the pallium. During the English Reformation the Church of England broke away from the authority of the Pope and the Roman Catholic Church, at first temporarily under Henry VIII and Edward VI and later permanently during the reign of Elizabeth I.
In the Middle Ages there was considerable variation in the methods of nomination of the Archbishop of Canterbury and other bishops. At various times the choice was made by the canons of Canterbury Cathedral, the King of England, or the Pope. Since the English Reformation, the
The title of Senior Counsel or State Counsel (postnominal SC) is given to a senior barrister or advocate in some countries, typically equivalent to the title "Queen's Counsel" (QC) used in some Commonwealth Realms. "Senior Counsel" is used in current or former Commonwealth countries or jurisdictions which have chosen to change the title "Queen's Counsel" to a name without monarchical connotations, sometimes (but not always) because the British monarch is no longer head of state, such that reference to the Queen is no longer appropriate. Examples of jurisdictions which have made the change because of the latter reason include Hong Kong, the Republic of Ireland, South Africa, Kenya, Malawi, Singapore, Guyana and Trinidad and Tobago. Just as a junior counsel is "called to the [Outer] Bar", a Senior Counsel is, in some jurisdictions, said to be "called to the Inner Bar".
The Irish Free State became independent in 1922 as a Dominion of the British Crown. Shortly after the Courts of Justice Act 1924 came into effect, Chief Justice Hugh Kennedy in conjunction with the Bar Council of Ireland modified the procedure for issuing patents of precedence. From July 1924, "King's Counsel" was
The Under Secretary of Agriculture for Rural Development, or USA(RD), is a high-ranking official in the United States Department of Agriculture and the principal advisor to the United States Secretary of Agriculture responsible for oversight of the Department's rural development programs and policies.
The Under Secretary is appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate to serve at the pleasure of the President. The current Under Secretary is Dallas Tonsager, who was appointed by President Barack Obama on May 18, 2009.
The Under Secretary of Agriculture for Rural Development, as head of the Office of Rural Development, provides assistance to the Nation's rural communities. In particular, this assistance comes in three areas: business, utilities, and housing. The Under Secretary oversees loans, grants, and technical assistance to rural residents, communities, and businesses.
With the rank of Under Secretary, the USA(RD) is a Level III position within the Executive Schedule. Since January 2010, the annual rate of pay for Level III is $165,300.
Officials reporting to the USA(NRE) include:
The previous Under Secretary was Thomas C. Dorr,
From 1885 until 1966 the area of southern Africa that is now Botswana was part of the Bechuanaland Protectorate of Great Britain.
In June 1964, Britain accepted proposals for democratic self-government in Botswana. The seat of government was moved from Mafikeng in South Africa, to newly established in Gaberones (now Gaborone) in 1965. The 1965 constitution led to the first general elections and to independence on September 30, 1966.
The United States immediately recognized the new nation and moved to establish diplomatic relations. An embassy in Gaberones was established on September 30, 1966—independence day for Botswana. Charles H. Pletcher was appointed as Chargé d'affaires ad interim pending the appointment of an ambassador.
This is a list of ambassadors of the United States to Georgia.
The United States recognized Georgia's independence on December 25, 1991, and established diplomatic relations March 29, 1993.
The U.S. Embassy in Tbilisi was established April 23, 1992, with Carey Cavanaugh as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.
This is a list of United States ambassadors to Madagascar. The United States has maintained diplomatic relations since June 1960. The Embassy Tananarive (now Antananarivo) was established on June 26, 1960. Currently, the Ambassador also serves US diplomatic interests or relations to Comoros.
Note: Embassy Tananarive (now Antananarivo) was established June 26, 1960.
Note: Between 1975 and 1980, the following officers served as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim: Gilbert H. Sheinbaum (Nov. 1975-Mar. 1977) and Robert S. Barrett (Mar. 1977-Jun 1980).
Note: Howard T. Perlow served as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim, Jul 1996-Aug 1998.
Vice admiral is a senior naval flag officer rank, which is equivalent to lieutenant general and air marshal. A vice admiral is typically senior to a rear admiral and junior to an admiral. In many navies, vice admiral is a three-star rank with a NATO Code of OF-8, although in some navies like the French Navy it is an OF-7 rank, the OF-8 code corresponding to the four-star rank of squadron vice-admiral.
The rank insignia for a vice admiral usually involves three stars, but this is not always the case. In the navy of Iraq, vice admiral insignia involves one star. In the navies of Azerbaijan, Bangladesh, China, Cuba, Iran, Mexico, North Korea, and Russia, vice admiral insignia involves two stars, and in the navy of Turkey, vice admiral insignia involves four stars.
In the Royal Australian Navy, the rank of vice admiral is held by the Chief of Navy and, when the positions are held by navy officers, by the Vice Chief of the Defence Force, the Chief of Joint Operations, and/or the Chief of Capability Development Group.
Vice admiral is the equivalent of air marshal in the Royal Australian Air Force and lieutenant general in the Australian Army.
In the Royal Canadian Navy, the rank of
The Abbot of Iona was the head of Iona Abbey during the Middle Ages and the leader of the monastic community of Iona, as well as the overlord of scores of monasteries in both Scotland and Ireland, including Durrow, Kells and, for a time, Lindisfarne. It was one of the most prestigious clerical positions in Dark Age Europe, and was visited by kings and bishops of the Picts, Franks and English. The Ionan abbots also had the status of Comarba of Colum Cille, i.e. the successors of that Saint, Columba.
Iona's position as head of the Columban network (familia) of churches declines, with abbots based at Derry, Raphoe, Kells and Dunkeld. In Scotland, the abbots of Dunkeld ruled much of central Scotland in the 11th century, and functioned as one of the most important politicians of northern Britain. One of the abbots, Crínán married Bethóc ingen Maíl Coluim, the daughter of King Máel Coluim II, and became the progenitor of the so-called House of Dunkeld, who ruled Scotland until the later thirteenth century. Dunkeld became a bishopric, and the monks based at Inchcolm Abbey became Augustinians.
At the beginning of the thirteenth century, the monks of Iona adopted the Benedictine rule. Iona
The current United States Ambassador to Korea is Sung Kim. His official title is "United States Ambassador to the Republic of Korea."
After the United States-Korea Treaty of 1882 was negotiated, diplomatic representatives were sent from Washington to Seoul. From then until 1905 there were several Envoys and Consuls General, each heading what was called a legation. After the Japanese had defeated the Chinese in 1895, and the Russians in 1905, Korea began to see its independence disappear. By 1910 Japan had annexed Korea and the U.S. no longer had a diplomatic presence in Korea.
At the end of World War II American forces accepted Japanese surrender in southern Korea, and Soviet forces accepted the surrender of the Japanese in northern Korea. Talks to agree upon a unity government for Korea failed and in 1948 two separate Korean states were created: the Republic of Korea (South Korea) and the Democratic People's Republic of Korea (North Korea). The United States established diplomatic relations with the new South Korean government, but did not recognize North Korea. Other nations like the Soviet Union recognized the Pyongyang regime in North Korea, but did not initially establish
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Malta.
Until 1964 Malta had been a part of the British Empire. Malta was granted full independence on September 21, 1964. The United States recognized the new nation and established full diplomatic relations. Embassy Valletta was established September 21, 1964, with Harrison Lewis as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim until an ambassador could be commissioned.
This is a list of the ambassadors of the United States to the Marshall Islands. The Office of the U.S. Representative was opened at Majuro on October 21, 1986. It was upgraded to an Embassy on September 6, 1989. On Tuesday, May 15, 2012, the White House Press Office, in a list of nominations, announced that President Barack Obama had nominated Thomas Hart Armbruster, of New York, a Career Member of the Senior Foreign Service, Class of Counselor, to be Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary of the United States of America to the Republic of the Marshall Islands. Armbruster was confirmed by the U.S. Senate on August 2, 2012. He will succeed Ambassador Campbell.
The United States Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues is the head of the Office of Global Criminal Justice in the United States Department of State. The ambassador-at-large advises the United States Secretary of State and the Under Secretary of State for Civilian Security, Human Rights, and Democracy directly and formulates U.S. policy responses to atrocities committed in areas of conflict and elsewhere throughout the world. As the President’s envoy, this Ambassador travels worldwide engaging heads of state and international organizations to build bilateral and international support for U.S. policies. As part of this, the Ambassador visits affected countries and engages a range of diplomatic, legal, economic, military, and intelligence tools to help secure peace and stability and build the rule of law.
David Scheffer served as the first U.S. Ambassador-at-Large for War Crimes Issues (1997–2001). He was followed by Pierre-Richard Prosper (2001–2005), and John Clint Williamson (2006–2009).
In July 2009, U.S. President Barack Obama nominated Stephen Rapp, a former United States Attorney and prosecutor for the United Nations Special Court for Sierra Leone, to succeed John Clint
An assembly line is a manufacturing process (most of the time called a progressive assembly) in which parts (usually interchangeable parts) are added to a product in a sequential manner to create a finished product much faster than with handcrafting-type methods. The division of labour was initially discussed by Adam Smith, regarding the manufacture of pins, in his book The Wealth of Nations (published in 1776). The assembly line was first mechanized in the U.S. by Eli Whitney, who also patented a type of cotton gin. Whitney began using the assembly line to manufacture muskets that had interchangeable parts. In 1797, he was contracted to supply 10,000 muskets for the U.S. government in two years. Prior to Whtiney's mechanization of the assembly line, craftsmen would hand make one musket at a time. Therefore, each musket was unique. If a single part of the musket broke it could not be easily replaced. Because parts manufactured by Whitney's assembly line parts were interchangeable. In the early 1900s, Ford Motor Company adopted the assembly line to mass produce the Model T.
Assembly lines are designed for the sequential organization of workers, tools or machines, and parts. The
The Commissioner of Internal Revenue (or IRS Commissioner) is the head of the Internal Revenue Service (IRS), a bureau within the United States Department of the Treasury.
The office of Commissioner was created by Congress by the Revenue Act of 1862. The Commissioner is appointed by the President, with the consent of the Senate, for a five year term.
The Commissioner's duties include administering, managing, conducting, directing, and supervising "the execution and application of the internal revenue laws or related statutes and tax conventions to which the United States is a party" and advising the President on the appointment and removal of a Chief Counsel of the IRS. Treasury Order 150-10 states in relevant part: "The Commissioner of Internal Revenue shall be responsible for the administration and enforcement of the Internal Revenue laws." The Commissioner reports to the Secretary of the Treasury through the Deputy Secretary of the Treasury.
One of the Commissioner's most important responsibilities with respect to the internal revenue laws involves prescribing Treasury Regulations administered by the IRS. The U.S. Treasury Regulations provide (in part):
However, the General
Marketing management is a business discipline which is focused on the practical application of marketing techniques and the management of a firm's marketing resources and activities. Rapidly emerging forces of globalization have led firms to market beyond the borders of their home countries, making international marketing highly significant and an integral part of a firm's marketing strategy. Marketing managers are often responsible for influencing the level, timing, and composition of customer demand accepted definition of the term. In part, this is because the role of a marketing manager can vary significantly based on a business's size, corporate culture, and industry context. For example, in a large consumer products company, the marketing manager may act as the overall general manager of his or her assigned product. To create an effective, cost-efficient marketing management strategy, firms must possess a detailed, objective understanding of their own business and the market in which they operate. In analyzing these issues, the discipline of marketing management often overlaps with the related discipline of strategic planning.
Traditionally, marketing analysis was structured
The title of Principal Painter in Ordinary to the King or Queen of England or, later, Great Britain, was awarded to a number of artists, nearly all mainly portraitists. It was different to the role of Serjeant Painter, and similar to the earlier role of "King's Painter". Other painters, for example Nicholas Hilliard had similar roles without the title, which seems to have been first used for Anthony van Dyck in 1632.
The following is a partial list of painters (in chronological order) who held the appointment of Principal Painter in Ordinary to the King, or Queen:
Other positions created included the Flower Painter in Ordinary (during the reigns of Queen Adelaide and Queen Victoria), Miniature Painter in Ordinary, and Marine Painter in Ordinary.
A professor is a scholarly teacher; the precise meaning of the term varies by country. Literally, professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being usually an expert in arts or sciences, a teacher of high rank. In much of the world, including most Commonwealth nations (such as the United Kingdom, Australia, New Zealand) and northern Europe professor is reserved only for the most senior academics at a university, typically a department chair, or an awarded chair specifically bestowed recognizing an individual at a university. A professor is a highly accomplished and recognized academic, and the title is awarded only after decades of scholarly work. In the United States and Canada the title of professor is granted to all scholars with Doctorate degrees (typically Ph.D.s) who teach in two- and four-year colleges and universities, and is used in the titles assistant professor and associate professor, which are not considered professor-level positions elsewhere, as well as for full professors.
In countries on the northern European mainland, such as The Netherlands and the Scandinavian countries, usage of professor as a legal title is limited much the same way as in most
The following is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Ghana. The Embassy in Accra was established March 6, 1957, with Donald W. Lamm in charge as chargé d'affaires.
Important Notice : Ambassador Donald G. Teitelbaum ( Incumbent ) 2008 June Senior Staff Of Travel Relations Peter Asante Smith
Senior Staff Of Travel Relations Peter Asante Smith
The following is a chief of mission from the United States to Jordan.
The first chief of mission, Gerald A. Drew held the title of Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary. The second chief of mission, Joseph C. Green, was appointed as an envoy but promoted to as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary, as the Legation Amman was raised to embassy status on August 27, 1952. Every chief of mission since has held the title of United States Ambassador.
This is a list of United States Ambassadors to Switzerland.
Since 1997, the US ambassador to Switzerland is also accredited to Liechtenstein. The position is generally held by a political appointee, not a career diplomat.
In the United States Army, United States Air Force, and United States Marine Corps, a lieutenant colonel is a field grade military officer rank just above the rank of major and just below the rank of colonel. It is equivalent to the naval rank of commander in the other uniformed services.
