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Pforzheim (help·info) is a town of nearly 120,000 inhabitants in the state of Baden-Württemberg, southwest Germany at the gate to the Black Forest. It is well-known -for its jewelry and watch-making industry. Until 1565 it was the home to the Margraves of Baden. Because of that it gained the nickname "Goldstadt" or Golden City. It has an area of 98 km² and is situated between the cities of Stuttgart and Karlsruhe at the confluence of three rivers (Enz, Nagold and Würm) and marks the frontier between Baden and Württemberg, being located on Baden territory. Pforzheim is located on the Bertha Benz Memorial Route.
The City of Pforzheim does not belong to any administrative district (Kreis), although it hosts the administrative offices of the Enz district which surrounds the town.
During World War II, Pforzheim was bombed a number of times. The largest raid, and one of the most devastating area bombardments of World War II, was carried out by the Royal Air Force (RAF) on the evening of 23 February 1945. About one quarter of the town's population, over 17,000 people, were killed in the air raid, and about 83% of the town's buildings were destroyed. The town was thought by the Allies to
Schleswig (Danish: Slesvig; South Jutlandic: Sljasvig, archaic English: Sleswick; Low German: Sleswig) is a town in the northeastern part of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is the capital of the Kreis (district) Schleswig-Flensburg. It has a population of about 27,000, the main industries being leather and food processing. It takes its name from the Schlei, an inlet of the Baltic sea at the end of which it sits, and "vik" or "vig" which means bay in the old Viking language and modern Danish language. Schleswig or Slesvig therefore means bay of the Schlei. (There is also a suggestion that the state's namesake and the term Slesvig originated from a tribe of West Slavs who lived in "Slavsvick" between the 5th century and 10th century AD.)
The city lies at the western end of the Schlei Förde, which separates the two peninsulas of Angeln and Schwansen and is on the western edge of the Schleswig-Holstein Uplands on the transition to the Geest country. The urban area ranges from 0 to 20 m above sea level. Brautsee (lake) is in the town.
The nearest major cities are Flensburg, Husum and Kiel. Autobahn 7 runs immediately west of the city. Highways 76 and 77 end in Schleswig and B 201 runs
Erfurt (German pronunciation: [ˈɛʁfʊʁt]) is the capital city of Thuringia and the main city nearest to the geographical centre of Germany, located 100 km SW of Leipzig, 150 km N of Nuremberg and 180 km SE of Hannover. It lies in the southern part of the Thuringian Basin within the wide valley of Gera River, a tributary of the Unstrut. To the south is the Steigerwald forest.
In 2010, Erfurt had a population of over 200,000 and is part of the Erfurt-Weimar-Jena metropolitan area with a population of about 500,000.
Erfurt is an old Germanic settlement. The oldest evidence of human settlement dates from the prehistoric era; archeological finds from the north of Erfurt revealed human traces from the paleolithic period, ca. 100,000 BCE. The Erfurt-Melchendorf dig showed a settlement from the neolithic period. The Thuringii inhabited the Erfurt area ca. 480 and gave their name to Thuringia ca. 500.
The town is first mentioned in 742 under the name of "Erphesfurt": in that year, Saint Boniface writes Pope Zachary to tell him that he had established three dioceses in Thuringia, one of which "in a place called Erphesfurt, which for a long time has been inhabited by pagan natives." All three
Regensburg (German pronunciation: [ˈʁeːɡənsbʊɐ̯k]; historically also Ratisbon, from Celtic Ratisbona, Latin: Castra Regina) is a city in Bavaria, Germany, located at the confluence of the Danube and Regen rivers, at the northernmost bend in the Danube. To the east lies the Bavarian Forest. Regensburg is the capital of the Bavarian administrative region Upper Palatinate. The large medieval centre of the city is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
The first settlements in Regensburg date to the Stone Age. The Celtic name Radasbona was the oldest name given to a settlement near the present city. Around AD 90, the Romans built a fort there.
In 179, the Roman fort Castra Regina ("fortress by the river Regen") was built for Legio III Italica during the reign of Emperor Marcus Aurelius. It was an important camp on the most northern point of the Danube: it corresponds to what is today the core of Regensburg's Altstadt ("Old City") east of the Obere and Untere Bachgasse and West of the Schwanenplatz. It is believed that even in late Roman times the city was the seat of a bishop, and St Boniface re-established the Bishopric of Regensburg in 739.
From the early 6th century, Regensburg was the seat
Oelde (German pronunciation: [ˈœldə]) is a town in the district of Warendorf, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located near Beckum.
Oelde consists of 5 districts:
Oelde is twinned with:
Records from the 9th century show that there was a settlement named "Ulidi" on the site, although Oelde only received township in the year 1800. In the 14th century, a castle was built in Oelde.
Oelde is a centre of metal and lumber production, publishing, and also higher education through its nursing college. It is also home to the headquarters of Westfalia Separator, a manufacturer of centrifuges and dairy machines.
Bad Oldesloe is a town located in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein. It is the capital of the Kreis Stormarn (district).
The area has been inhabited since mesolithic times. The flint tools found here from that era (6,000 - 4,500 B.C.) are clearly defined and known as the Oldesloer Stufe. For a number of years in the 18th Century the Moravian Church had a Congregation in Bad Oldesloe. It was called "Pilgerruh", i.e. "Pilgrims' Rest". It was given up because of difficulties with the Danish Church authorities. At that time the Duchy of Holstein was ruled by the King of Denmark within the Holy Roman Empire. The famed nineteenth-century classicist and legal scholar Theodor Mommsen was born in Bad Oldesloe in 1817.
16th century Mennokate: Memorial for Menno Simons, founder/namegiver of the Mennonites, a group of anabaptists. He had some of his works printed in this building.
Bad Oldesloe is twinned with:
Amberg is a town in Bavaria, Germany. It is located in the Upper Palatinate, roughly halfway between Regensburg and Bayreuth. Population: 44,756 (2008).
The town was first mentioned in 1034, at that time under the name Ammenberg. It became an important trading centre in the Middle Ages, exporting mainly iron ore and iron products. In 1269, together with Bamberg, the town became subordinate to the Wittelsbach dynasty that ruled Bavaria.
In 1329 the town and the entire Upper Palatinate fell to a branch line of the Wittelsbach family and was no longer part of the duchy of Bavaria. Although in geographic terms it was regarded as Bavarian and the region was part of the Bavarian circle in the organization of the Imperial Circles. The rulers of Upper Palatinate were open-minded towards Protestantism. In the 16th century the town turned to Lutheranism, but attempts of the ruling family to introduce the more radical Calvinism failed due to the reluctance of its citizens.
In 1628 Amberg and Upper Palatinate became part of the electorate of Bavaria. The inhabitants were given the choice: return to Catholicism or leave the town forever. Many families left the town and fled to the Free Imperial
Leverkusen ( /ˈleɪfərˌkuːzən/; German pronunciation: [ˈleːvɐˌkuːzn̩]) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany on the eastern bank of the Rhine. To the South, Leverkusen borders the city of Cologne and to the North is the state capital Düsseldorf.
With about 161,000 inhabitants, Leverkusen is one of the state's smaller cities. The city is known for the pharmaceutical company Bayer and its associated sports club TSV Bayer 04 Leverkusen.
Dating to the 12th century as Wiesdorf, the Leverkusen area was rural until the late 19th century.
Leverkusen was founded in 1930 by merging Wiesdorf, Schlebusch, Steinbüchel and Rheindorf. In 1975, Opladen (including Quettingen and Lützenkirchen since 1930), Hitdorf and Bergisch Neukirchen joined. The present city is made up of several villages, originally called Wiesdorf, Opladen, Schlebusch, Manfort, Bürrig, Hitdorf, Quettingen, Lützenkirchen, Steinbüchel, Rheindorf and Bergisch-Neukirchen.
Leverkusen is twinned with:
Celle (German pronunciation: [ˈtsɛlə]) is a town and capital of the district of Celle, in Lower Saxony, Germany. The town is situated on the banks of the River Aller, a tributary of the Weser and has a population of about 71,000. Celle is the southern gateway to the Lüneburg Heath, has a castle (Schloss Celle) built in the renaissance and baroque style and a picturesque old town centre (the Altstadt) with over 400 timber-framed houses, making Celle one of the most remarkable members of the German Timber-Frame Road. From 1378 to 1705, Celle was the official residence of the Lüneburg branch of the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (House of Welf) who had been banished from their original ducal seat by its townsfolk.
The town of Celle lies in the glacial valley of the Aller river, about 40 kilometres (25 mi) northeast of Hanover, 60 kilometres (37 mi) northwest of Brunswick and 120 kilometres (75 mi) south of Hamburg. With 71,000 inhabitants it is, next to Lüneburg, the largest Lower Saxon town between Hanover and Hamburg.
The town covers an area of 176.05 square kilometres (67.97 sq mi). Flowing from the northeast, the River Lachte discharges into the Aller within the town's borders, as
Hofheim (officially known as Hofheim am Taunus ) is a Frankfurt suburb and the administrative center of the Main-Taunus district, in the south of the state of Hesse. The population of the town at the end of 2006 was 41,737; its geographical position is 50°6′N 8°25′E / 50.1°N 8.417°E / 50.1; 8.417. The town was first mentioned in 1262 as Hoveheim.
The town is located on the south side of the Taunus range, 17 km west of downtown Frankfurt and 17 km east of both downtown Wiesbaden and Mainz, Frankfurt airport is 12 km to the south.
Hofheim is provided with many local pubs, secondary schools and several facilities for further education. The town also hosts one of the biggest pools (the Rhein Main Therme) in the Frankfurt metropolitan area, located on the northern outskirts of the town. Hofheim is located in one of the fastest growing regions in Germany in terms of population and also in regard to economical productivity. The unemployment is the second lowest in the state of Hesse and one of the lowest in Germany.
A highlight is the annual 'Waeldchestag' which is celebrated the week after Corpus Christi and is a local public holiday with schools being closed from 11 AM onwards. The
Eschwege (German pronunciation: [ˈɛʃveːɡə]), the district seat of the Werra-Meißner-Kreis, is a town in northeastern Hesse, Germany. In 1971, the town hosted the eleventh Hessentag state festival.
The town lies on a broad plain tract of the river Werra at the foot of the Leuchtberg (mountain) northwest of the Schlierbachswald (range) and east of the Hoher Meißner. The valley basin where the town is located includes a series of small lakes along the southern side of the river.
The nearest city in Hesse is Kassel (roughly 52 km to the northwest), and the nearest in Lower Saxony is Göttingen (roughly 55 km to the north). It lies more or less in the geographical centre of Germany.
Eschwege borders in the north on the town of Bad Sooden-Allendorf and the community of Meinhard, in the east on the town of Wanfried (all three in the Werra-Meißner-Kreis), in the southeast on the town of Treffurt (in Thuringia’s Wartburgkreis), in the south on the communities of Weißenborn and Wehretal, in the west on the community of Meißner, and in the northwest on the community of Berkatal (all four in the Werra-Meißner-Kreis).
Eschwege’s Stadtteile, besides the main town, also called Eschwege, are
Ulm (German pronunciation: [ˈʔʊlm] ( listen)) is a city in the federal German state of Baden-Württemberg, situated on the River Danube. The city, whose population is estimated at 120,000 (2006), forms an urban district of its own (German: Stadtkreis) and is the administrative seat of the Alb-Donau district. Ulm, founded around 850, is rich in history and traditions as a former Free Imperial City (German: freie Reichsstadt). Today, it is an economic centre due to its varied industries, and it is the seat of a university (University of Ulm, founded in 1967). Internationally, Ulm is primarily known for having the church with the tallest steeple in the world, the Gothic minster (Ulm Minster, German: Ulmer Münster) and as the birthplace of Albert Einstein.
Ulm lies at the point where the rivers Blau and Iller join the Danube, at an altitude of 479 m (1,571.52 ft) above sea level. Most parts of the city, including the old town, are situated on the left bank of the Danube; only the districts of Wiblingen, Gögglingen, Donaustetten and Unterweiler lie on the right bank. Across from the old town, on the other side of the river, lies the twin city of Neu-Ulm in the state of Bavaria, smaller
Detmold (German pronunciation: [ˈdɛtmɔlt]) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, with a population of about 74,000. It was the capital of the small Principality of Lippe from 1468 until 1918 and then of the Free State of Lippe until 1947. Today it is the administrative center of the district of Lippe and of Regierungsbezirk Detmold.
Detmold was first mentioned in 783 as Theotmalli, and in 1005 a Tietmelli or Theotmalli region (Gau) is referred to in documents. In 1263, Bernard III of Lippe fortified the settlement at the crossing of the trade route from Paderborn to Lemgo over the Werre River with stone walls and granted it a municipal charter. Its population was reported in 1305 as 305. Market rights granted in 1265 led to rapid economic development. Its defenses were greatly strengthened after severe damage had been inflicted on the town during the conflict with Soest in 1447. A major fire in 1547 destroyed more than 70 houses.
In 1550, Detmold became the permanent residence of Count Simon III of Lippe. The counts were elevated to princes in 1789, and Detmold remained the capital of the small Principality of Lippe until the end of the First World War in 1918, when all
Erftstadt is a town located about 20 km south-west of Cologne in the Rhein-Erft-Kreis, state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The name of the town derives from the river which flows through it, the Erft. Carl Schurz, a German revolutionary, American statesman and reformer, and Union Army General in the American Civil War was born in Erftstadt-Liblar on March 2, 1829 as was Joseph Kentenicha Catholic Priest of the Pallottine order and founder of the Schoenstatt Movementon 16 November 1885. He is also remembered as a thinker, theologian, and educationalist.
Erftstadt is twinned with:
Limburg an der Lahn (officially: Limburg a. d. Lahn) is the district seat of Limburg-Weilburg in Hesse, Germany.
Limburg lies in western Hesse between the Taunus and the Westerwald on the river Lahn.
The town lies roughly centrally in a basin within the Rhenish Slate Mountains which is surrounded by the low ranges of the Taunus and Westerwald and called the Limburg Basin (Limburger Becken). Owing to the favourable soil and climate, the Limburg Basin stands as one of Hesse’s richest agricultural regions and moreover, with its convenient Lahn crossing, it has been of great importance to transport since the Middle Ages. Within the basin, the Lahn’s otherwise rather narrow lower valley broadens out noticeably, making Limburg’s mean elevation only 117 m above sea level.
Limburg forms, together with the town of Diez, a middle centre (in terms of Central place theory) but partially functions as an upper centre to western Middle Hesse.
Limburg’s residential neighbourhoods reach beyond the town limits; the neighbouring centres of Elz and Diez run seamlessly together.
Surrounding towns and communities are the community of Elz and the town of Hadamar in the north, the community of Beselich in
Reutlingen is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is the capital of the eponymous district of Reutlingen. As of April 2008, it has a population of 109,828. Reutlingen has a university of applied sciences, which was founded in 1855, originally as a weavers' school. Today Reutlingen is home to an established textile industry and also houses machinery, leather goods and steel manufacturing facilities. It is famous for having the narrowest street in the world, Spreuerhofstraße (width 31 cm).
Reutlingen is located about 35 km (22 mi) south of the State capital of Baden-Württemberg, Stuttgart. It lies in the Southwest corner of Germany, right next to the Swabian Jura, and that is why it is often called The gate to the Swabian Jura (German: Das Tor zur Schwäbischen Alb). The Echaz river, a tributary of the Neckar, flows through the town centre.
Along with the old university town of Tübingen (about 15 km (9.3 mi) to the west), Reutlingen is the centre of the Neckar-Alb region. It is also part of the larger Stuttgart Metropolitan Region.
The first settlements in the area are believed to date from the 4th or 5th century. Some time around 1030, Count Egino started to build a castle on
Saarlouis (German pronunciation: [zaːɐ̯ˈlʊɪ]; French: Sarrelouis, French pronunciation: [saʁlwi]) is a city in the Saarland, Germany, capital of the district of Saarlouis. In 2006, the town had a population of 38,327. Saarlouis, as the name implies, is located at the river Saar. It was built as a fortress in 1680 and named after Louis XIV of France.
With the Treaties of Peace of Nijmegen in 1678/79, the Lorraine fell to France. In 1680, Louis XIV of France gave order to build a fortification (to defend the new French Eastern frontier) on the banks of the river Saar which was called Sarre-Louis. France's famous military engineer, Sébastien Le Prestre de Vauban, constructed the city, the plans were made by Thomas de Choisy, the city's first Gouvenour. In 1683, Louis XIV visited the fortress and granted arms. The coat of arms shows the rising sun and three Fleur-de-lis. The heraldic motto is Dissipat Atque Fovet: She (the sun) dispels (the clouds) and heats (the earth).
In 1697, with the Treaty of Ryswick, most parts of Lorraine gained independence again, but Saarlouis and the surrounding areas remained a French exclave. During the French Revolution, the town was renamed Sarre-Libre,
Bochum (German pronunciation: [ˈboːxʊm]; Westphalian: Baukem) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), western Germany. It is located in the Ruhr area and is surrounded by the cities of Essen, Gelsenkirchen, Herne, Castrop-Rauxel, Dortmund, Witten and Hattingen. With a population of nearly 375,000, it is the 16th most populous city in Germany.
Bochum dates from the 9th century, when Charlemagne set up a royal court at the junction of two important trade routes. It was first officially mentioned in 1041 as Cofbuokheim in a document of the archbishops of Cologne. Originally, it may have meant "Brookhome" or "Bacheim" and later seems to have gained the notorious reputation of "Bookhorn" or "Horn Book". In 1321, Count Engelbert II von der Marck granted Bochum a town charter, but the town remained insignificant until the 19th century, when the coal mining and steel industries emerged in the Ruhr area, leading to the growth of the entire region. The population of Bochum increased from about 4,500 in 1850 to 100,000 in 1904. Bochum acquired city status, incorporating neighbouring towns and villages. Additional population gains came from immigration, primarily from Poland.
After the war,
Bremerhaven (German pronunciation: [bʁeːmɐˈhaːfən], literally "Bremen's harbor", Low German: Bremerhoben) is a city at the seaport of the free city-state of Bremen, a state of the Federal Republic of Germany. It forms an enclave in the state of Lower Saxony and is located at the mouth of the River Weser on its eastern bank, opposite the town of Nordenham. Though a relatively new city, it has a long history as a trade port and today is one of the most important German ports, playing a crucial role in Germany's trade.
The town was founded in 1827, but settlements, such as Lehe, were in the vicinity as early as the 12th century, and Geestendorf, which was "mentioned in documents of the ninth century". These tiny villages were built on small islands in the swampy estuary. In 1381, the city of Bremen established de facto rule over the lower Weser stream, including Lehe, later therefore called Bremerlehe. Early in 1653, Swedish Bremen-Verden's troops captured Bremerlehe by force.
The Emperor Ferdinand III ordered his vassal Christina of Sweden, then Duchess regnant of Bremen-Verden, to restitute Bremerlehe to Bremen. However, Swedish Bremen-Verden soon enacted the First Bremian War
Willich (['vɪllɪç]) is a town in the district of Viersen, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located near the cities of Düsseldorf, Mönchengladbach and Krefeld, about 30 kilometres from the border with the Netherlands.
The city was founded in 1970 out of the formerly independent villages of Willich, Anrath, Schiefbahn and Neersen, although the villages are much older. Anrath was mentioned for the first time in 1010, Willich in 1245, Neersen in 1262 and Schiefbahn in 1420.
The villages belonged to the Electorate of Cologne until the French Revolutionary Wars when they were occupied and annexed by France in 1794. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars in 1815 the villages fell to the Kingdom of Prussia.
In 1891 a tornado devastated Anrath. The village was already impoverished by the decline of previously dominant domestic weaving and now the municipal administration of Anrath even considered a dissolution of the village. To improve the economic situation a royal prison was built. It was completed in 1905.
In 1908 Stahlwerk Becker (a steel mill) was built and up to its closing in 1932 was one of the largest employers in Willich. Under a new owner, the mill was reopened in 1934 and
Mülheim an der Ruhr, also called "City on the River", is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia in Germany. It is located in the Ruhr Area between Duisburg, Essen, Oberhausen and Ratingen. It is home of many companies, especially in the food industry, such as the Aldi Süd Company or the Tengelmann Group.
Mülheim received its town charter in 1808, and 100 years later the population exceeded 100,000, making Mülheim officially a city. At the time of the city's 200th anniversary with approximately 170,000 residents, the city was counted among the smaller cities of Germany.
Mülheim was the first city in the Ruhr Area to become totally free of coal mines, when its last coal mine "Rosenblumendelle" was closed. The former leather and coal city had successfully made a complete transformation to a diversified economic centre. With more than 50% covered by greenery and forest, the city is regarded as an attractive place to live between Düsseldorf and the Ruhr. It is the home of two Max Planck Institutes and, since 2009, the technical college Ruhr West. It has a station on the important railway between Dortmund and Duisburg and is served by Rhine-Ruhr S-Bahn lines S1 and S3.
Mülheim an der Ruhr lies
Hanover or Hannover (German: Hannover (help·info), [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the river Leine, is the capital of the federal state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany and was once by personal union the family seat of the Hanoverian Kings of Great Britain, under their title as the dukes of Brunswick-Lüneburg (later described as the Elector of Hanover). At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, the Electorate was enlarged to become the capital of the Kingdom of Hanover.
In addition to being the capital of Lower Saxony, Hanover was the capital of the administrative area Regierungsbezirk Hannover (Hanover region) until Lower Saxony's administrative regions were disbanded at the beginning of 2005. Since 2001 it is part of the Hanover district (Region Hannover), which is a municipal body made up from the former district (Landkreis Hannover) and city of Hanover (note: although both Region and Landkreis are translated as district they are not the same).
With a population of 522,686 (31 December 2010) the city is a major centre of northern Germany, known for hosting annual commercial trade fairs such as the Hanover Fair and the CeBIT. Every year Hanover hosts the Schützenfest Hannover, the world's
Emden is a town and seaport in the northwest of Germany, on the river Ems. It is the main town of the region of East Frisia and, in 2011, had a total population of 51,528.
The exact founding date of Emden is unknown, but it has existed at least since the 8th century. Older names for Emden are Amuthon, Embda, Emda, and Embden. Town privilege and the town's coat of arms, the Engelke up de Muer (The Little Angel on the Wall) was granted by Emperor Maximilian II in 1495.
Emden was a very rich town during the 17th century, due to large numbers of Dutch immigrants such as Diederik Jansz. Graeff. It was a centre of reformed Protestantism at that time, producing the first Bible translation in Dutch.
In 1744 Emden was annexed by Prussia. In 1752 Frederick the Great chartered the Emden Company to trade with Canton, but the company was ruined when Emden was captured by French forces in 1757 during the Seven Years' War. The town was recaptured by Anglo-German forces in 1758 and for the rest of the conflict was used as a major supply base by the British to support the ongoing war in Westphalia.
During the Napoleonic French era, Emden and the surrounding lands of East Frisia were part of the
Hürth is a town in the Rhein-Erft-Kreis, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Hürth shares borders with the city of Cologne.
Hürth is situated about 6 km to the southwest of Cologne city centre, at the northeastern slope of the natural preserve Kottenforst-Ville.
The town, consisting of thirteen formerly independent villages, is essentially made up of numerous subdivisions and commercial centres distributed over a relatively large area. The municipal area is intermitted by lakes and stretches of forest.
Hürth's coat of arms shows an eagle from the family coat of arms belonging to the knight Hurth von Schönecken, the cross of Cologne and a cogwheel that refers to the heavy industry. It was awarded to the community on October 26, 1934, by a verdict of the Prussian Ministry of State.
On April 1, 1930, the rural communities of Hürth (with Alstädten and Knapsack), Berrenrath, Fischenich, Gleuel (with Sielsdorf and Burbach), Hermülheim and Kendenich (with Kalscheuren) were united into a new country community called Hürth. After same year's failed attempt by the city of Cologne, with its then-mayor Konrad Adenauer, to incorporate Efferen, Efferen was associated to Hürth in 1933, in tandem
Lüdenscheid is a town in the Märkischer Kreis district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the Sauerland region. Lüdenscheid is seat of the administration of the Märkischer Kreis district. However, the district council meets in the district hall in Iserlohn.
Lüdenscheid is located on the saddle of the watershed between the Lenne and Volme rivers which both empty into the Ruhr river, with three smaller valleys leading to them. The saddle has a height of 420 meters, higher elevations on the watershed are an unnamed hilltop of 505 meters in the north, and the 663 meters high Nordhelle in the Ebbegebirge mountain range. In the surrounding mountainous area, half a dozen barriers created artificial lakes to regulate the water flow of the Ruhr river and to provide drinking water. The mountainous nature of the city's territory gave rise to the nickname "Bergstadt" (mountain town). The original settlement circles around the church built on a ledge of the slope above the saddle.
While first settlement in the Lüdenscheid area is confirmed for the 9th century, the first mention of the place as a village was made in 1067 and as a city in 1268. In the 15th and 16th century
Solingen is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located on the northern edge of the region called Bergisches Land, south of the Ruhr area, and with a 2009 population of 161,366 is the second largest city in the Bergisches Land. It is a member of the regional authority of the Rhineland.
Solingen is called the "City of Blades", since it has long been renowned for the manufacturing of fine swords, knives, scissors and razors made by famous firms such as Dreiturm, DOVO Solingen, Wüsthof, J. A. Henckels, Böker, Hen & Rooster, Eickhorn-Solingen, and numerous other manufacturers. Wilkinson's German operations are also based here. Compare with Sheffield and Birmingham in England.
In Medieval times, the swordsmiths of Solingen coined the town's image, which is preserved to this date. In the latter part of the 17th century, a group of swordsmiths from Solingen broke their guild oaths by taking their sword-making secrets with them to Shotley Bridge, County Durham in England. Nearly 90% of German knives are produced in Solingen.
Solingen lies southwest of Wuppertal in the Bergisches Land. The city has an area of 89.45 square kilometres (34.54 sq mi), of which roughly 50% is used
Esslingen am Neckar is a city in the Stuttgart Region of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany, capital of the District of Esslingen as well as the largest city in the district.
It is located on the Neckar River, about 14 km southeast of Stuttgart city centre. The regions surrounding the city of Esslingen are also mostly developed.
Through archaeological finds made in what is now the city of Esslingen there is evidence of permanent settlement since the Neolithic Stone Age. Traces of human settlement found at the site of the city church date back to around 1000 B.C.
In the 1st century AD the Esslingen region became part of the Roman Empire. During this period a Roman warehouse was located in the area of Oberesslingen. The nearest major Roman settlements and garrisons were at Cannstatt and Köngen.
Esslingen was first mentioned in 777 as Ezelinga in the last will of Abbot Fulrad from Saint-Denis (near Paris), the chaplain of Pippin and Charlemagne. He bequeathed the church sixth cell upon the river Neckar to his monastery, Saint-Denis. He also brought the bones of Saint Vitalis to Esslingen, which made it a destination for pilgrims and led to its growth.
Around 800 Esslingen became a
Menden (Sauerland) is a town in the district Märkischer Kreis, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located at the north end of the Sauerland near the Ruhr river.
Menden's first churches were built in the 9th century. From 1180 on the area around Menden was part of the Cologne region, however, as it was on the border with the County of Mark, it was often fought over. In 1276, it received city rights. Industrialization started early: in 1695 needle production was the first industry, later followed by limestone products like cement. In 1816 Menden was included within Prussia, after being part of Hesse for 13 years. In 1975 the city was merged with several previously independent municipalities, thus it grew in area as well as population.
The Hönnetal, a narrow valley with some beautiful cliffs carved into the limestone bedrock by the river Hönne.
In Menden (Sauerland), there are eleven (elementary schools).
Besides four hauptschulen, two realschulen, there are three grammar schools:
The theatre, managed by the city government, is the "Theater am Ziegelbrand" (TAZ). The director is Volker Fleige.
A festival is Menden à la carte. It is organized by the Initiativkreis Mendener
Alzey (German pronunciation: [ˈaltsaɪ]) is a Verband-free town – one belonging to no Verbandsgemeinde – in the Alzey-Worms district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is the fourth-largest town in Rhenish Hesse, after Mainz, Worms, and Bingen.
Alzey is one of the Nibelungenstädte – towns associated with the Nibelungenlied – because it is represented in this work by the character Volker von Alzey. Hence, Alzey is also known as Volkerstadt.
Alzey lies in Rhenish Hesse on the western edge of the northern part of the Upper Rhine Plain. It is surrounded by the northern part of the Alzeyer Hügelland (Alzey Hills), which meets the Rheinhessisches Hügelland (Rhenish-Hessian Upland) towards the south and the North Palatine Highland towards the east. The town is found some 30 km southwest of Mainz and some 22 km (as the crow flies, in each case) northwest of Worms. Through Alzey, in places underground, flows the river Selz, a left-bank tributary to the Rhine.
Yearly precipitation in Alzey amounts to 586 mm, which is rather low, falling into the lowest fourth of the precipitation chart for all Germany. At 18% of the German Weather Service’s weather stations, even lower figures are recorded.
Neuruppin (German pronunciation: [nɔʏʁʊˈpiːn]) is a town in Brandenburg, Germany. Located on the shore of Ruppiner See (a lake), it is the capital of the district of Ostprignitz-Ruppin. Population: 32,800 (1999).
Neuruppin has the reputation of being the most Prussian of all Prussian towns, due to its former status as a Prussian garrison town. The novelist Theodor Fontane, the architect Karl Friedrich Schinkel, the lieutenant colonel Otto Friedrich Ferdinand von Görschen, the general Hermann Hoth, the serial killer Karl Großmann and the actor Klaus Schwarzkopf were born in Neuruppin. Frederick the Great lived in Neuruppin in his years as crown prince of Prussia. Prussian general and military strategist Carl Phillip Gottlieb von Clausewitz also resided in Neuruppin for a few years.
The name Neuruppin means "New Ruppin"; the original settlement of Ruppin (later Alt Ruppin, "Old Ruppin") was located on north-eastern shore of the Ruppiner See. It was founded about 1150. Some hundred years later, when the settlement became too small for the growing population, Neuruppin on the western shore of the lake was established by the Dukes of Lindow-Ruppin. Wichmann von Arnstein founded the
Essen (German pronunciation: [ˈɛsən]; Latin: Assindia) is a city in the central part of the Ruhr area in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Located on the River Ruhr, its population of approximately 579,000 (as of 30 June 2008 (2008 -06-30)) makes it the 9th-largest city in Germany. For the year 2010, Essen was the European Capital of Culture on behalf of the whole Ruhr area.
Historically linked to the centuries-old Krupp family iron works, Essen has been one of Germany's most important coal and steel centres until the 1970s and attracted workers from all over the country; it was the 5th-largest city in Germany between 1929 and 1988, peaking at over 730,000 inhabitants in 1962. The city has since developed a strong tertiary sector of the economy, so it is sometimes called "desk of the Ruhr area" (together with nearby Düsseldorf). Essen is home to 13 of the 100 largest German corporations and seat to several of the region's authorities.
