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  • Nov 27th 2012
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Best Death of All Time

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    1
    Vladimir Komarov

    Vladimir Komarov

    Vladimir Mikhaylovich Komarov (Russian: Влади́мир Миха́йлович Комаро́в; IPA: [vlɐˈdʲimʲɪr mʲɪˈxaɪləvʲɪtɕ kəmɐˈrof]; 16 March 1927 – 24 April 1967) was a Soviet test pilot, aerospace engineer and cosmonaut in the first group of cosmonauts selected in 1960. He was one of the most highly experienced and well-qualified candidates accepted into "Air Force Group One". Komarov was declared medically unfit for training or spaceflight twice while he was in the program, but his perseverance and superior skills and his knowledge as an engineer allowed him to continue playing an active role. During his time at the Tsentr Podgotovki Kosmonavtov (cosmonaut training centre), he contributed to space vehicle design, cosmonaut training and evaluation and public relations. He was eventually selected to command the first Soviet multiman Voskhod 1 spaceflight that presented a number of technical innovations in the Space Race. Komarov was later chosen for the rigorous task of commanding Soyuz 1 as part of the Soviet Union's bid to reach the Moon first. His spaceflight on Soyuz 1 made him the first cosmonaut to fly into outer space more than once, and he became the first human to die during a
    7.86
    7 votes
    2

    Brittanie Cecil

    Brittanie Nichole Cecil (March 20, 1988 – March 18, 2002) was a hockey fan who died from injuries suffered when a puck was deflected into the stands and struck her in the left temple at Nationwide Arena in Columbus, Ohio, on March 16, 2002. It was the first fan fatality in the NHL's 85-year history. Because of Brittanie's death, the league implemented mandatory netting at either end of the rink in every stadium at the beginning of the next NHL season in 2002–03 to protect spectators from errant pucks. In April 2004, a little over two years after Brittanie's death, her parents received $1.2 million in a settlement with the NHL and other groups. A native of West Alexandria, Ohio, a small farming suburb of Dayton, Brittanie was an avid sports fan, soccer player, competing in a state tournament with her team, the Orange Crush, at eleven years old. Upon qualifying for the state tournament, mayor Carol Lunsford declared the day Orange Crush Day. Brittanie attended Twin Valley South Middle School as a cheerleader, student council member and an honor student. She went to Thompson secondary school. Brittanie had been watching the Columbus Blue Jackets play the Calgary Flames on March 16,
    8.17
    6 votes
    3

    Deborah Gail Stone

    Deborah Gail Stone (1956 ¬タモ July 8, 1974) was a cast member at the America Sings attraction at Disneyland. She is one of almost a dozen deaths in the park's history, and is to this day only one of two cast members to die on the job . Her death remains of considerable interest, even more than thirty years later. Upon entry, cast members would usher guests into a rotating stage, one of several. Cast members would use intermissions to move between stages as they rotated into place for the next act. During one such rotation Stone, a novice to the attraction that at the time had only been open for three weeks, ended up caught between an interior wall and that of the moving platform. It is not known whether this was a result of inadequate training or a simple misstep on her part. Trapped by the rotating stage, she was crushed to death. The ride was halted when other cast members were alerted of her screams by guests. Her death led to the closure of the attraction for two days while new warning lights were installed. The stage on which she died remained closed for a year. Breakaway safety walls were one of several features installed in an attempt to increase safety. Today, the
    7.83
    6 votes
    4
    Alexander Woollcott

    Alexander Woollcott

    Alexander Humphreys Woollcott (January 19, 1887 – January 23, 1943) was an American critic and commentator for The New Yorker magazine and a member of the Algonquin Round Table. He was the inspiration for Sheridan Whiteside, the main character in the play The Man Who Came to Dinner (1939) by George S. Kaufman and Moss Hart, and for the far less likable character Waldo Lydecker in the 1944 film Laura (1944). He was convinced he was the inspiration for Rex Stout's brilliant detective Nero Wolfe, but Stout, although he was friendly to Woollcott, said there was nothing to that idea. Alexander Woollcott was born in an 85-room house, a vast ramshackle building in Colts Neck Township, New Jersey, near Red Bank. Called the North American Phalanx, it had once been a commune where many social experiments were carried on in the mid-19th century, some more successful than others. When the Phalanx fell apart after a fire in 1854, it was taken over by the Bucklin family, Woollcott's maternal grandparents. Woollcott spent large portions of his childhood there among his extended family. His father was a ne'er-do-well Cockney who drifted through various jobs, sometimes spending long periods away
    7.00
    6 votes
    5
    François Vatel

    François Vatel

    François Vatel (French pronunciation: [fʁɑ̃swa vatɛl]) (1631, Paris – April 24, 1671, Chantilly) was the maître d'hôtel of Nicolas Fouquet and prince Louis II de Bourbon-Condé. He is widely credited with creating crème Chantilly (Chantilly cream), a sweet, vanilla-flavoured whipped cream, but there is no contemporary documentation for this claim. Vatel served Louis XIV's superintendent Nicolas Fouquet in the splendid inauguration fête at the Château de Vaux-le-Vicomte that took place on 17 August 1661, the occasion of Fouquet's downfall. Vatel was responsible for an extravagant banquet for 2,000 people hosted in honour of Louis XIV by Louis, the great Condé in April 1671 at the Château de Chantilly. According to a letter by Madame de Sévigné, Vatel was so distraught about the lateness of the seafood delivery and about other mishaps that he committed suicide by running himself through with a sword. His body was discovered when someone came to tell him of the arrival of the fish. His story was depicted in the 2000 film Vatel by Roland Joffé, with Gérard Depardieu playing the role of Vatel. According to the film, Vatel committed suicide when he realized he was nothing more than
    7.80
    5 votes
    6