The pay grade for the rank of lieutenant colonel is O-5. The insignia for the rank consists of a silver oak leaf, with slight stylized differences between the Army/Air Force version and the Navy/Marine Corps version.
The rank of lieutenant colonel was first created during the Revolutionary War, when the position was held by aides to Regiment Colonels, and was sometimes known as "lieutenant to the colonel." The rank of lieutenant colonel had existed in the British Army since at least the 16th century.
During the 19th century, lieutenant colonel was often a terminal rank for many officers, since the rank of "full colonel" was considered extremely prestigious reserved only for the most successful officers. Upon the outbreak of the Civil War, the rank of lieutenant colonel became much more common and was used as a "stepping stone" for officers who commanded small regiments or battalions and were
Sergeant (normally abbreviated to Sgt) is a rank used in some form by most militaries, police forces, and other uniformed organizations around the world. Its origins are the Latin serviens, "one who serves", through the French term Sergent.
In most armies the rank of sergeant OR-5 corresponds to command of a squad (or section). In Commonwealth armies, it is a more senior rank OR-6, corresponding roughly to a platoon second-in-command. In the United States Army, sergeant is a more junior rank, corresponding to a four-man fireteam leader OR-4.
More senior non-commissioned ranks are often variations on sergeant, for instance staff sergeant, sergeant first class, master sergeant, first sergeant and sergeant major. The spelling serjeant is used in a few regiments of the British Army.
In most non-naval military or paramilitary organizations, the various grades of sergeant are non-commissioned officers (NCOs) ranking above privates and corporals, and below warrant officers and commissioned officers. The responsibilities of a sergeant differ from army to army. There are usually several ranks of sergeant, each corresponding to greater experience and responsibility for the daily lives of the
Under Secretary for Economic Growth, Energy, and the Environment is an undersecretary position within the United States Department of State. The Under Secretary for Economic Growth, Energy, and the Environment serves as senior economic advisor at the State Department and advises the Secretary of State on international economic policy. The Under Secretary also leads the work of the Department on trade, agriculture, aviation, and bilateral trade relations with America's economic partners. The current Under Secretary is Robert Hormats, who was sworn in on September 23, 2009.
An Act of Congress first authorized an Under Secretary of State for Economic Affairs on August 1, 1946, for a 2-year period as the third-ranking officer in the Department. The position was not renewed, however, and between 1947 and 1958 the ranking officer in the Department handling foreign economic matters was either a Deputy Under Secretary or an Assistant Secretary of State. On June 30, 1958, Congress re-established the position of Under Secretary for Economic Affairs in the Mutual Security Act. The following year, the Department of State Organization Act of July 30, 1959, authorized the President to appoint
The Under Secretary of Commerce for Oceans and Atmosphere, or USC(OA), is a high-ranking official in the United States Department of Commerce and the principal advisor to the United States Secretary of Commerce on the environmental and scientific activities of the Department. The Under Secretary is dual hatted as the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration within the Commerce Department
The Under Secretary is appointed by the President of the United States with the consent of the United States Senate to serve at the pleasure of the President. The current Under Secretary is Dr. Jane Lubchenco, who was appointed by President Barack Obama on March 20, 2009.
As the Administrator of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, the Under Secretary oversees the day-to-day functions of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, as well as laying out its strategic and operational future. Components of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that the Administrator oversees include the National Environmental Satellite, Data and Information Service, National Marine Fisheries Service, National Ocean Service, National Weather Service,
After Kenya's independence on December 12, 1963, the United States immediately recognized the new nation and moved to establish diplomatic relations. The embassy in Nairobi was established December 12, 1963—Kenya’s independence day—with Laurence C. Vass as chargé d'affaires ad interim pending the appointment of an ambassador.
This is a list of United States ambassadors to Uzbekistan.
The United States recognized Uzbekistan on December 25, 1991, and established diplomatic relations on February 19, 1992.
The embassy was opened by interim ambassador Michael Mozur on March 16, 1992.
A doorman (also called porter in UK English) is an individual hired to provide courtesy and security services at a residential building or hotel. They are particularly common in urban luxury highrises. At a residential building, a doorman is responsible for opening doors and screening visitors and deliveries. He will often provide other courtesy services such as signing for packages, carrying luggage between the elevator and the street, or hailing taxis for residents and guests.
The profession dates back at least to the time of Plautus under the Roman Republic where its name was iānitor (from iānua, 'door', the root of both January and janitor). The United States House of Representatives had an official doorkeeper until the post was abolished in 1995.
In New York City, doormen and elevator operators are unionized and typically represented by SEIU 32BJ. They last went on strike in 1991, and other strikes were narrowly averted in 2006 and 2010.
Engineering management is a specialized form of management that is concerned with the application of engineering principles to business practice. Engineering management is a career that brings together the technological problem-solving savvy of engineering and the organizational, administrative, and planning abilities of management in order to oversee complex enterprises from conception to completion.
Example areas of engineering are product development, manufacturing, construction, design engineering, industrial engineering, technology, production, or any other field that employs personnel who perform an engineering function.
Successful engineering managers typically require training and experience in business and engineering. Technically inept managers tend to be deprived of support by their technical team, and non-commercial managers tend to lack commercial acumen to deliver in a market economy. Largely, engineering managers manage engineers who are driven by non-entrepreneurial thinking, thus require the necessary people skills to coach, mentor and motivate technical professionals. Engineering professionals joining manufacturing companies sometimes become engineering managers
A law clerk or a judicial clerk is a person who provides assistance to a judge or a licensed attorney in researching issues before the court and in writing opinions. Unlike the court clerk and the courtroom deputy, both of whom are administrative staff for the court, a law clerk assists the judge in making legal determinations. Most law clerks are recent law school graduates who performed at or near the top of their class. Various studies have shown clerks to be influential in the formation of case law through their influence on judges' decisions. Working as a law clerk generally opens up career opportunities.
While there has been relatively little inquiry comparing clerks across nations, some research has been done comparing clerkship practices in the U.S. with non-U.S. courts. Still, in some countries the position of law clerk does not exist. But in many nations clerk-duties are performed by permanent staff attorneys or junior apprentice-like judges, such as those that sit on France's Conseil d'État. In English Courts, they are known as Judicial Assistants. The permanent staff attorneys, or clerks—called Referendaires at the European Court of Justice provide one point of
A principal investigator (PI) is the lead scientist or engineer for a particular well-defined science (or other research) project, such as a laboratory study or clinical trial. It is often used as a synonym for "head of the laboratory" or "research group leader", not just for a particular study.
In the context of USA federal funding from agencies such as the NIH or the NSF, the PI is the person who takes direct responsibility for completion of a funded project, directing the research and reporting directly to the funding agency. For small projects (which might involve 1-5 people) the PI is typically the person who conceived of the investigation, but for larger projects the PI may be selected by a team to obtain the best strategic advantage for the project.
In the context of a clinical trial a PI may be an academic working with grants from NIH or other funding agencies, or may be effectively a contractor for a pharmaceutical company working on testing the safety and efficacy of new medicines.
The Association of Clinical Research Professionals (ACRP) provides a certification, specific to physician investigators/principal investigators (PIs). ACRP offers the designation "Certified
A rector ("ruler", from the Latin regere and rector meaning "ruler" in Latin) in the sphere of academia is the highest academic official of many universities and in certain other institutions of higher education, as well as even in some secondary-level schools. The term and office of a rector are called a rectorate.
The title is used widely in universities across Europe. It is also very common in Latin American countries. It is also used in Russia, Pakistan, the Philippines, Indonesia and Israel, all of which are strongly influenced by European traditions. In some universities, the title is phrased in an even loftier manner, as Rector Magnificus or Lord Rector.
A notable exception to this terminology is in England and elsewhere in Great Britain, where the head of a university has traditionally been referred to as a "Chancellor". This pattern has been followed in the Commonwealth, the United States, and other countries under British influence. In Scotland, many universities are headed by a Chancellor, with the Lord Rector designated as an elected representative of students at the head of the university court.
The head of a university in Germany is called a president, rector
A resident assistant (also variously known as a resident advisor, resident mentor, peer advisor, community advisor, or senior resident), commonly shortened to RA is a trained peer leader who supervises those living in a residence hall or group housing facility. The majority of RAs work at colleges, universities, or residential mental health and substance abuse facilities.
An RA has many roles and responsibilities, including, but not limited to, acting as a para-counselor for students, being a familiar first resource for students with academic or institutional questions, and enforcing residence policies. Typically, but not exclusively, the RA goes through a rigorous training process. An RA must balance his/her own schedule and priorities with the needs of the students he/she is supporting. Above all, a resident assistant must be an example and uphold professional and personal accountability as outlined by the institution.
According to the Bureau of Labor Statistics, the national mean hourly wage of RAs is $12.17, and the national mean average annual wage is $25,320. An RA at a college or university does not typically receive an hourly wage, but is compensated in other ways. Common
The following is a list of Ambassadors that the United States has sent to Chile. The current title given by the United States State Department to this position is Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
Cashier is an occupation focused on the handling of payments.
In a shop, a cashier (or checkout assistant) is a person who scans the goods through a machine called a cash register that the customer wishes to purchase at the retail store. After all of the goods have been scanned, the cashier then collects the payment (in cash, check and/or by credit/debit card) for the goods or services exchanged, records the amount received, makes change, and issues receipts or tickets to customers. Cashiers will record amounts received and may prepare reports of transactions, reads and record totals shown on cash register tape and verify against cash on hand. A cashier may be required to know value and features of items for which money is received; may cash checks; may give cash refunds or issue credit memorandums to customers for returned merchandise; and may operate ticket-dispensing machines and the like.
In one form or another, cashiers have been around for thousands of years. In many businesses, such as grocery stores, the cashier is a "stepping stone" position. Many employers require employees to be cashiers in order to move up to customer service or other positions.
In the more modern
An editor in the professional or traditional sense is generally an individual who makes corrective changes, or edits, in the content or format of a creative work. Such works may deal with the literary arts, musical composition, film, radio programs, or other forms intended for publication or public presentation. The job of a professional editor can range from revising a particular work, such as the text of a book or magazine article, to supervising the publication and distribution of such a work, such as a newspaper or other printed and published materials. Editors are most often identified as those who work to prepare book manuscripts and newspapers for publication.
A Combat Systems Officer (CSO) is an aeronautically rated officer in the U.S. Air Force, having been previously known by the title Navigator. CSOs are responsible for in-flight air operations and aircraft mission/weapon systems, and is the new rated designation for Navigators, Electronic Warfare Officers, and Weapon Systems Officers who complete Undergraduate Combat Systems Officer Training (UCSOT) with the Air Education and Training Command's 479th Flying Training Group (479 FTG) at Naval Air Station Pensacola, Florida.
Often the Mission Commander in USAF aircraft, the CSO manages the mission and integrates with the Aircraft Commander to collectively achieve and maintain situational awareness and mission effectiveness. CSOs are trained in navigation, the use of the electromagnetic spectrum, and weapon system employment. Aircrew responsibilities include mission planning, mission timing, weapons targeting and employment, threat reactions, aircraft communications, and hazard avoidance.
CSO training merges three previous USAF navigator training tracks formerly known as the Navigator (NAV) track, the Weapon Systems Officer (WSO) track and the Electronic Warfare Officer (EWO) track into
The Dean of St. Patrick's Cathedral is the head of St. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, elected by the Chapter of the cathedral. The office was created in 1219 or 1220, by one of several charters granted to the cathedral by Archbishop Henry de Loundres between 1218 and 1220.
For centuries, the Dean of St. Patrick's was the only Dean in Dublin, and documents of those years often refer to him as the Dean of Dublin - but from around 1539, there was also the office of Dean of Christ Church Cathedral, which had been a Priory, headed by a Prior and Canons.
The right to elect the Dean of St. Patrick's is vested exclusively in the Chapter of the Cathedral (though pre-1870, there could be an exception where a vacancy occurred due to promotion of the Dean to the office of a Bishop), and has been defended against monarchs and even the Pope. The Archbishop of Dublin has one of the 28 seats (the Dean plus 3 other dignities plus 24 canons), used only at the time of election, but no other special authority.
The following have served as deans (where they are known to have previously held office at the cathedral, this is noted):
In this period, the Pope attempted to assume the power to appoint the
A gravedigger is a cemetery worker responsible for digging a grave prior to a funeral service. If the grave is in a cemetery on the property of a church or other religious organization (part of, or called, a churchyard), gravediggers may be members of the decedent's family or volunteer parishioners. Digging graves has also been one of the traditional duties of a church's sexton. In municipal and privately owned cemeteries, gravediggers may be low-paid, unskilled, and temporary laborers, or they may be well-paid, trained, and professional careerists, as their duties may include landscaping tasks and courteous interactions with mourners and other visitors.
A gravedigger implements a variety of tools to accomplish his primary task. A template, in the form of a wooden frame built to prescribed specifications, is often place on the ground over the intended grave. The gravedigger may use a sod-cutter or spade to cut the outline of the grave and remove the top layer of sod. Digging the grave by hand usually requires shovels, picks, mattocks, and/or other tools. Cemeteries in industrialized countries may keep a backhoe loader and other heavy equipment, which greatly increases the
The Administrator and Deputy Administrator of NASA are the highest-ranked officials of NASA, the space agency of the United States. The Administrator serves as the senior space science adviser to the President of the United States. According to NASA, the role of the Administrator is to "lead the NASA team and manage its resources to advance the Vision for Space Exploration." The Deputy Administrator of NASA "serves as the agency’s second in command and is responsible to the administrator for providing overall leadership, planning, and policy direction for the agency. [He or she] represents NASA to the Executive Office of the President, Congress, heads of federal and other appropriate government agencies, international organizations, and external organizations and communities. [He or she] also oversees the day to day work of NASA’s functional offices, such as the Office of the Chief Financial Officer, Office of General Counsel and Strategic Communications", according to NASA (referring to Shana Dale).
