An electoral college is a group of people who cast the votes in an indirect election. In some cases, this may be a body specifically convened for the purposes of a single election; in others, it may be a governmental body that primarily serves another function, such as a legislature.
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The Riigikogu (from riigi-, of the state, and kogu, assembly) is the unicameral parliament of Estonia. All important state-related questions pass through the Riigikogu. In addition to approving legislation, the Riigikogu appoints high officials, including the Prime Minister and Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, and elects (either alone or, if necessary, together with representatives of local government within a broader electoral college) the President. The Riigikogu also ratifies significant foreign treaties that impose military and proprietary obligations, bring about changes in law, etc.; approves the budget presented by the government as law and monitors the executive power.
April 23, 1919, the opening session of the Estonian Constituent Assembly is the birthday of the Estonian Parliament. The first elections to the Riigikogu took place in 1920. From 1920 to 1938, there were five more elections to the Riigikogu, but several were on the basis of different constitutions. In 1920–1923 there was a closed list, while from 1926 to 1934 there was an optional open list choice. The basis of election was until 1932 proportional representation. The elections were on a regional basis,
The President of Pakistan is chosen by an electoral college, in Pakistan. According to article 41(3) of the 1973 Constitution of Pakistan, this electoral college consists of the Senate, the National Assembly of Pakistan, and the Members of the Provincial Assemblies. Members of the National Assembly and Provincial Assemblies are directly elected by the people in competitive multi-party elections. Members of the Senate are indirectly elected by the provincial assemblies.
Elections:United States presidential election, 2004
The Electoral College is an example of an indirect election, consisting of 538 electors who officially elect the President and Vice President of the United States. The number of electors is equal to the total voting membership of the United States Congress, 435 Representatives and 100 Senators, plus three electors from the District of Columbia. Article II, Section 1, Clause 2 of the Constitution specifies the number of electors to which each state is entitled and state legislatures decide how they are chosen.
Voters in each state and the District of Columbia cast ballots selecting electors pledged to presidential and vice presidential candidates. In nearly all states, electors are awarded on a winner-take-all basis to the candidate who wins the most votes in that state. Although electors are not required by federal law to honor a pledge, in the overwhelming majority of cases they vote for the candidate to whom they are pledged. The Twelfth Amendment provides for each elector to cast one vote for President and one vote for Vice President. It also specifies how a President and Vice President are elected. The Twenty-third Amendment specifies how many electors the District of Columbia
The Grand National Assembly of Turkey (TBMM, Turkish: Türkiye Büyük Millet Meclisi), usually referred to simply as the Meclis ("parliament"), is the unicameral Turkish legislature. It is the sole body given the legislative prerogatives by the Turkish Constitution. It was founded in Ankara on 23 April 1920 in the midst of the Turkish War of Independence. The parliament was fundamental in the efforts of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues to found a new state out of the remnants of the Ottoman Empire in the aftermath of the World War I.
There are 550 members of parliament (deputies) who are elected for a four-year term by the D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system, from 85 electoral districts which represent the 81 administrative provinces of Turkey (Istanbul is divided into three electoral districts whereas Ankara and İzmir are divided into two each because of their large populations). To avoid a hung parliament and its excessive political fragmentation, only parties that win at least 10% of the votes cast in a national parliamentary election gain the right to representation in the parliament. As a result of this threshold, only two parties were able to
The Parliament of the Czech Republic (Czech: Parlament České republiky) is the legislative body of the Czech Republic, based in Prague. It consists of two chambers, both elected in direct elections:
The Parliament exercises competences usual in parliamentary systems: it holds and passes bills, has the right to modify the Constitution, ratifies international agreements; if necessary, it declares war, approves presence of foreign military forces in the Czech Republic or a dispatch of Czech military forces abroad. Both chambers also elect the President at a joint session.
The tradition of modern parliamentarianism in the Bohemian lands dates back to times of the Habsburg Empire (Austria, then Cisleithanian part of Austria-Hungary), where the Imperial Council (Reichsrat, Říšská rada) was created in 1861.
After proclamation of Czechoslovakia in 1918 its National Assembly undertook legislative duties both of the Imperial Council and State Diets (Bohemian, Moravian, Silesian). In 1938-1939 and between 1945 and 1990 there existed a parliament within non-democratic regimes. As a consequence of federalization of Czechoslovakia (1968), national councils of Czech and Slovak parts of the
Saeima is the parliament of the Republic of Latvia. It is a unicameral parliament consisting of 100 members who are elected by proportional representation, with seats allocated to political parties which gain at least 5% of the popular vote. Elections are scheduled to be held once every four years, normally on the first Saturday of October. The most recent elections were held in September 2011.