    Inalchuq

    Inalchuq (or Inalchuk) (died 1219) was governor of Otrar in the Khwarezmian Empire in the early 13th century, known mainly for helping to provoke the successful invasion of Khwarezmia by Genghis Khan. Inalchuq was an uncle of Sultan Muhammad II of Khwarezmia. His name meant "little Inal", and he held the title Ghayir-Khan. In 1218, a Mongolian trade caravan of around 450 men arrived in Otrar, including an ambassador of Genghis Khan. Inalchuq accused them of being Mongolian spies and arrested them. There may in fact have been spies in the caravan; however Inalchuq may have also been provoked by having been called Inalchuq rather than the less familiar Ghayir-Khan by one of the members of the caravan, or perhaps was motivated by simply wanting to seize the caravan's riches. With the assent of Sultan Muhammed, he executed the entire caravan, and its goods were sold in Bukhara. A camel driver escaped this massacre to report back to Genghis Khan, who responded by sending a delegation to Sultan Muhammad demanding Inalchuq be punished. Muhammad responded by beheading the ambassador and shaving off the beards of his two companions, provoking Genghis Khan's invasion. Genghis Khan sieged
    7.60
    5 votes
    7
    Al-Musta'sim

    Al-Musta'sim

    Al-Musta'sim Billah (full name: al-Musta'sim-Billah Abu-Ahmad Abdullah bin al-Mustansir-Billah; Arabic: المستعصم بالله أبو أحمد عبد الله بن المستنصر بالله‎; 1213 – February 20, 1258) was the last Abbasid Caliph in Baghdad; he ruled from 1242 until his death. Al-Musta'sim succeeded his father in late 1242. He is noted for his opposition to the rise of Shajar al-Durr to the Egyptian throne during the Seventh Crusade. He sent a message from Baghdad to the Mamluks in Egypt that said: "If you do not have men there tell us so we can send you men.". However, Al-Musta'sim had to face the greatest menace against the caliphate since its establishment in 632, the invasion of the Mongol forces that, under Hulagu Khan, had already wiped out any resistance in Transoxiana and Khorasan. In 1255/1256 Hulagu forced the Abbasid to lend their forces for the campaign against Alamut. In 1258 Hulagu invaded the Abbasid domain, comprising a little more than what is now Iraq and Syria. In an advance on Baghdad, Hulagu Khan had several columns advance simultaneously on the city, and laid siege to it. The Caliph had been deluded by promises from his Vizier that the Mongols could be driven off literally by
    7.40
    5 votes
    8

    Kevin Whitrick

    Kevin Neil Whitrick (17 August 1964 – 21 March 2007) was a British citizen and an electrical engineer. Whitrick's death was highly publicized for his live, online webcasted suicide. At the time of his death, he was married to his wife Paula, and had 12-year-old twins. Kevin and Paula had adopted the twins, one male and one female, but lived apart from his family after the breakdown of his marriage two years previously. On the day of his death, Kevin Whitrick was in a chatroom on PalTalk and was joined by about 60 other users in a special "insult" chatroom where people "have a go at each other". He stood on a chair, punched a hole in his ceiling and placed a rope around a joist, and then tied the other end around his neck, then stepped off the chair. Some people thought this was a prank, until his face started turning blue. Some people in the chat room egged him on while others tried desperately to find his address. A member in the room contacted the police, who arrived at the scene two minutes later. Kevin Whitrick was pronounced dead at 11:15 p.m. GMT. The death has been reported in the press and is notable due to fear it might inspire other suicides, the possibility of the webcam
    7.40
    5 votes
    9
    Duns Scotus

    Duns Scotus

    John (Johannes, Ioannes) Duns Scotus, O.F.M. (c. 1266 – 8 November 1308) is generally reckoned to be one of the three most important philosopher-theologians of the High Middle Ages. Scotus has had considerable influence on both Catholic and secular thought. The doctrines for which he is best known are the "univocity of being," that existence is the most abstract concept we have, applicable to everything that exists; the formal distinction, a way of distinguishing between different aspects of the same thing; and the idea of haecceity, the property supposed to be in each individual thing that makes it an individual. Scotus also developed a complex argument for the existence of God, and argued for the Immaculate conception of Mary. He was given the medieval accolade Doctor Subtilis (Subtle Doctor) for his penetrating and subtle manner of thought. Little is known of Scotus apart from his work. His date of birth is thought to have been between 23 December 1265 and 17 March 1266, based on his ordination to the priesthood in the Order of Friars Minor (the Franciscans) at Saint Andrew's Priory in Northampton, England, on 17 March 1291. The minimum age for ordination at the time was 25 and
    8.25
    4 votes
    10
    Franz Reichelt