The first Administrator of NASA was Dr. T. Keith Glennan; during his term he brought together the disparate projects in space development research in the US. Daniel Goldin held the
The Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics, or USD(AT&L), is a senior civilian official in the Office of the Secretary of Defense within the Department of Defense. USD(AT&L) is the principal staff assistant and advisor to the Secretary of Defense and the Deputy Secretary of Defense for all matters concerning the Departmental acquisitions and the general management of the Department as a whole.
The Under Secretary is appointed from civilian life by the President with the consent of the Senate to serve at the pleasure of the President. The currently Under Secretary is Frank Kendall III, who was appointed by President Barack Obama on October 6, 2011.
The subdivision within the Office of the Secretary of Defense supervised by the Under Secretary is known as Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Acquisition, Technology and Logistics. The Office is the principal staff element for the Department of Defense for acquisitions, research and development, advanced technology, and logistics. As the Department's chief administrative officer, the Under Secretary oversees installation management, military construction, occupational health management, utilities
The Secretary-General of the United Nations, abbreviated UNSYG, is the head of the United Nations Secretariat, one of the principal organs of the United Nations. The Secretary-General also acts as the de facto spokesperson and leader of the United Nations.
The current Secretary-General is Ban Ki-moon of South Korea, who took office on 1 January 2007. His first term expired on 31 December 2011. He was re-elected, unopposed, to a second term on 21 June 2011.
The Secretary-General was envisioned by U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt as a "world moderator", but the vague definition provided by the UN Charter left much room for interpretation by those who would later inhabit the position. According to the UN website, his roles are further defined as "diplomat and advocate, civil servant, and CEO". Nevertheless, this more abstract description has not prevented the office holders from speaking out and playing important roles on global issues to various degrees. Article 97 under Chapter XV of the UN Charter states that the Secretary-General shall be the "chief administrative officer" of the Organization, but does not dictate his specific obligations.
Responsibilities of the
This is a list of ambassadors of the United States and other Heads of Mission to Lebanon.
On September 6, 1989, all United States personnel were withdrawn from Beirut during unrest resulting from there being no clear successor to President Amin Gemayel. Ambassador McCarthy did not formally present his credentials until 1989 to Rene Moawad.
The Dalai Lama is a high lama in the Gelug or "Yellow Hat" branch of Tibetan Buddhism. The name is a combination of the Sino-Mongolian word dalai meaning "Ocean" and the Tibetan word བླ་མ་ bla-ma (with a silent "b") meaning "guru, teacher".
In religious terms, the Dalai Lama is believed by his devotees to be the rebirth of a long line of tulkus who are considered to be manifestations of the bodhisattva of compassion, Avalokiteśvara. Traditionally, the Dalai Lama is thought of as the latest reincarnation of a series of spiritual leaders who have chosen to be reborn in order to enlighten others. The Dalai Lama is often thought to be the leader of the Gelug School, but this position belongs officially to the Ganden Tripa, which is a temporary position appointed by the Dalai Lama who, in practice, exerts much influence. The line of Dalai Lamas began as a lineage of spiritual teachers; the 5th Dalai Lama assumed political authority over Tibet.
For certain periods between the 17th century and 1959, the Dalai Lamas sometimes directed the Tibetan government, which administered portions of Tibet from Lhasa. The 14th Dalai Lama remained the head of state for the Central Tibetan
The United States established diplomatic relations with Ethiopia in 1903 and commissioned its first ambassador to Ethiopia, Hoffman Philip, in 1908. Relations continued uninterrupted until 1980. In July 1980, the U.S. Ambassador to Ethiopia was recalled at the request of the Ethiopian Government, and the U.S. Embassy in Ethiopia and the Ethiopian Embassy in the United States were headed by chargés d’affaires. After the defeat of the Derg regime in 1991 and installation of a new government, the current chargé was commissioned as the new ambassador. The U.S. has had good relations with the Ethiopian government since that time.
Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs is a position of the United States government within the Department of State that heads the Bureau for International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs, which is responsible for development of policies and programs to combat international narcotics and crime. The current Assistant Secretary is David T. Johnson.
On October 1, 1978, Congress, in the Foreign Relations Authorization Act for fiscal Year 1979, authorized the position of Assistant Secretary of State for International Narcotics Matters, to be responsible for the overall coordination of the role of the Department of State in the international aspects of narcotics problems. This title had been given in full in each appointee's commission. The new Assistant Secretary, who headed the Bureau for International Narcotics Matters, replaced a Senior Adviser to the Secretary of State on Narcotics, who had served with a rank equivalent to an Assistant Secretary of State since 1971. The Department of State first supported the Department of the Treasury's Bureau of Narcotics in 1909. The title of this position was changed from International
The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs is a position within the American Department of State that manages the Bureau of Political-Military Affairs, charged with linking the Department of Defense and the Department of State by providing policy in the areas of international security, security assistance, military operations, defense strategy and policy, military use of space, and defense trade. The Assistant Secretary of State for Political-Military Affairs reports to the Under Secretary of State for Arms Control and International Security Affairs.
The current Assistant Secretary is Andrew J. Shapiro, who was sworn into office on June 22, 2009, after being appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. Shapiro is a 1994 graduate of Columbia Law School.
When the Department of State originally established the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs on September 18, 1969, the bureau had replaced a special component for politico-military affairs that had served under the Deputy Under Secretary of State for Political Affairs since 1960. The head of the Bureau had the title of Director of the Bureau of Politico-Military Affairs, and was designated by the
The Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (CJCS) is by law the highest ranking military officer in the United States Armed Forces, and is the principal military advisor to the President of the United States, the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council and the Secretary of Defense. While the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff outranks all other officers, he does not have operational command authority over the Armed Forces; however, the Chairman does assist the President and the Secretary of Defense in exercising their command functions.
The Chairman convenes the meetings and coordinates the efforts of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS), an advisory body comprising the Chairman, the Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, the chiefs of staff of the United States Army and United States Air Force, the Chief of Naval Operations, the Commandant of the Marine Corps, and the Chief of the National Guard Bureau. The Joint Staff is under the exclusive direction of the Chairman.
Although the office of Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is considered very important and highly prestigious, neither the Chairman, the Vice Chairman, nor the Joint Chiefs of Staff as a body
The Under Secretary for Intelligence or USD(I) is a high-ranking civilian position in the Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD) within the U.S. Department of Defense that acts as the principal advisor and deputy to the Secretary and Deputy Secretary of Defense on matters relating to military intelligence.
The Under Secretary is appointed from civilian life by the President and confirmed by the Senate to serve at the pleasure of the President.
The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense for Intelligence (OUSD(I)) is principal staff element of the Department of Defense regarding intelligence, counterintelligence, security, sensitive activities, and other intelligence-related matters. As the Secretary of Defense's representative, the USD(I) exercises oversight over, among others, the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency (NGA), the National Reconnaissance Office (NRO) and the National Security Agency (NSA). In addition, the Under Secretary is also dual-hatted, serving as the Director of Defense Intelligence under the Office of the Director of National Intelligence.
With the rank of Under Secretary, the USD(I) is a Level III position within
A reporter is a type of journalist who researches and presents information in certain types of mass media.
Reporters gather their information in a variety of ways, including tips, press releases, sources (those with newsworthy information) and witnessing events. They perform research through interviews, public records, and other sources. The information-gathering part of the job is sometimes called "reporting" as distinct from the production part of the job, such as writing articles. Reporters generally split their time between working in a newsroom and going out to witness events or interview people.
Most reporters working for major news media outlets are assigned an area to focus on, called a beat or patch. They are encouraged to cultivate sources to improve their information gathering.
Reporters working for major the Western news media usually have a university or college degree. The degree is sometimes in journalism, but in most countries, that is generally not a requirement. When hiring reporters, editors tend to give much weight to the reporter's previous work (such as newspaper clippings), even when written for a student newspaper or as part of an internship. They work long
The following is a list of Ambassadors of the United States, or other chiefs of mission, to Brazil. The title given by the United States State Department to this position is currently Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Cyprus.
Until 1960 Cyprus had been a colony of the British Empire. On August 16, 1960 Cyprus gained its independence from the United Kingdom. The United States recognized the new nation and established an embassy in Nicosia on August 16, 1960, with L. Douglas Heck as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. Diplomatic relations between the United States and Cyprus have been continuous since that time.
One ambassador, Rodger P. Davies, was assassinated by a sniper while at his post in 1974.
The United States does not recognize the Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, proclaimed November 15, 1983 by Turkey.
The U.S. Embassy in Cyprus is located in Nicosia.
Note: The following officers served as chargés d’affaires ad interim: John U. Nix (July 1989–July 1990) and Carolyn Huggins (July 1990–November 1990).
The following is a list of ambassadors of the United States to Guyana. The current title given by the United States State Department to this position is Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
This is a list of United States ambassadors, or lower-ranking heads of a diplomatic mission to Iraq.
The United States broke off full ties with Iraq over the Six Day War and did not resume them until 1984. The US maintained an Interests Section starting in 1972, hosted by the Belgian embassy.
The American embassy in Baghdad remained closed until 2000 when it was staffed by Japanese diplomats working in proxy with the US. No new Ambassador or Chargé d'Affaires was appointed until after the Second Gulf War. However the U.S. Interests Section was opened at the Polish embassy in January, 1991. The Polish embassy represented interests of the U.S.A. until June 30, 2004.
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Kazakhstan.
Kazakhstan had been a constituent SSR of the Soviet Union. Upon dissolution of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan declared independence on December 16, 1991. It was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence.
The United States recognized Kazakhstan ten days later on December 26, 1991. The U.S. embassy was established in Almaty (then named Alma-Ata) on February 3, 1992, with William Harrison Courtney as chargé d'affaires ad interim. He was subsequently appointed as the first U.S. ambassador to Kazakhstan.
In 1997 the nation’s capital was moved to Astana, where the U.S. embassy is now located.
A chief information security officer (CISO) is the senior-level executive within an organization responsible for establishing and maintaining the enterprise vision, strategy and program to ensure information assets are adequately protected. The CISO directs staff in identifying, developing, implementing and maintaining processes across the organization to reduce information and information technology (IT) risks, respond to incidents, establish appropriate standards and controls, and direct the establishment and implementation of policies and procedures. The CISO is also usually responsible for information-related compliance.
Typically, the CISO's influence reaches the whole organization. Responsibilities include:
Having a CISO or the equivalent function in the organization has become a standard in most business, government and non-profit sectors. Throughout the world, a growing number of organizations have a CISO. By 2009, approximately 85% of large organizations had a security executive, up from 56% in 2008, and 43% in 2006. In 2011, in a survey by PricewaterhouseCoopers for their Annual Information Security Survey, 80% of businesses had a CISO or equivalent. About one-third of
This is a list of ambassadors of the United States to Lesotho.
Prior to 1965, the area of southern Africa that is now Lesotho was a British protectorate by the name of Basutoland. Along with most of the Empire’s other colonies and protectorates, Basutoland gained full independence from Britain in the 1960s. The nation was granted full autonomy on April 30, 1965. On October 4, 1966, Basutoland was granted independence, governed by a constitutional monarchy with a bicameral parliament. At the same time the name of the country was changed to The Kingdom of Lesotho.
The United States immediately recognized Lesotho after the nation gained its independence. An embassy in Maseru was established on October 4, 1966, Lesotho’s independence day. Richard St. F. Post was appointed as chargé d'affaires ad interim pending the arrival of an ambassador. The first ambassador, Charles J. Nelson was appointed on June 9, 1971.
The United States Ambassador to Macedonia is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of the Republic of Macedonia.
The Ambassador, based out of Skopje, works with the rest of the embassy - 70 other Americans and 240 locals - to advance bilateral relations.
The United States established a liaison office in Macedonia in Skopje on 3 December, 1993 with Robert L. Norman as Principal Officer, after Macedonia declared independence in 1991. The US recognized Macedonia 9 February, 1994.
The United States has maintained diplomatic relations with Panama since its independence from Colombia in 1903. (The US encouraged this revolution in order to secure the rights to build and manage the Panama Canal.) The rank of the US chief of mission to Panama was originally Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary, but it was upgraded to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary in 1939.
Normal diplomatic relations between the United States and Panama have been interrupted only once, from January 10 to April 3, 1964, in the aftermath of the Martyrs' Day riots over sovereignty.
The following is a list of United States Ambassadors, or other Chiefs of Mission, to Panama. The title given by the United States State Department to this position is currently Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.
The team captain of an association football team, sometimes known as the skipper, is a team member chosen to be the on-pitch leader of the team: it is often one of the older or more experienced members of the squad, or a player that can heavily influence a game. The team captain is usually identified by the wearing of an armband.
The only official responsibility of a captain specified by the Laws of the Game is to participate in the coin toss prior to kick-off (for choice of ends) and prior to a penalty shootout. Contrary to what is sometimes claimed, captains have no special authority under the Laws to challenge a decision by the referee. However, referees will sometimes talk to the captain of a side about the side's general behaviour.
At an award-giving ceremony after a fixture like a cup competition final, the captain usually leads the team up to collect their medals. Any trophy won by a team will be received by the captain who will also be the first one to hoist it, similar to a captain in the National Hockey League when they raise the Stanley Cup.
The captain generally provides a rallying point for the team: if morale is low, it is the captain who will be looked upon to boost
The term migrant worker has different official meanings and connotations in different parts of the world. The United Nations' definition is broad, including any people working outside of their home country. The term can also be used to describe someone who migrates within a country, possibly their own, in order to pursue work such as seasonal work.
The "United Nations Convention on the Protection of the Rights of All Migrant Workers and Members of Their Families" defines migrant worker as follows:
The Convention has been Asia, and China (amongst other nations that receive foreign labour).
In Canada, companies are beginning to recruit temporary foreign workers under Service Canada's recent expansion of an immigration program for migrant workers.