The President of Latvia can dismiss the Saeima and request early elections. The procedure for dismissing it involves substantial political risk to the president, including a risk of loss of office. On May 28, 2011, president Valdis Zatlers decided to initiate the dissolution of the current Saeima, which was to be decided in a referendum. The Saeima was dissolved on 23 July 2011.
The current Speaker of the Saeima is Solvita Āboltiņa.
The word "Saeima" meaning "a gathering, a meeting, a council" was constructed by the Young Latvian Juris Alunāns. It stems from the archaic Latvian word eima meaning "to go" (derived from the PIE *ei "to go" and also a cognate with the Ancient Greek eimi, Gaulish eimu among others)
Deputies are elected to represent one of five constituencies: Kurzeme (13
Elections:Hong Kong Chief Executive election, 1996
The Election Committee is an electoral college in the politics of Hong Kong, whose function is to select the Chief Executive. It is renewed every five years when the sitting Chief Executive's term has expired. The Election Committee was established by Annex I of the Basic Law of Hong Kong. It had 1200 members for the 2012 election, up from 800 previously, and 400 before that.
Each of the twenty-eight functional constituencies receives a set number of electoral votes allocated to them. The block vote is applied to choose the members, as was common in the United States before the modern practice of voting only for a set slate or ticket of electors was established.
The composition of the 1,200-member Election Committee, from commencement of the term of office on 1 February 2012, is:
(1) 1,044 members elected from 38 subsectors;
(2) 60 members nominated by the religious subsector; and
(3) 96 ex-officio members (Hong Kong deputies to the National People's Congress and Legislative Council members).
The New York Times commented that sectors that are politically closer Beijing, like traditional Chinese medicine, are over-represented compared to their share of the population than sectors
The Federal Convention (also known as the Federal Assembly; German: Bundesversammlung) is a special body in the institutional system of Germany, convened solely for the purpose of electing the President of the Federal Republic of Germany (Bundespräsident), either every five years or within 30 days of a president's resignation, death or removal from office.
The Bundesversammlung includes the entire membership of the Bundestag, and an equal number of state delegates selected by the state or 'Länder' parliaments specifically for this purpose, proportional to their population. The Länder representatives are not solely politicians: it is customary for some states to nominate celebrities or other prominent and notable people. From the time of their nomination until the closing of the session of the Federal Convention its members enjoy parliamentary immunity with regard to prosecution by public authorities in very much the same way as members of the Bundestag do.
Since 1979, the Bundesversammlung has traditionally met on May 23, the anniversary of the founding of the Federal Republic of Germany and the anniversary of the Basic Law coming into force on this day in 1949. This has changed
The Parliament of Lebanon is the national parliament of Lebanon. There are 128 members elected to a four-year terms in multi-member constituencies, apportioned among Lebanon's diverse Christian and Muslim denominations. Lebanon has universal adult suffrage. Its major functions are to elect the President of the republic, to approve the government (although appointed by the President, the Prime Minister, along with the Cabinet, must retain the confidence of a majority in the Parliament), and to approve laws and expenditure.
According to its official site, the French name of the Parliament of Lebanon is Assemblée nationale (National Assembly), and the Arabic name is مجلس النواب Majlis an-Nuwwab (Chamber of Deputies).
The Parliament building, was built in 1933 according to Armenian architect Mardiros Altounian's designs who was a Beaux-Arts architect. The building has an imposing symmetrical structure with an oriental revivalist style articulating historical regional references with neo-Mamluk overtones.
A unique feature of the Lebanese system is the principle of "confessional distribution": each religious community has an allotted number of deputies in the Parliament. In elections
The National Assembly or Diet (Hungarian: Országgyűlés) is the parliament of Hungary. The unicameral body consists of 386 members elected to 4-year terms. Election of members is based on a complex system involving both area and list election; parties must win at least 5% of the popular vote in order to enter list members the assembly (but area winners enter regardless). The Assembly includes 25 standing committees to debate and report on introduced bills and to supervise the activities of the ministers. The Constitutional Court of Hungary has the right to challenge legislation on the grounds of constitutionality. The assembly has met in the Hungarian Parliament Building in Budapest since 1902.
The history of the Hungarian legislative goes back to the 15th century Diet of Hungary, which was also called Országgyűlés in Hungarian. Insofar today's parliament can be called "Diet" as well, but uses the term "National Assembly" in English in order to differentiate between today's unicameral republican assembly and the bicameral one during the monarchy.
At the sixth parliamentary elections, four parties or party alliances passed the minimum threshold: the Fidesz – Hungarian Civic Union in