    Franz Reichelt

    Franz Reichelt, also known as Frantz Reichelt or François Reichelt (1879 – February 4, 1912), was an Austrian-born French tailor, inventor and parachuting pioneer, now sometimes referred to as the Flying Tailor, who is remembered for his accidental death by jumping from the Eiffel Tower while testing a wearable parachute of his own design. Reichelt had become fixated on developing a suit for aviators that would convert into a parachute and allow them to survive a fall should they be forced to leave their aircraft. Initial experiments conducted with dummies dropped from the fifth floor of his apartment building had been successful, but he was unable to replicate those early successes with any of his subsequent designs. Believing that the lack of a suitably high test platform was partially to blame for his failures, Reichelt repeatedly petitioned the Parisian Prefecture of Police for permission to conduct a test from the Eiffel Tower. He was finally granted permission in early 1912, but when he arrived at the tower on February 4 he made it clear that he intended to jump himself rather than conduct an experiment with dummies. Despite attempts by his friends and spectators to dissuade
    8.25
    4 votes
    11
    Tennessee Williams

    Tennessee Williams

    Thomas Lanier "Tennessee" Williams III (March 26, 1911 – February 25, 1983) was an American writer who worked principally as a playwright in the American theater. He also wrote short stories, novels, poetry, essays, screenplays and a volume of memoirs. His professional career lasted from the mid 1930s until his death in 1983, and saw the creation of many plays that are regarded as classics of the American stage. Williams adapted much of his best known work for the cinema. Williams received virtually all of the top theatrical awards for his works of drama, including several New York Drama Critics' Circle awards, a Tony Award for best play for The Rose Tattoo (1951) and the Pulitzer Prize for Drama for A Streetcar Named Desire (1948) and Cat on a Hot Tin Roof (1955). In 1980 he was honored with the Presidential Medal of Freedom by President Jimmy Carter and is today acknowledged as one of the most accomplished playwrights in the history of English speaking theater. Theater scholar Charlotte Canning, of the University of Texas at Austin where Williams' archives are located, has said, "There is no more influential 20th-century American playwright than Tennessee Williams... He inspired
    8.25
    4 votes
    12

    Tom Pryce

    Thomas Maldwyn Pryce (11 June 1949 – 5 March 1977) was a British racing driver from Wales, famous for winning the Brands Hatch Race of Champions, a non-championship Formula One race, in 1975 and for the circumstances surrounding his death. Pryce is the only Welsh driver to have won a Formula One race and is also the only Welshman to lead a Formula One World Championship Grand Prix: two laps of the 1975 British Grand Prix. Pryce started his career in Formula One with the small Token team, making his only start for them at the 1974 Belgian Grand Prix. Shortly after an impressive performance at the Formula Three support race for the 1974 Monaco Grand Prix, Pryce joined the Shadow team and scored his first points in Germany in only his fourth race. Pryce later claimed two podium finishes, his first in Austria in 1975 and the second in Brazil a year later. Pryce was considered by his team as a great wet weather driver. During the practice session for the 1977 South African GP, run in wet conditions, Pryce was faster than everyone, including world champion drivers Niki Lauda and James Hunt. Pryce's third full season at Shadow was cut short by his fatal accident at the 1977 South African
    8.00
    4 votes
    13

    Brandon Lee

    Brandon Bruce Lee (February 1, 1965 – March 31, 1993) was an American actor and martial artist. He was the son of martial arts film star Bruce Lee, and the grandson of Cantonese opera singer Lee Hoi-Chuen. Brandon Lee was born in Oakland, California, the son of martial artist and actor Bruce Lee and Linda Emery. A week after his birth, his grandfather Lee Hoi-Chuen died. The family moved to Los Angeles, California when he was three months old. When offers for film roles became limited for his father, he and his family moved back to Hong Kong in 1971. When Brandon was eight, his father died suddenly from cerebral edema. After his father's death, his family (including his younger sister, Shannon Lee, born April 19, 1969) moved back to the United States. They lived briefly in his mother's hometown of Seattle, Washington, and then in Los Angeles, where Lee grew up in the affluent area of Rolling Hills. He attended high school at Chadwick School, but was asked to leave for insubordination—more specifically, driving down the school's hill backwards, only three months before graduating. It is not known when exactly, but he did briefly attend Bishop Montgomery High School, located in
    7.75
    4 votes
    14

    Christine Chubbuck

    Christine Chubbuck (August 24, 1944 – July 15, 1974) was an American television news reporter who committed suicide during a live television broadcast. Born in Hudson, Ohio, Christine Chubbuck attended the Laurel School for Girls in Shaker Heights, a suburb of Cleveland. During her years at Laurel, she started a small tongue-in-cheek group called the "Dateless Wonder Club." She attended Miami University in Oxford, Ohio for one year, majoring in theatre arts, then attended Endicott College in Beverly, Massachusetts before earning a degree in broadcasting at Boston University in 1965. She worked for WVIZ in Cleveland for a year in 1966-1967, and attended a summer workshop in radio and television at New York University in 1967. Also in 1968, Chubbuck worked for a few months for public television stations in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania and Canton, Ohio before moving on to spend four years as a hospital computer operator and two years with a cable television firm in Sarasota, Florida. Immediately before joining WXLT-TV (now WWSB), she worked in the traffic department of WTOG in St. Petersburg, Florida. Several years before her death, Chubbuck had moved into the family's summer cottage on
    7.75
    4 votes
    15
    Owen Hart