Migrant workers in China are mostly people from impoverished regions who go to more urban and prosperous coastal regions in search of work, hence they are the main force for urbanization in the People's Republic of China. According to Chinese government statistics, the current number of migrant workers in China is estimated at 120 million, approximately 9% of the population. China's urban migrants sent home the equivalent of US$65.4 billion
The Under Secretary for Nuclear Security, in the United States Department of Energy, is the Administrator for the National Nuclear Security Administration. The National Nuclear Security Administration's responsibilities include designing, producing, and maintaining safe, secure and reliable nuclear weapons for the U.S. military, providing safe, militarily effective naval nuclear propulsion plants, and promoting international nuclear safety and nonproliferation. The incumbent Under Secretary, Thomas Paul D'Agostino, was sworn in on August 30, 2007.
The Under Secretary for Nuclear Security is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate. The Under Secretary is required to have extensive background in national security, organizational management, and appropriate technical fields. The Under Secretary is also a member of the Nuclear Weapons Council, and is the chair of the Council when a majority votes that the issue at hand is the primary concern of the Department of Energy. The Under Secretary is paid at level III of the Executive Schedule, meaning he or she receives a basic annual salary of $152,000 as of 2006.
Assisting the Under Secretary for Nuclear Security are the
Commander is a naval rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. Commander is also used as a rank or title in some organizations outside of the armed forces, particularly in police and law enforcement.
Commander is a rank used in navies but is very rarely used as a rank in armies (except in special forces where it designates the team leader). The title (originally "master and commander") originated in the 18th century to describe naval officers who commanded ships of war too large to be commanded by a Lieutenant but too small to warrant the assignment of a post-captain, or (before about 1770) a sailing-master; the commanding officer served as his own Master. In practice, these were usually unrated sloops-of-war of no more than 20 guns. The Royal Navy shortened "master and commander" to "commander" in 1794; however, the term "master and commander" remained (unofficially) in common parlance for several years. The equivalent American rank master commandant remained in use until changed to commander in 1838. A corresponding rank in some navies is frigate captain. In the 20th and 21st centuries, the rank has been
Cape Verde had been a Portuguese colony for more than 500 years since 1456. in 1974 Portugal and the Cape Verdeans signed an agreement to form a transitional government, and Cape Verde gained full independence from Portugal on July 5, 1975.
The United States recognized Cape Verde and commissioned its first ambassador Melissa F. Wells in 1976. Ambassador Wells was concurrently accredited to Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde while resident at Bissau, the capital of Guinea-Bissau. In 1980, an embassy was established in the capital Praia with a chargé d’affaires managing the business of the embassy.
The following is a list of Ambassadors of the United States, or other chiefs of mission, to Colombia and its predecessor states. The title given by the United States State Department to this position is currently Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
The following were commissioned either Chargés d'Affaires or Ministers to Gran Colombia.
The following were commissioned as either Chargés d'Affaires or Ministers to New Granada.
The following were commissioned as Ministers to the United States of Colombia.
The following were commissioned as either Ministers or Ambassadors to the Republic of Colombia.
The following is a list of United States Ambassadors to Nigeria.
Note: The Embassy in Lagos was established October 1, 1960, with Ambassador Palmer in charge pending presentation of his letter of credence.
Note: The U.S. Embassy was transferred from Lagos to Abuja September 15, 2000.
The Assistant Secretary of State for Arms Control, Verification and Compliance is the head of the Bureau of Arms Control, Verification and Compliance. Formerly known as the Bureau of Verification, Compliance and Implementation.(http://www.state.gov/r/pa/prs/ps/2010/10/148521.htm) The position was created on December 12, 1999 by Secretary Albright as the Assistant Secretary of State for Verification and Compliance. The Bureau became fully operational on February 1, 2000. Within the Department, the Assistant Secretary is responsible for all matters relating to the supervision of verification and compliance with international arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament agreements. On March 17, 2009, President Barack Obama nominated former United States Department of Energy official Rose Gottemoeller to fill the position. She was confirmed by the Senate on April 3, 2009. Gottemoeller is an expert in Russian defense and nuclear issues.
The Assistant Secretary advises the Secretary of State and the Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security/Senior Adviser to the President and the Secretary of State for Arms Control, Nonproliferation and Disarmament on the
The Commissioner of Food and Drugs is the head of the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), an agency of the United States Department of Health and Human Services. The commissioner is appointed by the president of the United States with the advice and consent of the Senate. The commissioner reports to the Secretary of Health and Human Services.
Due to frequent controversies involving the FDA, appointments are not always prompt and the agency is often headed by an acting commissioner. For example, Andrew von Eschenbach's appointment was held up by senators who objected to the FDA's refusal to allow emergency contraception to be sold over the counter.
The commissioner has frequently been a physician, but this is not a requirement for the post.
A store manager is the person ultimately responsible for the day-to-day operations (or management) of a retail store. All employees working in the store report to the store manager. A store manager reports to a district or general manager.
Responsibilities of a store manager may include:
A store manager must meet monthly, quarterly, or annual sales goals, depending on the company's fiscal cycle. This involves setting individual sales goals (quotas), holding contests for employees, or offering sales promotions. The manager may also receive a monetary incentive (or "bonus") tied to financial performance over a specific period. This incentive may be based on net sales, profitability, or both. Thus, the store manager may be forced to reduce payroll expenditures by decreasing employees' hours, or otherwise reducing operating cost. A store Manager should Motivate his team to achieve the target set for the store by Using some different activities. A store manager should set an example for his/her subordinates to follow.
The Store manager is the store's primary key-holder and may be called to the store before, during, or after business hours in the event of an emergency. They are also
The Under Secretary for Terrorism and Financial Intelligence is a position within the United States Department of the Treasury responsible for directing the Treasury's efforts to cut the lines of financial support for terrorists, fight financial crime, enforce economic sanctions against rogue nations, and combat the financial support of the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. The Under Secretary is appointed by the President and confirmed by the Senate.
The current Under Secretary is David S. Cohen, who has served since June 30, 2011, when he was appointed by President Barack Obama, and confirmed by the US Senate. The Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence is one of sixteen agencies in the United States Intelligence Community.
The Under Secretary heads the Office of Terrorism and Financial Intelligence (TFI). Both were created when the administration of President Bush announced on May 8, 2004, that the Executive Office of Terrorist Financing and Financial Crimes (TFFC), the Financial Crimes Enforcement Network (FinCEN), the Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC), and allocated resources from the Treasury Department would be brought under the new office's control.
Since 1840, the United States has had diplomatic representation in the Italian Republic and its predecessor nation, the Kingdom of Italy, with a break in relations from 1941 to 1944 while Italy and the U.S. were at war during World War II. The U.S. Mission to Italy is headed by the Embassy of the United States in Rome, and also includes six consular offices.
Beginning in 2006, the U.S. Ambassador to Italy is concurrently accredited as the U.S. Ambassador to San Marino.
Listed below are the head U.S. diplomatic agents in Italy, their diplomatic rank, and the effective start and end of their service in Italy.
The Embassy at Naples closed November 6, 1860.
Diplomatic relations were severed and the U.S. Embassy in Rome was closed on December 11, 1941, after Italy declared war on the United States. Diplomatic relations were reestablished on October 16, 1944. Ambassador Alexander C. Kirk reopened the U.S. Embassy in Rome when he presented his credentials on January 8, 1945.
This is a list of United States Ambassadors to Mongolia. The United States established diplomatic relations with the People's Republic of Mongolia on January 27, 1987. The Embassy in Ulaanbaatar was opened Apr 17, 1988, with Steven Mann as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. Richard Llewellen Williams was the first ambassador to the Republic, and resided in the District of Columbia. The Mongolian ambassador to the United States is Khasbazaryn Bekhbat. The U.S. maintains its embassy in Ulan Bator.
The following is a list of United States Ambassadors, or other Chiefs of Mission, to Peru. The title given by the United States State Department to this position is currently Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
The Surgeon General of the United States Army is the senior-most officer of the U.S. Army Medical Department (AMEDD). By policy, the Surgeon General (TSG) serves as Commanding General, U.S. Army Medical Command (MEDCOM) as well as head of the AMEDD. His or her office and staff are known as the Office of the Surgeon General (OTSG) and are located in Falls Church, Virginia.
Since 1959, TSG has been appointed in the grade of Lieutenant General. By law, TSG may be appointed from any of the six officer branches of the AMEDD. However, prior to the incumbent (a Nurse Corps officer), all appointed and confirmed Surgeons General have been Medical Corps officers (military physicians).
As a Commanding General, TSG provides advice and assistance to the Chief of Staff, Army (CSA) and to the Secretary of the Army (SECARMY) on all health care matters pertaining to the U.S. Army and its military health care system. He or she is responsible for development, policy direction, organization and overall management of an integrated Army-wide health service system and is the medical materiel developer for the Army. These duties include formulating policy regulations on health service support, health
Airman First Class (A1C) is the third enlisted rank (E-3) in the United States Air Force, just above Airman and below Senior Airman. The rank of Airman First Class is considered a junior enlisted rank, with the non-commissioned officers and senior non-commissioned officers above it.
Airman First Class is a rank that has also been used by the U.S. Navy and the U.S. Coast Guard, although it is not currently in use. In documents about the history of U.S. armed forces, you will frequently see this rank abbreviated as ARM1c.
Promotion to Airman First Class occurs upon one or more of the following:
Those personnel who qualify for these early promotions to Airman First Class wear the insignia of this rank during their basic training graduation ceremonies at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas, except for those who signed up for an extended enlistment. They will receive their promotions to Airman First Class twenty weeks after graduation from basic military training or graduation from their technical training schools, whichever comes first. Enlistees who have signed up for initial six-year enlistment periods have usually qualified and done so in return for a guarantee of up to two years of
Internship is a system of on-the-job training for white-collar and professional careers. Internships for professional careers are similar to apprenticeships for trade and vocational jobs. Although interns are typically college or university students, they can also be high school students or post-graduate adults. On occasion, they are middle school or even elementary students.
Generally, the internship works as an exchange of services for experience between the student and his or her employer. They can also use an internship to determine if they have an interest in a particular career, create a network of contacts, or gain school credit. Some interns also find permanent, paid employment with the companies in which they interned. Thus, employers also benefit as experienced interns need little or no training when they begin full-time regular employment.
Internships exist in a wide variety of various industries and setting. An internship may be paid, unpaid or partially paid (in the form of a stipend). Paid internships are common in professional fields including medical, architecture, science, engineering, law, business (especially accounting and finance), technology, and advertising
A sale is the act of selling a product or service in return for money or other compensation. It is an act of completion of a commercial activity.
The seller or salesperson – the provider of the goods or services – completes a sale in response to an acquisition or to an appropriation or to a request. There follows the passing of title (property or ownership) in the item, and the application and due settlement of a price, the obligation for which arises due to the seller's requirement to pass ownership. Ideally, a seller agrees upon a price at which he willingly parts with ownership of or any claim upon the item. The purchaser, though a party to the sale, does not execute the sale, only the seller does that. To be precise the sale completes prior to the payment and gives rise to the obligation of payment. If the seller completes the first two above stages (consent and passing ownership) of the sale prior to settlement of the price, the sale remains valid and gives rise to an obligation to pay.
A sale can take place through:
Agents in the sales process can represent either of two parties in the sales process; for example:
Since the advent of the telephone, a distinction has been made
The Kingdom of Dahomey was an overseas possession of France—part of French West Africa—until 1958. In that year Dahomey became an autonomous republic, and gained full independence in 1960. The United States immediately recognized Dahomey and began the process of initiating diplomatic relations. A U.S. Embassy at Abidjan, Cote d’Ivoire (then named Ivory Coast) was established with Donald L. Norland as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. The embassy was also accredited also to Dahomey, Niger, and Upper Volta (now named Burkina Faso) while resident at Abidjan. On July 31, 1960, Chargé Norland presented his credentials to the government of Dahomey, to take effect on August 1, 1960. On October 14, 1960, R. Borden Reams was appointed as the ambassador and presented his credentials on November 26, 1960.
On February 15, 1961, the Embassy in Cotonou, Dahomey was established with Converse Hettinger as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. Ambassador Reams remained resident in Abidjan.
In 1961 Robinson McIlvaine was appointed as Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary with a separate commission solely to Dahomey. He presented his credentials to the government of Dahomey on June 22, 1961.
The Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland was dissolved on December 31, 1963, and Malawi became a fully independent member of the Commonwealth of Nations on July 6, 1964.
The United States immediately recognized the new nation and moved to establish diplomatic relations. The U.S. embassy in Blantyre (later Zomba) was established July 6, 1964—independence day for Malawi—with Jeanine E. Jackson as current ambassador.
The following is a list of United States Ambassadors to Sudan. The first chief of mission sent by the United States was Arthur E. Beach, who presented his credentials in March 1956. From 1967 to 1972 the embassy was closed, and a U.S. Interest Section was opened in the Netherlands Embassy. In 1973 Ambassador Cleo A. Noel, Jr. was taken hostage and killed by the Black September Organization during the attack on the Saudi embassy in Khartoum. The embassy was again closed in 1996, though reopened in 2002, since which time the United States has posted several chargés d'affaires ad interim to the country.
Note: The Embassy in Khartoum was established Feb 15, 1956, with Beach in charge.
Note: The Embassy in Khartoum was closed as of June 6, 1967. A U.S. Interest Section was established in the Netherlands Embassy on August 14, 1967. Principal Officers were: Cleo A. Noel, Jr. (August 1967-June 1969), and George Curtis Moore (July 1969-July 1972). The Embassy in Khartoum was re-established July 25, 1972, with Moore as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.
Note: Embassy Khartoum was reopened May 23, 2002, with Jeffrey Millington as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. The following officers have served in
The history of Ambassadors of the United States to Zambia began in 1964.