In 1958, the city was chosen to serve as the seat to a Roman Catholic diocese (often referred to as Ruhrbistum or diocese of the Ruhr). In early 2003, the universities of Essen and the nearby city of Duisburg (both established in 1972) were merged into
Heidelberg German pronunciation: [ˈhaɪdəlbɛʁk] ( listen) is a city in south-west Germany. The fifth-largest city in the State of Baden-Württemberg after Stuttgart, Mannheim, Karlsruhe and Freiburg im Breisgau, Heidelberg is part of the densely populated Rhine-Neckar Metropolitan Region. In 2009, over 145,000 people lived in the city. Heidelberg lies on the River Neckar in a steep valley in the Odenwald.
A former residence of the Electorate of the Palatinate, Heidelberg is the location of Heidelberg University, well known far beyond Germany's borders. Heidelberg is a popular tourist destination due to its romantic and picturesque cityscape, including Heidelberg Castle and the baroque style Old Town.
Heidelberg is in the Rhine Rift Valley, on the left bank of the lower part of the River Neckar, bordered by the Königsstuhl (568 m) and the Gaisberg (375 m) mountains. The River Neckar here flows in an east-west direction. On the right bank of the river, the Heiligenberg mountain (445 m) rises. The River Neckar leads to the River Rhine approximately 22 kilometres north-west in Mannheim. Villages incorporated during the 20th century reach from the Neckar Valley along the Bergstraße, a
Leipzig ( /ˈlaɪptsɪɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˈlaɪ̯pt͡sɪç] ( listen)) with more than 530.000 inhabitants, is one of the two largest cities (along with Dresden) in the federal state of Saxony, Germany. Leipzig is situated about 200 km south of Berlin at the confluence of the Weisse Elster, Pleiße and Parthe rivers at the southerly end of the North German Plain.
Leipzig has always been a trade city, situated during the time of the Holy Roman Empire at the intersection of the Via Regia and Via Imperii, two important trade routes. At one time, Leipzig was one of the major European centres of learning and culture in fields such as music and publishing. After World War II, Leipzig became a major urban centre within the Communist German Democratic Republic but its cultural and economic importance declined.
Leipzig later played a significant role in instigating the fall of communism in Eastern Europe, through events which took place in and around St. Nicholas Church. Since the reunification of Germany, Leipzig has undergone significant change with the restoration of some historical buildings, the demolition of others, and the development of a modern transport infrastructure. Leipzig has
Bad Homburg vor der Höhe is the district town of the Hochtaunuskreis, Hesse, Germany, on the southern slope of the Taunus, bordering among others Frankfurt am Main and Oberursel. The town's formal name is Bad Homburg vor der Höhe (translated as "Bad Homburg in front of the height" to distinguish it from other places of the same name, abbreviated as Bad Homburg v. d. Höhe.
The town is best known for its medically used mineral waters and spa (hence the prefix Bad, "bath"), and for its casino.
Today, Bad Homburg is again one of the wealthiest towns in Germany, in part thanks to its vicinity near Frankfurt, as many of the directors and employees of the Frankfurt banks live in Bad Homburg. (The Hochtaunuskreis and the Landkreis Starnberg regularly compete for the title of the wealthiest district in Germany.)
As of 2004, the town's marketing slogan was: Champagnerluft und Tradition (Champagne air and tradition).
Local tradition holds that Bad Homburg's documented history began with the mention of the Villa Tidenheim in the Lorsch codex, connected with the year 782. This Villa Tidenheim was equated with the Old Town, called "Dietigheim". This connection is also reflected in street names.
Oldenburg (German pronunciation: [ˈɔldənbʊrɡ] ( listen); Low German: Ollnborg; Saterland Frisian: Ooldenbuurich) is an independent city in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany. During the French occupation (1810–1814) of the former Duchy of Oldenburg, it was also known as Le Vieux-Bourg in French. The city is situated at the Rivers Hunte and Haaren, in the northwestern region between the cities of Bremen in the east and Groningen (Netherlands) in the west. It has a population of 162,173 (as of 2010), which makes it the fourth biggest city in Lower Saxony after Hanover, Braunschweig and Osnabrück. In German, the formal name is Oldenburg (Oldenburg) or Oldenburg (Oldb) (spoken: Oldenburg in Oldenburg) to distinguish it from the city of Oldenburg in Holstein.
The town was first mentioned in 1108, at that time known under the name of Aldenburg. It became important due to its location at a ford of the navigable Hunte River. Oldenburg became the capital of the County of Oldenburg (later of the Duchy, Grand Duchy, and Free State), a small state in the shadow of the much more powerful Hanseatic city of Bremen.
In the 17th century, Oldenburg was a wealthy town in a time of war and turmoil and
Plettenberg is a town in the Märkischer Kreis, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Plettenberg is located in the east of the Sauerland hills. The highest elevation of the city area is in the Ebbegebirge with 593 m above sea level, the lowest elevation with 194 m near Teindeln. The city is spread between the four valleys of the rivers Lenne, Else, Oester and Grüne.
Plettenberg consists of 5 districts:
Probably the first written proof of Plettenberg was made in a document of Anno II, archbishop of Cologne, at that time named Heslipho. The name was later changed to Plettenberg, as the name of the noble family von Plettenberg, who owned virtually all of the city and surrounding lands.
The Dukes of the Mark bought the town from Cologne, who in 1301 built the castle Schwarzenberg (which was destroyed by fire in 1864). In 1387, Count Engelbert III granted the town some privileges, it received full city rights in 1397 from Count Dietrich von der Mark. At the same time, the city was fortified. The city blossomed in the following centuries thanks to mining and iron casting, as well as trading with the Hanseatic League.
In 1941, the city was enlarged to its current size, when the former city
Arnsberg is a town in the Hochsauerland district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the location of the Regierungsbezirk Arnsberg's administration and one of the three local administration offices of the Hochsauerlandkreis.
Arnsberg is located in the north-east of the Sauerland in the Ruhr river valley. The river Ruhr makes a sinuosity in the south of the old town of the old city of Arnsberg. The town is nearly completely encircled by forrest, and in the north there is the natural park "Arnsberger Wald". The main road to reach Arnsberg is the Federal Motorway 46. It connects Arnsberg to Brilon in the east and (using the Federal Motorway 445) Werl in the west. The city spans a distance of up to 13 kilometres (8.1 mi) from the southern to the northern limits.
Arnsberg was first mentioned in 789 in the Carolingian records (Urbar) as part of the abbey of Werden. Arnsberg was built by the counts of Werl in the 11th century. They built a castle there whose remains can still be visited and are occasionally used for public celebrations. It was completely destroyed in the Seven Years' War in 1769.
In the 12th century, old Arnsberg became the seat of Westphalian jurisdiction (whose
Hamelin ( /ˈhæməlɨn/ or /ˈhæmlɨn/; German: Hameln) is a town on the river Weser in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Hamelin-Pyrmont and has a population of 58,696 (as at 2006).
Hamelin is also the gateway to the surrounding Weserbergland mountains, which are popular with hikers and bikers.
The town is famous for the folk tale of the Pied Piper of Hamelin (German: Der Rattenfänger von Hameln), a medieval story that tells of a tragedy that befell the town in the thirteenth century. The version written by the Brothers Grimm made it popular throughout the world; it is also the subject of well-known poems by Goethe and Robert Browning. Although Hamelin has a fine medieval old town with some remarkable buildings, the main attraction is the tale of the Pied Piper. In the summer every Sunday, the tale is performed by actors in the town centre.
Hamelin started with a monastery, which was founded as early as 851 AD. A village grew in the neighbourhood and had become a town by the 12th century. The incident with the Pied Piper is said to have happened in 1284 and may be based on a true event, although somewhat different from the tale. In the 15th and 16th centuries
Bad Salzuflen is a town in the Lippe district of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. At the end of 2006 it had 54415 inhabitants.
Bad Salzuflen is a spa town and is known for its saltwater springs and thermal baths. In former times the town profited from the salt trade. Many houses of well-off citizens from the 16th and 17th century are preserved.
The town is the birthplace of comedian Jürgen von der Lippe.
The town supports the Nordwestdeutsche Philharmonie for regular symphony concerts.
Many rock musicians associated with the 1990s Hamburger Schule genre (Die Sterne, Blumfeld, Bernd Begemann, Die Braut haut ins Auge, Kajak) originated in Bad Salzuflen.
Bad Salzuflen is twinned with:
Lügde [ˈlʏçtʰə] ( listen) is a town in the Lippe district of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, with c. 11,000 inhabitants.
The first written issue of Lügde appears in 784, in the annals of the Frankish Empire, when Charlemagne visited the village during the Saxon Wars. During this wars Charlemagne celebrated his first Christmas in Saxony in Lügde, and the site then became the location of the first church to be built in Saxony. The gothic church was rebuilt in the 12th century and it is still standing today. The church is known as the Kirche St. Kilian.
Rastatt [ˈʁaʃtat] (in German Barock- und Residenzstadt Rastatt) is a city and baroque residence in the District of Rastatt, Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located on the Murg river, 6 km (3.7 mi) above its junction with the Rhine and has a population of around 50'000 (2011). Rastatt was an important place of the War of the Spanish Succession (Treaty of Rastatt) and the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states.
Until the end of the 17th century, Rastatt held little influence, but after its destruction by the French in 1689, it was rebuilt on a larger scale by Louis William, margrave of Baden, the imperial general in the Austro-Ottoman War known popularly as Türkenlouis. It then remained the residence of the margraves of Baden-Baden until 1771. For about 20 years previous to 1866, the fortress of Rastatt was occupied by the troops of the German Confederation. The Baden revolution of 1849 began with a mutiny of soldiers at Rastatt in May 1849 under Ludwik Mieroslawski and Gustav Struve, and ended there a few weeks later with the capture of the town by the Prussians. (See The Revolutions of 1848 in the German states and History of Baden.) For some years, Rastatt was one of the
Ravensburg is a town in Upper Swabia in Southern Germany, capital of the district of Ravensburg, Baden-Württemberg.
Ravensburg was first mentioned in 1088. In the Middle Ages, it was an Imperial Free City and an important trading centre. The "Great Ravensburg Trading Society" (Große Ravensburger Handelsgesellschaft) owned shops and trading companies all over Europe.
The historic town centre is still very much intact, including three town gates and over 10 towers of the medieval fortification.
The town's most popular festival is the "Rutenfest" in mid year.
Ravensburg was first mentioned in writing in 1088. It was founded by the Welfs, a Frankish dynasty in Swabia who became later Dukes of Bavaria and Saxony and who made the castle of Ravensburg their ancestral seat.
By a contract of inheritance, in 1191 the Hohenstaufen Frederick Barbarossa acquired the ownership of Ravensburg from Welf VI, Duke of Spoleto and uncle of both Frederick Barbarossa and Henry the Lion.
With the death of Conradin 1268 in Naples the Hohenstaufen line became extinct. Their former estates became imperial property of the Holy Roman Empire. Like many other cities in Swabia, at the end of the 13th century
The independent city of Rosenheim is located in the centre of the district of Rosenheim (Upper Bavaria), and is also the seat of administration of this region. It is located on the west bank of the Inn at the confluence of the rivers Inn and Mangfall, in the Bavarian Alpine Foreland. It is the third largest city in Upper Bavaria with over 61,000 inhabitants and one of 23 administrative centres in Bavaria. Rosenheim is therefore the economic centre and the busiest place in the region.
The population of the town proper is approximately 60,000 inhabitants with up to 125,000 in the surrounding area. Rosenheim is situated in the Upper-Bavarian Alpine Foothills, 450 meters (1470 ft) above sea level and covers an area of 37.52 km². The capital of Bavaria, Munich, is 52 km away in North-West direction from Rosenheim. It has a station at the junction of the Munich–Salzburg and the Munich–Innsbruck lines.
The landscape around Rosenheim was formed during the last ice age from the advancement of the Inn Valley Glacier and later from the Rosenheim lake. The lake existed about 10,000 years ago, covering the whole Inn valley as far as Wasserburg am Inn, about 25 km north of Rosenheim.
Salzgitter (German pronunciation: [zaltsˈɡɪtɐ]) is an independent city in southeast Lower Saxony, Germany, located between Hildesheim and Braunschweig. Together with Wolfsburg and Braunschweig, Salzgitter is one of the seven Oberzentren of Lower Saxony (roughly equivalent to a metropolitan area). With 109,142 inhabitants and 223.94 km² (as of 30 January 2004), its area is the largest in Lower Saxony and one of the largest in Germany. Salzgitter originated as a conglomeration of several small towns and villages, and is today made up of 31 boroughs, which are relatively compact conurbations with wide stretches of open country between them. The main shopping street of the young city is in the borough of Lebenstedt, and the central business district is in the borough of Salzgitter-Bad. The city is connected to the Mittellandkanal and the Elbe-Seitenkanal by a distributary. The nearest metropolises are Braunschweig, about 23 km (14 mi) to the northeast, and Hanover, about 51 km (32 mi) to the northwest. The population of the City of Salzgitter has exceeded 100,000 inhabitants since its foundation in 1942 (which made it a city (Großstadt) in contrast to a town (Stadt) by the German
Güstrow (German pronunciation: [ˈɡʏstʁo]) is a town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Germany the capital of the district of Güstrow. It has a population of 30,500 (2008) and is the seventh largest town in Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. Since 2006 Güstrow has the official suffix Barlachstadt.
The town of Güstrow is located 45 kilometers south of Rostock at the Nebel, a sidearm of the Warnow. The Bützow-Güstrow-Kanal (Kanal=channel) is a navigable connection to the Warnow and used by water tourists. There are 5 lakes (Inselsee, Sumpfsee, Parumer See, Grundloser See and Gliner See (See = lake) and several forests around Güstrow.
The name Güstrow comes from the Polabian Guščerov and means lizard place.
In 1219 the Wendish castle Güstrowe was built at the place, the renaissance castle stands nowadays. Güstrow is said to be founded by Heinrich Borwin II. a grandson of Henry the Lion in the time from 1219 to 1226 and was first mentioned in 1228 in the deed of city rights of Schwerin, confirmed by the sons of Heinrich Borwin II., who donated the cathedral as collegiate church in 1226. Güstrow was a residence of the dukes of Werle from 1229 until 1436. In 1441 the first privileged shooting
Miltenberg is the seat of the like-named district in the Regierungsbezirk of Lower Franconia (Unterfranken) in Bavaria, Germany.
Historic Miltenberg lies on the Main’s left bank on the “left knee” of the Mainviereck (“Main Square”) between the Spessart and Odenwald ranges. Since the Main riverbed in the Miltenberg area is relatively near the foot of the Odenwald, only a narrow strip of usable land is left, which in bygone centuries was time and again flooded by the Main. The Old Town, which stands on this land, sustained sometimes considerable damage in these floods. From about the beginning of the 20th century, after buying land from the neighbouring community of Großheubach, Miltenberg has been spreading itself out over on the right bank.
Even as far back as prehistoric and early historical times, people knew about the strategic importance of the strait at the Main “knee” between the Odenwald and the Spessart, building mighty ringwalls on the Greinberg above Miltenberg and on the Bürgstadter Berg (mountains). About AD 155, the Romans laid down the almost dead straight “Forward Limes” on the Main. Near today’s Miltenberg, the Limes came up against the Main, which from here
Duisburg (German: [ˈdyːsbʊɐ̯k] ( listen)) is a German city in the western part of the Ruhr Area (Ruhrgebiet) in North Rhine-Westphalia. It is an independent metropolitan borough within Regierungsbezirk Düsseldorf. With the world's biggest inland harbour and its proximity to Düsseldorf International Airport, Duisburg has become an important venue for commerce and steel production.
Today's city is a result of numerous incorporations of surrounding towns and smaller cities. It is the fifteenth-largest city in Germany and the fifth-largest city in North Rhine-Westphalia with 488,218 residents as of the end of 2010. The city is renowned for its steel industry. The last remaining coal mine closed down in the summer of 2009, but Duisburg has never been a coal-mining centre to the same extent as other places in the Ruhr region. All blast furnaces in the Ruhr are now located in Duisburg. 49% of all hot metal and 34.4% of all pig-iron in Germany is produced here (as of 2000). It also has a large brewery, the König Brauerei, located in Duisburg-Beeck, which makes the König Pilsener brand. The University of Duisburg-Essen, with 37,000 students, ranks among the 10 largest German
Kamen is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, in the district Unna.
Kamen is situated at the east end of the Ruhr area, approx. 10 km south-west of Hamm and 25 km north-east of Dortmund.
The town of Kamen consists of the following 6 districts:
Kamen is twinned with:
Kamen is maybe most known because of the nearby highway crossing, the Kamener Kreuz. The north-south directed A1 meets the east-west directed A2; due to the importance of both highways the crossing is prone for traffic jams.
The village Kamen-Methler is well known for its football training camps. The German football team prepared themselves for the 1990 World Cup win in Kamen-Methler. During the soccer world championship 2006 in Germany the Spanish football team lived there.
Saarbrücken (German pronunciation: [zaːɐ̯ˈbʁʏkən]; French: Sarrebruck; Luxembourgish: Saarbrécken) is the capital of the state of Saarland in Germany. The city is situated at the heart of a metropolitan area that borders Dillingen to the west and Neunkirchen, where most of the people of the Saarland live, to the north-east.
Saarbrücken used to be the industrial and transport centre of a great coal basin. Products included iron and steel, sugar, beer, pottery, optical instruments, machinery, and construction materials. However, over the past decades the industrial importance of Saarland has declined, as the mining industry has become unprofitable.
Historic landmarks in the city include the stone bridge across the Saar (1546), the Gothic church of St Arnual, the 18th-century Saarbrücker Schloss (castle) and the old part of the town, the St. Johanner Markt. In 1815 Saarbrücken came under Prussian control, and for two periods in the 20th century (1919–35 and 1945–57) it was part of the Saar territory under French administration. For this reason, coupled with its proximity to the French border, it retains a certain French influence.
In modern German, Saarbrücken literally means Saar
Tecklenburg is a town in the district of Steinfurt, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
It is located at the foothills of the Teutoburg Forest, southwest of Osnabrück.
Tecklenburg consists of 4 districts (with farming communities):
In the 12th century the county of Tecklenburg emerged in the region that is now called the "Tecklenburger Land" in the western foothills of the Teutoburg Forest. It was annexed by the neighbouring county of Bentheim in 1263, and Tecklenburg still had a count until the 19th century. Even today, some local descendents of the Bentheim / Tecklenburg families are sometimes considered as aristocrats. Much like many other European aristocrats, their family can be traced back to Charles the Great (800's) or is linked with the blood lines of old European royal families (e.g. in the case of the Bentheim-Tecklenburg there is a link with the House of Orange - the Dutch royal family).
Tecklenburg retained some of its medieval townscape to date. Main sites include the ruined castle (now serving as open air theatre during the Summer) and the Stadtkirche (the main, old church) including tombs of the dukes of Tecklenburg and others prominent in the history of the county
Biberach is a town in the south of Germany. It is the capital of Biberach district, in the Upper Swabia region of the German state (Land) of Baden-Württemberg. To distinguish it from the other towns of the same name it is called Biberach an der Riss (German: Biberach an der Riß) after the small river Riss which flows through the city (the Riss also gave its name to the Riss glaciation period).
The marketplace with its patrician buildings, its fountain and its renovated town hall is one of the loveliest in the south of Germany.
With a rather low unemployment rate of around 3.6% and place of business of companies like EnBW, Handtmann, Liebherr, KaVo Dental GmbH, and Boehringer Ingelheim, Biberach is a significant industrial location in the southwest of Germany.
Biberach has a population of about 32,000, and is located in Upper Swabia between the river Danube and Lake Constance.
The districts of Biberach comprise the inner city (with the quarters Bachlangen, Bergerhausen, Birkendorf, Burren, Fünf Linden, Gaisental, Hagenbuch, Jordanbad, Mumpfental, Reichenbach and Wolfentalmühle) and its suburban, integrated villages Rissegg, Rindenmoos, Ringschnait, Stafflangen and Mettenberg.
Gifhorn (German pronunciation: [ˈɡɪfhɔʁn]) is a town and capital of the district Gifhorn in the east of Lower Saxony, Germany. It has a population of about 42,000 and is mainly influenced by the small distance to the industrial and commercially important cities nearby, Brunswick and Wolfsburg. Further, Gifhorn is part of the metropolitan area of Hanover-Brunswick-Göttingen-Wolfsburg.
The oldest verifiable source dates the existence of the city in the year 1196.
Gifhorn is home to the International Wind- and Watermill Museum, which contains a comprehensive collection and working replicas of the world's most common windmills.
Gifhorn is situated about 20 km north of the city of Brunswick and about 15 km west of Wolfsburg. In the city, the Bundesstraße 4 and 188 meet. At the northern end of the city, the Lüneburg Heath starts. Gifhorn lies at the confluence of the Rivers Ise and Aller.
Gifhorn was first mentioned in 1196. It was located at the crossing of two then important merchant routes: The salt street (German: Salzstraße) being a main trading route for salt between Lüneburg and Brunswick, and the grain street (German: Kornstraße) transporting grain between Celle and
Neubrandenburg (New Brandenburg, IPA: [nɔʏˈbʁandənbʊʁk]) is a city in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is located in the southeastern part of the state, on the shore of a lake called the Tollensesee (18 km²).
The city is famous for its rich medieval heritage of Brick Gothic. It belongs to the famous European Route of Brick Gothic, a route which leads through seven countries along the Baltic Sea coast. A former district-free town, it is the capital of the new district of Mecklenburgische Seenplatte since the September 2011 district reforms.
The city got a nickname because of the four medieval city gates - "Stadt der Vier Tore" ("City of Four Gates"). Neubrandenburg was the location of both of the world record throws in Discus, by Jürgen Schult in 1986 and by Gabriele Reinsch in 1988.
The first settlers at the place were Premonstratensian monks in Broda Abbey, a monastery at the shore (about 1240). The foundation of the town of Neubrandenburg took place in 1248, when the Margrave of Brandenburg decided to build a town in the northern part of his fief. In 1292 the town and the surrounding area became part of Mecklenburg.
The town flourished as a trade center until the Thirty Years'
Ingolstadt (German pronunciation: [ˈɪŋɡɔlˌʃtat]; locally [ˈɪŋl̩ʃtɔːd]) is a city in the Free State of Bavaria, in the Federal Republic of Germany. It is located along the banks of the Danube River, in the center of Bavaria. As at 31 March 2011, Ingolstadt had 125,407 citizens. It is part of the Munich Metropolitan Area, which has a total population of more than 5 million.
The Illuminati, a Bavarian secret society, was founded in Ingolstadt in the late 18th century.
Ingolstadt is the setting for the novel Frankenstein by Mary Shelley, for the monster created by the scientist Victor Frankenstein.
It is the site of the headquarters of the German automobile manufacturer Audi, defence aircraft manufacturer Cassidian Air Systems (formerly EADS DS) and electronic stores Media Markt and Saturn.
Ingolstadt Central Station has been connected to Nuremberg by a high-speed rail link since May 2006. Ingolstadt also has a second passenger station at Ingolstadt Nord.
Ingolstadt is the birthplace of Luftwaffe Ace Josef Priller, and was for a long time the home of the notorious Dutch war criminal, Klaas Carel Faber, who was responsible for more than 22 murders during the Second World War. Before his
Plön (German pronunciation: [ˈpløːn]) is the district seat of the Plön district in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany, and has about 13,000 inhabitants. It lies right on the shores of Schleswig-Holstein's biggest lake, the Great Plön Lake, as well as on several smaller lakes, touching the town on virtually all sides. The town's landmark is Plön Castle, a chateau built in the 17th century on a hill overlooking the town.
Plön has a grammar school with a 300-year history, and is home to a German Navy non-commissioned officer school and the Max Planck Institute for Evolutionary Biology. The town, nestled as it is in the hilly, wooded lake district of Holstein Switzerland (Holsteinische Schweiz), also has importance in the tourism industry.
In the course of the Migration Period, Slavic tribes entered the region of Plön during the early 7th century following the withdrawal of the original Germanic population. On the large island opposite Plön, which was later called Olsborg, they built a large fortification. They called their settlement Plune, which means "ice-free water".
In 1075, Kruto lured Budivoj of the Nakonids into the "castrum plunense" (according to Helmold of Bosau), laid siege to
Wesel (German pronunciation: [ˈveːzəl]) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the capital of the Wesel district.
Wesel is situated at the confluence of the Lippe River and the Rhine.
Suburbs of Wesel include Lackhausen, Obrighoven, Ginderich, Feldmark,Fusternberg, Büderich, Flüren and Blumenkamp.
The city originated from a Franconian manor that was first recorded in the 8th century. In the 12th century, the Duke of Clèves took possession of Wesel. The city became a member of the Hanseatic League during the 15th century. Within the Duchy of Cleves, Wesel was second only to Cologne in the lower Rhine region as an entrepôt. It was an important commercial centre: a clearing station for the transshipment and trading of goods.
In 1590 the Spanish captured Wesel after a four-year siege. The city changed hands between the Dutch and Spanish several times during the Eighty Years War. In 1672 a French force under Louis II de Bourbon, Prince de Condé captured the city. Wesel was inherited by the Hohenzollerns of the Margraviate of Brandenburg in 1609 but they were unable to take control of Wesel until the Treaty of Nijmegen in 1678. Although the city had been heavily fortified
Wiesbaden is a city in southwest Germany and the capital of the federal state of Hesse. It has about 280,000 inhabitants, plus approximately 10,000 United States citizens (mostly associated with the United States Army). Wiesbaden, together with the cities of Frankfurt am Main, Darmstadt and Mainz, is part of the Frankfurt Rhine Main Region, a metropolitan area with a combined population of about 5.8 million people.
Wiesbaden is one of the oldest spa towns in Europe. Its name translates to "meadow baths," making reference to the hot springs. At one time, Wiesbaden boasted 26 hot springs. Fourteen of the springs are still flowing today.
In 1970, the town hosted the tenth Hessentag state festival.
Wiesbaden is situated on the right (northern) bank of the Rhine River, below the confluence of the Main, where the Rhine's main direction changes from north to west. The city is across the Rhine from Mainz, the capital of the federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. Frankfurt am Main is located about 38 kilometres (23.6 mi) east. To the north of the city are the Taunus Mountains, which trend in a northeasterly direction.
The city center, the Stadtmitte, lies about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) from
Wolfenbüttel is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany, located on the Oker river about 13 kilometres south of Brunswick. It is the seat of the District of (Landkreis) Wolfenbüttel and of the bishop of the Protestant Lutheran State Church of Brunswick. It is also the southernmost of the 172 towns in northern Germany whose names end in büttel, meaning "residence" or "settlement."
It is not known when Wolfenbüttel was founded, but it was first mentioned in 1118 as Wulferisbutle. The first settlement was probably restricted to a tiny islet in the Oker river.
Wolfenbüttel became the residence of the dukes of Brunswick in 1432. Over the following three centuries it grew to be a centre of the arts, and personages such as Michael Praetorius, Johann Rosenmüller, Gottfried Leibniz, and Gotthold Ephraim Lessing lived there. The ducal court eventually returned to Braunschweig in 1753 and Wolfenbüttel subsequently lost in importance.
The Battle of Wolfenbüttel, part of the Thirty Years' War, was fought here in June 1641, when the Swedes under Wrangel and the Count of Königsmark defeated the Austrians under Archduke Leopold of Habsburg.
The composer Johann Rosenmüller, who had to flee Germany due to
Barntrup is a town in the Lippe district of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It has an area of 59.46 km² and 9,075 inhabitants (2010). It lies 40 km east from Bielefeld and 9 km west from Bad Pyrmont at the east border of NRW to Lower Saxony.
Barntrup and Alverdissen were founded by the Earl of Sternberg in the year 1220. Originally Barntrup was called Barendorf and was a village at the Schratweg. Between 1317 and 1359 Barntrup was built on the highest point of the "Thornesberg" which is 189 m high above sea level. This is the central point of Barntrup.
Kerssenbrock Castle (also called Schloss Kerssenbrock or Barntrup Castle, see picture) was constructed from 1584-1588 by Anna von Kerssenbrock (maiden name Anna von Canstein). Her husband, Franz von Kerssenbrock, had been a mercenary in the French Wars of Religion, where he had made much money. The Kerssenbrock family was one of the main noble families in the region.
- Primary school "von-Haxthausen Grundschule" has at this time 420 pupils and 21 teachers.
- High school "Städtisches Gymnasium Barntrup" has about 920 pupils and 50 teachers.
- Junior high school "Hauptschule des Schulverbandes Barntrup-Dörentrup" has about 350
Freiberg (German: free mountain) is a university and mining town in the Free State of Saxony, Germany. It is a so-called Große Kreisstadt (large county town) and the administrative centre of Mittelsachsen district.
Its historic town centre has been placed under heritage conservation and is a chosen site for the proposed UNESCO World Heritage Site known as the Ore Mountain Mining Region. Until 1969, the town was dominated for around 800 years by the mining and smelting industries. In recent decades it has restructured into a high technology site in the fields of semiconductor manufacture and solar technology, part of Silicon Saxony.
The town lies on the northern declivity of the Ore Mountains with the majority of the borough west of the Eastern or Freiberg Mulde river. Parts of the town nestle in the valleys of the Münzbach and Goldbach streams and its centre is about 412 m above NHN (station). Its lowest point is the Münzbach on the town boundary at 340 m above NHN; its highest point is on an old mining tip at 491 m above NHN. Freiberg lies within a region of old forest clearances that was used by the mining industry that has left its mark on the landscape, and is surrounded to the
This article is about a German town. For the Danish town, see Frederikshavn, and for the Finnish town, see Fredrikshamn (Finnish: Hamina).
Friedrichshafen is a university city on the northern side of Lake Constance (the Bodensee) in Southern Germany, near the borders with Switzerland and Austria. It is the district capital (Kreisstadt) of the Bodensee district (Landkreis) in the federal state (Bundesland) of Baden-Württemberg. Friedrichshafen has a population of c. 58,000.
Friedrichshafen was established in 1811 as part of the new Kingdom of Württemberg, an ally of France during the Napoleonic Wars. It was named for King Frederick I of Württemberg, who privileged it as a free port and transshipment point for the kingdom's Swiss trade. Friedrichshafen was created from the former city of Buchhorn, whose coat of arms it adopted. The new city also incorporated the former village of Hofen, whose monastery was refurbished to serve as the summer residence of the Württemberger kings.
King William I continued improving the city, including the purchase of the steamship Wilhelm. Ministers and senior officials built villas around the royal castle, and many foreign tourists visited the city as
Fürth (German pronunciation: [ˈfʏɐ̯t]; East Franconian: Färdd) is a city located in northern Bavaria, Germany, in the administrative division (Regierungsbezirk) of Middle Franconia. It is now contiguous with the larger city of Nuremberg, the centres of the two cities being only 7 km apart.
Fürth, Nuremberg and Erlangen, together with some smaller towns, form the "Middle Franconian Conurbation", which is one of 23 "major centres" in Bavaria and one of the 11 German metropolitan regions.
Fürth celebrated its thousandth anniversary in 2007, its first mention being on 1 November 1007.
The historic centre of the town is to the east and south of the rivers Rednitz and Pegnitz, which join to form the Regnitz to the northwest of the Old Town. To the west of the town, on the far side of the Main-Danube Canal, is the Fürth municipal forest (Fürther Stadtwald). To the east of Fürth, at roughly the same latitude, lies Nuremberg, and to the north is the fertile market-gardening area known as the Knoblauchsland (garlic country), some of which is within the borders of the urban district of Fürth. To the south of the town is an area consisting of wide roads, the canal, and meadows.