    Owen Hart

    Owen James Hart (May 7, 1965 – May 23, 1999) was a Canadian professional and amateur wrestler who worked for several promotions including Stampede Wrestling, New Japan Pro Wrestling (NJPW), World Championship Wrestling (WCW), and most notably, the World Wrestling Federation (WWF), where he wrestled under both his own name, and ring name The Blue Blazer. A member of the Hart wrestling family, Hart was born in Calgary, Alberta, Canada the youngest of 12 children to Stampede Wrestling promoter and WWE Hall of Famer Stu Hart and Helen Hart. Among other accolades, Hart was a one-time world champion: a one-time USWA Unified World Heavyweight Champion; a two-time WWF Intercontinental Champion; one-time IWGP Junior Heavyweight Champion; one-time WWF European Champion and four-time WWF World Tag Team Champion. He was also the winner of the 1994 WWF King of the Ring. Hart has been cited by a number of peers as one of the WWF's greatest professional wrestlers. Hart died on May 23, 1999 when an equipment malfunction occurred during his entrance from the rafters of Kemper Arena in Kansas City, Missouri, U.S., at the WWF's Over the Edge pay-per-view event. Hart first gained wrestling experience
    7.75
    4 votes
    16
    Gustav Kobbé

    Gustav Kobbé

    Gustav Kobbé, M.A. (4 March 1857 - 27 July 1918) was an American music critic and author, best known for his guide to the operas, The Complete Opera Book, first published (posthumously) in the United States in 1919 and the United Kingdom in 1922. Kobbé was born in March 1857 in New York City, to William August Kobbé and Sarah Lord Sistare Kobbé. His father, William, was born in Idstein, near Wiesbaden, in the Duchy of Nassau (now part of Germany) and represented that country in New York as consul general until it was absorbed by the Kingdom of Prussia in 1866. Sarah was born in New London, Connecticut to a prominent New England family. When Gustav Kobbé was ten years old, he was sent to Wiesbaden to study composition and the piano with Adolf Hagen. Following five years of study in Germany, he returned to New York City for additional study under Joseph Mosenthal. Afterward, he graduated from Columbia College in 1877 and two years later from Columbia Law School. He received his M.A. from Columbia in 1880. In 1882, he married Carolyn Wheeler. He made his career in literary and newspaper work, and contributed articles on musical and dramatic subjects to the leading magazines and
    7.25
    4 votes
    17
    Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford

    Humphrey de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford

    Humphrey (VII) de Bohun, 4th Earl of Hereford (1276 – 16 March 1322) was a member of a powerful Anglo-Norman family of the Welsh Marches and was one of the Ordainers who opposed Edward II's excesses. Humphrey de Bohun's birth year is uncertain although several contemporary sources indicate that it was 1276. His father was Humphrey de Bohun, 3rd Earl of Hereford and his mother was Maud de Fiennes, daughter of Enguerrand II de Fiennes, chevalier, seigneur of Fiennes. He was born at Pleshey Castle, Essex. Humphrey (VII) de Bohun succeeded his father as Earl of Hereford and Earl of Essex, and Constable of England (later called Lord High Constable). Humphrey held the title of Bearer of the Swan Badge, a heraldic device passed down in the Bohun family. This device did not appear on their coat of arms, (az, a bend ar cotised or, between 6 lioncels or) nor their crest (gu, doubled erm, a lion gardant crowned), but it does appear on Humphrey's personal seal (illustration). Humphrey was one of several earls and barons under Edward I who laid siege to Caerlaverock Castle in Scotland in 1300 and later took part in many campaigns in Scotland. He also loved tourneying and gained a reputation as
    7.25
    4 votes
    18
    Yukio Mishima

    Yukio Mishima

    Yukio Mishima (三島 由紀夫, Mishima Yukio) was the pen name of Kimitake Hiraoka (平岡 公威, Hiraoka Kimitake, January 14, 1925 – November 25, 1970), a Japanese author, poet, playwright, actor, and film director. Nominated three times for the Nobel Prize in Literature, Mishima is considered one of the most important Japanese authors of the 20th century. His avant-garde work displayed a blending of modern and traditional aesthetics that broke cultural boundaries, with a focus on sexuality, death, and political change. He is also remembered for his ritual suicide by seppuku after a failed coup d'état. Mishima was born in the Yotsuya district of Tokyo (now part of Shinjuku). His father was Azusa Hiraoka, a government official, and his mother, Shizue, was the daughter of the 5th principal of the Kaisei Academy. Shizue's father, Kenzō Hashi was a scholar of Chinese classics, and the Hashi family had served the Maeda family (Maeda clan) for generations in Kaga Domain. Mishima's paternal grandparents were Sadatarō Hiraoka and Natsuko (family register name: Natsu) Hiraoka. He had a younger sister, Mitsuko, who died of typhus (aged 17 in 1945), and a younger brother, Chiyuki. Neither of his parents'
    7.25
    4 votes
    19

    Budd Dwyer

    Robert Budd Dwyer (November 21, 1939 – January 22, 1987) was an American politician in the state of Pennsylvania. He served from 1971 to 1981 as a member of the Pennsylvania State Senate representing the state's 50th district. He served as the 30th Treasurer of Pennsylvania from 1981 to 1987. In the early 1980s, Pennsylvania discovered its state workers had overpaid federal taxes due to errors in state withholding. Many accounting firms competed for a multimillion-dollar contract to determine compensation to each employee. In 1986, Dwyer was convicted of receiving a bribe from a California firm trying to gain the contract. Throughout his trial and after his conviction, he maintained that he was innocent of the charge and that he had been framed. On the morning of January 22, 1987, he committed suicide with a gun during a televised press conference at his office in Harrisburg, the state capital. Dwyer graduated from Allegheny College in Meadville, Pennsylvania, where he was a member of the Beta Chi chapter of Theta Chi Fraternity. After earning a master's degree in fine arts, he taught social studies and coached football at Cambridge Springs High School. A Republican, Dwyer became
    8.67
    3 votes
    20
    Sigurd Eysteinsson