Until 1964 Zambia had been a colony of the British Empire, first as Northern Rhodesia and then as a part of the Federation of Rhodesia and Nyasaland. On December 31, 1963, the federation was dissolved into Rhodesia and Northern Rhodesia. On October 24, 1964, Northern Rhodesia gained full independence as the Republic of Zambia.
The United States immediately recognized the new nation and moved to establish diplomatic relations. An embassy in Lusaka was established on October 24, 1964—independence day for Zambia. Robert C. Foulon was appointed as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim pending the appointment of an ambassador. The first ambassador, Robert C. Good was appointed on March 11, 1965. All U.S. Ambassadors to Zambia have held the official title Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.
The United States embassy in Zambia is located in Lusaka.
The U.S. Ambassador to Zambia serves concurrently as the U.S. Representative to the Common Market for Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA).
A milkman is a person, traditionally male, who delivers milk in milk bottles or cartons.
Milk deliveries frequently occur in the morning and it is not uncommon for milkmen to deliver products other than milk such as eggs, cream, cheese, butter, yogurt or soft drinks. Originally, milk needed to be delivered to houses daily since the lack of good refrigeration meant it would quickly spoil. The near-ubiquity of refrigerators in homes in the developed world, as well as improved packaging, has decreased the need for frequent milk delivery over the past half-century and made the trade shrink in many localities sometimes to just 3 days a week and disappear totally in others. Additionally, milk delivery incurs a small cost on the price of dairy products that is increasingly difficult to justify and leaves delivered milk in a position where it is vulnerable to theft.
In the United States, houses of that era often had a "milk chute" built into an outside wall, a small cabinet with a door on the outside for the milkman to place the milk bottles, and a door on the inside for a resident to retrieve the bottles. Thus the milkman could deliver the milk without entering the home, and the resident
The Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller)/Chief Financial Officer, abbreviated USD(C)/CFO, is a high level civilian official in the United States Department of Defense. The Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) is the principal staff assistant and adviser to both the Secretary of Defense and the Deputy Secretary of Defense for all budgetary and fiscal matters, including the development and execution of the Defense Department's annual $600 billion budget.
The Under Secretary is appointed by the President and confirmed by the United States Senate to serve at the pleasure of the President.
The position of Defense Department Comptroller was originally at the rank of Assistant Secretary until the National Defense Authorization Act of 1995 upgraded the position to its current rank of Under Secretary.
The Office of the Under Secretary of Defense (Comptroller) is the principal staff office for the Defense Department on all budgetary and fiscal matters, including the development and execution of the Defense Department's annual budget of more than $600 billion. As Chief Financial Officer, the Under Secretary's Office also oversees the Department's financial policy, financial management
The Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force (CMSAF) is a unique non-commissioned rank in the United States Air Force. The holder of this rank and post represents the highest enlisted level of leadership in the Air Force, and as such, provides direction for the enlisted corps and represents their interests, as appropriate, to the American public, and to those in all levels of government. The CMSAF is appointed by the Air Force Chief of Staff (AF/CC) and serves as the senior enlisted advisor to the Air Force Chief of Staff and the Secretary of the Air Force on all issues regarding the welfare, readiness, morale, and proper utilization and progress of the enlisted force. While the CMSAF is a non-commissioned officer, the billet is protocol equivalent to a lieutenant general.
The current Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force is Chief James A. Roy. He is the 16th Chief Master Sergeant of the Air Force in the history of the U.S. Air Force.
On November 1, 2004, the CMSAF's rank insignia was updated to include the Great Seal of the United States of America and two stars in the upper field. This puts the insignia in line with those of the Army and Marine Corps who have similar insignia to
Fire Chief (or Chief Fire Officer in England and Wales; or Fire Master in Scotland) is a top executive rank or commanding officer in a fire department (either elected or appointed) who is responsible for carrying out the day-to-day tasks of running a firefighting organization. Such tasks include including supervising other officers and firefighters at an emergency scene and recruiting, training, and equipping them for their respective duties. Depending upon local needs and organization, the Chief may also be involved in fire prevention, fire inspection, disaster preparedness, emergency medical services, and related disciplines, as well as administrative duties such as budgets and personnel issues, research into safety and regulations, and liaison with other agencies.
In larger departments, a Fire Chief is often assisted by one or more assistant fire chiefs, deputy fire chiefs, district fire chiefs, division chiefs, and/or battalion chiefs. Collectively, these are known as chief officers, to distinguish them from company officers.
The Chief may report to the fire commissioner, the mayor, or a governing body (such as a board of selectmen).
During an emergency incident, the first
The United States Ambassador to Afghanistan is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Afghanistan.
The United States recognized Afghanistan, then under the rule of King Amānullāh, on July 26, 1921. Diplomatic relations were established in 1935. The first ambassador appointed to Afghanistan was William Harrison Hornibrook, who was concurrently commissioned to Persia, as Iran was known then, and resident in Tehran. Until 1942, the U.S. Ambassador to Persia/Iran was also the Ambassador to Afghanistan. The U.S. Legation at Kabul was established on June 6, 1942, with Charles W. Thayer as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim. Cornelius Van Hemert Engert presented his credentials to the government of Afghanistan on July 2, 1942, as the first envoy solely accredited to Afghanistan.
Ambassador Adolph Dubs was assassinated in a botched kidnapping attempt in 1979. For the next ten years no ambassador was appointed; only a series of chargés d’affaires represented the U.S. in Kabul. The embassy at Kabul was closed on January 30, 1989, due to concerns that the new regime would not be able to maintain security and protect diplomats following the final
The part of Africa that is now Burundi and Rwanda was a feudal monarchy headed by a mwami (king) and a ganwa, a feudal hierarchy of Tutsi nobles and gentry until 1890. In that year the Germans attacked the nation and attempted to subdue it with armed force. Eventually the Germans backed an attempted coup d’état against the king, Mwezi Gisanbo. The coup was unsuccessful, but Gisabo was eventually forced to concede and agreed to German suzerainty. The Germans then helped him suppress the revolt. Thus Burundi became part of German East Africa in 1890.
In 1915 during The Great War, Belgian troops from Zaire drove the small number of Germans out of Burundi and took control of the country.
After World War I Germany lost its overseas possessions and the League of Nations mandated Burundi and its southern neighbor, Rwanda, to Belgium as the territory of Ruanda-Urundi in 1923. The western kingdoms of Ruanda-Urundi were stripped from the old colonies and given to British-administered Tanganyika. The Belgians administered the territory through indirect rule, building on the Tutsi-dominated aristocratic hierarchy.
Following World War II, Ruanda-Urundi became a United Nations Trust Territory
The United States Ambassador to Guinea-Bissau is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Guinea-Bissau. The U.S. Ambassador to Senegal is concurrently commissioned to Senegal and Guinea-Bissau.
Until 1974, Guinea-Bissau had been a colony of the Portuguese Empire as Portuguese Guinea. After a period of revolutionary warfare, Guinea-Bissau unilaterally declared its independence on September 24, 1973. Following the April 1974 Carnation Revolution in Portugal, it granted independence to Guinea-Bissau on September 10, 1974. The United States recognized the Republic of Guinea-Bissau on the same day. The U.S. Embassy Bissau was established on June 30, 1976, with Dean Curran as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.
The first three ambassadors to Guinea-Bissau were concurrently commissioned to Cape Verde while resident in Bissau. From 1983 until 1998, U.S. ambassadors were solely commissioned to Guinea-Bissau. In 1998 the U.S. embassy in Bissau was closed, and there has been no U.S. embassy in Bissau since then. Since 2002, the U.S. ambassador to Senegal has also been commissioned as the ambassador to Guinea-Bissau, while resident in Dakar.
The United States Ambassador to Namibia is the representative of the government of the United States in Namibia.
The position was created the day Namibia became independent, which was also the day that Namibia-United States relations were established. On that same day, the U.S. Embassy in Windhoek was opened in recognition of the establishment of diplomatic relations.
The U.S. Liaison Office in Windhoek opened February 24, 1984, with William H. Twaddell as Director and closed February 15, 1985. During this time the following officers served as Director: Dennis Whyte Keogh (March–April 1984), Howard Jeter (April–May 1984), and William L. Jacobsen, Jr. (May 1984–February 1985). It reopened on June 1, 1989, with Roger A. McGuire as Director. McGuire became chargé d'affaires ad interim when the Liaison Office was elevated to embassy status on March 21, 1990. The first ambassador, Genta H. Holmes was appointed on August 6, 1990. The United States has maintained diplomatic relations with Namibia since that time.
The United States Assistant Secretary for Health (ASH) serves as the Secretary of Health and Human Services's primary advisor on matters involving the nation's public health and, if serving as an active member in the regular corps, is the highest ranking uniformed officer in the Public Health Service Commissioned Corps (PHSCC). The ASH oversees all matters pertaining to the Public Health Service (PHS), the main division of the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), for the Secretary as well as provide strategic and policy direction for the PHSCC. The PHS comprises almost all the agency divisions of the HHS as well as the PHSCC, a uniformed service of more than 6,000 health professionals who serve at the HHS, other federal agencies, and/or are assigned details to the armed forces. The ASH is a civilian or a uniformed member of the regular corps and is nominated for appointment by the President. The nominee must also be confirmed via majority vote by the Senate. The ASH serves a four year term of office at the pleasure of the President. If the appointee is a serving member of the regular corps, he or she is also appointed as a four-star admiral in the regular corps . The
The Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (VJCS) is by law the second highest ranking military officer in the United States Armed Forces ranking just below the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Vice Chairman outranks all respective heads of each service branch, with the exception of the Chairman, but does not have operational command authority over their service branches. The Goldwater–Nichols Act of 1986 created the position of VJCS to assist the Chairman in exercising his duties. In the absence of the Chairman, the Vice Chairman presides over the meetings of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and all other duties prescribed under 10 U.S.C. § 153 and may also perform other duties that the President, the Chairman, or the Secretary of Defense prescribes.
Although the office of Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff is considered to be very important and highly prestigious, neither the Vice Chairman nor the Joint Chiefs of Staff as a body have any command authority over combatant forces. The chain of command runs from the President to the Secretary of Defense directly to the commanders of the Unified Combatant Commands. The Vice Chairman is nominated by the President for
A web developer is a programmer who specializes in, or is specifically engaged in, the development of World Wide Web applications, or distributed network applications that are run over HTTP from a web server to a web browser.
Web developers can be found working in all types of organizations, including large corporations and governments, small and medium sized companies, or alone as freelancers. Some web developers work for one organization as a permanent full-time employee, while others may work as independent consultants, or as contractors for an employment agency.
A curate ( /ˈkjʊərɨt/) is a person who is invested with the care or cure (cura) of souls of a parish. In this sense "curate" correctly means a parish priest but in English-speaking countries the term curate is commonly used of assistant clergy to the parish priest. The duties or office of a curate are called a curacy (as the office of a president is a presidency).
From the Latin curatus (compare Curator)
In modern Roman Catholic practice in the United States, "curate" is popularly used for a priest assigned to a parish who is not the pastor. The parochus (parish priest or "pastor") is the priest who has canonical responsibility for the parish. He may be assisted by one or more "parochial vicars". Such a parochial vicar is popularly called a "curate", "associate pastor", or "assistant pastor" in various regions of the country.
In other languages, derivations from curatus may be used differently. In French, a curé means the senior parish priest. So do the Italian word curato and the Spanish word cura.
In the Church of England, the technical term "curate" as found in the 1662 Book of Common Prayer meant the incumbent of a benefice, that is the person licensed by the diocesan bishop to
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Finland.
Until 1917 Finland had been a subject of Russia as the Grand Duchy of Finland. As a result of the Bolshevist October Revolution in Russia, Finland declared its independence on December 6, 1917. On December 22 (January 4, 1918 N. S.), the highest Soviet executive body approved a decree recognizing Finland’s independence.
The United States recognized Finland as an independent state on May 7, 1919. A U.S. legation was established in Helsinki and the first envoy, Alexander R. Magruder, presented his credentials as Chargé d'Affaires to the government of Finland on March 19, 1920. United States–Finland relations have been continuous since that time except for a brief period in 1944–45 when the U.S. severed relations during World War II.
The U.S. Embassy in Finland is located in Helsinki in the Kaivopuisto neighborhood.
Note: The United States severed diplomatic relations with Finland on June 30, 1944, as result of Finland’s war against the Soviet Union. At that time the Soviet Union was an ally of the United States. Edmund A. Gullion was serving as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim when the relations were severed.
Note: The United
The Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern Affairs is the head of the Bureau of Near Eastern Affairs within the American Department of State. The Assistant Secretary guides operation of the U.S. diplomatic establishment in various countries of North Africa and the Middle East and advises the Secretary of State and the Under Secretary for Political Affairs. Former Assistant Secretary, C. David Welch, who was sworn in on March 18, 2005, resigned his appointment on December 18, 2008.
The Department of State established the position of Assistant Secretary of State for Near Eastern, South Asian, and African Affairs on October 3, 1949. The Commission on Organization of the Executive Branch of Government, popularly known as the Hoover Commission, had recommended that certain offices be upgraded to bureau level and after Congress increased the number of Assistant Secretaries of State from six to ten. The Department of State established a Division of Near Eastern Affairs in 1909, which dealt with Central, Southern, and Eastern Europe as well as with the Middle East. The final remnant of this practice ended on April 18, 1974, when the Department transferred responsibility for Greece,
The Chief of Naval Personnel (CNP) is responsible for overall manpower readiness for the United States Navy. The CNP also serves as Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Manpower, Personnel, Training & Education) and is one of five Deputy Chiefs of Naval Operations, with the identification of N1/NT. The CNP oversees the operations of the Bureau of Naval Personnel (BUPERS), Navy Personnel Command (NPC) and the Navy Manpower Analysis Center (NAVMAC). The CNP and the other four DCNOs are nominated by the President of the United States and must be confirmed via majority vote by the Senate. The CNP and the DCNOs are appointed as a three-star vice admiral while holding office.