Passau (previously Latin: Batavis or Batavia) is a town in Lower Bavaria, Germany. It is also known as the Dreiflüssestadt or "City of Three Rivers," because the Danube is joined at Passau by the Inn from the south and the Ilz from the north.
Passau's population is 50,415, of whom about 10,000 are students at the local University of Passau. The university, founded in the late 1970s, is the extension of the Institute for Catholic Studies (Katholisch-Theologische Fakultät) founded in 1622. It is renowned in Germany for its institutes of Economics, Law, Theology, Computer Sciences and Cultural Studies.
In the 2nd century BC, many of the Boii tribe were pushed north across the Alps out of northern Italy by the Romans. They established a new capital called Boiodurum by the Romans (form Gaulish Boioduron), now within the Innstadt district of Passau.
Passau was an ancient Roman colony of ancient Noricum called Batavis, Latin for "for the Batavi." The Batavi were an ancient Germanic tribe often mentioned by classical authors, and they were regularly associated with the Suebian marauders, the Heruli.
During the second half of the 5th century, St. Severinus established a monastery here. In
The festival and spa town of Bad Hersfeld is the district seat of Hersfeld-Rotenburg district in northeastern Hesse, Germany, roughly 50 km southeast of Kassel.
Bad Hersfeld is known countrywide above all for the Bad Hersfelder Festspiele (festival), which have taken place each year since 1951 at the monastery ruins. These themselves are said to be Europe’s biggest Romanesque church ruin.
In 1967, the town hosted the seventh Hessentag state festival.
The town lies in the Hersfeld Basin formed here by the forks of the Fulda and the Haune. The inner town lies on the Fulda’s left bank. Furthermore, the Geisbach and the Solz empty into the Fulda in the municipal area. In the southwest lie the Vogelsberg Mountains, in the northwest the Knüllgebirge and in the northeast the Seulingswald (ranges, the latter visible in the background of this image).
The town’s lowest point, at 195 m above sea level, is to be found in the area where the Solz empties into the Fulda, whereas the highest point within town limits is the Laxberg in the Knüllgebirge, at 408 m above sea level.
The town can be said to belong both to Northern Hesse (Nordhessen) and Eastern Hesse (Osthessen).
The nearest cities are
Bayreuth (German pronunciation: [baɪˈʁɔʏt] ( listen); Upper Franconian: [ba(ː)ˈɾaɪ̯t]) is a sizeable town in northern Bavaria, Germany, on the Red Main river in a valley between the Franconian Jura and the Fichtelgebirge Mountains. The town's roots date back to 1194 and it is nowadays the capital of Upper Franconia with a population of 72,576 (2009). It is world-famous for its annual Bayreuth Festival at which performances of operas by the 19th century German composer Richard Wagner are presented.
The town is believed to have been founded by the Counts of Andechs probably around the mid-12th century, but was first mentioned in 1194 as Baierrute in a document by Bishop Otto II of Bamberg. The syllable -rute may mean Rodung or "clearing", whilst Baier- indicates immigrants from the Bavarian region.
Already documented earlier, were villages later merged into Bayreuth: Seulbitz (in 1035 as the royal Salian estate of Silewize in a document by Emperor Conrad II) and St. Johannis (possibly 1149 as Altentrebgast). Even the district of Altstadt (formerly Altenstadt) west of the town centre must be older than the town of Bayreuth itself. Even older traces of human presence were found in the
Cologne (English pronunciation: /kəˈloʊn/, German: Köln [kœln], Kölsch: Kölle [ˈkœɫə]) is Germany's fourth-largest city (after Berlin, Hamburg and Munich), and is the largest city both in the German Federal State of North Rhine-Westphalia and within the Rhine-Ruhr Metropolitan Area, one of the major European metropolitan areas with more than ten million inhabitants.
Cologne is located on both sides of the Rhine River. The city's famous Cologne Cathedral (Kölner Dom) is the seat of the Catholic Archbishop of Cologne. The University of Cologne (Universität zu Köln) is one of Europe's oldest and largest universities.
Cologne is a major cultural centre of the Rhineland and has a vibrant arts scene. Cologne is home to more than 30 museums and hundreds of galleries. Exhibitions range from local ancient Roman archeological sites to contemporary graphics and sculpture. The Cologne Trade Fair hosts a number of trade shows such as Art Cologne, imm Cologne, Gamescom and the Photokina.
The first urban settlement on the grounds of what today is the centre of Cologne was Oppidum Ubiorum, which was founded in 38 BC by the Ubii, a Cisrhenian Germanic tribe. In 50 AD, the Romans founded Colonia on
Wolfsburg is an urban district and the sixth largest major city in the Lower Saxony state in the northern half of Germany. It is located on the River Aller northeast of Braunschweig (Brunswick). Wolfsburg is bordered by the districts of Gifhorn and Helmstedt. Germany's capital city, Berlin, is located about 230 kilometers East of Wolfsburg.
The city is famous as the headquarters of the Volkswagen AG, and was one of the few German cities built during the first half of the 20th century. In 1972 the population first exceeded 100,000. From its foundation on 1 July 1938 until 25 May 1945 the city was called "Stadt des KdF-Wagens bei Fallersleben". It was meant to be the domicile for the workers of the Volkswagen factory which should produce the "KdF-Wagen" (VW Beetle).
Wolfsburg is located at the Southern edge of the ancient river valley of the Aller at the Mittellandkanal (Midland Canal).
The total annual precipitation is about 532 mm (21 in) which is quite low as it belongs to the lowest tenth of the measured data in Germany. Only 7% of all observation stations of the Deutscher Wetterdienst (German Weather Service) record lower data. The driest month is October, most precipitation is
Bamberg (German pronunciation: [ˈbambɛɐ̯k]) is a city in Bavaria, Germany, located in Upper Franconia on the river Regnitz close to its confluence with the river Main. Its historic city center is a listed UNESCO world heritage site.
During the post-Roman centuries of Germanic migration and settlement, the region afterwards included in the Diocese of Bamberg was inhabited for the most part by Slavs. The town, first mentioned in 902, grew up by the castle (Babenberch) which gave its name to the Babenberg family. On their extinction it passed to the Saxon house. The area was Christianized chiefly by the monks of the Benedictine Fulda Abbey, and the land was under the spiritual authority of the Diocese of Würzburg.
In 1007, Holy Roman Emperor Henry II made Bamberg a family inheritance, the seat of a separate diocese. The emperor's purpose in this was to make the Diocese of Würzburg less unwieldy in size and to give Christianity a firmer footing in the districts of Franconia, east of Bamberg. In 1008, after long negotiations with the Bishops of Würzburg and Eichstätt, who were to cede portions of their dioceses, the boundaries of the new diocese were defined, and Pope John XVIII granted
Bautzen (German pronunciation: [ˈbaʊtsən] ( listen); Upper Sorbian: Budyšin [ˈbudɨʃin] ( listen); Lower Sorbian: Budyšyn [ˈbudɨʃɨn], Czech: Budyšín, Polish: Budziszyn) is a hill-top town in eastern Saxony, Germany, and administrative centre of the eponymous district. It is located on the Spree River. As of 2008, its population is 41,161. Asteroid 11580 Bautzen is named in honor of the city.
Bautzen is often regarded as the unofficial, but historical capital of Upper Lusatia, and it is the most important cultural centre of the Sorbs, a Slavic people.
The town on the River Spree is situated about 50 kilometres east of Dresden between the Lusatian highland and the lowlands in the north, amidst the region of Upper Lusatia. To the north stretches the Bautzen Reservoir, which was flooded in 1974. This is the former location of the villages of Malsitz (Małšecy) and Nimschütz (Hněwsecy).
The old part of Bautzen is located on the plateau above the Spree, whose top is marked by the Ortenburg castle. It is bordered by the city walls. The later-built more recent quarters in the east were enclosed by the city ramparts. After their removal, the city expanded further east and to the left bank of
Offenbach am Main is a city in Hesse, Germany, located on southside of the river Main just next to Frankfurt am Main. In 2009 it had a population of 118,770. The city is part of the Frankfurt/Rhine-Main metropolitan area as well as the Frankfurt urban area.
Offenbach was a center of the leather industry, which has however declined in the last decades. It is still the seat of the Deutsches Leder Museum (German Leather Museum), and also of the international leather fair.
The first documented reference to Offenbach appears in 770. During the Middle Ages Offenbach passed through many hands. Only in 1486 could the Count Ludwig of Isenenburg finally take control of city for his family, and 1556 Count Reinhard of Isenburg relocated his Residence to Offenbach, building a palace, the Isenburger Schloß (Isenburg Palace), which was completed in 1559. It was destroyed by fire in 1564 and rebuilt in 1578.
In 1635 Offenbach given to the Landgraves of Hesse-Darmstadt but it was returned to the Isenburg-Birstein Count (later Prince) in 1642 and remained in that Principality until 1815 when the Congress of Vienna gave the city to the Austrian Emperor, Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor. A year later it
Pulheim is a city in the Rhein-Erft-Kreis, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Since the 1920s, a large substation of the RWE has been sited at Pulheim. At this substation there is the termination of the north south powerline and a large control center for the powergrid of the RWE.
In the communal reform of 1975 several previously independent municipalities were added to the municipality Pulheim, which received city rights in 1981.
The following schools are in the City of Pulheim:
Pulheim is twinned with:
Rostock (German pronunciation: [ˈʁɔstɔk]) is the largest city in the north German state Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Rostock is located on the Warnow river; the quarter of Warnemünde 12 km north of the city centre lies directly on the coast of the Baltic Sea.
The city territory of Rostock stretches for about 20 kilometres along the Warnow to the Baltic Sea. The largest built-up area of Rostock is on the western side of the river. The eastern part of its territory is dominated by industrial estates and the forested area of the Rostock Heath.
In the 11th century Polabian Slavs founded a settlement at the Warnow river called Roztoc (which means broadening of a river); the name Rostock is derived from that designation. The Danish king Valdemar I set the town aflame in 1161.
Afterwards the place was settled by German traders. Initially there were three separate cities:
The rise of the city began with its membership of the Hanseatic League. In the 14th century it was a powerful seaport town with 12,000 inhabitants and the biggest city of Mecklenburg. Ships for cruising the Baltic Sea were constructed in Rostock. In 1419 one of the oldest universities in Northern Europe, the University of
Rotenburg an der Wümme (until May 1969: Rotenburg in Hannover) is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Rotenburg.
Rotenburg is situated at the Wümme river, which in turn lies between the rivers Elbe and Weser at about the same latitude as Hamburg and Bremen, the latter lying 40 km to the west. It is often called "Rotenburg (Wümme)" in order to distinguish it from the town Rotenburg an der Fulda in Hesse and Rothenburg ob der Tauber in Bavaria.
The town was founded in 1195, when the Prince-Bishop Rudolf I of Verden built a castle at the place. Then the town belonged to the Prince-Bishopric of Verden, established in 1180. The castle took its name from the colour of the bricks (rot means "red", Burg "castle"). The adjoining settlement remained a tiny village until the 19th century.
In 1648 the Prince-Bishopric was transformed into the Principality of Verden, which was first ruled in personal union by the Swedish Crown - interrupted by a Danish occupation (1712–1715) - and from 1715 on by the Hanoverian Crown. The Kingdom of Hanover incorporated the Principality in a real union and the Princely territory, including Rotenburg upon Wümme, became part of
Gelsenkirchen (German pronunciation: [ˌɡɛlzənˈkɪɐ̯çən]) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northern part of the Ruhr area. Its population in 2006 was c. 267,000.
Gelsenkirchen was first documented in 1150, but it remained a tiny village until the 19th century, when the Industrial Revolution led to the growth of the entire area. In 1840, when the mining of coal began, 6000 inhabitants lived in Gelsenkirchen; in 1900 the population had increased to 138,000.
In the early 20th century Gelsenkirchen was the most important coal mining town in Europe. It was called the "city of a thousand fires", for the flames of mine gasses being flared during the nights. In 1928 Gelsenkirchen was merged with the adjoining cities of Buer and Horst. The city bore the name Gelsenkirchen-Buer, until it was renamed Gelsenkirchen in 1930. During the Nazi era Gelsenkirchen remained a centre of coal production and oil refining, and for this reason it was bombed by Allied air raids in World War II. During the war, it was the site of a women's subcamp of the Buchenwald concentration camp. Today in Gelsenkirchen there are no collieries any more and Gelsenkirchen is searching for a
Soest (German pronunciation: [ˈzoːst] ( listen), as if it were 'Sohst') is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the capital of the Soest district. After Lippstadt, a neighbouring town, Soest is the second biggest town in its district.
Soest is located along the Hellweg road, approximately 23 kilometres south-west of Lippstadt, roughly 50 kilometres east of Dortmund and roughly 50 kilometres west of Paderborn.
Because of the fertile soil the area around Soest was occupied long before 836 when the village is first mentioned in the Dagobertsche Schenkung, although the origin of this document is historically uncertain. But there is no doubt that Soest has been inhabited for a long time; excavations in the last two decades have uncovered signs of habitation stretching back more than 4000 years. In the 11th and 12th century Soest grew considerably, making it one of the biggest towns in Westphalia with some 10,000 citizens. It was also an important member of the Hanseatic League until 1609.
A self-confident Soest from 1444 to 1449 liberated itself from the Bishop of Cologne, who controlled Westphalia (the so-called Soester Fehde). Being no longer capital of Westphalia, the
Wuppertal (German pronunciation: [ˈvʊpɐtaːl] ( listen)) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in and around the Wupper river valley, and is situated east of the city of Düsseldorf and south of the Ruhr area. With a population of approximately 350,000, it is the largest city in the Bergisches Land. Wuppertal is known for its steep slopes, its woods and parks, and its suspension railway, the Wuppertal Schwebebahn. Two-thirds of the total municipal area of Wuppertal is green space. From any part of the city, it is only a ten-minute walk to one of the public parks or woodland paths.
In the 18th and 19th centuries, Wuppertal was one of the biggest industrial regions of continental Europe. Today, it is still a major industrial centre, being home to industries such as textiles, metallurgy, chemicals, pharmaceuticals (Aspirin was invented in Wuppertal in 1897 by Bayer ), electronics, automobiles, rubber, vehicles and printing equipment.
The Wuppertal Institute for Climate, Environment and Energy is located in the city.
Wuppertal in its present borders was formed in 1929 by merging the early industrial cities of Barmen and Elberfeld with Vohwinkel, Ronsdorf,
Krefeld (German pronunciation: [ˈkʁeːfɛlt]), also known as Crefeld until 1929, is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located northwest of Düsseldorf, its centre lying just a few kilometres to the west of the River Rhine; the borough of Uerdingen is situated directly on the Rhine. Krefeld is accessed by the autobahns A57 (Cologne–Nijmegen) and the A44 (Aachen–Düsseldorf–Dortmund–Kassel).
Krefeld is also called the "Velvet and Silk City".
Since 1962, the city has hosted an "honors program in foreign language (German) studies" for high school students from Indiana, United States. The program annually places approximately thirty carefully selected high school juniors with families in and around Krefeld for intensive German language training.
Krefeld's residents speak Hochdeutsch, the standard German taught to all people in Germany. However, the native dialect is a Low German variety, sometimes locally called Krefelder Plattdeutsch, Krieewelsch Platt, Plattdeutsch, or sometimes simply Platt. The Uerdingen line isogloss, separating general dialectical areas in Germany and neighbouring Germanic-speaking countries, runs through and is named after Krefeld's Uerdingen district,
Freiburg im Breisgau (Alemannic: Friburg im Brisgau) is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany with a population of about 230,000 people. In the extreme south-west of the country, it straddles the Dreisam river, at the foot of the Schlossberg. Historically, the city has acted as the hub of the Breisgau region on the western edge of the Black Forest in the Upper Rhine Plain. One of the famous old German university towns, and archiepiscopal seat, Freiburg was incorporated in the early 12th century and developed into a major commercial, intellectual, and ecclesiastical center of the upper Rhine region. The city is known for its ancient university and its medieval minster, as well as for its high standard of living and advanced environmental practices. The city is situated in the heart of a major wine-growing region and serves as the primary tourist entry point to the scenic beauty of the Black Forest. According to meteorological statistics, the city is the sunniest and warmest in Germany and holds the German temperature record of 40.2 °C (104.4 °F).
Freiburg was founded by Konrad and Duke Bertold III of Zähringen in 1120 as a free market town; hence its name, which translates to "free
Lindau is a Bavarian town and an island on the eastern side of Lake Constance, the Bodensee. It is the capital of the Landkreis or rural district of Lindau. The historic city of Lindau is located on an 0.68-square-kilometre (0.26 sq mi) island which is connected with the mainland by a road bridge and the causeway of the railway to Lindau station.
The name Lindau was first mentioned by a monk from St. Gallen in a document of 882, stating that Adalbert, count of Raetia, had founded a nunnery on the island. However remains of an early Roman settlement dating back to the 1st century have been found in the district of Aeschach.
In 1180 the St. Stephan's church was founded. In 1224 the Franciscans founded a monastery on the island. In 1274/75 Lindau became an Imperial Free City under King Rudolph I. In 1430, about 15 of the town's Jews were burned at the stake after being accused of murdering a Christian child. In 1528, Lindau accepted the Protestant Reformation. The city first followed the Tetrapolitan Confession, and then the Augsburg Confession. After the Thirty Years' War, in 1655 the first Lindauer Kinderfest (children's festival) was held in memory of the war time.
Neustrelitz (German pronunciation: [nɔʏˈʃtʁeːlɪts]) is a town in the Mecklenburgische Seenplatte district in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is situated on the shore of the Zierker See in the Mecklenburg Lake District. From 1738 until 1918 it was the capital of the duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz. From 1994 until 2011 it was the capital of the district of Mecklenburg-Strelitz.
The name "Strelitz" represents an old Slavic word for "shooter" (compare Russian strelets - "musketeer" and Polish strzelic - "to shoot").
The village of Strelitz was first mentioned in 1278. It grew to a small town in the following centuries. In the 17th century Strelitz was a part of the duchy of Mecklenburg-Güstrow, which ceased to exist after the death of the last duke in 1695. Afterwards the new duchy of Mecklenburg-Strelitz was established (1701). This small duchy contained the present-day district and an exclave around Ratzeburg, which is today situated in Schleswig-Holstein.
In 1712 the castle and the town of Strelitz burnt down. After this disaster the duke and his family lived on their hunting lodge at the lake called Zierker See (Zierk lake) to the northwest of Strelitz. Around this
Stendal (German pronunciation: [ˈʃtɛndaːl]) is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is the capital of Stendal District and unofficial capital of the Altmark. Its population in 2001 was 38,900. It is located some 125 km (78 mi) west of Berlin and around 170 km (110 mi) east of Hanover. Stendal has a university, a market and a psychiatric rehabilitation clinic.
A settlement named Steinedal in the Balsamgau of Saxony was mentioned in a 1022 deed, then a possession of Saint Michael’s Abbey in Hildesheim. It received market rights by the first Brandenburg margrave Albert the Bear in 1160 and quickly became an important member of the Hanseatic League. Magnificent churches, the city hall and the two remaining city gates are still proof of that former wealth.
Previously part of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, Stendal became part of the Prussian Province of Saxony after the Napoleonic Wars. From 1949 until German reunification in 1990, Stendal was in the German Democratic Republic.
The pseudonym "Stendhal" of the French author Marie-Henri Beyle is generally supposed to be a homage to the German author Johann Joachim Winckelmann, who was born in Stendal in 1717.
The area has a theatre named
Gera, the third-largest city in the German state of Thuringia (after Erfurt, the Thuringian capital, and Jena), lies in east Thuringia on the river Weiße Elster, approximately 60 kilometres to the south of the city of Leipzig and 80 kilometres to the east of Erfurt. As of 2010 Gera had a population of approximately 99,000.
Gera lies at a height of between 180 metres (the level of the White Elster river) and 354 m (1,161.42 ft) (when measured at Gera-Falka at the furthest southeastern point). Usually the height above sea level for the city appears as 205 m (672.57 ft) when measured at the market place.
The largest city forest of all the towns of Thuringia, called the City Forest of Gera (Geraer Stadtwald), stands on the western edge of the city. Another forested tract borders on the northwest city boundary. The Zeitzer Forest in Saxony-Anhalt is situated just northeast of the city.
The place name Gera originally referred to the area of the Elster river valley where the city now stands. The name most likely originated before the European migration period – the Slavic people who first settled the area during the 8th century adopted the name. The first known documentary mention of Gera
Greifswald (German pronunciation: [ˈɡʁaɪfsvalt]), officially the University and Hanseatic City of Greifswald (in German Universitäts- und Hansestadt Greifswald) is a town in northeastern Germany. It is situated in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, at an equal distance of about 250 kilometres (160 mi) from Germany's two largest cities, Berlin and Hamburg. The town borders the Baltic Sea, and is crossed by a small river, the Ryck. It is also located near Germany's two largest islands, Rügen and Usedom as well as near three of the country's 14 national parks. A former district-free town, it is the capital of the new district of Vorpommern-Greifswald since the September 2011 district reforms.
The city's population is about 55,000, including most of its 12,500 students and 5,000 employees of the University of Greifswald. Greifswald is internationally known due to the university and the Nord Stream gas pipeline project.
Greifswald is located in the northeast of Germany, approximately equidistant from Germany's two largest islands, Rügen and Usedom. The town is situated at the south end of the Bay of Greifswald, the historic centre being about 5 kilometres (3.1 mi) up the river Ryck
Lage is a town in the Lippe district of North Rhine-Westphalia (German: Nordrhein-Westfalen), Germany, approximatively 8 km northwest of Detmold. It has c. 36,000 inhabitants. The coat of arms of Lage depicts a farmer's plough. The town is not far from the Teutoburg Forest (German: Teutoburger Wald).
The town is twinned with Horsham in the United Kingdom.
Marburg is a city in the state of Hesse, Germany, on the River Lahn. It is the main town of the Marburg-Biedenkopf district and its population, as of March 2010, was 79,911.
In 1972, the town hosted the twelvth Hessentag state festival.
Like many settlements, Marburg developed at the crossroads of two important early medieval highways: the trade route linking Cologne and Prague and the trade route from the North Sea to the Alps and on to Italy, the former crossing the river Lahn here. The settlement was protected and customs were raised by a small castle built during the 9th or 10th century by the Giso. Marburg has been a town since 1140, as proven by coins. From the Gisos, it fell around that time to the Landgraves of Thuringia, residing on the Wartburg above Eisenach.
In 1228 the widowed princess-landgravine of Thuringia, Elisabeth, chose Marburg as her dowager seat, as she did not get along well with her brother-in-law, the new Landgrave. The countess dedicated her life to the sick and would become after her early death in 1231, aged 24, one of the most eminent female saints, St. Elisabeth of Hungary. She was canonized in 1235.
In 1264, St Elizabeth's daughter Sophie of Brabant,
Simmern (German pronunciation: [ˈzɪmən]; officially Simmern/Hunsrück) is a town of 8,000 inhabitants in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, the district seat of the Rhein-Hunsrück-Kreis, and the seat of the like-named Verbandsgemeinde. In the Rhineland-Palatinate state development plan, it is set out as a middle centre.
Simmern, through whose municipal area the 50th parallel of north latitude runs, lies in the Hunsrück in the so-called Simmerner Mulde (“Simmern Hollow”). The old town centre is found in the valley of the Simmerbach, while the newer neighbourhoods are spread over the surrounding heights. The Külzbach empties into the Simmerbach on the town’s western outskirts. East of the town is a recreational area with a manmade lake, the Simmersee. South of the town is the town forest, which forms the edge of the Soonwald, a heavily wooded section of the west-central Hunsrück.
The municipal area measures 1 196 ha. Of interest to visitors are Simmern’s value as a nature and leisure site, and its central location right near three rivers, the Moselle, the Rhine and the Nahe, each about 25 km away, allowing easy day trips to other nearby places.
Simmern lies 630 km from Berlin and 55 km
Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a mountain resort town in Bavaria, southern Germany. It is the administrative centre of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region, and the district is on the border with Austria. Nearby is Germany's highest mountain, Zugspitze, at 2961 m (9714 ft.).
Garmisch (in the west) and Partenkirchen (in the east) were separate towns for many centuries, and still maintain quite separate identities.
Partenkirchen originated as the Roman town of Partanum on the trade route from Venice to Augsburg and is first mentioned in the year A.D. 15. Its main street, Ludwigsstrasse, follows the original Roman road.
Garmisch is first mentioned some 800 years later as Germaneskau ("German District"), suggesting that at some point a Teutonic tribe took up settlement in the western end of the valley.
The valley came under the rule of the Bishop of Freising and was governed by a bishop's representative known as a Pfleger (caretaker or warden) from Werdenfels Castle on a cliff north of Garmisch.
The discovery of America at the turn of the 16th century led to a boom in shipping and a sharp decline in overland trade, which plunged the region into a centuries-long
Meissen (in German orthography: Meißen; Sorbian: Mišno; Czech: Míšeň; Polish: Miśnia; Latin: Misena, Misnia, Misnensium) is a town of approximately 30,000 about 25 km (16 mi) northwest of Dresden on both banks of the Elbe river in the Free State of Saxony, in eastern Germany. Meissen is the home of Meissen porcelain, the Albrechtsburg castle, the Gothic Meissen Cathedral and the Meissen Frauenkirche. The Grosse Kreisstadt is the capital of the Meissen district.
Meissen is sometimes known as the "cradle of Saxony". The city grew out of the early Slavic settlement of Mis(s)ni, named for the small river Mis(s)na today Meis(s)abach (see Miesbach/Musbach/Mosbach), inhabited by the Slavic Glomacze tribe and was founded as a German town by King Henry the Fowler in 929. In 968, the Diocese of Meissen was founded, and Meissen became the episcopal see of a bishop. The Catholic bishopric was suppressed in 1581 after the diocese accepted the Protestant Reformation (1559), but re-created in 1921 with its seat first at Bautzen and now at the Katholische Hofkirche in Dresden. Meissen is the literal plural form of the modern english word "moss" - translating literally as mosses or simply as marsh.
Memmingen is a town in the Bavarian administrative region of Swabia in Germany. It is the central economic, educational and administrative centre in the Danube-Iller region. To the west the town is flanked by the Iller, the river that marks the Baden-Württemberg border. To the north, east and south the town is surrounded by the district of Unterallgäu (Lower Allgäu).
With about 42,000 inhabitants, Memmingen is the 5th biggest town in the administrative region of Swabia. The origins of the town go back to the Roman Empire. The old town, with its many courtyards, castles and patricians' houses, palaces and fortifications is one of the best preserved in southern Germany. With good transport links by road, rail and air, it is the transport hub for Upper and Central Swabia, and the Allgäu.
Due to its proximity to the Allgäu region, Memmingen is often called the Gateway to the Allgäu (Tor zum Allgäu). The town motto is Memmingen – Stadt mit Perspektiven ("Memmingen - a town with perspectives"). In recent times it has been frequently referred to as Memmingen – Stadt der Menschenrechte (Memmingen - the town of human rights). This alludes to the Twelve Articles, considered to be the first
Jena (German pronunciation: [ˈjeːna] ( listen)) is a university city in central Germany on the River Saale. It has a population of roughly 103,000 and is the second largest city in the federal state of Thuringia, after Erfurt.
Jena was first mentioned in an 1182 document. In the 11th century it was a possession of the lords of Lobdeburg but, in the following century, it developed into an independent market town with laws and magistrates of its own. The local economy was based mainly on wine production. In 1286, the Dominicans were established in the city, followed by the Cistercians in 1301.
The margraves of Meißen imposed their authority over Jena in 1331. From 1423, it belonged to the Electorate of Saxony of the House of Wettin, which had inherited Meißen and remained under them after the division of Wettin lands in 1485.
The Protestant Reformation was brought to the city in 1523. In the following years, the Dominican and the Carmelite convents were attacked by the townsmen. In 1558, the university (now called the Friedrich Schiller University of Jena) was founded by elector John Frederick the Magnanimous.
For a short period (1672–1690), Jena was the capital of an independent
Osnabrück (German pronunciation: [ˈɔsnaˌbʁʏk]; Low German: Ossenbrügge; English: Osnaburg) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany, some 80 km NNE of Dortmund, 45 km NE of Münster, and some 100 km due west of Hanover. It lies in a valley penned between the Wiehen Hills and the northern tip of the Teutoburg Forest. As of December 31, 2010, its population was 164,119, making it the third-largest city in Lower Saxony.
Osnabrück developed as a marketplace next to the bishop's see founded by Charlemagne, king of the Franks, 780. Some time before 803, the city became seat of the Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück. Although the precise date is uncertain, Osnabrück is likely the oldest bishopric in Lower Saxony.
In the year 804 Charlemagne was said to have founded the Gymnasium Carolinum in Osnabrück. This date would make it the oldest German Gymnasium but the charter date is disputed by historians, some of whom believe it could be a forgery.
In 889 the town was given merchant, customs, and coinage privileges by King Arnulf of Carinthia. It is first mentioned as a "city" in records in 1147. Shortly after in 1157, Emperor Frederick Barbarossa granted the city fortification privileges
Paderborn (German pronunciation: [ˈpaːdɐˌbɔʁn] ( listen)) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn district. The name of the city derives from the river Pader, which originates in more than 200 springs near Paderborn Cathedral, where St. Liborius is buried.
Paderborn was founded as a bishopric by Charlemagne in 795. In 799 Pope Leo III fled his enemies in Rome and reached Paderborn, where he met Charlemagne. Charlemagne reinstated Leo in Rome in 800 and was crowned as Holy Roman Emperor by Leo in return.
The bishop of Paderborn became a Prince of the Empire in 1100. The city was taken by Prussia in 1802, then by the French vassal state Kingdom of Westphalia from 1807 to 1813 and then returned to Prussia.
The tree Irminsul was supposedly located near Paderborn.
Paderborn was the seat of the Bishopric of Paderborn; today it is seat of a Roman Catholic archbishop.
St. Liborius is commemorated in Paderborn every year in July with the Liborifest. He is the patron of Paderborn, to which his relics were transferred in 836.
During World War II, Paderborn was comprehensively bombed by allied aircraft in 1944 and 1945 (85% destruction) and seized by the US 3rd
Schwerin (German pronunciation: [ʃvɛˈʁiːn] or [ʃvəˈʁiːn]) is the capital and second-largest city of the northern German state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. The population, as of end of 2009, was 95,041.
Schwerin is surrounded by many picturesque lakes. The largest of these lakes, the Schweriner See, has an area of 60 km². In the midst of these lakes there was a settlement of the Slavic Obotrite (dated back to the 11th century). The area was called Zuarin (Zwierzyn), and the name Schwerin is derived from that designation. In 1160, Henry the Lion defeated the Obotrites and captured Schwerin. The town was subsequently expanded into a powerful regional centre. A castle was built, and expanded upon over the centuries, on this site. It is supposedly haunted by the small, impious ghost, called Petermännchen.