    Sigurd Eysteinsson

    Sigurd Eysteinsson (aka Sigurd the Mighty, ruled circa 875–892) was the second Viking Earl of Orkney, who succeeded his brother Rognvald Eysteinsson. He was a leader in the Viking conquest of what is now northern Scotland. Bizarrely, he was killed by the severed head of one his enemies, Máel Brigte, who may have been mórmaer of Moray. Sigurd strapped Máel Brigte's head to his saddle as a trophy of conquest, and as he rode, Máel Brigte's teeth grazed against Sigurd's leg. The wound became infected and Sigurd died. The two main sources for Sigurd's life are the Norse Heimskringla and Orkneyinga sagas. According to the sagas, after the Battle of Hafrsfjord unified the Norwegian kingdom in or after 872, the Orkney and Shetland islands became a refuge for exiled Vikings, who raided their former homeland. The king of Norway, Harald Finehair, subdued the pirate Vikings with the aid of Rognvald Eysteinsson of Møre. During the conquest, Rognvald's son, Ivar, was killed, and in compensation for his loss Harald gave Rognvald the islands along with the title of Jarl or Earl. With the consent of Harald, Rognvald transferred the title and lands to his brother Sigurd, who was one of Harald's
    8.67
    3 votes
    21

    Margo Jones

    Margo Jones (December 12, 1911 – July 26, 1955) was an influential American stage director and producer best known for launching the American regional theater movement and for introducing the theater-in-the-round concept in Dallas, Texas. In 1947, she established the first regional professional company when she opened Theatre ’47 in Dallas. Of the 85 plays Jones staged during her Dallas career, 57 were new, and one-third of those new plays had a continued life on stage, television and radio. Born Margaret Virginia Jones in Livingston, Texas, Jones worked in community and professional theaters in California, Houston, and New York. "Since 1936, Margo Jones had served as assistant director of the Federal Theatre in Houston, traveled to Soviet Russia for a festival at the Moscow Art Theatre, and founded and directed the Houston Community Theatre. She had recently joined the faculty of the University of Texas's drama department in Austin (around 1942)." She traveled the world, experiencing theater everywhere, eventually gaining commercial success on Broadway as co-director of the original production of The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams. She directed Williams' Summer and Smoke, a
    6.00
    5 votes
    22

    Abigail Taylor

    Abigail Rose Taylor (May 24, 2001 – March 20, 2008) was a young girl from Edina, Minnesota, whose accidental injury and eventual death led to new federal legislation in the United States to improve the safety of swimming pools. On June 29, 2007, six-year-old Abigail Taylor's parents took her to the Minneapolis Golf Club in St. Louis Park, Minnesota. Everyone was leaving the wading pool when Abigail Taylor accidentally fell on the open drain of the pool and her buttocks were sucked into the aperture. The suction dislodged a large section of her small intestine which was forcefully drawn out through the anus, a phenomenon known as transanal evisceration. The incident was similar to a 1993 incident in North Carolina involving Valerie Lakey, who was five years old at the time. The pool drains in question in both the Taylor and the Lakey cases were manufactured by Sta-Rite, a division of Minnesota-based Pentair. The incident has been described by some media reports as a "freak accident". However, the risk of this sort of accident has been published before in the United States, and cases in other countries have also been documented. Furthermore, Abigail's parents alleged that the golf
    7.00
    4 votes
    23
    Isadora Duncan

    Isadora Duncan

    Angela Isadora Duncan (May 27, 1877 – September 14, 1927), was an American dancer, Born in California, she lived in Western Europe and the Soviet Union from the age of 22 until her death at age 50. She performed to acclaim throughout Europe and Russia; and was exiled from The United States for her soviet sympathies. Duncan's fondness for flowing scarves was the cause of her death in an automobile accident in Nice, France, when she was passenger in an Amilcar. Her silk scarf, draped around her neck, became entangled around the open-spoked wheels and rear axle, breaking her neck. Angela Isadora Duncan was born in San Francisco, California, as the youngest of four siblings. Her two brothers were Augustin Duncan and Raymond Duncan; her sister Elizabeth Duncan was also a dancer. Their parents were Joseph Charles Duncan (1819–1898), a banker, mining engineer and connoisseur of the arts, and Mary Isadora Gray (1849–1922). Soon after Isadora's birth, her father lost the bank and he was publicly disgraced and the family became extremely poor. Her parents were divorced by 1889 (the papers were lost in the San Francisco earthquake), and her mother moved with her family to Oakland. She worked
    7.00
    4 votes
    24
    Philetas of Cos

    Philetas of Cos

    Philitas of Cos ( /fɪˈlaɪtəs/; Greek: Φιλίτας, Philītas; c. 340 – c. 285 BC), sometimes spelled Philetas (/faɪˈliːtəs/; Φιλήτας, Philētas; see Bibliography below), was a scholar and poet during the early Hellenistic period of ancient Greece. A Greek associated with Alexandria, he flourished in the second half of the 4th century BC and was appointed tutor to the heir to the throne of Ptolemaic Egypt. He was thin and frail; Athenaeus later caricatured him as an academic so consumed by his studies that he wasted away and died. Philitas was the first major Greek writer who was both a scholar and a poet. His reputation continued for centuries, based on both his pioneering study of words and his verse in elegiac meter. His vocabulary Disorderly Words described the meanings of rare literary words, including those used by Homer. His poetry, notably his elegiac poem Demeter, was highly respected by later ancient poets. However, almost all his work has since been lost. Little is known of Philitas' life. Ancient sources refer to him as a Coan, a native or long-time inhabitant of Cos, one of the Dodecanese islands in the Aegean Sea just off the coast of Asia. His student Theocritus wrote that
    7.00
    4 votes
    25