The role of Chief of Naval Personnel and Deputy Chief of Naval Operations (Manpower, Personnel, Training & Education) go hand in hand. The DCNO performs all strategy and resource policies and serves as a single resource sponsor for all manpower and training program matters. The DCNO also performs all Capitol Hill related duties, including all Congressional testimony for matters pertaining to the Manpower, Personnel, Training, & Education command. The DNCO's office also acts as the lead organization to interface with
A First Lady is an unofficial title used in the USA for the wife of the President. Collectively, the president and spouse are known as the First Couple. If they have a family, this is usually referred to as the First Family. The term is sometimes used in the US to refer to the spouse of other heads of state. Some other countries have a title, formal or informal, that is or can be translated as "First Lady".
While historically, the term has generally been used to refer to the wife of the president, there were occasions when another woman, such as the President's daughter, has filled the duties of First Lady as hostess in the White House, if the President's wife was unwilling, unable, or if the President was a widower or bachelor. The current First Lady of the United States is Michelle Obama, wife of Barack Obama. In American media the term First Lady is often applied to the wife of a head of state in another country, irrespective of whether a different appellation (or none) is used in that country.The entire family of the head of state may be known familiarly as the "First Family". The spouse of the second-in-command (such as a Vice President) may be known as the "Second Lady", or
The United States Ambassador to Bahrain is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Bahrain.
Until 1971, Bahrain had been part of a British protectorate along with the other sheikhdoms in the Persian Gulf. In 1971 the protectorate ended and seven of the other sheikhdoms joined in a federation to become the United Arab Emirates. Bahrain, however, did not join the federation, but declared its independence on August 15, 1971. The United States recognized the State of Bahrain on on the same day and moved to establish diplomatic relations. The U.S. embassy in Manama was opened on September 21, 1971, with John N. Gatch, Jr. as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim. Ambassador William A. Stoltzfus, Jr. presented his credentials to the government of Bahrain on February 17, 1972. Stoltzfus was concurrently the ambassador to Kuwait, Qatar, Oman, and the United Arab Emirates, while resident in Kuwait. The first ambassador commissioned solely to Bahrain was Joseph W. Twinam in 1974.
Thomas C. Krajeski, a career foreign service officer of the State Department, was nominated by President Obama on June 30, 2011, to be the next U.S. Ambassador to Bahrain.
This is a list of ambassadors of the United States to the Federated States of Micronesia.
Following World War II, the Federated States of Micronesia, along with several other island nations, were part of the United Nations Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands, under U.S. administration. Micronesia achieved independence in 1986. The United States recognized Micronesia immediately and established diplomatic relations. On November 3, 1986, the United States opened an Office of the U.S. Representative. The Representative, Michael Gordon Wygant, presented his credentials to the government of Micronesia on October 2, 1987. On September 20, 1989, the Office of the U.S. Representative was upgraded to embassy status. The first U.S. Ambassador to the Federated States of Micronesia, Aurelia Erskine Brazeal, presented her credentials on September 18, 1990.
Note: On September 20, 1989, the Office of the U.S. Representative was upgraded to Embassy status and the position of Representative was upgraded to Ambassador Extraordinary and Plenipotentiary.
Under Secretary for Management is a position within the American Department of State that serves as principal adviser to the Secretary of State and Deputy Secretary of State on matters relating to the allocation and use of Department of State budget, physical property, and personnel, including planning, the day-to-day administration of the Department, and proposals for institutional reform and modernization. The current Under Secretary is Patrick F. Kennedy, who was sworn in on November 6, 2007.
It is also the position to whom the Bureau of Administration, Bureau of Consular Affairs, Bureau of Diplomatic Security, Bureau of Human Resources, Bureau of Information Resource Management, Bureau of Overseas Buildings Operations, Director of Diplomatic Reception Rooms, Foreign Service Institute, Office of Management Policy, Office of Medical Services, Office of Rightsizing the U.S. Government's Overseas Presence, and Office of White House Liaison report. The Under Secretary of Management gives direction to the Bureau of Resource Management, and the Chief Financial Officer serves as a part of the Under Secretary's senior management team. The Under Secretary for Management is the State
The Commandant of the United States Coast Guard is the highest ranking member of the United States Coast Guard. The Commandant is normally the only four-star Admiral in the Coast Guard and is appointed for a four-year term by the President of the United States upon confirmation by the United States Senate. The Commandant is assisted by a Vice Commandant, two Assistant Commandants/Area Commanders and a Chief of Staff, all of whom are three-star Vice Admirals.
Unlike the chiefs of the other branches of the United States Armed Forces, the Commandant of the Coast Guard is not a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff; he is, however, entitled to the same supplemental pay as the Joint Chiefs, per 37 U.S.C § 414(a)(5) ($4,000 per annum in 2009), and is accorded privilege of the floor under Senate Rule XXIII(1) as a de facto JCS member during Presidential addresses. Furthermore, in contrast to the Joint Chiefs who are not in the military's operational chain of command, the Commandant of the Coast Guard commands his service. He reports to the President, via the Secretary of Homeland Security. Prior to the creation of the Department of Homeland Security in 2003, the Commandant reported to the
The Director of the Joint Staff (DJS) is a three-star officer who assists the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff with the management of the Joint Staff, an organization composed of approximately equal numbers of officers contributed by the Army, Navy, Marine Corps, and Air Force, who have been assigned to assist the Chairman with the unified strategic direction, operation, and integration of the combatant land, naval, and air forces. The Director also chairs meetings of the Operations Deputies, a subsidiary body comprising the Director and a three-star delegate from each service who preview or resolve issues before they are escalated to the level of the four-star Joint Chiefs of Staff.
The Director of the Joint Staff is selected by the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, in consultation with the other members of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and subject to the approval of the Secretary of Defense. As with all three- and four-star positions, the Director's appointment is subject to Senate confirmation. The position of Director is considered one of the most desirable three-star billets in the United States military establishment, for the position has historically served as a large
The Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps (JROTC) is a Federal program sponsored by the United States Armed Forces in high schools across the United States. The program was originally created as part of the National Defense Act of 1916 and later expanded under the 1964 ROTC Vitalization Act.
According to Title 10, Section 2031 of the United States Code, the purpose of JROTC is "to instill in students in [United States] secondary educational institutions the values of citizenship, service to the United States, and personal responsibility and a sense of accomplishment." Additional objectives are established by the service departments of the Department of Defense. Under 542.4 of Title 32 (National Defense) of the Code of Federal Regulations, the Department of the Army has declared those objectives for each cadet to be:
Section 524.5 of the CFR National Defense title states in part that JROTC should "provide meaningful leadership instruction of benefit to the student and of value to the Armed Forces. ... Students will acquire: (1) An understanding of the fundamental concept of leadership, military art and science, (2) An introduction to related professional knowledge, and (3) An
A private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to NATO Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in).
In modern military parlance, 'private' is shortened to 'Pte' in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries and to 'Pvt.' in the United States.
The term derives from the medieval term "private soldiers" (a term still used in the United Kingdom), denoting soldiers who were either hired, conscripted, or feudalized into service by a nobleman forming an army. The usage of "private" dates from the 18th century, when the army of Napoleon Bonaparte first established the permanent rank of soldat.
In the Israel Defense Forces (IDF), טוראי Turai (Private) refers to the lowest חוגרים Hogrim (enlisted) rank. After 7–10 months of service (7 for combatants, 8 for combat support and 10 for non-combatants) soldiers are promoted from private to corporal (Rav-turai or Rabat), if they performed their duties appropriately during this time. Soldiers who take a commander's course, are prisoner instructors or practical engineers become corporals earlier. An IDF טוראי Turai (Private) wears no uniform insignia and is sometimes described as having a "slick sleeve" for
Technical support or tech support refers to a range of services by which enterprises provide assistance to users of technology products such as mobile phones, televisions, computers, software products or other electronic or mechanical goods. In general, technical support services attempt to help the user solve specific problems with a product—rather than providing training, customization, or other support services. Most companies offer technical support for the products they sell, either freely available or for a fee. Technical support may be delivered over the telephone or online by e-mail or a website or a tool where users can log a call/incident. Larger organizations frequently have internal technical support available to their staff for computer related problems. The internet is also a good source for freely available tech support, where experienced users may provide advice and assistance with problems. In addition, some fee-based service companies charge for premium technical support services.
Technical support may be delivered by different technologies depending on the situation. For example, direct questions can be addressed using telephone calls, SMS, Online chat, Support
This is a list of United States ambassadors to Bosnia and Herzegovina.
The United States recognized the independence of Bosnia-Herzegovina on April 7, 1992, and announced the establishment of diplomatic relations August 6, 1992. A U.S. Embassy was established on November 10, 1993, on the premises of the Vienna embassy. The embassy in Sarajevo was established on July 4, 1994.
The Bishop of Calcutta exercises episcopal leadership over the Diocese of Calcutta of the Church of North India. The diocese was established in 1813 as part of the Church of England and the first bishop was Thomas Middleton (1814–1822) and the second Reginald Heber (1823–1826). Under the sixth bishop Daniel Wilson (1832–1858) the see was made Metropolitan (though not made an Archbishopric) when two more dioceses in India came into being (Madras, 1835, and Bombay, 1837).
Calcutta was made a metropolitan see by letters patent on 10 October 1835 and in 1930 was included in the Church of India, Burma and Ceylon (from 1948 the Church of India, Pakistan, Burma, and Ceylon) until 1970. In 1970, the Church of the Province of Myanmar, Church of Ceylon and the Church of Pakistan were separated from the province.
The Anglican dioceses in Northern India merged with the United Church of Northern India (Congregationalist and Presbyterian), the Methodist Church (British and Australian Conferences), the Council of Baptist Churches in Northern India, the Church of the Brethren in India, and the Disciples of Christ to form the Church of North India in the same year.
The diocese currently has
This List of University of Florida presidents includes all sixteen of the men who have served as the president of the University of Florida since the modern university was created from the consolidation of four predecessor institutions in 1905.
The University of Florida is a public university, created and supported by the State of Florida, and it is a designated "Flagship University" within the State University System of Florida. The primary campus of the university is located in Gainesville, and it has facilities in Jacksonville, Orlando, throughout Florida, and even in Europe. The university traces its origins to 1853, the founding date of the East Florida Seminary in Ocala, Florida, the oldest of the university's four predecessor institutions. Following the 1905 merger of its predecessor institutions, the newly consolidated men's university and land-grant college was first known as the "University of the State of Florida." The name was officially shortened to the "University of Florida" in 1909.
To date, the youngest president of the University of Florida has been Andrew Sledd, who facilitated the organization of the new university from the consolidation of its predecessor
Quarterback (QB, originally called blocking back) is a position in American and Canadian football. Quarterbacks are members of the offensive team and line up directly behind the offensive line. Quarterbacks are the leaders of the offensive team, responsible for calling the play in the huddle.
At most levels, but especially at the college and professional level, the quarterback role is the most visible and important role on the team. The quarterback touches the ball on nearly every offensive play and has a great deal of responsibility both in calling plays and making decisions during the play.
In most leagues, the quarterback's uniform number is as low as 1 and as high as 19. It is extremely rare that a quarterback has a number over 19.
While there is liberal substitution at most positions in football based on the play call and to minimize player fatigue, most quarterbacks are on the field for every offensive play leaving only for injury or when the game's outcome is no longer in doubt. Quarterbacks are frequently chosen early in the NFL Draft and often receive much more lucrative contracts than other positions. As of 2011, players in this position have won more Super Bowl MVP
In professional sports, scouts are trained talent evaluators who travel extensively for the purposes of watching athletes play their chosen sports and determining whether their set of skills and talents represent what is needed by the scout's organization. Some scouts are interested primarily in the selection of prospects, younger players who may require further development by the acquiring team but who are judged to be worthy of that effort and expense for the potential future payoff that it could bring, while others concentrate on players who are already polished professionals whose rights may be available soon, either through free agency or trading, and who are seen as filling a team's specific need at a certain position. Advance scouts watch the teams that their teams are going to play in order to help determine strategy.
Many scouts are former coaches or retired players, while others have made a career just of being scouts. Skilled scouts who help to determine which players will fit in well with an organization can be the major difference between success and failure for the team with regard to wins and losses, which often relates directly to the organization's financial
Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps (officially abbreviated to SgtMajMarCor, and unofficially as SMMC) is a unique non-commissioned rank and billet in the United States Marine Corps.
In the Marine Corps, sergeant major is the ninth and highest enlisted rank, just above first sergeant, and equal in grade to master gunnery sergeant, although the two have different responsibilities. Sergeant major is both a rank and a military billet, and serves as the unit commander's senior enlisted advisor and to handle matters of discipline and morale among the enlisted Marines. The Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps is chosen by the Commandant of the Marine Corps to serve as his advisor and as the preeminent and highest ranking enlisted Marine with a protocol equivalency of a lieutenant general.
Although not officially considered a Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps, when Archibald Sommers was appointed to the grade of Sergeant Major January 1, 1801, it was a solitary post, similar to the modern billet of Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps. In 1833, an act of legislation made the rank of sergeant major permanent for the Marine Corps and by 1899 five Marines held the rank of sergeant major. This
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Burma. In 1989 the military government of Burma changed the name of the nation to Myanmar, but the United States government—and other Western governments—do not accept the name and still refer to the country as Burma in official usage.
Burma became a province of India in 1886 under the British Raj. The country was occupied by Japan during World War II but after the war, again came under control of Britain. In 1946 Britain began negotiations with the Burmese to establish independence for the nation, and reached a final agreement on January 27, 1947. A transitional government was established and Burma became fully independent on January 4, 1948.
The United States recognized Burma and established the Embassy of the United States, Rangoon on September 19, 1947, with Earl L. Packer as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.
After 1990 the United States appointed no ambassador to Burma in protest against the policies of the military regime. A chargé d'affaires became the head of mission until 2012.
On January 13, 2012, Secretary of State Hillary Clinton announced that "at the direction of President Obama, we will start the process of exchanging
The United States Ambassador to Israel is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Israel.