In 1358, Schwerin became a part of the Duchy of Mecklenburg, making it the seat of the dukedom from then on. About 1500, the construction of the Schwerin castle began; it was here that the dukes resided. After the division of Mecklenburg (1621), Schwerin became the capital of the Duchy of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Between 1765 and 1837, the town of Ludwigslust served as the capital, until
Speyer (formerly known as Spires in English) is a city of Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany with approximately 50,000 inhabitants. Located beside the river Rhine, Speyer is 25 km south of Ludwigshafen and Mannheim. Founded by the Romans, it is one of Germany's oldest cities. The first known names were Noviomagus and Civitas Nemetum, after the Teutonic tribe, Nemetes, settled in the area. Around the year 500 the name Spira first appeared in written documents. Spire, Spira, and Espira are still names used for Speyer in the French, Italian, and Spanish languages.
Speyer is dominated by the Speyer Cathedral, a number of churches and the Altportal (old gate). In the cathedral, beneath the high altar, are the tombs of eight Holy Roman emperors and German kings.
An important factor in the establishment of a settlement at Speyer was its location on the main European traffic routes along the Rhine. There were only very few locations along the Rhine between Basel and Mainz where banks were high enough to be safe from floods, yet still close to the river. Another advantage was the nearby confluence of the Neckar, 20 km downstream. The Neckar valley stretches southeast towards the Danube. To the
Steinfurt is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Steinfurt.
Steinfurt is situated north-west of Münster, North Rhine-Westphalia. Its name came into being in 1975 when the two – up to then independent – parts of the city – Borghorst and Burgsteinfurt – combined into a unity. Borghorst became a prosperous city because of its flourishing textile industries, whereas Burgsteinfurt has never been an industrial town, but rather a city of culture and administration. Tourists of the 19th century passing Steinfurt praised the city and called it the “Paradise of Westphalia” and “Royal Diamond” (Königsdiamant) because of its 75 monumental buildings, the moated castle and the river.
Steinfurt borders Ochtrup, Wettringen, Neuenkirchen, Emsdetten, Nordwalde, Altenberge, Laer, Horstmar and Metelen.
The town consists of two districts Borghorst and Burgsteinfurt with three farming communities each:
Burgsteinfurt is one of the most remarkable places in Münsterland. Mostly influenced by Protestants, it is home to one of the oldest academies of continuing education in Westphalia. It has buildings of all ages and one of the most beautiful moated castles in the
Stuttgart ( /ˈʃtʊtɡɑrt/; German pronunciation: [ˈʃtʊtɡaɐ̯t] ( listen)) is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. The sixth-largest city in Germany, Stuttgart has a population of 600,038 (December 2008) while the metropolitan area has a population of 5.3 million (2008). The city lies at the centre of a densely populated area, surrounded by a ring of smaller towns. This area called Stuttgart Region has a population of 2.7 million. Stuttgart's urban area has a population of roughly 1.8 million, making it Germany's seventh largest. With over 5 million inhabitants, the greater Stuttgart Metropolitan Region is the fourth-biggest in Germany after the Rhine-Ruhr area, Berlin/Brandenburg and Frankfurt/Rhine-Main.
Stuttgart is spread across a variety of hills (some of them vineyards), valleys and parks – unusual for a German city and often a source of surprise to visitors who primarily associate the city with its industrial reputation as the 'cradle of the automobile'. Stuttgart has the status of Stadtkreis, a type of self-administrating urban county. It is also the seat of the state legislature, the regional parliament, local council and the Protestant State
Trier (German pronunciation: [ˈtʀiːɐ̯] ( listen); French: Trèves, IPA: [tʁɛv]; Luxembourgish: Tréier; Italian: Treviri; Latin: Augusta Treverorum; the Latin adjective associated with the city is Treverensis), historically called in English Treves, is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle. It is the oldest city in Germany, founded in or before 16 BC.
Trier lies in a valley between low vine-covered hills of ruddy sandstone in the west of the state of Rhineland-Palatinate, near the border with Luxembourg and within the important Mosel wine region.
The city is the oldest seat of a Christian bishop north of the Alps. In the Middle Ages, the Archbishop of Trier was an important prince of the church, as the Archbishopric of Trier controlled land from the French border to the Rhine. The Archbishop also had great significance as one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire.
With an approximate population of 105,000 Trier is ranked fourth among the state's largest cities; after Mainz, Ludwigshafen, and Koblenz. The nearest large cities in Germany are Saarbrücken, some 80 km southeast, and Koblenz, about 100 km northeast. The closest city to Trier is the capital of Luxembourg,
Winterberg is a town in the Hochsauerland district of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and a major winter sport resort of the Wintersport Arena Sauerland.
Winterberg is located in the middle of the Sauerland, at the source of the Ruhr and Lenne river.
After the local government reforms of 1975 Winterberg consists of 15 districts:
Winterberg is twinned with:
Winterberg was declared a city by Archbishop Konrad von Hochstaden (1238-’61) about 1270. The foundation of the city of Winterberg was presumably carried out together with the cloister in Küstelberg. Here indicates a document of 1276 in which the rights are regulated in the town between archbishop and cloister. In this document a church is mentioned in Winterberg whose precursor presumably goes back till the time about 1225. The city fortification seems to have granted in the 14th century first only very much restricted protection. The count von Waldeck conquered the town 1321. About 1357 Winterberg became destroyed by Gottfried IV. von Arnsberg during his war with the Cologne archbishop Wilhelm von Gennep . For the reconstruction the archbishop granted an at first ten-year-old tax freedom. This was extended in 1370 and 1374 in
Aschaffenburg (German pronunciation: [aˈʃafənbʊɐ̯k], locally [ˈaʒəbɛːʃ]) is a city in northwest Bavaria, Germany. The town of Aschaffenburg is not considered part of the district of Aschaffenburg, but is the administrative seat.
Aschaffenburg belonged to the Archbishopric of Mainz for more than 800 years. The city is located at the westernmost border of Lower Franconia and separated from the central and eastern part of the administrative district by the Spessart hills, whereas it opens towards the Rhine-Main plain in the west and north-west. Therefore, the inhabitants speak neither Bavarian nor East Franconian but rather a local version of Rhine Franconian.
The town is located on both sides of the River Main in the southwest part of Germany, 41 kilometers (25 mi) southeast of Frankfurt am Main. The second river is the small Aschaff which flows in the western part of the town into the River Main. The region is called Bayerischer Untermain or Bavarian Lower Main.
Continental, typically with warm, dry summers and cold, damp winters. Aschaffenburg usually receives less snowfall during the winter than the nearby Spessart.
Aschaffenburg counts 10 districts:
Nilkheim and Leider are the
Baden-Baden is a spa town in Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is located on the western foothills of the Black Forest, on the banks of the Oos River, in the region of Karlsruhe. Its sister city is Menton, France.
The German word, Baden, translates as "baths". The springs of Baden-Baden were known to the Romans, and the foundation of the town refers to the emperor, Hadrian, with an inscription of somewhat doubtful authenticity. The bath-conscious Roman emperor, Caracalla, once came here to ease his arthritic aches. Baden was also known as Aurelia Aquensis, in honour of Aurelius Severus, during whose reign Baden would seem to have been well known. Fragments of its ancient sculptures are still to be seen, and, in 1847, the well preserved remains of Roman vapour baths were discovered just below the New Castle.
The town was named "Baden" (without the repetition) in the Middle Ages. The town fell into ruin but reappeared in 1112 as the seat (until 1705) of the Margraviate of Baden. From the 14th century to the end of the 17th, Baden-Baden was the residence of the margraves of Baden, to whom Baden-Baden gave its name. The margraves first dwelled in the old castle, the ruins of which still
Bonn is a city on the banks of the Rhine River in the State of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It was the capital of West Germany from 1949 to 1990 and the official seat of government of united Germany from 1990 to 1999. Bonn is located in the very south of the largest metropolitan area in Germany. It is the seat of two major DAX-listed German corporate players.
Even though Berlin replaced Bonn as the capital of united Germany in 1990, Bonn stays a centre of politics and administration. Roughly half of all government jobs and many government departments and numerous sub-ministerial level government agencies remain in Bonn. In recognition of this, the former capital holds the one-of-a-kind title of Federal City ("Bundesstadt").
Bonn has developed into a hub of international cooperation in particular in the area of environment and sustainable development. In addition to a number of other international organizations and institutions, such as the IUCN Environmental Law Center (IUCN ELC), the city currently hosts 18 United Nations institutions. Simultaneously, Bonn is establishing itself as a national and international centre of meetings, conventions and conferences, many of which are
Dachau (German pronunciation: [ˈdaxaʊ]) is a town in Upper Bavaria, in the southern part of Germany (Dokow in English). It is a major district town—a Große Kreisstadt—of the administrative region of Upper Bavaria, about 20 km (less than eleven miles) north-west of Munich. It is now a popular residential area for people working in Munich with roughly 40,000 inhabitants. The historic centre of town with its 18th century castle is situated on an elevation and visible over a great distance.
Dachau was founded in the 8th century. It was home to many artists during the late 19th and early 20th century; well-known author and editor Ludwig Thoma lived here for two years. The town is also known for its proximity to the infamous Dachau concentration camp built in 1933 by the Nazis, in which tens of thousands of prisoners were murdered.
As the Amper River would divert into backwaters in several places, there were many fords making it possible to cross the river. The oldest findings of human presence here date back to the Stone Age. The most noteworthy findings were discovered near Feldgeding in the adjoining municipality Bergkirchen. Around 1000 B.C. the Celts arrived in this area and
Giessen, spelled Gießen in German (German pronunciation: [ˈɡiːsən]), is a town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Hesse, capital of both the district of Giessen and the administrative region of Giessen. The population is approximately 76,000, with roughly 24,000 university students.
The name comes from Giezzen, as it was first referred to in 1197, which refers to the position of the town between several rivers, lakes and streams. The largest river in Giessen is the Lahn, which divides the town in two parts (west and east), roughly 50 kilometres north of Frankfurt am Main.
In 1969, the town hosted the ninth Hessentag state festival.
Giessen came into being as a moated castle in 1152, built by Count Wilhelm von Gleiberg, although the history of the community in the northeast and in today's suburb called "Wieseck" dates back to 775. The town became part of Hesse-Marburg in 1567, passing to Hesse-Darmstadt in 1604. The University of Giessen was founded in 1607. Giessen was included within the Grand Duchy of Hesse, created in 1806 during the Napoleonic Wars. After World War I, it was part of the People's State of Hesse.
During World War II, a subcamp of the Buchenwald
Kiel (German pronunciation: [ˈkiːl] ( listen)) is the capital and most populous city in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein, with a population of over 237,000 (2009).
Kiel is approximately 90 kilometres (56 mi) north of Hamburg. Due to its geographic location in the north of Germany, the southeast of the Jutland peninsula, and the southwestern shore of the Baltic Sea, Kiel has become one of the major maritime centres of Germany. For instance, the city is known for a variety of international sailing events, including the annual Kiel Week, which is the biggest sailing event in the world. The Olympic sailing competitions of the 1936 and the 1972 Summer Olympics were held in Kiel.
Kiel has also been one of the traditional homes of the German Navy's Baltic fleet, and continues to be a major high-tech shipbuilding centre. Kiel is an important sea transport hub, thanks to its location at the Kiel Fjord (Kieler Förde) and the busiest artificial waterway in the world, Kiel Canal (Nord-Ostsee-Kanal). A number of passenger ferries to Sweden, Norway and other countries operate from here. Moreover, today Kiel harbour is an important port of call for cruise ships touring the Baltic Sea.
In 2005 Kiel's GDP per capita was €35,618, well above Germany's national average, and 159% of the European Union's average.
Within Germany and parts of Europe, the city is known for its leading handball team, THW Kiel. The city is home to the University of Kiel (established in 1665).
Köthen (Anhalt) ([ˈkøːtən] ( listen)) is a city in Germany. It is the capital of the district of Anhalt-Bitterfeld in Saxony-Anhalt, about 30 km (19 mi) north of Halle.
Köthen is the location of the main campus and the administrative centre of the regional university, Anhalt University of Applied Sciences/Hochschule Anhalt which is especially strong in Information Technology. The city is conveniently located at the hub of the Magdeburg-Leipzig, Dessau–Köthen and Köthen–Aschersleben railways.
Köthen is situated in a fertile area with rich black soil suitable to the cultivation of sugar-beets. Industry includes high-tech engineering, manufacture of cranes, as well as chemicals, printing, and foodstuffs.
Owing to the fertile soil of the region, the area of Köthen is unusually rich in archaeological discoveries. The earliest signs of human habitation go back to the early Stone Age about 250,000 years ago, and evidence of every succeeding historical period may be found in the collections of the local Prehistorical Museum.
The first documentary mention of "Cothene" dates to 1115; by 1194 it was already known as a market town, becoming a seat of the princes of Anhalt. Köthen was chartered
Chemnitz ([ˈkɛmnɪts] ( listen); Upper Sorbian: Kamjenica, Czech: Saská Kamenice; known from 1953 to 1990 as Karl-Marx-Stadt) is the third-largest city of the Free State of Saxony, Germany. Chemnitz is an independent city which is not part of any county and seat of the government region Direktionsbezirk Chemnitz. Located in the northern foothills of the Ore Mountains, it is a part of the Saxon triangle metropolitan area comprising 3.5 million people. The city's economy is based on the service sector and manufacturing industry. The Chemnitz University of Technology has around 10,000 students and is the centre of scientific life.
Chemnitz is named after the river Chemnitz, a small tributary of the Zwickauer Mulde. The word "Chemnitz" is from the Sorbian language and means "stony brook". In German, "Chemnitz" is pronounced [ˈkɛmnɪts]. It is known in Czech as Saská Kamenice.
An early Slavic tribe's settlement was located at Kamienica, and the first documented use of Chemnitz was the 1143 site of a Benedictine monastery, around which a settlement grew. Circa 1170 Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor granted it the rights of an imperial city. In 1307, the town became subordinate to the
Elberfeld is a municipal subdivision of the German city of Wuppertal; it was an independent town until 1929.
The first official mentioning of the geographic area on the banks of today's Wupper River as "elverfelde" was in a document of 1161. Etymologically, elver is derived from the old Low German word for "river." (See etymology of the name of the German Elbe River; cf. Scandinavian älv.) Therefore the original meaning of "elverfelde" can be understood as "field on the river." Elverfelde received its town charter in 1610.
In 1726 Elias Eller and the pastor Daniel Schleyermacher founded a Philadelphian society. They later moved to Ronsdorf in the Duchy of Berg, becoming the Zionites, a fringe sect.
The 1820s saw the commencement of the Plymouth Brethren in Dublin, Ireland and Georgetown, British Guyana. This evangelical religious movement spread to the Continent and emerged in Germany chiefly out of Pietist groups through the work of Julius Anton von Poseck, William Henry Darby and Carl Brockhaus. By the 1850s the resultant group had a focal point in Elberfeld and are known to the present as the Elberfelder Brethren. They have branches throughout Germany and Switzerland and beyond.
Fulda (German pronunciation: [ˈfʊlda]) is a city in Hesse, Germany; it is located on the river Fulda and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district (Kreis). In 1990, the town hosted the 30th Hessentag state festival.
The Benedictine monastery of Fulda was founded in 744 by Saint Sturm, a disciple of Saint Boniface, as one of Boniface's outposts in the reorganization of the church in Germany. It later served as a base from which missionaries could accompany Charlemagne's armies in their political and military campaign to fully conquer and convert pagan Saxony.
The initial grant for the abbey was signed by Carloman, the son of Charles Martel. The support of the Mayors of the Palace and later, the early Pippinid and Carolingian rulers, was important to Boniface's success. Fulda also received support from many of the leading families of the Carolingian world. Sturm, whose tenure as abbot lasted from 747 until 779, was most likely related to the Agilolfing dukes of Bavaria. Fulda also received large and constant donations from the Etichonids, a leading family in Alsatia, and the Conradines, predecessors of the Salian Holy Roman Emperors. Under Sturm, the donations Fulda received
Halberstadt is a town in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt and the capital of the district of Harz. It is located on the German Timber-Frame Road and the Magdeburg–Thale railway.
The town was severely damaged in World War II, but retains many important historic buildings and much of its ancient townscape. Notable places in Halberstadt include the Liebfrauenkirche and St. Stephen Cathedral, churches built in the 12th and 13th centuries, respectively. Halberstadt is the site of the first documented large, permanent pipe organ installation in 1361. The cathedral is notable among those in northern European towns in having retained its medieval treasury in virtually complete condition. Among its treasures are the oldest surviving tapestries in Europe, dating from the 12th century.
Germania Halberstadt is a football club which plays in Halberstadt.
Halberstadt was made an episcopal see in 814 and was a popular trade point in the 13th-14th centuries. The Bishopric of Halberstadt was secularized in 1648 according to the Peace of Westphalia and became the Principality of Halberstadt within Brandenburg-Prussia.
Halberstadt became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1701, but became part of the
Mainz ( /ˈmaɪnts/) is the capital of the land of Rhineland-Palatinate in Germany. It was the capital of the Electorate of Mainz at the time of the Holy Roman Empire. In antiquity Mainz was a Roman fort city which commanded the west bank of the Rhine and formed part of the northernmost frontier of the Roman Empire; it was founded as a military post by the Romans in the late 1st century BC. The city is located on the river Rhine across from Wiesbaden, in the western part of the Frankfurt Rhine-Main Region; in the modern age, Frankfurt shares much of its regional importance.
The city is famous as the home of the invention of the movable-type printing press, as the first books printed using movable type were manufactured in Mainz by Gutenberg in the early 1450s. Until the twentieth century, Mainz was usually referred to in English as Mayence.
Mainz is located on the west bank of the river Rhine, opposite the confluence of the Main with the Rhine. The population in 2008 was 196,784, an additional 18,619 people maintain a primary residence elsewhere but have a second home in Mainz. The city is part of the Rhein Metro area consisting of 5.8 million people. Mainz can easily be reached from
Mannheim (help·info) is a city in southwestern Germany. With about 315,000 inhabitants, Mannheim is the second-largest city in the Bundesland of Baden-Württemberg, following the capital city of Stuttgart.
Mannheim is located at the confluence of the River Rhine and the River Neckar in the northwestern corner of Baden-Württemberg. The Rhine separates Mannheim from the city of Ludwigshafen, just to the west of it in Rhineland-Palatinate. The border of Baden-Württemberg with the Bundesland of Hesse is just north of Mannheim, and Mannheim is just downstream along the Neckar from the city of Heidelberg. Mannheim is the largest city of the Rhine Neckar Area, a metropolitan area with about 2.4 million inhabitants.
Mannheim is unusual among German cities in that the streets and avenues of Mannheim's central area are laid out in a grid pattern, just like most North American and Australian cities and towns. Because of this, the city's nickname is "die Quadratestadt" (the German word for "city of the squares"). One main route through the streets and avenues runs by a large 18th century palace, the Mannheim Palace. This former home of the rulers of the Palatinate now houses part of the
Villingen-Schwenningen is a city in the Schwarzwald-Baar district in southern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It has 80,941 inhabitants (as of 2009).
In the Middle Ages Villingen was a town under Austrian lordship. During the Protestant Reformation it remained Catholic. Villingen came to international attention when it was besieged by marshal Tallard in 1704. Colonel Von Wilstorff put up a stout defence of the outdated fortifications, and after six days the siege failed.
Schwenningen remained a village until the 19th century. In 1858 the first watch factory was established, and watchmaking and precision mechanics have been important industries ever since.
As part of the Baden-Württemberg territorial reform of 1972, Villingen and Schwenningen were merged with a number of surrounding villages to form the city of Villingen-Schwenningen. Nevertheless, the two halves of the city are separated by a plateau and remain distinct.
Villingen is a major center of German Carneval celebrations. The traditional Narros represent the old citizens of Villingen: Alt Villingere, Morbili, Hansele, Suribbel.
The town is the birthplace of German footballer Sebastian Rudy, NHL player Dennis Seidenberg,
Waiblingen is a town in the southwest of Germany, located in the center of the densely populated Stuttgart Region, directly neighboring Stuttgart. It is the capital of the Rems-Murr district. As of September 30, 2004 Waiblingen accommodated 52,948 inhabitants (25,953 men and 26,995 women).
As of December 31, 2004 the area of the town (including all external proprieties, such as forests) was 42.76 km².
Waiblingen was first mentioned in Carolingian documents in 885 at the time of Charles the Fat. It received its town charter in 1250.
Waiblingen was property of the Salian kings, from whom the Hohenstaufen dukes and kings inherited it. It is assumed that the Italian name of the Hohenstaufen party, Ghibelline, is derived from "Waiblingen".
The town was almost completely destroyed in 1634 during the Thirty Years' War, and its citizens either killed or deported. It was rebuilt after the war; the existing old central part of the town dates back to the years between 1640 and 1700. Its fortifications are now well restored.
The following towns were incorporated into Waiblingen:
Waiblingen houses the principal office of the world's biggest chainsaw manufacturer, Stihl. Also the Robert Bosch
Bielefeld ( /ˈbiːləfɛlt/; German pronunciation: [ˈbiːləfɛlt]) is a city in the Ostwestfalen-Lippe Region in the north-east of North-Rhine Westphalia, Germany. With a population of 323,000, it is also the most populous city in the Regierungsbezirk Detmold. Its current mayor is Pit Clausen.
The historical centre of the city is situated north of the Teutoburg Forest line of hills, but modern Bielefeld also incorporates boroughs on the opposite side and on the hills.
Bielefeld is home to a significant number of internationally operating companies, including Dr. Oetker, Gildemeister and Schüco. It has a university and several Fachhochschulen. Bielefeld is also famous among Germans for its internet meme the Bielefeld Verschwörung.
Founded in 1215 by Count Hermann IV of Ravensberg to guard a pass crossing the Teutoburg Forest, Bielefeld was the "city of linen" as a minor member of the Hanseatic League.
After the Cologne-Minden railway opened in 1849, the Bozi brothers constructed the first large mechanised spinning mill in 1851. The Ravensberg Spinning Mill was built from 1854 to 1857, and metal works began to open in the 1860s.
Between 1904 and 1930, Bielefeld grew, opening a railway
Freising is a town in Bavaria, Germany, and capital of the district Freising. Total population 48,500. The city is located north of Munich at the Isar river, near the Munich International Airport. Anyone taking off or landing at Munich airport can see the city to the north with its two famous hills, the cathedral hill with the bishop's castle and the Freising cathedral and Weihenstephan Hill with the oldest working brewery in the world.
Freising is one of the oldest settlements in Bavaria, gaining importance by becoming a major religious center in the early Middle Ages. It was and still is the center of an important diocese. Some important historical documents were created between 900 to 1200 in its monastery:
The above and other scripts from that time can be found in the Bayrische Staatsbibliothek (Bavarian State Library) in Munich today.
Even though archaeological finds show that the area was settled in the Bronze Age, no proof has been found yet to suggest a continuous settlement until the 8th century Frigisinga. Saint Corbinian settled at a shrine that already existed at Freising in 724. He was the forerunner of the diocese of Freising, established after his death by Saint
Kleve (historically known in English as Cleves, Clèves in French and Kleef in Dutch), is a town in the Lower Rhine region of northwestern Germany near the Dutch border and the River Rhine. From the 11th century onwards, Kleve was capital of a county and later a duchy. Today, Kleve is the capital of the district of Kleve in the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia.
Kleve consists of 14 subdivisions:
Bimmen, Brienen, Donsbrüggen, Düffelward, Griethausen, Keeken, Kellen, Materborn, Reichswalde, Rindern, Salmorth, Schenkenschanz, Warbeyen, Wardhausen.
The name Kleve probably derives from the word cliff (German "Kliff"), referring to the promontory upon which the Schwanenburg was constructed. However, the city's coat of arms displays three clovers, (German "Klee") which is comparable to the pronunciation of Kleve in the Low Rhenish dialect and in Dutch, "Kleef". Interestingly, Kleve was spelled with a "c" throughout its history until spelling reforms introduced in the 1930s required that the name be spelled with a "k". As of 2008, the CDU announced ambitions to return the name to its original spelling.
The Schwanenburg (English: Swan Castle), where the dukes of Cleves resided, was
Merseburg is a town in the south of the German state of Saxony-Anhalt on the river Saale, approx. 14 km south of Halle (Saale). It is the capital of the Saalekreis district. It had a diocese founded by Archbishop Adalbert of Magdeburg. The University of Merseburg is located within the town.
Merseburg was first mentioned in 850. King Henry the Fowler built a royal palace at Merseburg; in the 933 Battle of Riade, he gained his great victory over the Hungarians in the vicinity.
Thietmar of Merseburg became the first bishop of the newly-created bishopric of Prague in Bohemia, appointed in 973. Prague had been part of the archbishopric of Mainz for a hundred years before that. From 968 until the Protestant Reformation, Merseburg was the seat of the bishop of Merseburg, and in addition to being for a time the residence of the margraves of Meissen, it was a favorite residence of the German kings during the 10th, 11th and 12th centuries. Fifteen diets were held here during the Middle Ages, when its fairs enjoyed the importance which was afterwards transferred to those of Leipzig. The town suffered severely during the German Peasants' War and also during the Thirty Years' War.
From 1657 to
Oranienburg is a town in Brandenburg, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Oberhavel.
Oranienburg is a town located on the banks of the Havel river, 35 km north of the centre of Berlin.
Oranienburg consists of 9 districts
The original name of Oranienburg was Bötzow. The town was founded in the 12th century and was first mentioned in 1216. Albert the Bear is believed to have ordered the construction of a castle on the banks of the Havel. Around the castle there was a settlement of traders and craftsmen.
In 1646, Friedrich Wilhelm I of Brandenburg married Louise Henriette of Orange-Nassau (German: Oranien-Nassau). She was so attracted by the town of Bötzow, that her husband presented the entire region to her. The princess ordered a new castle to be built in the Dutch style and called it Oranienburg or Schloss Oranienburg. In 1653, the town of Bötzow was renamed Oranienburg.
One of the first Nazi concentration camps was built in Oranienburg in 1933. In 1936 it was replaced by the Sachsenhausen concentration camp which continued to operate until the end of the Nazi regime; 200,000 people were interned in Sachsenhausen over the 9 years the camp was operational under the Nazis.
Prenzlau (officially Prenzlow until 1817), a city in the Uckermark District of Brandenburg in Germany, had a population of about 21,000 in 2005.
Prenzlau has twinning relationships with:
Media related to Prenzlau at Wikimedia Commons
Nordhausen is a town at the southern edge of the Harz Mountains, in the state of Thuringia, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Nordhausen. It was once known for its tobacco industry, and is still known for its distilled spirit, Nordhäuser Doppelkorn.
The town is first mentioned in a 13 May 927 document of King Henry the Fowler, but an earlier settlement on the site dates back to around 650 to 700. In 1220, Emperor Frederick II made it an Imperial Free City, and in 1430 Nordhausen joined the Hanseatic League. In 1500 it became part of the Lower Saxon Circle, and from around the same year the city began producing fermented grain liquor, which became famous under the name Nordhäuser Doppelkorn. In 1523, a year in which Thomas Müntzer spent some time in the city, the Protestant Reformation came to Nordhausen.
After the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, much of Nordhausen's surroundings became part of Brandenburg-Prussia, although the city itself remained independent. During the Napoleonic Wars, Prussian troops occupied Nordhausen on 2 August 1802; the city lost its status as an Imperial Free City during the German Mediatisation. It became part of the Kingdom of Westphalia created
For the town in the district of Nürnberger Land, see Alfeld, Bavaria.
Alfeld is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located on the Leine river in the district of Hildesheim and on the German Timber-Frame Road.
The town was founded in 1214. Sights in Alfeld include the town hall (1586) with its octagonal tower, the church Saint Nicolai and the Fillerturm, a medieval watchtower and the Fagus Factory of 1911, a fine example of early modernist architecture by Walter Gropius. More famous are the Seven Hills (German: Sieben Berge) in the north and the Lippoldshöhle ("Lippold's cave"), where a legendary robber-knight is said to have lived.
The assertion that the popular fairy tale of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs was born in Alfeld is false. Even though the miners who mined ore In the Seven Mountains believed in the existence of dwarfs, it is more likely that the cradle of the fairy tale is to be searched in France. The version the brothers Grimm heard and wrote down, as they travelled through the Seven Mountains, on the so called Märchenstrasse (Street Of Fairytales) is just one of many.
The biggest employer of the city is the SAPPI (South African Pulp and Paper Industry) factory
Cottbus (German pronunciation: [ˈkɔtbʊs]; Lower Sorbian: Chóśebuz) is a university city in Brandenburg, Germany, situated around 44 km (27 miles) northeast of Hoyerswerda, on the River Spree.
The settlement was established in the 10th century, when Sorbs erected a castle on a sandy island in the River Spree. The first recorded mention of the town's name was in 1156. In the 13th century German settlers came to the town and thereafter lived side-by-side with the Sorbs. In medieval times Cottbus was known for wool, and the town's drapery was exported all over the Brandenburg, Bohemia and Saxony. In 1462 Cottbus was acquired by the Margraviate of Brandenburg; in 1701 the city became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1815 the surrounding districts of Upper and Lower Lusatia were ceded by the Kingdom of Saxony to Prussia.
From 1949 until German reunification in 1990, Cottbus was part of the German Democratic Republic (East Germany).
Cottbus is the cultural centre of the Lower Sorbian minority. Many signs in the town are bilingual, and there is a Lower Sorbian-medium Gymnasium, but Sorbian is rarely spoken on the streets.
Next to Cottbus is the famous Branitz Park, created by Prince
Dortmund ([ˈdɔɐ̯tmʊnt] ( listen); Low German: Düörpm; Latin: Tremonia) is a city in Germany. It is located in the Bundesland of North Rhine-Westphalia. Its population of 580,444 (in December 2010) makes it the 8th largest city in Germany. Dortmund is the largest city in the Ruhr Area, an urban area with some 5.2 million (2009) inhabitants which is the largest urban agglomeration in Germany. Dortmund is also a part of the larger Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region of more than 12 million people.
The river Ruhr flows south of the city, and the small river Emscher flows through the municipal area. The Dortmund-Ems Canal also terminates in the Dortmund Port, which is the largest European canal port, and links Dortmund to the North Sea.
Dortmund is known as Westphalia's "green metropolis". Nearly half the municipal territory consists of waterways, woodland, agriculture and green spaces with spacious parks such as Westfalenpark and the Rombergpark. This contrasts with nearly a hundred years of extensive coal mining and steel milling within the city limits.
A small village at the location of Dortmund was mentioned in official documents from 880 to 885 as Throtmanni. After it was destroyed by a
Herford (German pronunciation: [ˈhɛɐ̯fɔɐ̯t]) is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, located in the lowlands between the hill chains of the Wiehen Hills and the Teutoburg Forest. It is the capital of the district of Herford.
The former Hanseatic town of Herford is situated in the chain of hills south of the Wiehen Hills (Ravensberg Hills). The highest place is the Dornberg (240 m) in the Schwarzenmoor district; the lowest point (56 m) is located in the Werretal in the Falkendiek district. The River Aa joins the river Werre in the centre of the town. The Stuckenberg is located east of the town.
The town was founded in 789 by Charlemagne in order to guard a ford crossing the narrow Werre river. A century later, Matilda, daughter of Theudebert, duke of Saxony, grew up in the abbey of Herford; she was a descendant of the Saxon leader Widukind. In Herford she met Henry the Fowler, who later became king of Germany.