    Keith Relf

    Keith William Relf (22 March 1943 – 14 May 1976) was a musician best known as the lead singer and harmonica player of The Yardbirds. After the Yardbirds broke up Relf formed the acoustic duo Together, with fellow Yardbird Jim McCarty, followed by Renaissance, which also featured his sister, singer Jane Relf, then hard rock group Armageddon. Relf also produced tracks for artists such as folk-rock band Hunter Muskett, the acoustic world music group Amber, psychedelic band Saturnalia and blues-rock band Medicine Head, with whom he played bass guitar. His debut solo single, "Mr. Zero", peaked at No. 50 in the UK Singles Chart in May 1966. Relf was 33 when he died from electrocution, at his home, while playing his improperly grounded electric guitar. At the time, Relf was rehearsing new material for the regrouping of the original Renaissance line-up, called Illusion. Relf's posthumous 1992 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame induction with the Yardbirds was represented by his widow April, and son Danny. Most of Relf's recordings were released under the name of the group he was in at the time. However, an early attempt was made to establish him as a solo artist and two singles came out under his
    10.00
    2 votes
    26

    Boris Sagal

    Boris Sagal (October 18, 1923 - May 22, 1981) was a Ukrainian-born American television and film director. Born in Yekaterinoslav, Ukrainian SSR (now known as Dnipropetrovsk, Ukraine), Sagal emigrated to the United States where he attended the Yale School of Drama. Sagal's many TV credits include directing episodes of The Twilight Zone, T.H.E. Cat, Alfred Hitchcock Presents, Columbo, Peter Gunn, and The Man from U.N.C.L.E.. He also directed the 1972 television adaptation of Percy MacKaye's play The Scarecrow, for PBS. He was nominated for four Primetime Emmy Awards for his direction of the miniseries Rich Man, Poor Man and, posthumously, Masada. Sagal directed the 1971 cult classic science fiction film, The Omega Man, starring Charlton Heston in the lead role and The Dream Makers. There is a directing fellowship in his name at the Williamstown Theatre Festival in Massachusetts. Sagal was Jewish. Sagal was the father of Katey, Joe, and twins Jean and Liz Sagal by his first wife, Sara Zwilling, who died in 1975. His second wife was Marge Champion, to whom he was married from January 1, 1977 until his death. Sagal was killed in an accident during production of the miniseries World War
    8.00
    3 votes
    27

    Jennifer Strange

    Jennifer Lea Strange was a 28-year-old woman who died of water intoxication on January 12, 2007 after taking part in a Sacramento, California, radio station's water-drinking contest. Strange, along with twenty other participants, took part in a contest held by KDND-FM's "Morning Rave" show called "Hold Your Wee for a Wii," where the winner would win a Wii, a popular but at that time difficult-to-obtain Nintendo video game console. The winner was the one who could consume the most water without urinating. Strange came in second place; it was not immediately known how much water Strange consumed, but other contestants speculated that Strange drank up to two gallons (7.56 L) of water. Her mother found the body in the Sacramento suburb of Rancho Cordova, California, after Strange called her supervisor at her job to say she was heading home in terrible pain. Preliminary autopsy findings have ruled the death was due to water intoxication.During the contest, a nurse identified as Eva called the show and gave an on-air warning that drinking too much water is hazardous and potentially deadly. The disc jockeys rebuffed the nurse, saying the contestants had signed waivers. (According to a
    8.00
    3 votes
    28

    Barry Bingham, Sr.

    George Barry Bingham, Sr., CBE, (February 10, 1906 – August 15, 1988 in Louisville, Kentucky) was the patriarch of a family that dominated local media in Louisville for several decades in the 20th century. Bingham's family owned a cluster of influential media properties — The Courier-Journal and The Louisville Times newspapers, plus WHAS Radio and WHAS Television. The papers had been purchased by his father, Col. Robert Worth Bingham, using proceeds from an inheritance left by his second wife, Mary Lily Kenan Flagler, herself the widow of railroad magnate Henry Flagler. Bingham attended Harvard University, then went into the family businesses. In 1931, he married Mary Caperton, a Radcliffe graduate. Bingham Sr. took the reins of the company in 1937. At the time, "The C-J" was little more than a Democratic Party organ, but Bingham built it into national prominence, thanks to reporting that was ambitious in scope for a newspaper in a city of Louisville's size. Throughout Bingham's tenure, the editorial voices of the C-J & Times was forthrightly liberal, especially for a fairly conservative (though predominantly Democratic at the time) state like Kentucky. The newspapers were
    7.67
    3 votes
    29
    Eileen Lonergan

    Eileen Lonergan

    Eileen Lonergan died with her husband, Tom Lonergan, while SCUBA diving with a group of divers off Australia's Great Barrier Reef. The cause of death is unknown. The bodies were never found.
    6.25
    4 votes
    30
    Adolf Frederick of Sweden