Until 1948 the area that is now the state of Israel had been under British administration as part of the League of Nations/United Nations British Mandate for Palestine. On May 14, 1948, the British government unilaterally terminated the mandate. On the same day, the Jewish Agency, under future Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion, declared independence and named the country Israel. The United States immediately recognized the nation and moved to establish diplomatic relations. The first U.S. ambassador commissioned to Israel was James Grover McDonald, who presented his credentials to the government of Israel on March 28, 1949.
The embassy of the United States in Israel is located in Tel Aviv.
The Commandant of the Marine Corps (CMC) is normally the highest-ranking officer in the United States Marine Corps and is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff. The CMC reports directly to the United States Secretary of the Navy and is responsible for ensuring the organization, policy, plans, and programs for the Marine Corps as well as advising the President, the Secretary of Defense, the National Security Council, the Homeland Security Council, and the Secretary of the Navy on matters involving the Marine Corps. Under the authority of the Secretary of the Navy, the CMC designates Marine personnel and resources to the commanders of Unified Combatant Commands. The commandant performs all other functions prescribed in Section 5043 in Title 10 of the United States Code or delegates those duties and responsibilities to other officers in his administration in his name. As with the other joint chiefs, the Commandant is an administrative position and has no operational command authority over United States Marine Corps forces.
The Commandant is nominated by the President for a four-year term of office and must be confirmed by the Senate. By statute, the Commandant is appointed as a
An agitator is a person who actively supports some ideology or movement with speeches and especially actions. The Agitators were a political movement as well as elected representatives of soldiers, including the New Model Army of Oliver Cromwell, during the English Civil War. They were also known as adjutators. Many of the ideas of the movement were later adopted by the Levellers.
The practice began in 1647 when the Long Parliament wanted to either disband the armies or send them to Ireland. Most soldiers opposed this. Eight of the cavalry regiments elected representatives they called commissioners, who presented the soldiers' complaints, including the fact that their payments were eight weeks late. On April 3, 1647, their letter was read in the House of Commons. Before the generals could return to London, parliament again decided to disband the army and set June 1 as the date that would happen.
Following the example of the Ironsides, other units followed suit and foot soldiers elected Agitators. The Agitators, with two officers from each regiment and the Generals formed a new body called the Army Council which after a meeting near Newmarket, Suffolk on Friday 4 June 1647 issued "A
Lieutenant commander (LCDR) is a mid-ranking officer rank in the United States Navy, the United States Coast Guard, the United States Public Health Service Commissioned Corps, and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Commissioned Corps, with the pay grade of O-4 and NATO rank code OF-3. Lieutenant commanders rank above lieutenants and below commanders. The rank is also used in the United States Maritime Service and the United States Naval Sea Cadet Corps, and is equivalent to a major in the other uniformed services.
While Lieutenant Commander is the Navy's first commissioned officer to be selected by board, they are still considered to be Junior Officers (JOs) due to their origin as "Lieutenant, Commanding." This can be seen by the fact that Lieutenant Commanders do not wear the oak-leaf gold embellishment (colloquially known as "scrambled eggs") on their combination covers. This is in contrast to other branches, where Majors wear the appropriate covers of field-grade officers.
There are two insignia used by Lieutenant Commanders. On service khakis and all working uniforms, LCDRs wear a gold oak leaf collar device, similar to the ones worn by a majors in the USAF and
Major is a rank of commissioned officer, with corresponding ranks existing in many military forces.
When used unhyphenated, in conjunction with no other indicator of rank, the term refers to the rank just senior to that of an army captain and just below the rank of lieutenant colonel. It is considered the most junior of the field ranks. In some militaries, notably France, the rank is referred to as commandant, while in others it is known as captain-major. It is also used in some police forces and other paramilitary rank structures, such as the New York State Police, New Jersey State Police and several others. As a police rank, Major roughly corresponds to the UK rank of Superintendent.
When used in hyphenated or combined fashion, the term can also imply seniority at other levels of rank, including general-major or major general, denoting a mid-level general officer, and sergeant major, denoting the most senior NCO of a military unit.
It can also be used with a hyphen to denote the leader of a military band such as in pipe-major or drum-major.
Parole officers and probation officers play a role in criminal justice systems by supervising offenders released from incarceration or sentenced to non-custodial sanctions such as community service. In some jurisdictions parole or probation officers are involved in presenting reports on offenders and making sentencing recommendation to courts of law.
Probation and parole officers in Australia serve an active role in recommending community based supervision to Magistrates/Judges. They also make recommendations to parole boards to determine whether a prisoner should be granted parole. Probation officers are expected to not only supervise an offender while he/she performs community service, but to also develop the community service plans themselves.
Parole officers in Canada play a critical role at both the institutional and community levels. Their primary function is to assess risk and manage the intervention process with offenders throughout their sentence. They are the first line of defense when administering the Correctional Service of Canada's obligations towards public safety.
Once the offender has entered the federal correctional system, parole officers assess the needs of
Secretary of State or State Secretary is a commonly used title for a senior or mid-level post in governments around the world. The role varies between countries, and in some cases there are multiple Secretaries of State in the Government.
In many countries, a Secretary of State is a mid-level post. It is usually a politically appointed position, although in some countries, such as Germany and Sweden, it can be filled by a member of the executive bureaucracy (civil service) as a political appointment. In the Holy See, there is one Secretary of State, who coordinates all the departments of the Roman Curia (that is, equivalent to a Prime Minister). In the United Kingdom a Secretary of State is a member of the Cabinet appointed by the Queen on the advice of the Prime Minister (that is, equivalent to a Minister). In the Federal Government of the United States of America, there is one Secretary of State, the most senior political appointee responsible for foreign policy (that is, equivalent to a Foreign Minister).
The Secretary of State (Secretario de Estado) in Argentina (federal government) is a high official with the same rank of a Minister, who is responsible directly to the
A soda jerk (or soda jerker) is a person — typically a youth — who operates the soda fountain in a drugstore, often for the purpose of preparing and serving flavored soda water or an ice cream soda. This was made by putting flavored syrup into a specially designed tall glass, adding carbonated water and, finally, one or two scoops of ice cream. The result was served with a long-handled spoon, most commonly known as a "soda spoon", and drinking straws.
The name soda jerk came from the "jerking" action the server would use to swing back and forth the soda fountain handle when adding the soda water. The soda fountain spigot itself typically was a sturdy, shiny fixture on the end of a metal pipe or other similar structure sticking out of the counter by several feet and curving towards where the glasses would be filled. The unflavored carbonated water was used to make all of the drinks. Consequently the tap handle was typically large, as a busy shop would have the soda jerker using it frequently. This made the mixing of drinks a center of activity at the soda counter.
The position was highly coveted, and awarded only after several months or years of menial labor in the store. Some
The United States Ambassador to Argentina is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Argentina.
Argentina had declared its independence from Spain in 1816 and there followed a series of revolutionary wars until 1861 when the nation was united. The United States recognized the government of Buenos Aires, the predecessor to Argentina, on January 27, 1823. Caesar Augustus Rodney was appointed as American Minister Plenipotentiary to Buenos Aires. Between 1854 and 1866, U.S. ambassadors were commissioned to the Argentine Confederation. Since 1867, ambassadors have been commissioned to the Argentine Republic.
Diplomatic relations between the U.S. and Argentina were interrupted but not severed in June 1944 when the U.S. government recalled its ambassador in a dispute with the newly appointed dictator Edelmiro Julián Farrell. The U.S. government believed that Farrell was not committed to the defense of the Western Hemisphere against the Axis powers. Normal relations were resumed with the appointment of a new ambassador in April 1945 when Argentina declared war against Germany.
The official residence of the U.S. Ambassador in Buenos Aires is
An adjutant general is a military chief administrative officer.
In Imperial Russia, the General-Adjutant (Russian: Генерал-адъютант) was a Court officer, who was usually an army general. He served as a personal aide to the Tsar and hence was a member of the H. I. M. Retinue. General-Adjutant was not a rank but rather an honorary title.
The early Table of Ranks included a similarly named army officer position, a general's adjutant with a rank of colonel.
In the United Kingdom, the Adjutant-General to the Forces (AG) is the head of the British Army's infrastructure and administration and is the second most senior staff general in the army after the Chief of the General Staff. He used to generally hold the rank of general, but is now a lieutenant general.
Chief administrative officers in other formations used to be entitled Deputy Adjutant-General, Assistant Adjutant-General, or Deputy Assistant Adjutant-General, depending on the size of the formation.
The Adjutant General's Corps is tasked with personnel management, financial management, general administration, military education, legal services, and provost (military policing and prison) services.
In the United States, there are
An aide-de-camp (French for field assistant) is a personal assistant, secretary, or adjutant to a person of high rank, usually a senior military officer or a head of state. The first aide-de-camp is typically the foremost personal aide.
In some countries, the aide-de-camp is considered to be a title of honor (which confers the post-nominal letters ADC or A de C), and participates at ceremonial functions.
The badge of office for an aide-de-camp is usually the aiguillette, a braided cord in gold or other colors, worn on the shoulder of a uniform. Whether it is worn on the left or the right shoulder is dictated by protocol.
In Argentina, three officers (one from each armed service, of the rank of lieutenant colonel or its equivalent), are appointed as aide-de-camp to the President of the Republic and three others to the Minister of Defense, these six being the only ones to be called "edecán", which is one Spanish translation for aide-de-camp ("ayudante de campo" is another – "edecán" is a phonetic imitation of the French term; "ayudante de campo" is a word-for-word translation of it).
A controversy was raised in 2006, when president Néstor Kirchner decided to promote his Army
The Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs is the head of the Bureau of Western Hemisphere Affairs within the United States Department of State, the foreign affairs department of the United States federal government. The Assistant Secretary of State guides operation of the U.S. diplomatic establishment in the countries of the Western Hemisphere and advises the Secretary of State and the Under Secretary for Political Affairs. The current Assistant Secretary is Roberta S. Jacobson, who was sworn in as Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs on March 30, 2012.
The Department of State created the position of Assistant Secretary of State for American Republic Affairs during the general reorganization of December 20, 1944, after Congress had authorized an increase in the number of Assistant Secretaries of State from four to six. This reorganization was the first to assign substantive designations to specific Assistant Secretary positions. The position was temporarily discontinued between June 1947 and June 1949, when American Republic Affairs were handled by an Assistant Secretary for Political Affairs.
The Department re-established the position
A commander-in-chief is the person exercising supreme command authority of a nation's military forces or significant element of those forces. In the latter case, the force element may be defined as those forces within a particular region or those forces which are associated by function. As a practical term it refers to the military competencies that reside in a nation-state's executive, Head of State and/or Head of Government. Often, a given country's commander-in-chief need not be or have been a commissioned officer or even a veteran, and it is by this legal statute that civilian control of the military is realized in states where it is constitutionally required.
The role of commander-in-chief derives from the Latin, imperator. Imperatores (commanders-in-chief) of the Roman Republic and Roman Empire possessed imperium (command) powers. In its modern usage, the term was first used by King Charles of England in 1639. A nation's head of state usually holds the position of national commander-in-chief, even if effective executive power is held by a separate head of government. Colonial governors are also often appointed commander-in-chief of the military forces in their colonies.
A correspondent or on-the-scene reporter is a journalist or commentator, or more general speaking, an agent who contributes reports to a newspaper, or radio or television news, or another type of company, from a remote, often distant, location. A foreign correspondent is stationed in a foreign country. The term correspondent refers to the original practice of filing news reports via postal letter. The largest networks of correspondents belong to ARD (Germany) and BBC (UK).
A correspondent generally includes some of his/her own perspective on the news. For example, a correspondent is expected to provide considerable context to the events being chronicled. A reporter, on the other hand, offers largely fact-based reporting.
In Britain the term 'correspondent' usually refers to someone with a specific specialist area, such as health correspondent. A 'reporter' is usually someone without such expertise who is allocated stories by the newsdesk on any story in the news.
A war correspondent covers stories first-hand from a war zone. It is perhaps the most dangerous form of journalism.
A foreign bureau is a news bureau set up to support a news gathering operation in a foreign country.
A harbourmaster (or harbormaster, see spelling differences) is an official responsible for enforcing the regulations of a particular harbour or port, in order to ensure the safety of navigation, the security of the harbour and the correct operation of the port facilities.
Harbourmasters are normally responsible for issuing local safety information sometimes known as Notice to Mariners.
They may also oversee the maintenance and provision of navigational aids within the port, co-ordinate responses to emergencies, inspect vessels and oversee pilotage services.
The harbourmaster may have legal power to detain, caution or even arrest persons committing an offence within the port or tidal range of the port's responsibilities. An example of this is the team of Harbourmasters employed by the Port of London Authority who are empowered to undertake an enforcement role.
Actions that a harbourmaster may investigate include criminal acts, immigration, customs and excise, maritime and river safety and environmental and pollution issues. The police, customs, coastguard or immigration authorities will take over the handling of any offenders or incident once informed by the Harbourmaster.
A janitor, janitress (female), custodian or caretaker (British English) is a professional who takes care of buildings such as hospitals, schools and residential accommodation. Janitors' primary responsibility is as a cleaner and in some cases they will also carry out maintenance and security duties. A similar position, but usually with more managerial duties and not including cleaning, is occupied by building superintendents in the USA.
Typical janitor duties often consist of the following tasks:
Office cleaning staff perform many of the same duties as janitors, however the tasks are divided among different members. Additional tasks include:
Office cleaning often takes place after hours or later in the evening or even overnight.
Cleaning is one of the most commonly outsourced services. Some of the reasons for this include:
In the USA, janitors are approximately 25% Hispanic, 50% female and 15% black.
Between 17% to 23% of the total undocumented immigrant population living in the United States work in the cleaning industry (and growing at a rate of 1/2% to 1/3% percent per year until U.S. Customs Immigration Enforcement fixes the problem). In addition to this population offering an
A lieutenant (abbreviated Lt, LT, Lieut and LEUT) is a junior commissioned officer in many nations' armed forces.