In late medieval times Herford was a member of the Hanseatic League. It was a Free Imperial City, i.e. it was directly subordinated to the emperor. This status was lost after the Peace of Westphalia (1648), when Herford was annexed by Brandenburg-Prussia. It was
Ingelheim am Rhein is a town in the Mainz-Bingen district in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany on the Rhine’s west bank. The town calls itself the Rotweinstadt (“Red Wine Town”) and since 1996 it has been Mainz-Bingen’s district seat.
From the later half of the 8th century, the Ingelheim Imperial Palace, which served emperors and kings as a lodging and a ruling seat until the 11th century, was to be found here.
The typically Rhenish-Hessian placename ending —heim might well go back to Frankish times, that is to say, likely as far back as the 5th or 6th century. Settlements or estates then took their lords’ names and were given this suffix, which means “home” in German. The name is recorded in later documents as Ingilinhaim, Ingilinheim (782), Ingilenhaim, Engelheim, Hengilonheim, Engilonheim (822), Engilinheim (826), Hingilinheim (855), Ingilunheim (874), Ingulinheim (889), Ingelesheim (891), Ingelenheim (940), Anglia sedes (1051), Ingilheim and Ingelnheim (1286), among other forms.
Since 1269, a distinction has been made between Nieder-Ingelheim and Ober-Ingelheim (Lower and Upper Ingelheim)
Ingelheim am Rhein lies in the north of Rhein Hessen on the so-called Rhein Knee, west of the
Lüneburg (officially the Hanseatic City of Lüneburg, German: Hansestadt Lüneburg, pronounced [ˈhan.zə.ʃtat ˈlyː.nə.bʊɐk], Low German Lümborg; formerly also called Lunenburg in English) is a town in the German state of Lower Saxony. It is located about 45 km (28 mi) southeast of fellow Hanseatic city Hamburg. It is part of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region, and one of Hamburg's inner suburbs. The capital of the district of Lüneburg, it has a population of around 72 000. Lüneburg's urban area, which includes the surrounding communities like Adendorf, Bardowick, and Reppenstedt, has a population of around 103 000. Lüneburg has been allowed to use the title "Hansestadt" (Hanseatic Town) in its name since 2007, in recognition of its membership in the former Hanseatic League; it is also a university town. As of December 2007, the town was the 120th largest in the Federal Republic of Germany.
Lüneburg lies on the river Ilmenau, about 30 kilometres (19 mi) from its confluence with the Elbe. The river flows through the town and features in the its song; it was formerly traversed by cogs taking salt from the town to the other, larger, ports of the Hanseatic League nearby.
To the south of the
Neuss (German pronunciation: [ˈnɔʏs]; spelled Neuß until 1968; Limburgish: Nüss; Latin: Novaesium) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located on the west bank of the Rhine opposite Düsseldorf. Neuss is the largest city within the Rhein-Kreis Neuss district and owes its prosperity to its location at the crossing of historic and modern trade routes. It is primarily known for its historic Roman sites, as well as the annual Neusser Bürger-Schützenfest. In 1984 Neuss celebrated 2000 years since its foundation. It therefore holds the title of "Germany's oldest city" alongside the city of Trier.
Neuss was founded by the Romans in 16 BC as a military fortification (castra) with the current city to the north of the castra, on the confluence of the rivers Rhine and Erft, with the name of Novaesium. Later a civil settlement was founded in the area of today's center of the town during the 1st century AD. Novaesium, together with Trier (Augusta Treverorum), is one of the three oldest Roman settlements in Germany. In 451, it was settled by the Huns.
Neuss grew during the Middle Ages because of its prime location on several routes, by the crossing of the great Rhine valley, and
Remscheid (German pronunciation: [ˈʁɛmʃaɪt]) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is, after Wuppertal and Solingen, the third largest municipality in Bergisches Land, being located on the northern edge of the region, on south side of the Ruhr area.
The registered population was 113,935 in 2007.
Remscheid was founded in the 12th century, but remained a small village until the 19th century. Early spellings for the city included Remissgeid (1217), Rymscheyd (1351), Reymscheyd (1487) and Rembscheid (1639). The economic growth of the entire Rhine-Ruhr region led to an increase of the population of Remscheid. Mechanical engineering and toolmaking were the main industries practised within the town. This is carried on today with the Hazet tool company which has two factories in Remscheid. Remscheid was part of the Prussian Rhine Province from 1822-1945.
On 31 July 1943, during the second World War, Remscheid was almost completely destroyed during a British bombing raid which caused a firestorm.
An A-10 Thunderbolt II crashed in the city on 8 December 1988. Six people died.
Today, Remscheid comprises four boroughs, Alt-Remscheid, Remscheid-Süd, Lennep, and Lüttringhausen.
Rottweil (help·info) is a city in southwest Germany in the federal state of Baden-Württemberg. Located between the Black Forest and the Swabian Alps, Rottweil has about 25,000 inhabitants. The old city is famous for its medieval center and for its traditional carnival, (called "Fasnet" in the local Swabian dialect). The oldest town in Baden-Württemberg, its appearance has changed very little from the 16th century.
Rottweil was founded by the Romans in AD 73 as Arae Flaviae and became a municipium, but there are traces of human settlement going back to 2000 BC. Roman baths and a mosaic of Orpheus (ca. AD 180) date from the time of Roman settlement. The present town became a ducal and a royal court before 771 and in the Middle Ages it became a Free Imperial City in 1268.
In 1463 the city joined the Swiss Confederacy, with which it was closely aligned for several centuries. Both its status as free city and its alliance with the Swiss Confederacy were eventually lost with the conquest of the region by Napoleon in 1803.
Rottweil is twinned with:
Bergisch Gladbach (help·info) is a city in the Cologne/Bonn Region of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany and capital of the Rheinisch-Bergischer Kreis (district).
Bergisch Gladbach is located east of the river Rhine, approx. 10 kilometers east of Cologne.
Beginning in the north clockwise the neighbouring municipalities and neighbouring towns are: Odenthal, Kürten, Overath, Rösrath, Cologne and Leverkusen.
Early settlements existed in the 13th century, but the town was officially founded in 1856.
The word “Bergisch” in the name does not originate from its location in the earldom of Berg and was not added to distinguish it from Mönchengladbach as believed by many people, but from the earls who gave their name to the region. At the start of the 12th century the earls of "Berg" settled in the area and it became the grand duchy of "Berg". This is where the first part of the name (Bergisch) comes from.
The second part of the name is a lot harder to explain in English, as it originates from Low German (Bergisches Platt). "Gladbach" evolved from the stream "Strunde", which received an artificial river bed in early medieval times. Basically the river was "laid" which means "gelaat" in
Borken is a town and the capital of the district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Borken is situated 10 km east of the Dutch border.
Borken consists of 12 districts:
The name comes from the German word "Burg" or "Burk" and gradually changed to "Burke", then "Burken" and finally to "Borken". Around the year 800 the village was being used by Charles The Great (Charlemagne) as a stopover place on his travels. In 1226 City rights were granted by Bishop Dietrich II of Isenberg-Limburg. Fortification of the city with walls and towers was first noted in 1391.
In the last years of the Holy Roman Empire (1803–06) it was the capital of the short-lived principality of Salm. From 1810 to 1814 it was part of the French Empire. In 1815 Borken came under the jurisdiction of the Prussian Province of Westphalia. At the same time it became the seat of government for the newly formed district or county of Borken (Kreis Borken). Between 1880 and 1905 the area experienced the building of railroad connections: (1880 Wanne-Borken-Winterswijk line, 1901 Empel-Bocholt-Borken and Borken-Burgsteinfurt, 1905 Borken-Coesfeld-Münster).
Near the end of World War Two the historic center of the city was
Bottrop (German pronunciation: [ˈbɔtʁɔp] ( listen)) is a city in west central Germany, on the Rhine-Herne Canal, in North Rhine-Westphalia. Located in the Ruhr industrial area, Bottrop adjoins Essen, Oberhausen, Gladbeck and Dorsten. The city had been a coal-mining and rail center and contains factories producing coal-tar derivatives, chemicals, textiles, and machinery. Bottrop grew as a mining center beginning in the 1860s, was chartered as a city in 1921, and bombed during the Oil Campaign of World War II. In 1975 it unified with the neighbour communities of Gladbeck and Kirchhellen, but Gladbeck left it in 1976, leading to Kirchhellen becoming a district of Bottrop as Bottrop-Kirchhellen. 40% of the citys population is of Polish descent, mostly descendants of late 19th century immigrants.
The total area of the municipal territory is about 101 square kilometers. The longest north-south distance is 17 kilometers, and from west to east 9 kilometers. The highest peak within the city's territory is 78 m, the lowest one 26 m above NN.
Bottrop is divided into 3 boroughs, they are: Bottrop-Mitte (Bottrop-Center), Bottrop-Süd (Bottrop South) and Bottrop-Kirchhellen, each one having a
Wittenberg, officially Lutherstadt Wittenberg, is a city in Germany in the Bundesland Saxony-Anhalt, on the river Elbe. It has a population of about 50,000.
The importance of Wittenberg historically was due to its seat of the Elector of Saxony, a dignity held by the dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg and also to its close connection with Martin Luther and the dawn of the Protestant Reformation; several of its buildings are associated with the events of this time. Part of the Augustinian monastery in which Luther dwelt, first as a monk and later as owner with his wife and family, is preserved and considered to be the world's premier museum dedicated to Luther. Various Luther and Melancthon memorial sites were added to the UNESCO world heritage list in 1996.
A settlement was first mentioned in 1180 as a small village founded by Flemish colonists under the rule of the House of Ascania. In 1260, it became the residence of the dukes of Saxe-Wittenberg, and in 1293 the settlement was granted a town charter. Wittenberg developed into an important trade centre during the following centuries, due to its location. When the Ascanians died out, Saxe-Wittenberg passed to the House of Wettin. The city
Balve is a town in the Märkischer Kreis district, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in Hönnetal, a narrow valley created by the river Hönne, which is near the Sorpesee, formerly part of Balve, and at the north end of the Sauerland, near Dortmund. The town was established in 1975 with several divisions including Balve, Beckum, and Eisborn.
The first disputed reference to Balve was in around 780, when it was mentioned that a Widukind owned a farm called Ballowa, another name for the town. The first undisputed reference was in 864, in which a blind girl from Balve was said to be healed at the grave of the Saint Ludger in the crypt of Werden Abbey.
Ballowa is also mentioned in the Thidrekssaga, a chivalric saga written in the mid-13th century in Norway. In the saga, Ballowa is the home of two dwarfs who taught Weyland much about making iron weapons. At the time of writing, Balve belonged to the county of Arnsberg.
In 1358 the town became the property of the Duchy of Westphalia, which belonged to the Archbishops of Cologne. In 1430 it was given the right to be called a city. During the Napoleonic period, it belonged for a short time (1802–1815) to Hesse, after which time it
Flensburg (Danish: Flensborg, Low Saxon: Flensborg, North Frisian: Flansborj, South Jutlandic: Flensborre) is an independent town in the north of the German state of Schleswig-Holstein. Flensburg is the centre of the region of Southern Schleswig. After Kiel and Lübeck it is the third largest town in Schleswig-Holstein.
In May 1945 Flensburg was the seat of the last government of Nazi Germany, the so called Flensburg government led by Grand Admiral Karl Dönitz, which was in power from 1 May (Hitler's death) until its dissolution on 23 May.
The nearest larger towns are Kiel (86 km south) and Odense in Denmark (92 km northeast). Flensburg's city centre lies about 7 km from the Danish border.
In Germany, Flensburg is known for
Flensburg is situated in the north of the German state Schleswig-Holstein, on the German-Danish border. After Westerland on the island of Sylt it is Germany's northernmost town. Flensburg lies at the innermost tip of the Flensburg Fjord, an inlet of the Baltic Sea. Flensburg's eastern shore is part of the Angeln peninsula.
Clockwise from the northeast, beginning at the German side of the Flensburg Fjord, the following communities in Schleswig-Flensburg district
Horn-Bad Meinberg is a town in the Lippe district of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, with c. 18,300 inhabitants. It was formed in 1970 by merging various other towns that had grown together, including Bad Meinberg and Horn - the new entity's original name was Bad Meinberg-Horn, before taking its present name.
Horn-Bad Meinberg is the location of the Externsteine, a rock formation consisting of several tall, narrow columns.
Ratzeburg (German pronunciation: [ˈʁatsəbʊʁk]) is a town in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is surrounded by four lakes—the resulting isthmuses between the lakes form the access lanes to the town. Ratzeburg is the capital of the Kreis (district) of Lauenburg.
The town was founded in the 11th century as Racisburg. The name is traditionally derived from the local Wendish ruler, Prince Ratibor of the Polabians, who was nicknamed Ratse. In the year 1044 Christian missionaries under the leadership of the monk Ansverus came into the region and built a monastery. It was destroyed in a pagan rebellion in 1066; the monks were stoned to death. Today monuments to the missionaries in two of the town's churches commemorate these events. Ansverus was canonised in the 12th century and his relics were entombed in the Ratzeburg cathedral.
Henry the Lion (Heinrich der Löwe) became the ruler of the town in 1143 and established a bishopric in 1154. He was also responsible for the construction of the late Romanesque Cathedral (Dom), built in typical north German 'red-brick' style. Henry also prompted the construction of the similar-looking Lübeck Cathedral and Brunswick Collegiate Church with his
Schwäbisch Hall (or Hall for short) is a town in the German state of Baden-Württemberg and capital of the district of Schwäbisch Hall. The town is located in the valley of the river Kocher in the north-eastern part of Baden-Württemberg. The first part of the name, "Schwäbisch" refers to the name of the region, Swabia. The most probable origin of the second part of the name "Hall" is a west Germanic word family that means "drying something by heating it", likely referring to the salt production method of heating salty groundwater. The salt mine closed in 1925.
Salt was distilled by the Celts at the site of Schwäbisch Hall as early as the fifth century. The first time it was mentioned in a forged document called "Öhringer Stiftungsbrief" that dates in the final years of the 11th century. The village probably belonged first to the Counts of Comburg-Rothenburg and went from them to the Imperial house of Hohenstaufen (ca 1116). It was probably Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa who founded the imperial mint and started the coining of the so-called Heller. Hall flourished through the production of salt and coins. Since 1204 it has been called a town.
After the fall of the house of
Witten is a university city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the home of the Witten/Herdecke University, the first private university in Germany.
Witten is situated in the Ruhr valley, in the southern Ruhr area.
Witten is divided into 8 boroughs and every of these boroughs is divided into city-districts. Every district has it own district-number:
When Witten was first mentioned in historical documents, it was part of the Archdiocese of Cologne. Since 1821 it has been a part of the Diocese of Paderborn; however, the borough of Herbede belongs to the Diocese of Essen. In the 19th century the Ruhr area drew up to 500,000 Poles from East Prussia and Silesia, most of whom were Catholic. Hundreds settled in Witten, leading to a growth in the Catholic community. Today, between 30 and 40 per cent of the population is Catholic.
In the 16th century Witten was influenced by Martin Luther's Reformation, and until the late 19th century, Witten was a predominantly Protestant town with just a few Catholic inhabitants. Between 30 and 40 percent of the population is Protestant today.
There are four mosques in Witten, Annen and Herbede today, founded by immigrants from Turkey who arrived in
Hamburg ( /ˈhæmbɜrɡ/; German pronunciation: [ˈhambʊɐ̯k], local pronunciation [ˈhambʊɪç]; Low German/Low Saxon: Hamborg [ˈhaˑmbɔːx]), officially Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg, is the second largest city in Germany, the fifteenth largest German state, and the sixth largest city in the European Union. The city is home to over 1.8 million people, while the Hamburg Metropolitan Region (including parts of the neighbouring Federal States of Lower Saxony and Schleswig-Holstein) has more than 5 million inhabitants. Situated on the river Elbe, the port of Hamburg is the third largest port in Europe (after the Port of Rotterdam and Port of Antwerp) and tenth largest worldwide.
Hamburg's official name, Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (German: Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg), reflects Hamburg's history as a member of the medieval Hanseatic League, as a free imperial city of the Holy Roman Empire, and that Hamburg is a city-state and one of the sixteen States of Germany.
Hamburg is a major transport hub in Northern Germany and is one of the most affluent cities in Europe. It has become a media and industrial centre, with plants and facilities belonging to Airbus, Blohm + Voss and Aurubis.
Aalen is a former Free Imperial City located in the eastern part of the German state of Baden-Württemberg, about 70 kilometers east of Stuttgart and 48 kilometers north of Ulm. It is the seat of the Ostalbkreis district, and its largest town, as well as the largest town within the Ostwürttemberg region. Since 1956, Aalen has the status of Große Kreisstadt (“major district town”).
With an area of 146.63 km, Aalen is ranked 7th in Baden-Württemberg and 2nd within the Government Region of Stuttgart, after Stuttgart. With a population of about 66,000, Aalen is the 15 most-populated settlement in Baden-Württemberg.
Aalen is situated on the upper reaches of the river Kocher, at the foot of the Swabian Jura which lies to the south and south-east, and close to the hilly landscapes of the Ellwanger Berge to the north and the Welland to the north-west.
In terms of natural regions, the west of Aalen’s territory is on the foreland of the eastern Swabian Jura, and the north and north-west is on the Swabian-Franconian Uplands, both being part of the Swabian Keuper-Lias Plains. The south-west is part of the Albuch, the east is part of the Härtsfeld, these two both being parts of the Swabian
Bad Neuenahr-Ahrweiler is a town in the German Bundesland of Rhineland-Palatinate. It is the capital of the Ahrweiler district. It is a renowned spa town and has a casino. The A61 motorway connects the town with major cities like Cologne and Mainz. The city consists of two parts, Bad Neuenahr in the east and Ahrweiler in the west. They were united in 1969. It is home of successful women soccer team, SC 07 Bad Neuenahr. The German Army's Logistics Centre (main depot) is located in an underground facility. The "Apollinaris" mineral water company was founded in Bad Neuenahr in 1852. In addition it is the home to the traditional mineral water "Heppinger", known since 1584.
Gelnhausen is a town and the capital of the Main-Kinzig-Kreis, in Hesse, Germany. It is located approximately 40 kilometers east of Frankfurt am Main, between the Vogelsberg mountains and the Spessart range at the river Kinzig. According to the Institut Géographique National since 1 January 2007 the geographic centre of the European Union is exactly located on a wheat field outside the town at 50°10′21″N 9°9′0″E / 50.1725°N 9.15°E / 50.1725; 9.15 (Gelnhausen (27 members)).
For a number of years, the town was home to the United States Army's Coleman Kaserne base. In 1996, the town hosted the 36th Hessentag state festival.
Gelnhausen was founded by Emperor Frederick Barbarossa in 1170, it is therefore nicknamed "Barbarossastadt". The place was chosen because it was at the intersection of the Via Regia imperial road between Frankfurt and Leipzig and several other major trade routes. Frederick had three villages connected by streets and surrounded by a wall. At the same time Gelnhausen received town privileges and a Kaiserpfalz was erected on an island of the Kinzig river. The emperor also granted trade privileges like the staple right which forced traveling merchants to offer
Helmstedt (German pronunciation: [ˈhɛlmˌʃtɛt]) is a city located at the eastern edge of the German state of Lower Saxony. It is the capital of the District of Helmstedt. Helmstedt has 26,000 inhabitants (2004). In former times the city was also called Helmstädt.
Helmstedt developed in the vicinity of the Benedictine St. Ludger's Abbey that was founded around 800 by Saint Liudger as a mission station. Helmstedt was first mentioned in 952; it became a city in 1247. It belonged to the Abbacy of Werden until 1490, when it was bought by the Duchy of Brunswick-Lüneburg. From 1576 to 1810, the University of Helmstedt was located here.
From the late 1940s to 1990, the town was the site of a major border crossing between the Federal Republic of Germany and the German Democratic Republic. The main rail and autobahn route between West Germany and Berlin, across the GDR, began at the Helmstedt–Marienborn border crossing, also known as Checkpoint Alpha. Official military traffic from NATO countries to West Berlin was only allowed to use this route.
In addition, see the list of famous students and professors of the University of Helmstedt.
Kirchheimbolanden, the capital of Donnersbergkreis, is a town in Rhineland-Palatinate, south-western Germany. It is situated approx. 25 km west of Worms, and 30 km north-east of Kaiserslautern. The first part of the name, Kirchheim, dates back to 774. It became a town in 1368, and the Sponheim family improved its security with many towers and walls. William, Duke of Nassau, ancestor of the royal families of Belgium, Sweden, Denmark and Norway, and of the grand-ducal family of Luxembourg, was born in Kirchheimbolanden.
Porta Westfalica is a town in the district of Minden-Lübbecke, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The name “Porta Westfalica” is Latin and means “gate to Westphalia”. Coming from the north, the gorge is the entry to the region of Westphalia. Despite the Latin name the term was not coined in Roman times, but by scholars of the 19th century.
The town Porta Westfalica was established in 1973 by merging fifteen villages surrounding the gorge. The centre of the modern town is the former village of Hausberge, which was first mentioned in 1096.
From March 18, 1944 until April 1, 1945 a concentration camp was established in the Barkhausen quarter. From February 1, 1945 until April 1, 1945 a camp was used in the Hausberge quarter. In the Lerbeck quarter also was a concentration camp in use from October 1, 1944 until April 1, 1945. In the Neesen quarter was a location for the forced labour for some of the inmates. All this camps were subcamps to the Neuengamme concentration camp.
Porta Westfalica is situated on the right bank of the Weser (except for the Barkhausen quarter), near the Porta Westfalica gorge, where the river runs through the passage between the mountain chains of the Wiehen
Suhl is a town in Thuringia, Germany. Its population in 2003 was 43,610.
Suhl sits on the south edge of the Suhler Scholle, an upthrust granite complex that is streaked by numerous dikes. This is part of the Ruhla-Schleusingen Horst that defines the southwest side of the Thuringian Forest. The southwest side of the Suhler Scholle abuts horizontal sedimentary layers, Buntsandstein (sandstone from the Triassic period) over Zechstein (evaporite deposits from the Permian period). The granite of the Suhler Scholle is capped with Permian sediments and igneous deposits. The higher hills to the northeast are part of the Beerberg Scholle, an irregularly cracked mass of quartz porphyry from the later Permian period.
A band of iron ores follows the fault dividing the Suhler Scholle from the sedimentary rocks to the southwest, while the copper and silver deposits are to the northeast in the Permian deposits above the Suhler Scholle. Southeast of town, there is a significant uranium deposit in the Buntsandstein.
According to a local Thuringian joke, "Suhl is so close to the edge of the world you can see Zella-Mehlis". This illustrated the good natured rivalry between Suhl and Zella-Mehlis
Troisdorf (German pronunciation: [ˈtroːsdɔrf]) is a town in the Rhein-Sieg-Kreis (district), in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Troisdorf is located approx. 22 kilometers south of Cologne and 13 kilometers north east of Bonn.
Troisdorf consists of 12 districts (population as of December 31, 2005):
In 1952, Troisdorf became a free city, and in 1969 the urban area expanded with the annexation of the township of Sieglar, and the villages Altenrath and Friedrich-Wilhelms-Hütte (total population 1969: about 51,000). The first large settlement in this area goes back to the 9th (Eschmar and Sieglar 832) and 10th (Bergheim 987) century, and the first churches in this area being built around 700 AD in Bergheim (St. Lambertus).
About 9600 foreign nationals live in Troisdorf. The two most numerous foreign national population groups are Turks (3100) and Greeks (1600). On 4 June 1972, Troisdorf founded the first advisory council for its foreign citizens in Germany. In the past years after the revolution of 1989/1990 many migrants from Russia and other East European countries have settled in Troisdorf.
On December 31, 2010 Troisdorf had according official announcements 76,987 inhabitants. 11%
Anklam (German pronunciation: [ˈaŋklam]) is a town in the Western Pomerania region of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It is situated on the banks of the Peene river, just 8 km from its mouth in the Kleines Haff, the western part of the Stettin Lagoon. Anklam has a population of 14,603 (2005) and was the capital of the former Ostvorpommern district. Since September 2011, it is part of the district Vorpommern-Greifswald.
In the Early Middle Ages, there was an important Scandinavian and Wendish settlement near the present town, now known as Altes Lager Menzlin.
Anklam was founded on the site of an abandoned Wendish fortress during the medieval German Ostsiedlung. First named after the founder Tanglim, it obtained German town law in 1244. In 1283, it became a member of the Hanseatic League. Though the town was small and non-influential compared to other Hanseatic cities, membership brought wealth and prosperity to Anklam.
The decline of Anklam began with the Thirty Years' War, when Swedish and Imperial troops battled almost twenty years for Anklam. Anklam was occupied by imperial forces from 1627 to 1630, and thereafter by Swedish forces. After the war, Anklam became part of Swedish
Düsseldorf [ˈdʏsl̩ˌdɔɐ̯f] ( listen) is the capital city of the German state of North Rhine-Westphalia and centre of the Rhine-Ruhr metropolitan region.
Düsseldorf is an international business and financial centre and renowned for its fashion and trade fairs. Located centrally within the European Megalopolis, the city is headquarters to five Fortune Global 500 and several DAX companies. Messe Düsseldorf organizes nearly one fifth of all world‘s premier trade shows.
Culturally, Düsseldorf is known for its academy of fine arts (Kunstakademie Düsseldorf, e.g. Joseph Beuys, Emanuel Leutze, August Macke, Gerhard Richter, Sigmar Polke and Andreas Gursky), its pioneering influence on electronic music (Kraftwerk) and its large Japanese community. As a city by the river Rhine, Düsseldorf is a stronghold for Rhenish Carnival celebrations. Every year in July more than 4.5 million people visit the city's Largest Fair on the Rhine funfair.
As the seventh most populous city in Germany by population within city limits and an urban population of 1.5 million, Düsseldorf is one of the country's five global cities. The Mercer's 2011 Quality of Living survey of cities with the highest quality of life
Friedberg (Friedberg in der Wetterau) is a town and the capital of the Wetteraukreis district, in Hesse, Germany. It is located 16 miles (26 kilometers) north of Frankfurt am Main. In 1966, the town hosted the sixth Hessentag state festival, in 1979 the 19th.
The town consists of 7 districts:
The old city was refounded by the Hohenstaufen dynasty of the Holy Roman Empire, conveniently located at important trading routes. The city initially rivaled Frankfurt am Main economically, with an important annual trading fair, and initial rapid expansion, though its economic fortunes soon dwindled.
City tranquility was hampered by continuous rivalry between the two entities that made up Friedberg: The city and the castle of Friedberg that were politically independent from each other and in permanent competition, often quite maliciously, resulting in bitter rivalry that culminated once in the ransacking and destruction of the castle by angry citizens. In central Italy and Lombardy similar struggles between count and commune fueled the politics of Guelf and Ghibelline parties.
The city became a Free Imperial City (Freie Reichsstadt) of the Holy Roman Empire with a charter given in 1211. Under
Husum (North Frisian: Hüsem) is the capital of the Kreis (district) Nordfriesland in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. The town was the birthplace of the novelist Theodor Storm, who coined the epithet "the grey town by the sea". It is also the home of the annual international piano festival Raritäten der Klaviermusik (Rarities of Piano Music) founded in 1986.
Husum was first mentioned as Husembro in 1252, when king Abel was murdered.
Like most towns on the North Sea, Husum was ever strongly influenced by storm tides. In 1362 a disastrous storm tide, the "Grote Mandrenke" flooded the town and carved out the inland harbour. Before this date Husum was not situated directly on the coast. The people of the city took advantage of this opportunity and built a marketplace, which led to a great economic upturn.
Between 1372 and 1398 the population of Husum grew rapidly, and two villages, Oster-Husum (East-Husum) and Wester-Husum (West-Husum), were founded.
The name Husum is first mentioned in 1409. It is shown on the Carta Marina in the Frisian form of Husem.
Husum is located by the North Sea; 82 km W of Kiel, 139 km NW of Hamburg and 43 km SW of Flensburg.
Being a tourist resort and the gate to
Minden is a town of about 83,000 inhabitants in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The town extends along both sides of the River Weser. It is the capital of the district (Kreis) of Minden-Lübbecke, which is part of the region of Detmold. Minden is the historic political centre of the cultural region of Minden Land. It is widely known as the intersection of the Mittelland Canal and the River Weser. The town is over 1,200 years old and has many buildings in the Weser Renaissance style, in addition to its architecturally symbolic 1,000 year old cathedral.
Minden is in the northeast of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It lies on the River Weser, north of the Porta Westfalica gap between the ridges of the Weser Hills and Wiehen Hills. The Weser leaves the Weser Uplands and flows into the North German Plain through the town's subdistricts of Dützen and Haddenhausen. The town centre lies 5 km to the north, on a plateau on the western side of the river. The small Bastau stream flows into the Weser from the west near the town centre. The edge of the plateau marks the transition from the Middle Weser Valley to the Lübbecke Loessland. This marked change in terrain divides
Mosbach is the capital of the Neckar-Odenwald district in the north of Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about 58 km east of Heidelberg. Its geographical position is 49.21'N 9.9'E.
It has a population of approximately 25,000 people distributed in six boroughs: Mosbach Town, Lohrbach, Neckarelz, Diedesheim, Sattelbach and Reichenbuch.
Mosbach is situated south of the Odenwald mountains at a height of 134-354m at the confluence of the Neckar and the Elz. The town is part of the conservation area Naturpark Neckartal-Odenwald and the UNESCO Geopark Bergstraße-Odenwald.
The settlement of Mosbach developed around the Benedictine monastery of Mosbach Abbey ("Monasterium Mosabach"), the first written record of which dates from the 9th century. In 1241 rights and privileges had been granted to Mosbach as an Imperial free city. These rights were lost in 1362 when Mosbach became part of the Electorate of the Palatinate. With the division of the lands of King Rupert in 1410, Mosbach became the capital of a small principality known as Palatinate-Mosbach as the inheritance for his son Otto I. With the death of his brother John, Count Palatine of Neumarkt 1443, the territory of Palatinate-Neumarkt was
Stade (German pronunciation: [ˈʃtaːdə]) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany and part of the Hamburg Metropolitan Region (Metropolregion Hamburg). It is the seat of the district named after it. The city was first mentioned in a document from 994.
It includes the bigger villages of Bützfleth, Hagen and Haddorf, which have sub-villages themselves.
Stade is located on the German Timber-Frame Road.
The first human settlers came to the Stade area in 30,000 BC.
Since 1180 Stade belonged to the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen. In early 1208 King Valdemar II of Denmark and his troops conquered Stade. In August Valdemar II's cousin being in enmity with the king, the then Prince-Archbishop Valdemar reconquered the city only to lose it soon after again to Valdemar II. In 1209 Emperor Otto IV persuaded his ally Valdemar II to withdraw into the north of the Elbe, and the deposed Prince-Archbishop Valdemar took Stade.
On 2 May 1209 Otto IV granted important town privileges ("Stadtrecht") to Stade. Otto IV confirmed the burghers to be personally free and recognised them constituting a political entity of their own law, the burgenses and optimi cives of Stade. Property within the municipal boundaries
Weimar (German pronunciation: [ˈvaɪmaɐ] ( listen)) is a city in Germany famous for its cultural heritage. It is located in the federal state of Thuringia (German: Thüringen), north of the Thüringer Wald, east of Erfurt, and southwest of Halle and Leipzig. Its current population is approximately 65,000. The oldest record of the city dates from the year 899. Weimar was the capital of the Duchy (after 1815 the Grand Duchy) of Saxe-Weimar (German Sachsen-Weimar).