    Adolf Frederick of Sweden

    Adolf Frederick or Adolph Frederick (Swedish: Adolf Fredrik, German: Adolf Friedrich ; Gottorp, 14 May 1710 – Stockholm, 12 February 1771) was King of Sweden from 1751 until his death. He was the son of Christian August of Holstein-Gottorp, Prince of Eutin and Albertina Frederica of Baden-Durlach. The first King from the House of Holstein-Gottorp, Adolph Frederick was a weak monarch, instated as first in line of the throne following the parliamentary government's failure to reconquer the Baltic provinces in 1741–43. Asides from a few attempts to, supported with pro-absolutist factions among the nobility reclaim the absolute monarchy held by former predecessors he remained a mere constitutional figurehead until his death, by popular belief attributed to a heavy consumption of semlas. His reign saw an extended period of internal peace, although the finances stagnated following failed mercantilist doctrines pursued by the Hat administration ended only in the 1765–66 parliament, where the Cap opposition overtook the government and enacted reforms towards greater economic liberalism as well as a Freedom of Press Act almost unique at the time for its curtailing of all censorship,
    9.00
    2 votes
    31
    Janet Parker

    Janet Parker

    Janet Parker (March 1938 – September 11, 1978) was the last person to die from smallpox. She was born in Birmingham, UK, and was a medical photographer who worked in the Anatomy Department of the University of Birmingham Medical School. Parker died after being accidentally exposed to a strain of smallpox virus that was grown in a research laboratory, on the floor below the Anatomy Department. The event led to the suicide of Professor Henry Bedson, the then Head of the Microbiology Department. An official government inquiry into Parker's death was led by Professor R. A. Shooter, whose report was debated in the British Parliament. Parker's death triggered radical changes in how dangerous pathogens were studied in the UK. The University was prosecuted by the Health and Safety Executive for breach of Health and Safety legislation but was cleared in Court. Smallpox is an infectious disease unique to humans, caused by either of two virus variants named Variola major and Variola minor. The disease is also known by the Latin names Variola or Variola vera, which is a derivative of the Latin varius, meaning spotted, or varus, meaning "pimple". The term "smallpox" was first used in Europe in
    9.00
    2 votes
    32
    Bruce Lee

    Bruce Lee

    Bruce Lee (traditional :李小龍) (born Lee Jun-fan; 27 November 1940 – 20 July 1973) was an actor, martial arts instructor, philosopher, film director, film producer, screenwriter, founder of Jeet Kune Do, and the son of Cantonese opera star Lee Hoi-Chuen. He is widely considered by commentators, critics, media and other martial artists to be one of the most influential martial artists of all time, and a pop culture icon of the 20th century. He is often credited with changing the way Asians were presented in American films. Lee was born in Chinatown, San Francisco on 27 November 1940 to parents from Hong Kong and was raised in Kowloon with his family until his late teens. Lee returned to San Francisco at the age of 18 to claim his U.S. citizenship and receive his higher education. It was during this time that he began teaching martial arts, which soon led to film and television roles. His Hong Kong and Hollywood-produced films elevated the traditional Hong Kong martial arts film to a new level of popularity and acclaim, sparking a surge of interest in Chinese martial arts in the West in the 1970s. The direction and tone of his films changed and influenced martial arts and martial arts
    7.33
    3 votes
    33

    Kenji Urada

    Kenji Urada (c. 1944 — July 4, 1981) was one of the first persons reported to have been killed by a robot. On July 4, 1981, Urada was employed as a 37-year old maintenance engineer at a Kawasaki Heavy Industries plant. While working on a broken robot, he failed to turn it off completely, resulting in the robot pushing him into a grinding machine with its hydraulic arm. He died as a result. The circumstances of his death were not made public until December 8, after an investigation by the labor standards bureau was completed. Urada is often said to be the first person killed by a robot. However, Robert Williams was killed by a robot two years earlier, on January 25, 1979.
    7.33
    3 votes
    34
    Roger B. Chaffee

    Roger B. Chaffee

    Roger Bruce Chaffee (February 15, 1935 – January 27, 1967), Lieutenant Commander, United States Navy, was a Naval Aviator, aeronautical engineer and a NASA astronaut in the Apollo program. Chaffee died along with fellow astronauts Gus Grissom and Ed White during a pre-launch test for the Apollo 1 mission at the then-Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida, in 1967. Chaffee was posthumously awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor and the Navy Air Medal. Roger Bruce Chaffee was born in Grand Rapids, Michigan, where he became an Eagle Scout and graduated from Central High School. Turning down a possible appointment to the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Maryland, Chaffee accepted a Naval ROTC scholarship and in September 1953 enrolled at the Illinois Institute of Technology. After transferring to Purdue University in the fall of 1954, Chaffee earned a bachelor of science degree in aeronautical engineering in 1957. While there, he was a member of the Phi Kappa Sigma social fraternity, and the Tau Beta Pi and Sigma Gamma Tau engineering honor societies. While at Purdue, Chaffee took flight training as part of the Naval ROTC program in order to prepare him for a career
    7.33
    3 votes
    35
    Timothy Treadwell