The rank of lieutenant has different meanings in different military formations (see comparative military ranks), but the majority of cases it is common for it to be sub-divided into a senior (first lieutenant) and junior (second lieutenant) rank. In navies it may relate to a particular post rather than a rank. Typically, the post of lieutenant in naval usage is held by a Captain, while still a junior officer rank, is senior to the army lieutenant rank. It is also used in fire services, emergency medical services, security services and police forces as a rank.
Lieutenant may also appear as part of a title used in various other organizations with a codified command structure. It often designates someone who is "second-in-command," and as such, may precede the name of the rank directly above it. For example, a "lieutenant master" is likely to be second-in-command to the "master" in an organization utilizing both such ranks. Notable uses include lieutenant governor in various governments, and Quebec lieutenant in Canadian politics.
The word lieutenant derives from French;
A Member of Parliament is a representative of the voters to a parliament. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, the term applies specifically to members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title, such as senate, and thus also have different titles for its members, such as "senators".
Members of parliament tend to form parliamentary groups (also called parliamentary parties) with members of the same political party. In everyday use, the term Member of Parliament is almost always shortened to the initialism "MP", and this is also common in the media.
In Australia, the term "MP" refers to a Member of Parliament, specifically the House of Representatives which is the lower house of the Commonwealth (i.e. federal) parliament. Members may use "MP" after their names; "MHR" is not used, although it was used as a post-nominal in the past. A member of the upper house of the Commonwealth parliament, the Senate, is known as a "Senator".
In the Australian states of New South Wales and Victoria, a Member of the Legislative Assembly (lower house) may also use the post-nominal "MP". Members of the Legislative Council (upper house) use the post-nominal "MLC".
A midfielder is an association football position. Some midfielders play a more defensive role, while others blur the boundaries between midfielders and forwards. The number of midfielders a team uses during a match may vary, depending on the team's formation and each individual player's role. The group of midfielders in a team is called the midfield.
More complete midfielders require a number of skills on top of fitness: they tackle, dribble, shoot and pass during any match. Most managers field at least one central midfielder with a marked task of breaking up opposition's attacks while the rest are more adept to creating goals or have equal responsibilities between attack and defence. At either side of the pitch a manager can field a right or left midfielder, who are used equally for both attack and defence, or a winger, a player used primarily for attack.
In essence, a good midfield must possess the ability to be combative while also being creative. A good striker without midfield support could lack attacking chances, while a defense likewise could be severely tested. Because they occupy the most influential parts of the pitch, midfielders are perhaps more likely to influence the
The President of the University of Richmond is the chief administrator of the University of Richmond and an ex officio member of the university's Board of Trustees. The current president is Edward L. Ayers, previously the Buckner W. Clay Dean of the College and Graduate School of Arts and Sciences and the Hugh P. Kelly Professor of History at the University of Virginia.
The University of Richmond was founded in 1830 as an academy created by the "Education Society" of the Baptist General Association of Virginia. In 1832, the academy was relocated and renamed the Virginia Baptist Seminary, and Robert Ryland was named superintendent. In 1840, the Virginia General Assembly passed articles of incorporation, and the seminary became a liberal arts college known as Richmond College. Ryland was named the institution's first president in 1841. From 1869 to 1895, the college changed to a faculty-run administration, and the position of president was eliminated. The position was restored in 1895 with the appointment of Frederic W. Boatwright as president. He would serve in that capacity for 51 years.
The President of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila is the principal executive officer of the University of the City of Manila. The office was created by the Republic Act 4196, which is today's University Charter.
The President oversees the policy implementation, guide the institution towards the realization of its vision-mission, as well as monitor and administer the overall affairs of the PLM, including its three major functions - instruction, research and community extension services.
The members of the Board of Regents are tasked to elect from among themselves a university president who shall serve for a term of six years which is renewable for another term of six years.
After the election of the President, the Chairman of the Board of Regents is tasked to formally conduct a presidential investiture liturgy.
The investiture liturgy consists of formal features like the turnover of the mace of authority and power by the Chairman, and the presentation of the academic collar composed of linked gold coins stamped with the logo of the university. It also showcases the rich tradition and culture of the Filipinos through dance, music and colorful costumes.
The mace symbolizes the
The Special Envoy for Eurasian Energy is a diplomatic position within the United States Department of State. The envoy is "engage directly with senior European, Central Asian, Russian and other political and business leaders to support the continued development and diversification of the energy sector." The position is currently filled by Richard Morningstar.
The legislation calling for the position was drafted in 2007. In February 2008, responding to questions on the issue at a briefing before the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Secretary of State Condoleezza Rice reaffirmed that the State Department was looking to appoint a special energy coordinator for the Central Asian and Caspian region. Thomas Pickering was reportedly high on the list, but he withdrew himself from consideration in early 2008. On 31 March 2008 the Bush administration named C. Boyden Gray as the first envoy to this position.
On 14 November 2008, Gray became part of the presidential delegation assigned to attend the Baku Energy Summit in Baku, Azerbaijan. The delegation also included Ambassador to Azerbaijan Anne E. Derse and Secretary of Energy Samuel Bodman. After change of the United States
The systems architect establishes the basic structure of the system, defining the essential core design features and elements that provide the framework for all that follows, and are the hardest to change later. The systems architect provides the architects view of the users' vision for what the system needs to be and do, and the paths along which it must be able to evolve, and strives to maintain the integrity of that vision as it evolves during detailed design and implementation.
In systems design, the architects and engineers are responsible for:
Large systems architecture was developed as a way to handle systems too large for one person to conceive of, let alone design. Systems of this size are rapidly becoming the norm, so architectural approaches and architects are increasingly needed to solve the problems of large systems.
Architects are expected to understand human needs and develop humanly functional and aesthetically pleasing products. A good architect is also the principal keeper of the user's vision of the end product— and of the process of deriving requirements from and implementing that vision.
An architect does not follow an exact procedure. S/he communicates with
The Under Secretary for Arms Control and International Security Affairs (T) is a position within the U.S. Department of State that serves as Senior Adviser to the President and the Secretary of State for Arms Control, Nonproliferation, and Disarmament.
In this capacity, the Under Secretary (U/S) attends and participates, at the direction of the President, in National Security Council (NSC) and subordinate meetings pertaining to arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament and has the right to communicate, through the Secretary of State, with the President and members of the NSC on arms control, nonproliferation, and disarmament concerns.
The U/S also leads the interagency policy process on nonproliferation and manages global U.S. security policy, principally in the areas of nonproliferation, arms control, regional security and defense relations, and arms transfers and security assistance. The U/S provides policy direction in the following areas: nonproliferation, including the missile and nuclear areas, as well as chemical, biological, and conventional weapons proliferation; arms control, including negotiation, ratification, verification and compliance, and implementation of
The Under Secretary for Science is a high-ranking position within the United States Department of Energy. The position was created by the Energy Policy Act of 2005, and the first Under Secretary for Science, Raymond L. Orbach, was sworn in on June 1, 2006. The Under Secretary is appointed by the President of the United States and confirmed by the United States Senate. In March 2009, Steve Koonin was nominated to replace Orbach.
The Under Secretary serves as the Secretary of Energy's Science and Technology advisor, monitors the Department of Energy's research and development programs, and advises the Secretary on any gaps or duplications in them. The Under Secretary advises the Secretary on the management and the state of the national laboratories overseen by the Department.
The Under Secretary also advises the Secretary on the Department's educational and training activities. Other aspects include advising the Secretary on the coordinating and planning of research activities, advising the Secretary on financial assistance for research activities, and carrying out additional duties assigned by the Secretary, including supervising and supporting the lower-ranking Assistant
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Cambodia.
Until 1953 Cambodia had been French protectorate as a part of French Indochina, but became independent on November 9, 1953. The United States had appointed its first envoy to Cambodia, Donald R. Heath, in 1950. Heath was a non-resident minister who was commissioned to Cambodia, Laos, and Vietnam, while resident in Saigon.
Diplomatic relations between Cambodia and the United States were broken twice: The first time between 1965 and 1969, and the second time in 1975 just before the Pol Pot regime gained control of the country. Relations were finally restored in 1991.
The U.S. Embassy in Cambodia is located in Phnom Penh.
Note: Legation Phnom Penh was raised to embassy status, June 25, 1952. Concurrently the Minister was promoted to Ambassador.
Note: Cambodia severed diplomatic relations with the United States on May 3, 1965. Alf E. Bergesen was serving as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim in the embassy at that time.
Note: After Lon Nol deposed Prince Norodom Sihanouk, diplomatic relations were resumed, and the embassy in Phnom Penh was reestablished on August 16, 1969, with Lloyd M. Rives as Chargé d’Affaires ad
The following is a list of Ambassadors of the United States, or other chiefs of mission, to Ecuador. The title given by the United States State Department to this position is currently Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
Ambassador Heather M. Hodges was declared persona non grata by the government of Ecuador and expelled from Ecuador on April 5, 2011. The expulsion was a result of the government’s displeasure over disclosures in WikiLeaks that the ambassador had criticized police corruption in Ecuador. (see United States diplomatic cables leak.)
The United States Ambassador to Libya is the official representative of the President of the United States to the head of state of Libya.
Until its independence in 1951, Libya had been a colony of Italy (1912–1947) and then under British and French occupation until 1951. In 1949 The UN General Assembly had passed a resolution stating that Libya should become independent before January 1, 1952 (Resolution 289). On December 24, 1951, Libya declared its independence under King Idris.
The United States recognized the Kingdom of Libya on December 24, 1951, in a congratulatory message sent by President Harry Truman to King Idris I. Diplomatic relations were established on the same day and the U.S. Consulate-General was elevated to a legation with Andrew Lynch designated as Charge d'Affaires ad interim. The first official envoy to Libya was Henry Serrano Villard, who presented his credentials on March 6, 1952.
On December 2, 1979, a mob attacked and burned the U.S. Embassy in Tripoli. On December 29, the U.S. Department of State designated Libya as a state sponsor of terrorism. The Chargé d’Affaires was recalled on February 8, 1980 and the embassy was closed May 2, 1980. However,
The U.S. embassy in Karachi was established August 15, 1947 with Edward W. Holmes as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim, pending the appointment of an ambassador. The first ambassador, Paul H. Alling, was appointed on September 20, 1947. Anne W. Patterson was nominated as United States Ambassador to Pakistan in May 2007, replacing Ryan C. Crocker who was appointed United States Ambassador to Iraq after completing three years of service in Pakistan. In 2010, her post was succeeded by Cameron Munter. The American ambassador is based in the U.S. Embassy, Islamabad.
The following is a list of United States Ambassadors, or other chiefs of mission, to Paraguay. The title given by the United States State Department to this position is currently Ambassador Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary.
This is a list of Ambassadors of the United States to Swaziland.
After the Second Boer War of 1899–1902, Swaziland became a British protectorate and thus came under the hegemony of the British Empire. In the early years of colonial rule, the British had expected that Swaziland would eventually be incorporated into South Africa. After World War II, however, South Africa’s racial policies induced the United Kingdom to prepare Swaziland for independence. In 1966, the UK Government agreed to discuss a new constitution, and Swaziland became independent on September 6, 1968.
The United States immediately recognized the new nation and established an embassy in the capital Mbabane on September 6, 1968, independence day for Swaziland. Chris C. Pappas, Jr., was appointed as chargé d'affaires ad interim pending the appointment of an ambassador. The first ambassador, Charles J. Nelson was appointed on June 9, 1971. He was accredited to Swaziland, Lesotho, and Botswana while resident in Gaborone, Botswana.
This is a list of United States ambassadors to The Gambia, the first of who was appointed on May 18,1965, exactly three months after it attained independence from the United Kingdom.
Note: Between Aug 1982 and Jun 1984, the following officers served as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim: Owen W. Roberts. Aug 1982-Jun 1983; P. Wesley Kriebel, Jul-Nov 1983; Alan Logan, Nov 1983-Apr 1984; and Edward Brynn, May-Jun 1984.
Note: The following officers served as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim: Jimmie Stone (Nov 1989-Jan 1990) and A. Donald Bramante (Jan-Dec 1990).
The history of Ambassadors of the United States to Ukraine began in 1992.
Until 1991 the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic had been a constituent SSR of the Soviet Union. Upon the breakup of the USSR, the parliament of Ukraine declared the nation’s independence on August 24, 1991. On December 1, 1991, the people of Ukraine voted to approve the declaration by a wide margin.
The United States recognized Ukraine on December 26, 1991 and the U.S. embassy in Kiev was established January 23, 1992, with Jon Gundersen as Chargé d’Affaires ad interim. The first ambassador was commissioned in May 1992.
The U.S. Embassy in Ukraine is located in Kiev.
The United States Ambassador to Vietnam (Vietnamese language: Đại sứ Hoa Kỳ tại Việt Nam) is the chief American diplomat to the Socialist Republic of Vietnam. After the First Indochina War and the defeat of the French dominion over Vietnam, the nation was split into North and South Vietnam at the Geneva Conference of 1954. The United States did not recognize North Vietnam and thus had no diplomatic relations with that nation. After the reunification of Vietnam in 1976, there followed a period of 20 years in which the United States had no diplomatic relations with Vietnam.
The USA opened a Liaison Office in Hanoi on January 28, 1995. Diplomatic relations were established July 11, 1995, and Embassy Hanoi was established with L. Desaix Anderson as Chargé d'Affaires ad interim.
The house was designed by M. LaCollogne, Principal Architect and Chief of Civil Construction Service in Tonkin and built in 1921 by Indochina Public Property, part of the French colonial government, for Indochina Financial Governors who lived here until 1948. The house was then assigned, until 1954, to the highest-ranking Indochina Tariff Officer. When the French left South East Asia in 1954, Vietnamese