Weimar's cultural heritage is vast. It is most often recognised as the place where Germany's first democratic constitution was signed after the First World War, giving its name to the Weimar Republic period in German politics, of 1918–1933. However, the city was also the focal point of the German Enlightenment and home of the leading characters of the literary genre of Weimar Classicism, the writers Goethe and Schiller. The musician Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach was born here. The city was also the birthplace of the Bauhaus movement, founded in 1919 by Walter Gropius, with artists Wassily Kandinsky, Paul Klee, Oskar Schlemmer, and Lyonel Feininger teaching in Weimar's Bauhaus School. Many places in the city centre have been
Augsburg is a city in the south-west of Bavaria, Germany. It is a university town (German: 'Universitätsstadt') and home of the Regierungsbezirk Schwaben and the Bezirk Schwaben. Augsburg is an urban district and home to the institutions of the Landkreis Augsburg. It is the third-largest city in Bavaria with a population exceeding 264,000 citizens. After Neuss and Trier, Augsburg is Germany's third oldest city.
Augsburg is the only German city with its own legal holiday, the Augsburger Hohes Friedensfest, celebrated on August 8 of every year. This gives Augsburg more legal holidays than any other region or city in Germany.
The city was founded in 15 BC by Drusus and Tiberius as Augusta Vindelicorum, on the orders of their stepfather Emperor Augustus. The name "Augusta Vindelicorum" means "Augusta of the Vindelici". This garrison camp soon became the capital of the Roman province of Raetia.
Early development was due to a 400-year affiliation with the Roman Empire, especially because of its excellent military, economic and geographic position at the convergence of the Alpine rivers Lech and Wertach, and with direct access to most important Alpine passes. Thus, Augsburg was the
Eichstätt (German pronunciation: [ˈaɪçʃtɛt], formerly also Eichstädt or Aichstädt) is a town in the federal state of Bavaria, Germany, and capital of the District of Eichstätt. It is located along the Altmühl River, at 48°53′30″N 11°11′0″E / 48.89167°N 11.183333°E / 48.89167; 11.183333, and had a population of 13,078 in 2002. It is home to the Katholische Universität Eichstätt-Ingolstadt, the lone Catholic university in Germany. The K-U was founded in 1980, and was granted full rights of a university, including Ph.D. and Habilitation degrees by the State of Bavaria.
St. Willibald founded the Bishopric of Eichstätt on the site of an old Roman station in 741. The city was chartered in 908 and ruled by a prince-bishop until secularization in 1802, and became a part of Bavaria in 1806. Eichstätt was included as part of the Principality of Eichstätt, which Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria granted to his son-in-law Eugène de Beauharnais in 1817 and an episcopal see was reestablished in 1821.
Eichstätt is famous for the quarries of Solnhofen Plattenkalk (Jurassic limestone). On the Blumenberg the Berlin specimen of Archaeopteryx was found by Jakob Niemeyer. Hortus Eystettensis (Garden at
Herne (German pronunciation: [ˈhɛʁnə] ( listen)) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the Ruhr area directly between the cities of Bochum and Gelsenkirchen.
Like most other cities in the region Herne was a tiny village until the 19th century. When the mining of coal and the production of steel began, the villages of the Ruhr area became cities.
Present-day Herne includes the former settlements of Herne, Wanne and Eickel. Farms bearing these names were founded in the 11th and 12th centuries. In 1860 the first coal mine started operation. In the following thirty years the population increased twentyfold. For the first time Herne was called a city. The same process took place in Wanne and Eickel, which merged in 1926 to form the new city of Wanne-Eickel. In 1975 Wanne-Eickel, by then a city with over 70,000 inhabitants, was incorporated into Herne.
Herne was targeted by the RAF on 4 June 1940, early in World War II. Three high-explosive bombs were dropped and one house was damaged.
In Wanne-Eickel, the Krupp Treibstoffwerke oil refinery near the local Shamrock 3/4 coal mine was bombed during the Oil Campaign of World War II.
A fair called Cranger Kirmes is
Magdeburg (German pronunciation: [ˈmakdəbʊrk] ( listen); Low Saxon: Meideborg, [ˈmaˑɪdebɔɐx]), is the largest city and the capital city of the Bundesland of Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. Magdeburg is situated on the Elbe River and was one of the most important medieval cities of Europe.
Emperor Otto I, the first Holy Roman Emperor, lived for most of his reign in the town and was buried in the cathedral after his death. Magdeburg's version of German town law, known as Magdeburg rights, spread throughout Central and Eastern Europe. The city is also well known for the 1631 Sack of Magdeburg, which hardened Protestant resistance during the Thirty Years' War.
Magdeburg is the site of two universities, the Otto-von-Guericke University and the Magdeburg-Stendal University of Applied Sciences.
Nowadays Magdeburg is a traffic junction as well as an industrial and trading centre. The production of chemical products, steel, paper and textiles are of particular economic significance, along with mechanical engineering and plant engineering, ecotechnology and life-cycle management, health management and logistics. Along with ten other cities in Saxony-Anhalt, Saxony and Thuringia, Magdeburg is a
Rendsburg (Danish: Rendsborg) is a town on the River Eider and the Kiel Canal in the northeastern part of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is the capital of the Kreis (district) of Rendsburg-Eckernförde. As of 2006, it had a population of 28,476.
Rendsburg's foundation date is unknown. Rendsburg was first mentioned in 1199. An old form of its name was Reynoldsburgh.
It became a part of Holstein in the 13th century, but was transferred to Schleswig in 1460. Many times the town passed from Danish to German control and vice versa. In the German-Danish War in 1864 Rendsburg was finally seized by Kingdom of Prussia and Austria. After 1866 the town was annexed by the Kingdom of Prussia. Since that time it has remained part of Germany.
Although the Eider is navigable for small craft from its mouth on the North Sea to Rendsburg, the town's importance rose in 1895, when the Kiel Canal was finished. The much larger ships that could navigate the Kiel Canal meant that, although situated inland, Rendsburg became a seaport and a dockyard.
The most prominent structure in town, the Rendsburg High Bridge, a railway bridge made of steel, 2,500m in length and 41m in height, was constructed in 1913 to
Warburg is a town in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia on the river Diemel near the three-state point shared by Hessen, Lower Saxony and North Rhine-Westphalia. It is in Höxter district and Detmold region. Warburg is the midpoint in the Warburger Börde.
The main town, consisting of the Old Town (Altstadt) and the New Town (Neustadt) and bearing the same name as the whole town, is a hill town. While the Old Town lies in the Diemel Valley, the New Town rises on the heights above the Diemel. The Warburg municipal area borders in the west on the Sauerland and in the northwest on the Eggegebirge foothills, while in the north and northeast the Warburger Börde abuts the town and in the south stretches the Diemel Valley.
Warburg consists of the following 16 centres:
In the 4th millennium BC, there was a megalith culture in the Warburg area.
In the 1st century AD, there were Germanic settlers south of the Desenberg.
In the 8th century, there was a Saxon noble seat west of the town. In the 8th and 9th centuries came the Christianization of the Saxons in the Diemel area.
The name Warburg was first mentioned in a document sometime around 1010, although archaeological finds have established that
Wismar (German pronunciation: [ˈvɪsmaʁ]), is a small port and Hanseatic League town in northern Germany on the Baltic Sea, in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, about 45 km due east of Lübeck, and 30 km due north of Schwerin. Its natural harbour, located in the Bay of Wismar is well-protected by a promontory. The population was 45,414 in March 2005, more than doubled from 21,902 in 1905. A former district-free town, it is the capital of the district of Nordwestmecklenburg since the September 2011 district reforms.
Representative of Hanseatic League city brick construction as well as the German brick churches, the city has been included in the UNESCO list of World Heritage Sites since 2002.
The town was the setting of the 1922 vampire movie Nosferatu (in the film however, the town is named "Wisborg").
Founded by the Polabians as Vishemir and later settled by the Germans, Wismar is said to have received its civic rights in 1229, and came into the possession of Mecklenburg in 1301. In 1259 it had entered a pact with Lübeck and Rostock, in order to defend itself against the numerous Baltic sea pirates. This developed into the Hanseatic League. During the 13th and 14th centuries it
Calw (German pronunciation: [ˈkalf]; locally [kʰalp]) is a town in the middle of Baden-Württemberg in the south of Germany, capital of the district Calw. It is located in the northern Black Forest and is approximately 18 kilometers south of Pforzheim and 33 kilometers west of Stuttgart.
Calw is the birthplace of the writer Hermann Hesse.
Calw was first mentioned in records in 1075. In the 11th century the town grew around the older castle of the Grafen (Earls) of Calw. In the Middle Ages Calw was an important commercial town especially for the trade of cloth and leather. In 1345 Calw became part of Württemberg and by the 16th century had become the summer residence of the Duke of Württemberg. In the 18th century Calw flourished from the lumber trade and rafting of timber on the river Nagold.
Due to her romantic relationship with a Polish guest worker, seventeen year-old Calw resident Erna Brehm was publicly shaved bald in the town's market square in August 1941. She served eight months in jail in Calw and Stuttgart for violating Nazi Rassenschande ("racial shame") laws before being deported to Ravensbrück concentration camp. She was released on 1 April 1944 because she was in such
Cuxhaven (IPA: [kʊks.hɑː.fən]) is an independent town and seat of the Cuxhaven district, in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated on the shore of the North Sea at the mouth of the Elbe River. Cuxhaven has a footprint of 14 km (east-west) by 7 km (north-south). Its town quarters Duhnen, Döse and Sahlenburg are especially popular vacation spots on the North Sea and home to about 52,000 residents.
Cuxhaven is home to an important fisherman's wharf and ship registration point for Hamburg as well as the Kiel Canal until 2008. Tourism is also of great importance. The city and its precursor Ritzebüttel belonged to Hamburg from the 13th century until 1937. The island of Neuwerk, a Hamburg dependency, is located just northwest of Cuxhaven in the North Sea. The city's symbol, known as the Kugelbake is a beacon once used as a lighthouse; the wooden landmark on the mouth of the Elbe marks the boundary between the river and the North Sea and also adorns the city's coat of arms.
Ritzebüttel, today a part of Cuxhaven, belonged to the Land of Hadeln, first an exclave of the younger Duchy of Saxony and after its de facto dynastic partition in 1296 of the Duchy of Saxe-Lauenburg, established de jure
Goslar is a historic town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the administrative centre of the district of Goslar and located on the northwestern slopes of the Harz mountain range. The Old Town of Goslar and the Mines of Rammelsberg are UNESCO World Heritage Sites.
Goslar is situated at the northwestern foot of the Lower Saxon Hills: the Harz mountains. The Kahlerberg/Schalke is the highest elevation within the municipal boundaries at 762 m (2,503 ft). The lowest point of 175 m (574 ft) is near the Oker river. Geographically, Goslar forms the boundary between the Hildesheim Börde which is part of the Northern German Plain, and the Harz range, which is the highest, northern-most extension of Germany's Central Uplands. The Hildesheim Börde is characterised by plains with rich clay soils – used agriculturally for sugar beet farming – interlaced with several hill ranges commonly known as the Hildesheim Forest and Salzgitter Hills. Immediately to the south, the Harz mountains rise above the historic borough at a height of 636 m (2,087 ft) (Rammelsberg). Forestry dominates the landscape. Three rivers cross the municipal boundary: the Oker, the Abzucht and the Gose. The Gose river begins
Heppenheim (Bergstraße) is the seat of Bergstraße district in Hesse, Germany, lying on the Bergstraße on the edge of the Odenwald.
The town is romantically set on gentle vineyards below the mediaeval Starkenburg (castle). Defining for the townscape, besides the castle, is St. Peter, the “Cathedral of the Bergstraße” as the big Catholic church is known locally; it was consecrated on 1 August 1904, and is not a bishop’s seat. Heppenheim lies centrally on Bundesstraßen 3 and 460, and Autobahn A 5/A 67, almost halfway between Heidelberg and Darmstadt, in southern Hesse on the boundary with Baden-Württemberg, and is Hesse’s southernmost district seat.
The town’s official designation is “Heppenheim an der Bergstraße”. In the local Palatinate German dialect, the town is also called Hepprum.
“Bergstraße” is not only the name given the road running from Darmstadt to Heidelberg on the western edge of the Odenwald and eastern edge of the Rhine rift (now Bundesstraße 3), but also one given the landscape along the road. It stands out with its unusually mild and sunny climate in which trees blossom especially early.
In the area around the outlying centre of Ober-Laudenbach is a boundary oddity
Iserlohn (German pronunciation: [iːzɐˈloːn]) is a city in the Märkischer Kreis district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the largest city by population and area within the district and the Sauerland region.
Iserlohn is located at the north end of the Sauerland near the Ruhr river.
The Pancratius church (also called Bauernkirche) was founded in around 985, but the first written document mentioning lon dates only from 1150. In 1237 the Count of the Mark gave Iserlohn municipal rights. In 1975 the city, which had been an urban district before, incorporated the surrounding ex-municipalities of Letmathe, Hennen, Sümmern and Kesbern, and became part of the district "Märkischer Kreis". As a larger mid-sized city, Iserlohn, however, still has a special status as compared to most other municipalities in the district. This means that the city takes on tasks more usually performed by the district (e.g. social and youth affairs) so that in some ways it is comparable to an urban district.
As an important industrial city in the Ruhr region, during the post-WWII era starting in 1953 Canadian and British military under NATO were garrisoned here and in surrounding municipalities (Hemer,
Lippstadt (German: [ˈlɪpʃtat] ( listen)) is a town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is the largest town within the district of Soest.
Lippstadt is situated in the Lippe valley, roughly 70 kilometres east of Dortmund and roughly 30 kilometres west of Paderborn. The historic town centre is situated between an artificial canal of the river Lippe and the river itself.
Lippstadt consists of 18 districts:
Lippstadt is twinned with:
In the early 13th century Lippstadt, with a population of 2700, had four parish churches. There was an Augustinian abbey which had existed since 1281.
From 1400, the enclave and town of Lippstadt was to be a condominium shared by the county of Lippe and the counts of Cleves-Mark, who were succeeded by the Hohenzollerns (Brandenburg/Prussia), a situation that endured until the middle of the 19th. century.
Heinrich von Ahaus founded one of his communities for women of the Brethren of the Common Life there.
In 1523 it formed a defensive alliance together with the neighbouring cities of Osnabrück, Dortmund, Soest and Münster.
Augustinians studying at the University of Wittenberg brought Martin Luther's doctrine home with them.
Ludwigshafen am Rhein (German pronunciation: [ˈluːdvɪçsˌhafn̩ am ʁaɪ̯n]) is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. Ludwigshafen is located on the Rhine opposite Mannheim. Together with Mannheim, Heidelberg and the surrounding region, it forms the Rhine Neckar Area.
Ludwigshafen is known for its chemical industry (BASF). Among its cultural facilities rank the Staatsphilharmonie Rheinland-Pfalz. Ludwigshafen is the birthplace of the former German chancellor Helmut Kohl and the philosopher Ernst Bloch.
In antiquity, Celtic and Germanic tribes settled here and during the 1st century B.C., the Romans conquered the region and a Roman auxiliary fort was constructed near the present suburb of Rheingönheim.
In the Middle Ages, some of the later suburbs of Ludwigshafen were founded, for example Oggersheim, Maudach, Oppau and Mundenheim, but most of the area was still swampland.
All the region belonged to the territory of the Prince-elector of the Kurpfalz, or Electorate of the Palatinate, one of the larger states within the Holy Roman Empire, and the foundation of the new capital of the Kurpfalz, Mannheim, had decisive influence on the further development of the area on the opposite bank
Rheine is a city in the district of Steinfurt in Westphalia, Germany. It is the largest city in the district and the location of Rheine Air Base.
Rheine is located on the river Ems, approx. 40 kilometres (25 mi) north of Münster, approx. 45 kilometres (28 mi) west of Osnabrück and 45 kilometres (28 mi) east of Enschede (Netherlands).
Rheine consists of 15 districts:
Although the region around the city has been populated since prehistorical times, Rheine was first mentioned in a document signed by Louis the Pious only in 838. On 15 August 1327 it received its town charter from Louis II, Bishop of Münster.
The settlement was founded by reason of two old merchant roads crossing nearby, as well as a ford crossing the river Ems. Frankish soldiers secured this strategic point by a barrack yard at first. Later a church and more buildings were added to this outpost.
In the end of Thirty Years' War the city burned down almost completely. Swedish and Hessian troops besieged imperial soldiers who entrenched themselves in Rheine. On 20/21 September and 19 October 1647 glowing cannonballs set fire to the city, 365 houses got razed.
During the industrialisation textile industry prospered. It
Braunschweig (German pronunciation: [ˈbʁaʊnʃvaɪç]; Low German: Brunswiek [ˈbrɔˑnsviːk]; English: Brunswick), is a city of 250,556 people, located in the state of Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located north of the Harz mountains at the farthest navigable point of the Oker river, which connects to the North Sea via the rivers Aller and Weser.
The date and circumstances of the town's foundation are unknown. Tradition maintains that Braunschweig was created through the merger of two settlements, one founded by Brun(o), a Saxon count who died in 880, on one side of the river Oker – the legend gives the year 861 for the foundation – and the other the settlement of a legendary Count Dankward, after whom Dankwarderode Castle (Dankward's clearing), which was reconstructed in the 19th century, is named. The town's original name of Brunswik is a combination of the name Bruno and Low German wik, a place where merchants rested and stored their goods. The town's name therefore indicates an ideal resting-place, as it lay by a ford across the Oker River. Another explanation of the city's name is that it comes from Brand, or burning, indicating a place which developed after the landscape was cleared
Dinslaken is a city in the district of Wesel, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is known for its harness horse race track, its now closed coal mine in Lohberg and its wealthy neighborhoods Hiesfeld and Eppinghoven.
Dinslaken is a city of the Lower Rhine region and situated at the northwestern margin of the Ruhr area, approx. 15 km north of Duisburg.
Dinslaken consists of 7 subdivisions
The medieval parish church, St. Vincentius, was heavily damaged during World War II, but was rebuilt from 1951 to 1952.
Dinslaken's twin towns include:
Dresden (German pronunciation: [ˈdʁeːsdᵊn]; Upper Sorbian: Drježdźany) is the capital city of the Free State of Saxony in Germany. It is situated in a valley on the River Elbe, near the Czech border. The Dresden conurbation is part of the Saxon Triangle metropolitan area.
Dresden has a long history as the capital and royal residence for the Electors and Kings of Saxony, who for centuries furnished the city with cultural and artistic splendour. The city was known as the Jewel Box, because of its baroque and rococo city centre. A controversial Allied aerial bombing towards the end of World War II killed thousands of civilians and destroyed the entire city centre. The impact of the bombing and 40 years of urban development during the East German communist era have considerably changed the face of the city. Some restoration work has helped to reconstruct parts of the historic inner city, including the Katholische Hofkirche, the Semper Oper and the Dresdner Frauenkirche. Since the German reunification in 1990, Dresden has regained importance as one of the cultural, educational, political and economic centres of Germany.
Although Dresden is a relatively recent city of Slavic origin, the
Enger is a town in the Herford district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Enger is situated between the Teutoburg Forest and the Wiehen Hills, approx. 6 km west of the town of Herford, the capital of the district.
Enger consists of the following districts (population as of December 31, 2005):
The town, first mentioned in 948, calls itself "Widukind's town." The Saxon leader Widukind died about 808. However, there is no evidence that Enger existed in his lifetime.
A legend tells that Widukind founded a church in Enger after his baptism, and that he lived at the place until his death. He was buried in the church of Enger, and his monumental tomb is still there. Despite this, it remains doubtful that the remains of Widukind are actually in the tomb. Analysis shows that the memorial slab dates to the time around the year 1100.
The main current attractions of Enger are Widukind's tomb, the Widukind museum, the Widukind festival ("Timpkenfest"), held annually on January 6 and the "Kirschblütenfest".
Hagen is the 39th-largest city in Germany, located in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia. It is located on the eastern edge of the Ruhr area, 15 km south of Dortmund, where the rivers Lenne, Volme and Ennepe meet the river Ruhr. As of 31 December 2010 the population was 188,529. The city is home to the FernUniversität Hagen, which is the only state funded distance education university in Germany. Counting more than 67,000 students (March 2010), it is the largest university in Germany.
Hagen was first mentioned ca. 1200, presumably the name of a farm at the junction of the Volme and the Ennepe. After the conquest of Burg Volmarstein in 1324, Hagen passed to the County of Mark. In 1614 it was awarded to the Margraviate of Brandenburg according to the Treaty of Xanten. In 1701 it became part of the Kingdom of Prussia.
After the defeat of Prussia in the Fourth Coalition, Hagen was incorporated into the Grand Duchy of Berg from 1807–13. In 1815 it became part of the new Prussian Province of Westphalia.
The growth of the city began in the 19th century with the mining of coal and the production of steel in the Ruhr Area. It was the scene of fighting during the Ruhr Uprising, 13
Hildesheim [ˈhɪl.dəs.ˌhaɪ̯m] ( listen) is a city in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is located in the district of Hildesheim, about 30 km southeast of Hanover on the banks of the Innerste river, which is a small tributary of the Leine river. It may be reached from Autobahn A7, which links Kassel, Göttingen and Hannover, and routes 1, 6, 243 and 494.
Hildesheim, one of the oldest cities in the North of Germany, became the seat of the Bishopric of Hildesheim in 815 and may have been founded when the bishop moved from Elze to the Innerste ford, where it was an important market on the Hellweg trade route. The settlement the cathedral very quickly developed into a town which was awarded market rights by King Otto III in 983. Originally the market was held in a street called Old Market (Alter Markt) which still exists today. The first market place was laid out around Saint Andrew's Church. When the city grew further, a bigger market place became necessary. The present market place of Hildesheim was laid out at the beginning of the 13th century when the city had about 5,000 inhabitants. When Hildesheim obtained city rights in 1249, it was one of the biggest cities in Northern Germany. For four
The historic territory of Verden (German pronunciation: [ˈfeːɐ̯dən]) emerged from the secular estates of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Verden in the area of present-day central and northeastern Lower Saxony and existed as such until 1648. The territory managed by secular lords for the bishops was not identical with that of the bishopric, but was located within its boundaries and made up about a quarter of the diocesan area. The territory was referred to at the time as Stift Verden or Hochstift Verden, roughly equating to Prince-Bishopric of Verden. This territory described in local sources today incorrectly as Bistum Verden ("Bishopric of Verden") and, in 1648, was given the title Principality of Verden, sometimes referred to as the Duchy of Verden.
The territory of Verden covered the eastern part of the present district of Verden (its border ran between Langwedel and Etelsen), the southern part of the district of Rotenburg (Wümme) and parts of the districts of Harburg and the Heath district (Heidekreis).
The Diocese of Verden was founded around 800 in Verden upon Aller as a episcopal see and initially belonged to the Ecclesiastical Province of Mainz. Originally held in personal
Würzburg (German pronunciation: [ˈvʏɐ̯tsbʊɐ̯k]; Main-Franconian: Wörtzburch) is a city in the region of Franconia, Northern Bavaria, Germany. Located on the Main River, it is the capital of the Regierungsbezirk Lower Franconia. The regional dialect is Franconian.
Würzburg lies at about equal distance (120 kilometer, or 75 miles) between Frankfurt am Main and Nuremberg. Although the city of Würzburg is not part of the Landkreis Würzburg, i.e. the county or district of Würzburg, it is the seat of the district's administration. The city's population is 133,501 as of 31 December 2008.
A Bronze Age (Urnfield culture) refuge castle stood on the site of the present Fortress Marienberg. The former Celtic territory was settled by the Alamanni in the 4th or 5th century, and by the Franks in the 6th to 7th. Würzburg was a Merovingian seat from about 650, Christianized in 686 by Irish missionaries Kilian, Kolonat and Totnan. The city is mentioned in a donation by Hedan II to bishop Willibrord, dated 1 May 704, in castellum Virteburch. The Ravenna Cosmography lists the city as Uburzis at about the same time. The name is presumably of Celtic origin, but based on a folk etymological connection to
Ansbach, originally Onolzbach,(Onz’s-bach or-“brook”) also known initially as Anspach, a city in Bavaria, Germany. It is the capital of the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Ansbach is situated 25 miles (40 km) southwest of Nuremberg and 90 miles (140 km) north of Munich, on the Fränkische Rezat (Rezat River), a tributary of the Main river. As of 2004, its population was 40,723. Developed in 8th century as a Benedictine monastery, it later became the house of Hohenzellora family in 1331. Later in 1460 Margraves of Branderberg –Anspach lived here. Anspach is also home to a US Military base. It was not damaged during world wars and hence retains its original historical baroque sheen. The city also has castle known as Margrafen–Schloss built between 1704-1738.
Ansbach is location of the Ansbach University of Applied Sciences. The city is connected by the autobahn A6 and the highways B13 and B14. Ansbach station is on the Nürnberg–Crailsheim and Treuchtlingen–Würzburg railways and is the terminus of line S4 of the Nuremberg S-Bahn.
A Benedictine monastery at the place was founded around 748 by a Frankish noble, Gumbertus, who was later canonized. In the following centuries the
Erlangen (East Franconian: Erlang) is a Middle Franconian city in Bavaria, Germany. It is located at the confluence of the river Regnitz and its large tributary, the Untere Schwabach. Erlangen has more than 100,000 inhabitants.
Erlangen is today dominated by the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg and the numerous branch offices of Siemens AG, as well as a large research Institute of the Fraunhofer Society and the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light. An event that left its mark on the city was the settlement of Huguenots after the withdrawal of the Edict of Nantes in 1685.
Felix Klein's Erlangen program, considering the future of research in mathematics, is so called because Klein was then at the University of Erlangen-Nuremberg.
Erlangen was first mentioned in official records in 1002 under the name of Villa Erlangon. In 1361, the village was sold to Emperor Karl IV. Three years later, a city was built close to the village, which in 1374 got its own coining station (mint). In 1398, the municipal rights were confirmed. In 1402, the city came into the possession of the House of Hohenzollern as part of the principality of Brandenburg-Kulmbach (from 1603 on
Eutin (German pronunciation: [ɔʏˈtiːn]) is the district capital of Eastern Holstein (German: Ostholstein) located in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein. As of 2005, it had some 17,000 inhabitants.
The name Eutin (originally Utin) is of Slavic origin. Its meaning is not quite clear; it is probably derived from the personal name "Uta". The Slavic Obotrites tribe settled eastern Holstein in the 7th/8th centuries A.D. and built a castle on Pheasant Island in the lake now called the Großer Eutiner See.
The originally Slavonic settlement of Utin was populated in the twelfth century by Dutch settlers. In 1156 Eutin became a market town. Town rights were granted in the year 1257. It later became the seat of the Prince-Bishopric of Lübeck, as Lübeck itself was an imperial free city. When the bishopric was secularized in 1803, Eutin became part of the Duchy of Oldenburg. As a result of the Greater Hamburg Act of 1937, Eutin passed from the Free State of Oldenburg to the Prussian Province of Schleswig-Holstein. After World War II, it became part of the modern Bundesland of Schleswig-Holstein.
Eutin is the birthplace of composer Carl Maria von Weber. To honour him, an open air
Gotha is a town in Thuringia, within the central core of Germany. It is the capital of the district of Gotha.
The town has existed at least since the 8th century, when it was mentioned in a document signed by Charlemagne as Villa Gotaha ("Good Waters"). Its importance derives from having been chosen in 1640 as the capital of the Duchy of Saxe-Gotha. In the 18th century, the extended séjour of the French philosopher Voltaire turned the court into one of the centres of the Enlightenment in Germany. From 1826 to 1918, Gotha was one of the two capitals of the Duchy of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha.
Gotha has played an important role in the German workers' movement. The German socialist party (SPD) was founded in Gotha in 1875, through the merger of two organizations: the Social Democratic Workers' Party, led by August Bebel and Wilhelm Liebknecht, and the General German Workers' Association, founded by Ferdinand Lassalle. A compromise known as the Gotha Program was forged, although it had been strongly criticized by Karl Marx for its reformist bias in his Critique of the Gotha Program.
This is the city where the famous psychologist and anthropologist Theodor Waitz was born in 1821.
Gotha also has
Nuremberg (German: Nürnberg German pronunciation: [ˈnʏɐ̯nbɛɐ̯k] ( listen)) is a city in the German state of Bavaria, in the administrative region of Middle Franconia. Situated on the Pegnitz river and the Rhine–Main–Danube Canal, it is located about 170 kilometres (110 mi) north of Munich and is Franconia's largest city. The population (as of December 2010) is 505,664. The "European Metropolitan Area Nuremberg" has 3.5 million inhabitants , making it Germany's fourteenth largest city.
Nuremberg was probably founded around the turn of the 11th century, according to the first documentary mention of the city in 1050, as the location of an Imperial castle between the East Franks and the Bavarian March of the Nordgau. From 1050 to 1571, the city expanded and rose dramatically in importance due to its location on key trade routes. King Conrad III established a burgraviate, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of Raab but, with the extinction of their male line around 1190, the burgraviate was inherited by the last count's son-in-law, of the House of Hohenzollern. From the late 12th century to the Interregnum (1254–73), however, the power of the burgraves diminished as
Aichach (German pronunciation: [ˈaɪçax]) is a town in Germany, located in the Bundesland of Bavaria and situated just northeast of Augsburg. It is the capital of the district of Aichach-Friedberg. The municipality of Aichach counts some 20,000 inhabitants. It isn't far from the motorway that connects Munich and Stuttgart, the A8. The local river is called Paar. Bavaria's only women's prison was established in Aichach in 1909.
Aichach's history dates back nearly 1000 years.
In 1997, it celebrated 650 years of town status.
Aichach is twinned with:
Kierspe is a town in the district Märkischer Kreis, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located at the western edge of the Sauerland on Volme River.
The first mention of Kierspe was in 1003, when the castle 'Haus Rhade' was first mentioned in a manuscript. On this basis Kierspe celebrated its 1000th anniversary in 2003. Around 1490 Kierspe became the seat of the Heilige Feme, an independent jury of commoners with the right to mete out the death penalty. Such Feme juries were common in Westphalia at the time.
In 1968, as part of the reorganization of the former district Altena, the city of Kierspe was formed by merging the Amt of Kierspe with the municipality of Rönsahl. On January 1, 1969 Kierspe officially obtained city rights.
The city's coat of arms was derived from the former coat of arms of the Amt. It combines symbols for both of the member municipalities - Kierspe and Rönsahl - separated by the red-white checkered bar of the counts of the Mark. On the bottom of the coat of arms is a red lion with blue claws and tongue, the symbol of the counts of Berg and taken from the coat of arms of Rönsahl. On the top is a Rauk, a raven. It refers to the nickname given to young
Lemgo is a city in the Lippe district of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, with a population of c. 42,000.
It was founded in the 12th century by Bernhard II at the crossroad of two merchant routes.
Lemgo was a member of the Hanseatic League, a medieval trading association of free cities in several northern European countries such as The Netherlands, Germany and Poland.
From 1947 until 1993, Lemgo hosted successive infantry battalions of the British Army, the last one being the Royal Irish Regiment.
The battalions were based in Stornoway Barracks, known to the locals as Spiegelberg Kaserne. The base was previously the location of a Displaced persons camp and before that a Wehrmacht artillery unit.
Lemgo is the location of the Ostwestfalen-Lippe University.
The town supports the Nordwestdeutsche Philharmonie for regular symphony concerts.
Lemgo is twinned with:
Hörstmar County Primary School in Lemgo has a twin school in Holme on Spalding Moor since 1989.
Göppingen is a town in southern Germany, part of the Stuttgart Region of Baden-Württemberg. It is the capital of the district Göppingen. It is situated at the bottom of the Hohenstaufen mountain, in the valley of the river Fils.
The German branch of the Swiss bottle manufacturing company SIGG has its offices in the city.
Tradition has it that the city was founded by an Alemannic leader called Geppo sometime in the 3rd or 4th century. A disastrous fire on August 25, 1782 destroyed most of the town, but it was immediately rebuilt. Industrialisation during the 19th century made the area into a centre of industry. The importance of such industry is still seen in the town in the present day in companies such as Märklin and Schuler.
Göppingen and the nearby village of Jebenhausen were home to a thriving Jewish community from 1777 until the Second World War. In 1777, the Barons von Liebenstein issued a "Letter of Protection" granting Elias Gutmann and other Jews permission to settle in Jebenhausen. The community grew and peaked in the mid-1800s, with the population center shifting from Jebenhausen to Göppingen and a substantial emigration of Jewish families to America by the late 19th
Leer is a town in the district of Leer, the northwestern part of Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated at the river Ems, near the border with the Netherlands.
It has a railway and autobahn connection to Groningen, Netherlands, Emden, Bremen and the South (Rheine and the Ruhrpott industrial region).
Leer had been a settlement long before it was first mentioned in written documents. Originally the city was situated at a meander near the mouth of the river Leda into the Ems, which is still the center of the town today. Even though Leer is some 30 km (19 mi) away from the coast, it can be reached by large ships via the Ems. Leer lies close to the Dutch border; the district of Leer shares a border with the Dutch province of Groningen.
There are many traces of early settlements in the area, including crude flint tools that are dated back to the 3200 BC.
In 791 AD Saint Ludger built the first chapel in East Frisia at the western edge of the settlement Leer, then still named Hleri after feetlot, willow. This chapel is mentioned for the first time in a written document from 850 AD.
During the 14th and 15th centuries, Leer was home town of the Ukena family which was one most influential
Salzwedel (German pronunciation: [ˈzaltsveːdəl], officially known as Hansestadt Salzwedel, is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. It is the capital of the district (Kreis) of Altmarkkreis Salzwedel, and has a population of approximately 21,500. Salzwedel is located on the German Timber-Frame Road.
Salzwedel is situated at the Jeetze River in the northwestern part of the Altmark. It is located between Hamburg and Magdeburg. Distances from Uelzen are 44 km E, 12 km S of Lüchow, 41 km N of Gardelegen and 24 km W of Arendsee. In 1968 test drillings reveal a significant reservoir of natural gas near the city.
The castle of Salzwedel in the Altmark was first documented in 1112. As part of the Margraviate of Brandenburg, the settlement was first mentioned as a town in 1233. To the northeast of the old town (Altstadt), a new town (Neustadt) began development in 1247. In the Middle Ages Salzwedel belonged to the Hanseatic League from 1263 to 1518. As to religion Salzwedel belonged to the Diocese of Verden (till 1648).
The city from 1247 began developing as a reestablishment from the old part of the town. In 1701 it became part of the Kingdom of Prussia. In 1713, the two towns Altstadt and
Zwickau (German pronunciation: [ˈtsvɪkaʊ]) in Germany, former seat of the government of the south-western region of the Free State of Saxony, belongs to an industrial and economical core region. Nowadays it is the capital city of the district of Zwickau. The city is situated in a valley at the foot of the Erzgebirge mountains and is also part of the so-called Saxon triangle metropolitan area, an economic network which includes Leipzig-Halle, Dresden. The city has slightly fewer than 100,000 inhabitants but has a regional catchment area of over 480,000 people.
The city can be easily reached by car via the nearby Autobahns A4 and A72. The city has a main railway station (Zwickau-Hbf) and is also reachable via a public airfield which takes light aircraft.
Zwickau, known as the city of Automobiles and Robert Schumann, is the cradle of the Saxon automotive industry with an over one hundred year old tradition. The city has a long history of automotive development and automobile industry along with Auto Union. Well known beyond Germany's borders are trademarks such as Horch, Audi, Trabant and Volkswagen. The "Westsächsische Hochschule Zwickau" - University of Applied Sciences - has
Brandenburg an der Havel is a town in the state of Brandenburg (which is why it is also called Brandenburg City in English), Germany, with a population of 71,778 (as of 2010). It is located on the banks of the River Havel. The town of Brandenburg, which is almost as widely known as the state of Brandenburg, provided the name for the medieval Bishopric of Brandenburg, the Margraviate of Brandenburg, and the current state of Brandenburg. Today it is a small town compared to nearby Berlin, but it was the original nucleus of the former realms of Brandenburg and Prussia.
The castle of Brandenburg, which had been a fortress of the Slavic tribe Stodoranie, was conquered in 929 by King Henry the Fowler. The town remained German only until 983, when a Slavic rebellion was successful. During the next 170 years the area was ruled by Slavic princes of the Hevelli tribe. The last of them, Pribislav, died in 1150. Afterwards Albert I settled here and became the first margrave of Brandenburg. The town was restricted to the western bank of the Havel until 1196, when it was extended to the eastern side. The parts on either side of the river were regarded as three different towns (Old Town, New Town
Eberswalde (German pronunciation: [ˌʔeːbɐsˈvaldə]) is a major town and the administrative seat of the district Barnim in the German Federal State (Bundesland) of Brandenburg, about 50 km northeast of Berlin. Population 42144 (census in June 2005), geographical location 52°50′N 13°50′E / 52.833°N 13.833°E / 52.833; 13.833. The town is often called Waldstadt (forest town), because of the large forests around it, including the Schorfheide-Chorin Biosphere Reserve. Despite this fact, Eberswalde was an important industrial center until the German Reunification.
The area around Eberswalde was already populated in Paleolithic. Before the establishment of the Margraviate of Brandenburg it was the place of a Slavic stockade. The Treasure of Eberswalde, the largest pre-Christian gold treasure from the area of today's Germany was found here. Today the treasure is located in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow.
The town of Everswolde ("forest of the boars") was established in 1254 by the Ascanian margrave Johann I. It was first mentioned in a document dated April 23, 1276 when margrave Albrecht III. resided there. In 1300 it got market rights. From the year 1317 the main trade route between
Landau or Landau in der Pfalz (pop. 41,821) is an autonomous (kreisfrei) city surrounded by the Südliche Weinstraße ("Southern Wine Route") district of southern Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany. It is a university town (since 1990), a long-standing cultural centre, and a market and shopping town, surrounded by vineyards and wine-growing villages of the Palatinate wine region. Landau lies east of the Palatinate forest, Europe's largest contiguous forest, direct on the German Wine Route.
Landau was first mentioned as a settlement in 1106. It was in the possession of the counts of Leiningen-Dagsburg-Landeck, whose arms, differenced by an escutcheon of the Imperial eagle, served as the arms of Landau until 1955 . The city was granted a charter in 1274 by Rudolf I of Habsburg, King of Germany, who declared the city an Imperial Free City in 1291; nevertheless the bishop of Speyer, a major landowner in the district, seized the city in 1324. The city did not regain its ancient rights until 1511, through the offices of Maximilian I.
An Augustinian monastery was founded in 1276.
Landau was later occupied by the French from 1680 to 1815, when it was one of the Décapole, the ten free cities of
Altenburg [listen] (help·info) is a town in the German federal state (Bundesland) of Thuringia, 45 km south of Leipzig. It is the capital of the Altenburger Land district.
Altenburg is bounded by Windischleuba, Nobitz, Saara, Altkirchen, Göhren, Lödla, Rositz, Wintersdorf and Gerstenberg.
The town (civitas Altenburg) was first mentioned in a deed to the Bishop of Zeitz in 976. Remains of a Slavic castle on the Schloßberg ("Castle Hill") demonstrate that the town was probably a Slavic foundation, the capital of the shire of Plisni, taken over during the conquest of Meißen by Henry I. As shown by place names, the surrounding area (Osterland) was mainly settled by Slavs.
The town's location on the imperial road between Halle and Cheb in Bohemia gave Altenburg economic importance in the salt trade.
The first castle, located under the present day church St. Bartholomäi, was destroyed after the Battle of Hohenmölsen between Henry IV and Rudolph of Swabia. It was rebuilt on the Schloßberg outside of the town. The 11th century Mantelturm tower is still preserved. The castle later became an imperial palatinate and played an important part in the German takeover and settlement of the area
Hof is a city located on the banks of the Saale in the northeastern corner of the German state of Bavaria, in the Franconia region, at the Czech border and the forested Fichtelgebirge and Frankenwald upland regions.
The city of Hof is enclosed by, but does not belong to the Bavarian district of Hof; it is nonetheless the district's administrative seat.
The city's most important work of art, the Hofer altar, dates from about 1465 and is exhibited in the Alte Pinakothek in Munich today. The Heidenreich organ in the parish church of St. Michaelis, completed in 1834, is considered one of Bavaria's finest.
Hof is known for two local "delicacies", namely Schnitz, a kind of hotpot, and sausages boiled in a portable, coal-fired brass cauldron, which are sold in the streets by the sausage man (Wärschtlamo in the local dialect). There is also a particularly strong beer (Schlappenbier), which is available only on the first Monday after Trinity Sunday (Schlappentag). This tradition dates back to the establishment of the town militia which forced all shooters to take part in a special shooting training each year. To avoid penalties, a lot of shooters rushed out to the training area in the
Konstanz (pronounced [ˈkɔnstants], locally [ˈkɔnʃtants]; English: Constance) is a university city with approximately 80,000 inhabitants located at the western end of Lake Constance in the south-west corner of Germany, bordering Switzerland. The city houses the University of Konstanz.
Konstanz is situated on Lake Constance (the Bodensee in German). The Rhine river, which starts in the Swiss Alps, passes through Lake Constance and leaves it, considerably larger, by flowing under a bridge connecting the two parts of the city. North of the river lies the larger part of the city with residential areas, industrial estates, and the University of Konstanz; while south of the river is the old town which houses the administrative centre and shopping facilities in addition to the Hochschule or the University of Applied Sciences. Car ferries provide access across Lake Constance to Meersburg, and the Katamaran provides a shuttle service for pedestrians to Friedrichshafen. To the south, the old town borders onto the Swiss town of Kreuzlingen.
Konstanz is subdivided into 15 wards or districts (Stadtteile). The island of Mainau belongs to the ward of Litzelstetten, a separate municipality until
The Hanseatic City of Lübeck (pronounced [ˈlyːbɛk] ( listen), Low German [ˈlyːbɛːk]) is the second-largest city in Schleswig-Holstein, in northern Germany, and one of the major ports of Germany. It was for several centuries the "capital" of the Hanseatic League ("Queen of the Hanse") and, because of its Brick Gothic architectural heritage, is listed by UNESCO as a World Heritage Site. In 2005 it had a population of 213,983.
Situated on the river Trave, Lübeck is the largest German port on the Baltic Sea. The old part of the town is an island enclosed by the Trave. The Elbe–Lübeck Canal connects the Trave with the Elbe River. Another important river near the town centre is the Wakenitz. The Autobahn 1 connects Lübeck with Hamburg and Denmark (Vogelfluglinie). The borough of Travemünde is a sea resort and ferry port on the coast of the Baltic Sea. Its central station links Lübeck to a number of lines, notably the line to Hamburg.
The area around Lübeck was settled after the last Ice Age. Several Neolithic dolmens can be found in the area.
Around AD 700 Slavic peoples started coming into the eastern parts of Holstein which had previously been settled by Germanic inhabitants and were
Mönchengladbach (German pronunciation: [mœnçənˈɡlatbax]), formerly known as Münchengladbach, is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located west of the Rhine half way between Düsseldorf and the Dutch border.
Mönchengladbach is home of the football club Borussia Mönchengladbach, Formula One race car drivers Nick Heidfeld and Heinz-Harald Frentzen, author/cartoonist Walter Moers, cabaret artist Volker Pispers, and the philosopher Hans Jonas.
The original name of the city was Gladbach, which is even today often applied to the town. To distinguish the town from another town of the same name (the present Bergisch Gladbach) it took the name München-Gladbach in 1888. This spelling could mislead people to think that Gladbach was a borough of Munich (München in German), and consequently the name was changed to Mönchen Gladbach in 1950 and Mönchengladbach in 1960.
The origin of the town was an abbey founded in 974. It was named after the Gladbach, a narrow brook, that mostly runs subterraneously today. The abbey and adjoining villages became a town in the 14th century. The town of Rheydt is located nearby and is incorporated into Mönchengladbach today.
The first settlements in
Monschau (French: Montjoie) is a small resort town in the Eifel region of western Germany, located in the district Aachen, North Rhine-Westphalia.
The town is located in the hills of the North Eifel, within the Hohes Venn – Eifel Nature Park in the narrow valley of the Rur river.
The historic town center has many preserved half-timbered houses and narrow streets have remained nearly unchanged for 300 years, making the town a popular tourist attraction nowadays. An open-air, classical music festival is staged annually at Burg Monschau. Historically, the main industry of the town was cloth-mills.
On the heights above the city is Monschau castle, which dates back to the 13th century — the first mention of Monschau was made in 1198. Beginning in 1433, the castle was used as a seat of the dukes of Jülich. In 1543, Emperor Charles V besieged it as part of the Geldern Feud, captured it and plundered the town. However, the castle stayed with Jülich until 1609, when it became part of Palatinate-Neuburg.
In 1795, the French captured the area and, under the name Montjoie, made it the capital of a canton of the Roer département. After the area became part of the Kingdom of Prussia in 1815,
Schweinfurt (in German literally 'swine ford') is a city in the Lower Franconia region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the canalized Main River, which is spanned by several bridges here, 27 km northeast of Würzburg.
The city was first documented in the year 790, although as early as 740 a settlement called Villa Suinfurde was mentioned. In the 10th century Schweinfurt was the seat of a margraviate. After the defeat of count Henry of Schweinfurt in 1002/1003, in the feud against King Henry II of Germany, his family lost its leading position in the town. In the first half of 13th century Schweinfurt expanded to become a proper city with city wall, towers and city gates. At that time the Nikolaus hospital was founded, a mint was established and construction work on the Saint Johannis church began.
Around 1250 Schweinfurt was totally destroyed during a feud between the Earl of Henneberg and the Prince-Bishop of Würzburg. In the following years it was reconstructed. A document from 1282 signed by King Rudolf I of Habsburg states that Schweinfurt was a free city within the Holy Roman Empire. At least since then the coat of arms of Schweinfurt has been an imperial white eagle.
Stralsund (German pronunciation: [ˈʃtʁaːlzʊnt]) is a town in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, situated at the Southern coast of the Strelasund (a sound of the Baltic Sea separating the island of Rügen from the mainland). Two bridges (the Rügendamm and since October 2007 the new Rügen bridge) and several ferry services connect Stralsund with the ports of Rügen. A former district-free town, it is the capital of the new district of Vorpommern-Rügen since the September 2011 district reforms.
The main industries of Stralsund are shipyards, fishing, and, to an increasing degree, tourism.
The town of Stralsund lies in Northeast Germany in the region of Western Pomerania in the state of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern.
Its annual precipitation is 656 mm and comparatively low, because it falls within the lowest third of all precipitation values in Germany. Only 31% of the weather stations of the German Met Office register lower values. The driest month is February, the most precipitation falls in July: in this month 2.1 times as much rain falls as in February. The precipitation varies moderately across the year. at 40% of weather stations in Germany there are lower seasonal variations.
The town lies
Göttingen (German pronunciation: [ˈɡœtɪŋən] ( listen); Low German: Chöttingen) is a university town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Göttingen. The River Leine runs through the town. In 2006 the population was 129,686.
The origins of Göttingen lay in a village called Gutingi. This village was first mentioned in a document in 953 AD. The city was founded between 1150 and 1200 to the northwest of this village and adopted its name. In medieval times the city was a member of the Hanseatic League and hence a wealthy town.
Today, Göttingen is famous for its old university (Georgia Augusta, or "Georg-August-Universität"), which was founded in 1737 and became the most visited university of Europe. In 1837, seven professors protested against the absolute sovereignty of the kings of Hanover; they lost their offices, but became known as the "Göttingen Seven". Its alumni include some well-known celebrities: the Brothers Grimm, Heinrich Ewald, Wilhelm Eduard Weber and Georg Gervinus. Also, German chancellors Otto von Bismarck and Gerhard Schröder went to law school at the Göttingen University. Karl Barth had his first professorship here. Some of the most famous
Ludwigsburg is a city in Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about 12 kilometres (7.5 mi) north of Stuttgart city centre, near the river Neckar. It is the largest and primary city of the Ludwigsburg urban district with about 87,000 inhabitants. It is situated within the administrative region (Regierungsbezirk) of Stuttgart.
The middle of Neckarland, where Ludwigsburg lies, was settled in the stone and bronze ages. Numerous archaeological sites from the Hallstatt period remain in the city and surrounding area.
Towards the end of the 1st century, the area was occupied by the Romans. They pushed the Limes further to the east around 150 and controlled the region until 260, when the Alamanni occupied the Neckarland. Evidence of the Alamanni settlement can be found in grave sites in the city today.
The origins of Ludwigsburg date from the beginning of the 18th century (1718–1723) when the largest baroque castle in Germany, Ludwigsburg Palace was built by Duke Eberhard Ludwig von Württemberg. Originally, the Duke planned to just build one country home (albeit a palace), which he began building in 1704. However, the examples of other princes fostered a desire to project his absolutist power by
Siegburg (i.e. fort on the Sieg river) is a city in the district of Rhein-Sieg-Kreis, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located on the banks of the rivers Sieg and Agger, 10 kilometres from the former capital Bonn and 26 kilometres from Cologne.
Archbishop Anno II of Cologne founded a Benedictine monastery in 1064, known as Michaelsberg Abbey, on top of the hill also called the Michaelsberg. A settlement that arose from that was first mentioned as a city in 1182. Siegburg reached the height of its prosperity in the 15th and 16th century. It is famous for its pottery, especially for the Siegburg pitchers (Siegburger Krüge).
Siegburg has been the county seat of the Rhein-Sieg-Kreis since 1816.
Siegburg's synagogue was destroyed on Kristallnacht, signaling the demise of its Jewish community.
Dillingen, or Dillingen an der Donau (Dillingen on the Danube) is a town in Bavaria, Germany. It is the administrative center of the district of Dillingen.
Besides the town of Dillingen proper, the municipality encompasses the villages of Donaualtheim, Fristingen, Hausen, Kicklingen, Schretzheim and Steinheim.
Schretzheim is notable for its 6th to 7th century Alemannic cemetery, 630 row graves in an area of 100 by 140 metres. The counts of Dillingen ruled from the 10th to the 13th century; in 1258 the territory was turned over to the Prince Bishops of Augsburg. After the Reformation, the Bishops of Augsburg moved to the Catholic city of Dillingen and made it one of the centers of the Counter-Reformation.
A university was established in 1549, but was closed by Napoleon in 1804. The philosophical and theological faculties still existed in the 20th century. In 1971, however, it became a part of the Bavarian Center for the Education and Training of Teachers and Personnel Management (Akademie für Lehrerfortbildung und Personalführung). One of the largest employers in the city is Bosch and Siemens Household Appliances, producer of household applicances.
Tübingen (help·info) is a traditional university town in central Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is situated 30 km (19 mi) south of the state capital, Stuttgart, on a ridge between the Neckar and Ammer rivers. About one in ten people living in Tübingen is a student.
Immediately north of the city lies the Schönbuch, a densely wooded nature park. The Swabian Alb mountains rise about 20 km to the southeast of Tübingen.
The Ammer and Steinlach rivers discharge into the Neckar river, which flows right through the town, just south of the medieval old town in an easterly direction. Large parts of the city are hilly, with the Schlossberg and the Österberg in the city centre and the Schnarrenberg and Herrlesberg, among others, rising immediately adjacent to the inner city.
The highest point is at about 500 m (1,640.42 ft) above sea level near Bebenhausen in the Schönbuch forest, while the lowest point is 305 m (1,000.66 ft) in the town's eastern Neckar valley. Nearby the Botanical Gardens of the city's university, in a small forest called Elysium, lies the geographical centre of the state of Baden-Württemberg.
Tübingen is the capital of an eponymous district and an eponymous administrative
Altena is a town in the district of Märkischer Kreis, North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The town's castle is the origin for the later Dukes of Berg. Altena is situated on the Lenne river valley, in the northern streches of the Sauerland.
Altena Castle was build in the early 12th century, as a stronghold of the older Counts of Berg. A short time later a village was founded beneath the hill, with the castle alongside the river Lenne. After the distribution of the Berg family estates in 1161, Altena became the centre of the County of Altena. The first Count of Altena became Eberhard I, Count of Berg-Altena. In 1180, after the death of the first count, the county was divided between the two oldest sons: Arnold of Altena and Friedrich of Altena. The Third son: Adolf of Altena became Archbishop of Cologne. Arnold was provided with on half of the Castle and County of Altena, the Castle Hövel and some estates as fiefdoms of the Archbishops of Cologne and balliwicks of the Abbey Essen. Near the Village and Castle of Hövel, he build the Castle and town of Nienbrügge (Novus Ponte) on the Lippe riverbanks. His family branch renamed themselves after selling their half of Altena to the Archbishop
Bad Doberan (German pronunciation: [baːt dobəˈʁaːn]) is a town in the district of Rostock, Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany. It was the capital of the former district of Bad Doberan. As of 2010 its population was 11,325.
Bad Doberan is situated just 15 kilometres (9.3 mi) west of Rostock's city centre and is therefore part of one of the most developed regions in the north-eastern part of Germany. The town nestles between beautiful beech tree forests just 6 km from the Baltic Sea and is one of the earliest German settlements in Mecklenburg. Today the town is a very popular bathing resort, thanks to Heiligendamm, a district of Bad Doberan situated directly at the cliff line of the Baltic. Historically, Doberan used to be the summer residence for the Mecklenburg Dukes who resided in Schwerin, and for their entourage.
The name Doberan, originally Dobran, is a place name that probably derives from an Old Polabian personal name, meaning "good" (dobry).
According to legend, the name Doberan originated when the monastery was being built. It is said that a passing deer startled several swans, who shrieked with terror "dobre dobre". Whereupon the monks called the place Doberan. Even today, a
Eisenach is a town in Thuringia, Germany. It is situated between the northern foothills of the Thuringian Forest and the Hainich National Park. Its population in 2006 was 43,626.
The history of Eisenach is linked with the Wartburg Castle, which was built according to legend in 1067. There were at least three settlements below the castle, that merged to a common city in the second half of the 12th century. This town, Eisenach, was first mentioned in 1180.
Several now legendary events took place on the Wartburg in the following decades, best known is the "Singers' Contest on the Wartburg" (Sängerkrieg, which is part of the Tannhäuser legend).
After the Thuringian War of Succession (1247–1264) Eisenach became subject to the Wettin dynasty of Meißen. Later several mini states were established in what is now Thuringia, and Eisenach became a principality on its own in 1521. In 1809 Eisenach became part of the duchy of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach.
Eisenach is famous as the place where Martin Luther lived as a child, although he was not born there, and later was protected by Frederick the Wise after having been pursued for his religious views. It was while staying at Wartburg Castle that he
Halle (Saale) is the largest city in the German state of Saxony-Anhalt. Halle is a very important economy and education-center in east Germany. The University of Halle-Wittenberg is the biggest university in Saxony-Anhalt.
Halle (Saale) is situated in the southern part of Sachsen-Anhalt, along the river Saale which drains the surrounding plains and the greater part of the neighbouring Free State of Thuringia located just to its south, and the Thuringian basin, northwards from the Thuringian Forest. Leipzig, one of the other major cities of eastern Germany, is only 35 km away.
Halle's early history is connected with harvesting of salt. The name Halle reflects early Celtic settlement given that 'halen' is the Brythonic (Welsh/Breton) word for salt (cf. 'salann' in Irish). The name of the river Saale also contains the Germanic root for salt, and salt-harvesting has taken place in Halle at least since the Bronze Age (2300-600 BC).
The town was first mentioned in AD 806. It became a part of the Archbishopric of Magdeburg in the 10th century and remained so until 1680, when Brandenburg-Prussia annexed it together with Magdeburg as the Duchy of Magdeburg, while it was also an important
Kerpen is a town in the Rhein-Erft-Kreis, North Rhine-Westphalia. Germany. It is located about 30 kilometers southwest from Cologne.
The town of Kerpen was created in 1975, when the previously independent municipalities Blatzheim, Buir, Manheim, Kerpen, Mödrath, Türnich, Brüggen, Balkhausen, Sindorf and Horrem were merged.
Recently Kerpen has become more famous as being the hometown of the catholic priest and social reformer Adolph Kolping and the Formula One racing drivers Michael Schumacher and his brother Ralf Schumacher as well as Wolfgang von Trips and reggae artist Patrice Bart-Williams.
Kerpen Castle is also a birthplace of Otto von Kerpen, the second Grand Master of the Teutonic Order.
In Kerpen there is for example the Gymnasium der Stadt Kerpen.
The town has been twinned since 1993 with Oświęcim in Poland, more commonly known by its German name "Auschwitz", site of the largest of the Nazi concentration camps. Kerpen is also twinned with St. Vith in Belgium.
Koblenz (German: Koblenz), also spelled Coblenz (English and pre-1926 German spelling) or Coblence (French: Coblence), is a German city situated on both banks of the Rhine at its confluence with the Moselle, where the Deutsches Eck (German Corner) and its monument (Emperor William I on horseback) are situated.
As Koblenz was one of the military posts established by Drusus about 8 BC, the town celebrated its 2000th anniversary in 1992.
The name Koblenz originates from Latin (ad) confluentes, confluence or "(at the) merging of rivers". Subsequently it was Covelenz and Cobelenz. In the local dialect the name is Kowelenz.
After Mainz and Ludwigshafen am Rhein, it is the third largest city in Rhineland-Palatinate, with a population of c. 106,000 (2006). Koblenz lies in the Rhineland, 92 kilometers (57 mi) southeast of Cologne by rail.
Around 1000 BC, early fortifications were erected on the Festung Ehrenbreitstein hill on the opposite side of the Moselle. In 55 BC, Roman troops commanded by Julius Caesar reached the Rhine and built a bridge between Koblenz and Andernach. About 9 BC, the "Castellum apud Confluentes", was one of the military posts established by Drusus.
Remains of a large
Neuwied (German pronunciation: [nɔʏˈviːt]) is a town in the north of the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate, capital of the District of Neuwied. Neuwied lies on the right bank of the Rhine, 12 km northwest of Koblenz, on the railway from Frankfurt am Main to Cologne. The town has 13 suburban administrative districts: Heimbach-Weis, Gladbach, Engers, Oberbieber, Niederbieber, Torney, Segendorf, Altwied, Block, Irlich, Feldkirchen, Heddesdorf, and Rodenbach. The largest is Heimbach-Weis, with approximately 8000 inhabitants.
Founded by Count Frederick of Wied in 1653, Neuwied was located near the village of Langendorf, destroyed during the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648). It grew rapidly due to its religious toleration. Among those who sought refuge here was a colony of Moravian Brethren.
Near Neuwied, one of the largest Roman castra on the Rhine has been excavated by archeologists.
In April 1797 the French, under General Louis Lazare Hoche, defeated the Austrians near Neuwied, this being their first decisive success in the French Revolutionary Wars.
Neuwied is the native town of paternal ancestors of John D. Rockefeller, traced to the 16th century and possible French Huguenot
Wetzlar is a city in the state of Hesse, Germany. Located at 8° 30′ E, 50° 34′ N, Wetzlar straddles the river Lahn and is on the German Timber-Frame Road which passes mile upon mile of half-timbered houses. Historically, the city has acted as the hub of the Lahn-Dill-Kreis on the north edge of the Taunus. The city is known for its ancient town and its medieval cathedral.
Notable architectural features include the Eisenmarkt and the steep gradients and tightly packed street layout of a medieval town. The sandstone cathedral of St. Mary was commenced in the 12th century as a Romanesque building. In the later Middle Ages the construction was continued under a master plan in Gothic style. The church was never finished, as one steeple still remains uncompleted. The cathedral suffered heavy damage in the Second World War from aerial bombing, but was restored in the 1950s. On the outskirts of town the ruins of several stone towers are to be found, situated along the river.
In 1975, the town hosted the 15th Hessentag state festival, and in 2012 the 62nd.
Wetzlar lies in the Lahn-Dill area in Middle Hesse on the river Lahn, not far downstream from where it changes direction from south to
Worms (German pronunciation: [ˈvɔɐ̯ms]) is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Rhine River. At the end of 2004, it had 85,829 inhabitants.
Established by the Celts, who called it Borbetomagus, Worms today remains embattled with the cities Trier and Cologne over the title of "Oldest City in Germany." Worms is the only German member of the Most Ancient European Towns Network.
Worms is one of the major sites where the ancient German Nibelungenlied took place. A multimedia Nibelungenmuseum was opened in 2001, and a yearly festival right in front of the Dom, the Cathedral of Worms, attempts to recapture the atmosphere of the pre-Christian period.
Worms also played prominently into the Protestant Reformation in the early sixteenth century, the site of Martin Luther's stand before the Diet of Worms, and also the birthplace of the first Bibles of the Reformation, German and English.
Today the city is an industrial centre and is famed for the original "Liebfrauenstift-Kirchenstück" epotoponym for the Liebfraumilch wine. Other industries include chemicals and metal goods.
Worms' name is of Celtic origin: Borbetomagus meant "settlement in a watery area". This was eventually
Darmstadt is a city in the Bundesland (federal state) of Hesse in Germany, located in the southern part of the Rhine Main Area. Darmstadt has a population of 147.150 (2011). The Darmstadt Larger Urban Zone has 430.993 inhabitants.
The sandy soils in the Darmstadt area, ill-suited for agriculture in times before industrial fertilisation, prevented any larger settlement from developing, until the city became the seat of the Landgraves of Hessen-Darmstadt in the 16th century.
As the administrative centre of an increasingly prosperous duchy, the city gained in prominence during the following centuries. In the 20th century, industry (especially chemicals) as well as large science and electronics (later information technology) sectors became increasingly important, and are still a major part of the city's economy. Darmstadt also has a large tertiary education sector, with three major universities and numerous associated institutions.
Darmstadt is one of few cities (as opposed to smaller towns) in Germany which does not lie close to a river, lake or coast. It is the sunniest city in the state of Hesse. The chemical element darmstadtium (atomic number 110) is named after it, having been
Wilhelmshaven (German pronunciation: [vɪlhɛlmsˈhaːfən]) is a coastal town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is situated on the western side of the Jade Bight, a bay of the North Sea. Wilhelmshaven is the centre of the “JadeBay” business region with around 330,000 inhabitants.
The adjacent Lower Saxony Wadden Sea National Park (part of the Wattenmeer UNESCO World Natural Heritage Site) provides the basis for the major tourism industry in the region.
The Siebethsburg castle, built before 1383, was occupied by pirates and destroyed in 1433 by the Hanseatic League. Four centuries later, the Kingdom of Prussia planned a fleet and a harbour on the North Sea. In 1853, Prince Adalbert of Prussia arranged the Jade Treaty (Jade-Vertrag) with the Grand Duchy of Oldenburg, in which Prussia and the Grand Duchy entered into a contract: 3.13 km² of Oldenburgian territory at the Jade Bight should be ceded to Prussia. In 1869, King William I of Prussia (later also German Emperor) founded the town as an exclave of the Province of Hanover as a naval base for Prussia's developing fleet. All the hinterland of the city remained as part of the Duchy of Oldenburg.
A shipbuilders was established at
Auggen is a municipality in the district of Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald in Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. It also belongs to a region called Markgräflerland that has both cultural and historical importance.
Auggen has attached to it, a smaller administrative part called Hach. Hach lies to the northeast of Auggen. Auggen lies at the southern end of Breisgau. The area is known, amongst other things, for its "Bio" wine.
Auggen has a discount Grocery store called "Netto", a free standing bakery on the hauptstrasse, some restaurants, a small drugstore, and a petrol (gas) station which has a convenience store attached to it. It has 2 car dealers. It is also home to one of Europe's largest computer catalog stores.
Some forms of employment include the Winzergenossenschaft Auggen (a wine growers coop - and a fruit juice producer - .
International work also takes place from Auggen. It is the home to New Life Network, (NLN, Inc.) , which is an international distributor of television programs, and Genesis Distributions which works with duty free shops internationally
Auggen has an elementary school (in German called Grundschule; see Education in Germany): Brunwart-von-Augheim-Schule.
Aurich (Low Saxon: Auerk) is a town in Lower Saxony, Germany. It is the capital of the district of Aurich.
The history of Aurich dates back to the 13th century, when the settlement of Aurechove was mentioned in a Frisian document called the Brokmerbrief in 1276. In 1517, Count Edzard from the house of Cirksena began reconstructing the city after an attack. He established the town center, which is still in place today. In 1539, the land authorities were brought together in Aurich, making it the capital of the county and, later, East Frisia, remaining the seat of the land authorities when East Frisia was inherited by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1744. It passed to the Kingdom of Hanover in 1815, and then was annexed by Prussia in 1866 and made part of the Province of Hanover.
From October 21, 1944, until December 23, 1944, a Nazi concentration camp was established in Aurich. The camp was a subcamp to the Neuengamme concentration camp.
After World War II, Aurich became part of the new state of Lower Saxony.
Aurich's coat of arms is drawn by the blazon: "Arms: Landscape with chief two-thirds sky and base third earth, a shield Gules emblazoned with letter 'A' Or, an open-topped crown Or
Hemer is a town in the Märkischer Kreis district, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Hemer is located at the north end of the Sauerland near the Ruhr river. The highest elevation, at 546 metres (1,791 ft), is in the Balver Wald in the south of the city. The lowest elevation, at 160 metres (525 ft), is at the Edelburg in the northeast.
Burial mounds show that around 1250 BC, Bronze Age shepherds and farmers lived in the area. Graves from the time of the Merovingian Franks around the year 650 were found near the present city centre.
Hemer was first mentioned in 1072 by its old name Hademare in a document of bishop Anno II of Cologne, granting lands to the newly founded Benedictine Grafschaft Abbey, including St. Vitus' church and two farms, the later Haus Hemer and the Hedhof. In 1124 the parish of St. Vitus was separated from the parish of Menden.
Hemer remained an unimportant settlement without market rights, even when the Counts of the Mark gained independence from the episcopal state of Cologne in the 13th century, when Hemer found itself on the boundary of the two states. But despite the political insignificance of the Kirchspiel Hemer ("Hemer parish"), it was already quite
Jülich (in old spellings also known as Guelich or Gülich, cf. Dutch: Gulik, cf. French: Juliers) is a town in the district of Düren, in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. Jülich is well known as location of a world-famous research centre, the Forschungszentrum Jülich and as shortwave transmission site of Deutsche Welle. As a border region between the competing powers in the Lower Rhine and Meuse areas, the town and the Duchy of Jülich played a historic role from the Middle Ages up to the 17th century.
Jülich stands in the Rur valley on the banks of the river Rur. The town is bordered by the town of Linnich in the north, the municipality of Titz in the northeast, the municipality of Niederzier in the southeast, the municipality of Inden in the south, and by the municipality of Aldenhoven in the west. Its maximum size is 13.3 km from east to west and 10.9 km from north to south. The highest point in Jülich is in Bourheim, 110 m above sea level (excepting Sophienhöhe, an extensive artificial mountain made up of overburden from a nearby open-pit lignite mine, the Tagebau Hambach). The lowest point, 70 m above sea level, lies in the borough of Barmen.
The town of
Lörrach is a city in southwest Germany, in the valley of the Wiese, close to the French and the Swiss border. It is the capital of the district of Lörrach in Baden-Württemberg. The biggest industry is the chocolate factory Milka. The city had a population of 10,794 in 1905 and of 47,707 in 2007.
Nearby is the castle of Rötteln on the Wiesental, whose lords became the counts of Hachberg and a residence of the Margraves of Baden; this was destroyed by the troops of Louis XIV in 1678 but was rebuilt in 1867. Lörrach received market rights in 1403, but it did not obtain the privileges of a city until 1682.
After the Napoleonic epoch, the town was included in the Grand Duchy of Baden. On September 21, 1848, Gustav Struve made an attempt to start a revolutionary uprising in Lörrach as part of the Revolutions of 1848-49. It failed, and Struve was caught and imprisoned. Still, Lörrach was officially the capital of Germany for a day.
Lörrach is the hometown of Ottmar Hitzfeld, one of the most successful and most popular football managers in Germany.
Lörrach is located in the southermost part of the Rhine rift valley. The depression is created by tectonic movements, and the area has a high
Oberhausen (German pronunciation: [ˈoːbɐhaʊzən]) is a city on the river Emscher in the Ruhr Area, Germany, located between Duisburg (c. 12 km) and Essen (c. 13 km). The city hosts the International Short Film Festival Oberhausen and its Gasometer Oberhausen is an anchor point of the European Route of Industrial Heritage. It is also well known for the Centro, which is the biggest shopping mall in Germany. The city's Sea Life Centre was home to Paul the Octopus.
Oberhausen was named for its 1847 railway station which had taken its name from the Castle Oberhausen (German: Schloss Oberhausen). The new borough was formed in 1862 following inflow of people for the local coal mines and steel mills. Awarded town rights in 1874, Oberhausen absorbed several neighbouring boroughs like Alstaden, parts of Styrum and Dümpten in 1910. After becoming a city in 1901, Oberhausen incorporated the towns of Sterkrade and Osterfeld in 1929. The Ruhrchemie AG synthetic oil plant ("Oberhausen-Holten" or "Sterkrade/Holten") was a bombing target of the Oil Campaign of World War II, and the US Forces had reached the plant by April 4, 1945.
Oberhausen was largely focused on mining and steel production until
Schwerte is a town in the district of Unna, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Schwerte is situated in the Ruhr valley, at the south-east border of the Ruhr Area. South of Schwerte begins the mountainous Sauerland region.
After the local government reforms of 1975 Schwerte consists of the following districts:
Schwerte is twinned with:
Schwerte received civic rights in the 12th century.
The railway facility in the eastern district of Schwerte became a branch of the Buchenwald concentration camp in April 1944. The camp had 445 prisoners in August and 670 in November 1944. The number of escapees was comparatively high, in November 1944 48 prisoners escaped. The camp in Schwerte was disbanded in December 1944 and the remaining prisoners were brought back to Buchenwald.
Today, there are some industries left, which are confined to the manufacture of iron and steel goods.
Zweibrücken is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate, Germany, on the Schwarzbach river.
Zweibrücken appears in Latin texts as Geminus Pons and Bipontum, in French texts as Deux-Ponts. The name derives from Middle High German Zweinbrücken (literally twin-bridge, double-bridge, two bridges). In modern German the name means two-bridges.
The town was the capital of the former Palatinate-Zweibrücken. The ducal castle is now occupied by the chief court of the Palatinate (Oberlandesgericht). There is a fine Gothic Protestant church, the Alexander-Kirche, founded in 1493.
Since the end of the 12th century, Zweibrücken was the seat of the County of Zweibrücken, the counts being descended from Henry I (Heinrich I.), youngest son of Simon I, count of Saarbrücken (d. 1182). The line became extinct on the death of Count Eberhard II (1394), who in 1385 had sold half his territory to the count palatine of the Rhine, and held the other half as his feudal domaine. Louis (d. 1489), son of Stephen, founded the line of the counts palatine of Zweibrücken (Pfalz-Zweibrücken). In 1533, the Counts palatine converted Pfalz-Zweibrücken to the new Protestant faith. In 1559, a member of the line, Duke Wolfgang,
Aachen (German pronunciation: [ˈʔaːxən] ( listen), also known as Bad Aachen) is a spa town in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. In French, and sometimes (especially earlier) also in English, the city is known as Aix-la-Chapelle (French pronunciation: [ɛkslaʃapɛl]). Aachen was a favoured residence of Charlemagne, and later the place of coronation of the Kings of Germany. Geographically, Aachen is the westernmost city of Germany, located along its borders with Belgium and the Netherlands, 65 km (40 mi) west of Cologne. RWTH Aachen University, one of Germany's Universities of Excellence, is located in the city. Aachen's predominant economic focus is on science, engineering, information technology and related sectors. In 2009, Aachen was ranked 8th among cities in Germany for innovation.
A quarry on the Lousberg, which was first used in Neolithic times, attests to the long occupation of the site of Aachen.
No larger settlements, however, have been found to have existed in this remote rural area, located at least 15 km from the nearest road even in Roman times, up to the early medieval period when the place is mentioned as a king's mansion for the first time, not long before Charlemagne
Berlin ( /bɜrˈlɪn/; German pronunciation: [bɛɐ̯ˈliːn] ( listen)) is the capital city of Germany and one of the 16 states of Germany. With a population of 3.5 million people, Berlin is Germany's largest city and is the second most populous city proper and the seventh most populous urban area in the European Union. Located in northeastern Germany on the River Spree, it is the center of the Berlin-Brandenburg Metropolitan Region, which has 6 million residents from over 180 nations. Due to its location in the European Plains, Berlin is influenced by a temperate seasonal climate. Around one third of the city's area is composed of forests, parks, gardens, rivers and lakes.
First documented in the 13th century, Berlin was the capital of the Kingdom of Prussia (1701–1918), the German Empire (1871–1918), the Weimar Republic (1919–1933) and the Third Reich (1933–1945). Berlin in the 1920s was the third largest municipality in the world. After World War II, the city became divided into East Berlin—the capital of East Germany—and West Berlin, a West German exclave surrounded by the Berlin Wall (1961–1989). Following German reunification in 1990, the city regained its status as the capital of
The City Municipality of Bremen (German: Stadtgemeinde Bremen, German pronunciation: [ˈbʁeːmən] ( listen)) is a Hanseatic city in northwestern Germany. A commercial and industrial city with a major port on the River Weser, Bremen is part of the Bremen-Oldenburg metropolitan area (2.4 million people). Bremen is the second most populous city in Northern Germany and tenth in Germany.
Bremen is some 60 km (37 mi) south from the Weser mouth on the North Sea. With Bremerhaven right on the mouth the two comprise the state of Bremen (official name: Freie Hansestadt Bremen - Free Hanseatic City of Bremen).
The marshes and moraines near Bremen have been settled since about 12000 BC. Burial places and settlements in Bremen-Mahndorf and Bremen-Osterholz date back to the 7th century AD. In 150 AD the geographer Ptolemy refers to Fabiranum or Phabiranum, known today as Bremen. At that time the Chauci lived in the area now called north-western Germany or Lower Saxony. By the end of the 3rd century, they had merged with the Saxons. During the Saxon Wars (772–804) the Saxons, led by Widukind, fought against the West Germanic Franks, the founders of the Carolingian Empire, and lost the
Delitzsch (German pronunciation: [deː lɪtʃ], Slavic: delč or delčz for hill) is a major district town and important regional center in Saxony. With more than 26,300 inhabitants, it is the largest town in the district of Nordsachsen. Delitzsch belongs to the Ballungsraum Leipzig-Halle and is a part of the Central German Metropolitan Region.
Archaeological evidence outside the town limits point to a settlement already by the Neolithic Age. In preserved documents Delitzsch is mentioned for the first time in 1166 and later became the elector's residence in the 17th and 18th centuries. From the wealth of the town in the late Middle Ages testifies the very well preserved old town, with its many places, citizens and patrician houses, towers, the baroque castle and the town's fortifications.
Extensive road and rail connections make it one of the most important traffic junctions in Nordsachsen. Due to its excellent recreational-, nature conservation and lake areas to the north and south of the town, Delitzsch is one of the most popular sport and leisure centers.
The city of Delitzsch is located in the northwestern part of the district north of Saxony, at an altitude of 94 meters above sea
Dessau is a town in Germany on the junction of the rivers Mulde and Elbe, in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony-Anhalt. Since 1 July 2007, it is part of the merged town Dessau-Roßlau. Population of Dessau proper: 77,973 (June 2006).
Dessau is situated on a floodplain where the Mulde flows into the Elbe. This causes yearly floods. The worst flood took place in the year 2002, when the Waldersee district was nearly completely flooded. The south of Dessau touches a well-wooded area called Mosigkauer Heide. The highest elevation is a 110m high former rubbish dump called Scherbelberg in the southwest of Dessau. Dessau is surrounded by numerous parks and palaces that ranks Dessau as one of the greenest towns in Germany.
Dessau was first mentioned in 1213. It became an important centre in 1570, when the principality of Anhalt was founded. Dessau became the capital of this state within the Holy Roman Empire. Anhalt was dissolved In 1603 it was split into four – later five – Anhalts, Dessau becoming the capital of the mini-state of Anhalt-Dessau until 1918. In 1863 two of the noble line died out, and became reunited.
Dessau is famous for its college of architecture Bauhaus. It moved
Frankfurt am Main ( /ˈfræŋkfərt/; German pronunciation: [ˈfʁaŋkfʊɐ̯t am ˈmaɪ̯n] ( listen)), commonly known as Frankfurt, or Frankfort on the Main is the largest city in the German state of Hesse and the fifth-largest city in Germany, with a 2011 population of 695,624. The urban area had an estimated population of 2,300,000 in 2010. The city is at the centre of the larger Frankfurt Rhine-Main Metropolitan Region which has a population of 5,600,000 and is Germany's second-largest metropolitan region.
Frankfurt is the financial and transportation centre of Germany and the largest financial centre in continental Europe. It is the seat of the European Central Bank, the German Federal Bank, the Frankfurt Stock Exchange, and the Frankfurt Trade Fair, as well as several large commercial banks, e.g. Deutsche Bank, Commerzbank and DZ Bank. Frankfurt Airport is one of the world's busiest international airports, Frankfurt Central Station is one of the largest terminal stations in Europe, the Frankfurter Kreuz is one of the most heavily used Autobahn interchanges in Europe. Frankfurt lies in the former American Occupation Zone of Germany, and it was formerly the headquarters city of the U.S.
Frankfurt (Oder) (German pronunciation: [ˈfʁaŋkfʊɐt]) is a town in Brandenburg, Germany, located on the Oder River, on the German-Polish border directly opposite the town of Słubice which was a part of Frankfurt until 1945. At the end of the 1980s it reached a population peak with more than 87,000 inhabitants. The number dropped below 70,000 in 2002 and is just above 60,000 in 2010.
The official name Frankfurt (Oder) and the older Frankfurt an der Oder are used to distinguish it from the larger city of Frankfurt am Main.
The town of Frankfurt received its charter in 1253 at the Brandendamm, although the settlement is probably considerably older. The early settlers lived on the western banks of the Oder; later the town was extended to the eastern bank (today's Słubice). In late medieval times the town dominated the river trade between Breslau (Wrocław) and Stettin (Szczecin). In 1430 Frankfurt joined the Hanseatic League, but was a member for only a short time.
In April 1631, during the Thirty Years' War, Frankfurt was the site of the Battle of Frankfurt an der Oder between the Swedish Empire and the Holy Roman Empire. After a two-day siege, Swedish forces, supported by Scottish
Görlitz ([ˈɡœɐ̯lɪts ] ( listen); Polish: Zgorzelec, Upper Sorbian: Zhorjelc, Lower Sorbian: Zgórjelc, Czech: Zhořelec) is a town in Germany. It is the easternmost town in the country, located on the Lusatian Neisse River in the Bundesland (Federal State) of Saxony. It is opposite the Polish town of Zgorzelec, which was a part of Görlitz until 1945. Historically, Görlitz was in the region of Upper Lusatia. However, in 1815, some parts of Lusatia were integrated into the Province of Silesia, and later into the Province of Lower Silesia. Görlitz is the largest city of the former Province of Lower Silesia that lies west of the Oder-Neisse line and hence remains in Germany today. Thus it is both the most Silesian city, in terms of character, and the largest, in Germany today. This is not unjustified since the city adapted to a large extent to the rest of Silesia when it was part of it administratively. It is the easternmost town in Germany and the capital of the district of Görlitz. The city combines Lusatian and Silesian traditions as well as German and Sorbian culture; since 1950 the town and its population were influenced by the proximity to Poland, across the Oder-Neisse-line.
Hamm (Latin: Hammona) is a city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is located in the northeastern part of the Ruhr area. As of December 2003 its population was 180,849. The city is situated between the A1 motorway and A2 motorway. Hamm railway station is an important hub for rail transport and renowned for its distinctive station building.
The coat of arms has been in use in its present form for about 750 years. It shows the markish chessboard ("märkischen Schachbalken") in red and silver on a golden field. Originally it was the founders' coat of arms, i. e. the Counts of Mark. The chessboard and the colours are often displayed in the coats of arms of further towns founded by that family line. Similarly, the colours of the city are red and white.
The name Ham means "corner" in the old Low German dialect spoken at that time. In the old times the name thom Hamme would be used, which evolved slowly into its modern form Hamm. The name derives from the description of the Hamm's location in the corner of the Lippe river and the narrow Ahse affluent, where it was founded on Ash Wednesday in March 1226 by Count Adolf I of the Mark.
Until 1833 any population is an approximation, in
Heide is a town in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany. It is the capital of the Kreis (district) Dithmarschen. Population: 21,000.
The German word Heide means "heath". In the 15th century four adjoining villages decided to build a church in the "middle of the heath". This remained the town's name to date. The exact foundation date is now unknown, but by 1447 Heide was already the main village of Dithmarschen. At this time Dithmarschen was an independent peasant republic. Heide became a town in the 19th century and now is a tourist resort.
The association soccer club Heider SV plays in the Verbandsliga Schleswig-Holstein (V).
There is a twinning between Kreis Dithmarschen and Restormel Borough Council.
Heilbronn (German pronunciation: [haɪlˈbʁɔn] ( listen)) is a city in northern Baden-Württemberg, Germany. It is surrounded by Heilbronn County and, with approximately 123,000 residents, it is the sixth-largest city in the state.
The city on the Neckar is a former Imperial Free City and current independent city (i.e. not part of any county) and seat of Heilbronn County. Heilbronn is also the "major economic centre" of the Heilbronn-Franken region that includes almost the entire northeast of Baden-Württemberg.
Heilbronn is known for its wine industry and is nicknamed Käthchenstadt after Heinrich von Kleist's play Das Käthchen von Heilbronn.
Heilbronn is located in the northern corner of the Neckar basin at the bottom of the Wartberg (308 m). It is spread out on both banks of the Neckar on a fertile terrace and the highest spot inside city limits is the Schweinsberg with a height of 372 m. Heilbronn is located adjacent to the Schwäbisch-Fränkischer Wald State Park and is famous for the vineyards that surround it.
Heilbronn and its surroundings are located in the northern part of the larger Stuttgart metropolitan area. The city acts as the economic centre of the Heilbronn-Franken
Kaiserslautern (German: [kaɪzɐˈslaʊtɐn] ( listen)) is a city in southwest Germany, located in the Bundesland (State) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) at the edge of the Palatinate forest (Pfälzer Wald). The historic centre dates to the 9th century. It is 459 kilometres (285 mi) from Paris, 117 kilometres (73 mi) from Frankfurt am Main, and 159 kilometres (99 mi) from Luxembourg.
Kaiserslautern is home to 99,469 people. Approximately 50,000 NATO military personnel inhabit the city and its surrounding district (Landkreis Kaiserslautern), and contribute approximately $1 billion annually to the local economy. These are mainly Americans, who form the largest US-settlement outside the territory of the United States and often call the city K-Town.
Prehistoric settlement in the area of what is now Kaiserslautern has been traced to at least 800 BC. Some 2,500-year-old Celtic tombs were uncovered at Miesau, a town about 29 kilometres west of Kaiserslautern. The recovered relics are now in the Museum for Palatinate History at Speyer.
Kaiserslautern received its name from the favorite hunting retreat of Holy Roman Emperor Frederick Barbarossa who ruled the Holy Roman Empire from 1155
Karlsruhe (German pronunciation: [ˈkaːlsʁuːə]; formerly Carlsruhe) is a city in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in southwest Germany, near the Franco-German border. Karlsruhe was founded in 1715 as Karlsruhe Palace, when Germany was a series of principalities and city-states. The town surrounding the Palace became the seat of two of the highest courts in Germany, the Federal Constitutional Court of Germany (Bundesverfassungsgericht) whose decisions have the force of a law in many cases, and the Federal Court of Justice of Germany (Bundesgerichtshof), the highest court of appeals in matters of civil law and criminal law. It therefore considers itself the home of justice in Germany, a role taken over from Leipzig after 1945.
Due to similarities to the United States capital city, it has been speculated that Karlsruhe was a model city for the cityscape of Washington, D.C. Both cities have a centre—in Karlsruhe the palace and in D.C. the Capitol Building—from which the streets radiate outward. Pierre Charles L'Enfant, Washington's city planner, had been given the plans of Karlsruhe (among numerous other European cities) as an inspiration.
The city lies at an altitude between 100 m (on
Kassel (German pronunciation: [ˈkasəl]; spelled Cassel until 1928) is a town located on the Fulda River in northern Hesse, Germany. It is the administrative seat of the Kassel Regierungsbezirk and the Kreis of the same name and has approximately 195,000 inhabitants. It is known for the documenta exhibition of contemporary art. In 1964, the town hosted the fourth Hessentag state festival, it is designated for the 53rd in 2013.
The city's name is derived from the ancient Castellum Cattorum, a castle of the Chatti, a German tribe that had lived in the area since Roman times.
Kassel was first mentioned in 913 AD as the place where two deeds were signed by King Conrad I. The place was called Chasella and was a fortification at a bridge crossing the Fulda river. A deed from 1189 certifies that Kassel had city rights, but the date when they were granted is not known.
In 1567, the landgraviate of Hesse, until then centered in Marburg, was divided among four sons, with Hesse-Kassel (or Hesse-Cassel) becoming one of its successor states. Kassel was its capital and became a centre of Calvinist Protestantism in Germany. Strong fortifications were built to protect the Protestant stronghold
Landshut (Austro-Bavarian: Landshuad) is a city in Bavaria in the south-east of Germany, belonging to both Eastern and Southern Bavaria. Situated on the banks of the River Isar, Landshut is the capital of Lower Bavaria, one of the seven administrative regions of the Free State of Bavaria. It is also the seat of the surrounding district. With a population of more than 60,000, Landshut is the largest city in Lower Bavaria, followed by Passau and Straubing, as well as Eastern Bavaria's second biggest city after Regensburg.
Owing to its characteristic coat of arms, the city is also often called "Three Helmets City" (German: Dreihelmenstadt).
Due to its proximity and easy access to Munich and the Franz Josef Strauss International Airport, situated halfway between Munich and Landshut on the banks of the Isar, the city has East Bavaria's lowest unemployment rate (ca. 4.2% in October 2006), lower than the Bavarian average of ca. 5.8%.
Landshut lies in the centre of Lower Bavaria, and is part of the Alpine foothills. The River Isar runs through the city centre. Landshut is about 72 kilometres (45 mi) northeast of Munich.
The city of Landshut and Trausnitz castle were founded in 1204 by Duke
Ludwigslust (German pronunciation: [luːtvɪçsˈlʊst]) is a town in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, Germany, 40 km south of Schwerin. It was the capital of the former district of Ludwigslust, and is part of the district Ludwigslust-Parchim since September 2011.
Ludwigslust is a relatively young town. In 1724 Prince Ludwig, the son of Duke of Mecklenburg-Schwerin, decided to build a hunting lodge near a small hamlet called Klenow. Later, when he took over the reign, he stayed most time at this residence and called it Ludwigslust ("Ludwig's joy"). In 1765 Ludwigslust became the capital of the duchy instead of Schwerin. The town was enlarged by a residential palace (the Schloss). This situation lasted until 1837, when Grand Duke Paul Friedrich returned the capital status to Schwerin.
The Wöbbelin concentration camp—sometimes referred to as Ludwigslust concentration camp—was established by the SS near the city of Ludwigslust in 1945. At the end of World War II, as the Line of contact between Soviet and other Allied forces formed, Ludwigslust was captured by British troops initially and then soon handed over to American troops. After several months the US troops departed and allowed Soviet troops
Münster (German pronunciation: [ˈmʏnstɐ]; Low German: Mönster; Latin: Monasterium, from the Greek μοναστήριον - monastērion, "monastery") is an independent city in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. It is in the northern part of the state and is considered to be the cultural centre of the Westphalia region. It is also capital of the local government region Münsterland. The city is best known as the location of the Anabaptist rebellion during the Protestant Reformation, as the site of the signing of the Treaty of Westphalia ending the Thirty Years' War in 1648, and as the bicycle capital of Germany.
Münster gained the status of a Großstadt (major city) with more than 100,000 inhabitants in 1915. Currently there are around 270,000 people living in the city, with about 48,500 students, only some of whom are recorded in the official population statistics as having their primary residence in Münster.
In 793, Charlemagne sent out Ludger as a missionary to evangelise the Münsterland. In 797, Ludger founded a school that later became the Cathedral School. Gymnasium Paulinum traces its history back to the school He was ordained as the first bishop of Münster. The first cathedral was
Oerlinghausen is a city in the Lippe district of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany located between Bielefeld and Detmold in the Teutoburger Wald. It has c. 17,200 inhabitants.
Geographically, Oerlinghausen is situated on top of the Teutoburger Wald hills. Oerlinghausen's highest point is the Tönsberg with 334 meters. The flatlands of northern Germany start some 40 km north of Oerlinghausen. There are beautiful hiking routes along the hill chain which stretches 80 km in east-west direction. To the south of the hills are large sand areas originating from melting glaciers during past ice ages. Although not high, the hills are steep in many places and almost completely covered by forest.
First mentioned in documents in 1036, the town became a city in 1926 by authority of the Land of Lippe. In 1969 the city was expanded with the addition of Helpup, Währentrup and Lipperreihe as part of the "Gebietsreform" movement.
Oerlinghausen is home to an airfield which is one of Europe's largest gliding centres as well as the well known Archäologisches Freilichtmuseum Oerlinghausen (archaeological open air museum) featuring reconstructions of a variety of dwellings spanning from 10,000 BC to 1000
Potsdam (German pronunciation: [ˈpɔtsdam]) is the capital city of the German federal state of Brandenburg and part of the Berlin/Brandenburg Metropolitan Region. It is situated on the River Havel, 24 kilometres (15 miles) southwest of Berlin city centre.
Potsdam has several claims to national and international notability. In Germany, it had the status Windsor has in Britain: it was the residence of the Prussian kings and German Kaisers, until 1918. Around the city there are a series of interconnected lakes and unique cultural landmarks, in particular the parks and palaces of Sanssouci, the largest World Heritage Site in Germany. The Potsdam Conference, the major post-World War II conference between the victorious Allies, was held at another palace in the area, the Cecilienhof.
Babelsberg, in the south-eastern part of Potsdam, was a major film production studio before the war and has enjoyed increased success as a major centre of European film production since the fall of the Berlin Wall. The Filmstudio Babelsberg is the oldest large-scale film studio in the world.
Potsdam developed into a centre of science in Germany from the 19th century. Today, there are three public colleges and
Sigmaringen is a town in southern Germany, in the state of Baden-Württemberg. Situated on the upper Danube, it is the capital of the Sigmaringen district.
Sigmaringen is renowned for its castle, Schloss Sigmaringen, which was the seat of the French Vichy government-in-exile during the closing months of the Second World War.
Sigmaringen lies in the Danube valley, surrounded by wooded hills in the south of the Swabian Alb around 40 km away from the Lake of Constance.
The surrounding towns are on the north, Winterlingen (in the district of Zollernalb) and Veringenstadt, on the east, Bingen, Sigmaringendorf, and Scheer, on the south, Mengen, Krauchenwies, Inzigkofen, and Meßkirch, and on the west, Leibertingen, Beuron, and Stetten am kalten Markt. The city is made up from the following districts: Sigmaringen (inner-city), Gutenstein, Jungnau, Laiz, Oberschmeien and Unterschmeien.
Sigmaringen was first documented in 1077 and was in the principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen until 1850, after which it became a province of Prussia's Province of Hohenzollern.
On September 7, 1944, following the Allied invasion of France, Philippe Pétain and members of the Vichy government cabinet were
The city of Starnberg is in Bavaria, Germany, some 30 km south-west of Munich. It lies at the north end of Lake Starnberg, in the heart of the "Five Lakes Country", and serves as capital of the district of Starnberg. Recording a disposable per-capita income of € 26,120 in 2007, Starnberg regained its status as the wealthiest town in Germany from the Frankfurt suburb of Hochtaunus.
The town was first mentioned in 1226 under the name of Aheim am Würmsee.
Starnberg is situated on the Munich S-Bahn line S6, which provides frequent trains to and from Munich. It is also a principal stop for the vessels of the Bayerische Seenschifffahrt or lake fleet.
Vlotho [ˈfloːto] ( listen) is a town in the district of Herford, in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany.
Vlotho is located along the Weser river, south of the Wiehengebirge, bordering on the Ravensberger Hügelland in the west, Lipperland in the south, and the Weserbergland in the east. The Weser river runs through the city east to north and thus separates the northeast part of the town, Uffeln, from the rest of the city. The highest point is the Bonstapel at 342 m in the south-east.
Vlotho borders on Herford and Löhne in the west, Bad Oeynhausen and Porta Westfalica (both Minden-Lübbecke district) in the north, Kalletal in the east, and Lemgo and Bad Salzuflen (both Lippe district) in the south.
The first historical records of Vlotho go back to the year 1185. In 1248, Vlotho gained the official status of a city, but lost it again due to both pestilence and war. In the 17th century, Vlotho recovered as a location for industry, most notably paper. In 1650, Vlotho regained the right to hold a market, and in 1719, became an independent city. A harbour was built and Vlotho became the location of cigar, machine, and textile industry. In 1875, a railway station was constructed, and in 1928, a