    Timothy Treadwell

    Timothy Treadwell (April 29, 1957 – October 5, 2003) was an American bear enthusiast, environmentalist, amateur naturalist, eco-warrior and documentary film maker. He lived with his girlfriend and fiance Vicky Scott in Hessel, where they lived happily among the bears until she left to pursue a career at NPower. He was disappointed and went to live with the grizzly bears of Katmai National Park in Alaska, USA, for 13 summers. At the end of his 13th summer in the park in 2003, he and his girlfriend Amie Huguenard were killed and partially eaten by a grizzly bear. Treadwell's life, work, and death were the subject of the 2005 critically acclaimed documentary film by Werner Herzog titled Grizzly Man. Treadwell was born Timothy Dexter to Val and Carol Dexter on Long Island, New York, and was one of five children. He attended Connetquot High School, where he achieved average grades and was the swimming team's star diver. He was also very fond of animals, and kept a squirrel named Willie as a pet. In an interview with his parents in the film Grizzly Man, they say he was an ordinary young man until he went away to college. There, he claimed that he was a British orphan who was born in
    7.33
    3 votes
    36

    Leslie Harvey

    Leslie Cameron "Les" Harvey (13 September 1944 – 3 May 1972) was a guitarist in several Scottish bands of the late 1960s and early 1970s, most notably Stone the Crows. He was the brother of Alex Harvey. Harvey was born in Govan, Glasgow, Scotland. In the 1960s he was asked to join The Animals by Alan Price, but chose to stay with his brother in the Alex Harvey Soul Band. He later joined the ill-fated Blues Council, another Scottish band. The Blues Council made one record, Baby Don't Look Down, then, in March 1965, their tour van crashed, killing vocalist Fraser Calder and bassist James Giffen, and the rest of the band went their separate ways. In 1969 Harvey joined Scottish band Cartoone to record some tracks for their second album. He also accompanied Cartoone on their live tour of the United States supporting Led Zeppelin. They also supported the US band Spirit in 1969. John Lee Hooker, whose songs both Harvey and Cartoone used to cover on their tour of the UK, was their opening act. Harvey was a co-founder of Stone the Crows in late 1969. It was while on stage with Stone the Crows at Swansea Top Rank in 1972 that he got electrocuted to death by touching with his wet hands a
    6.00
    4 votes
    37

    Gloria Ramirez

    Gloria Ramirez (January 11, 1963 – February 19, 1994) was a Riverside, California, woman dubbed "the toxic lady" by the media when several Riverside General Hospital workers became ill after exposure to her body and blood. Her case was the basis for a scene in one episode of the American TV series The X-Files, an episode of the American TV drama Grey's Anatomy, a segment of a show on Discovery Communications' channel Investigation Discovery called "The New Detectives , a third season episode of Weird or What?, and the "Stink Bomb" segment of the animated film Memories. About 8:15 in the evening on February 19, 1994, Ramirez was brought into the emergency room of Riverside General Hospital by paramedics, suffering from the effects of advanced cervical cancer. She was extremely confused, and suffering from bradycardia and Cheyne-Stokes respiration. The medical staff injected her with Valium, Versed, and Ativan to sedate her, and agents such as lidocaine to stimulate her heartbeat. When it became clear that Ramirez was responding poorly to treatment, the staff tried to defibrillate her heart; at that point several people saw an oily sheen covering Ramirez’s body, and some noticed a
    8.50
    2 votes
    38
    Béla I of Hungary

    Béla I of Hungary

    Béla I the Champion or the Bison (/ˈbɛlə/; Hungarian: I. (Bajnok/Bölény) Béla; Slovak: Belo I., c. 1016–1063) was King of Hungary from 1060 until his death. He descended from a younger branch of the Árpád dynasty and spent seventeen years in exile, probably in the court of the Kings of Poland. He came back to Hungary, in 1043, at the request of his brother, King Andrew I who assigned him the government of one third of the kingdom and proclaimed Béla his heir. When Solomon was born in 1053, his father Andrew designated him heir to the throne; Béla refused to accept this and rebelled against his brother. Although he managed to ascend to the throne after defeating King Andrew, he could not subdue Andrew's sons' opposition and immediately ensure his sons' succession. This was achieved only in 1074. Béla was the second son of Duke Vazul, a cousin of Stephen I, the first King of Hungary. His mother was probably the concubine (a daughter of a member of the Hungarian gens Tátony) of his father, who still followed pagan customs. After their father's death, the three brothers were obliged to leave the country. Fleeing first to Bohemia, they continued to Poland where Béla settled down, while
    7.00
    3 votes
    39

    Collyer brothers

    Homer Lusk Collyer (November 6, 1881 – March 1947) and Langley Wakeman Collyer (October 3, 1885 – March 1947), known as the Collyer brothers, were two American brothers who became famous because of their bizarre nature and compulsive hoarding. For decades, neighborhood rumors swirled around the rarely seen men and their home at 2078 Fifth Avenue (at the corner of 128th Street), in Manhattan, where they obsessively collected books, furniture, musical instruments, and many other items, with booby traps set up in corridors and doorways to protect against intruders. Both were eventually found dead in the Harlem brownstone where they had lived, surrounded by over 140 tons of collected items that they had amassed over several decades. The Collyer brothers were sons of Herman Livingston Collyer (1857–1923), a Manhattan gynecologist who worked at Bellevue Hospital, and Susie Gage Frost (1856–1929), a former opera singer. Their parents were first cousins. The Collyer family alleged their roots could be traced to a fictional ship that supposedly arrived in America from England a week after the Mayflower. The family was descended from the Livingston family, a New York family with roots going
    7.00
    3 votes
    40
    Empedocles

    Empedocles

    Empedocles (pronounced: /ɛmˈpɛdəkliːz/; Ancient Greek: Ἐμπεδοκλῆς; Empedoklēs; Ancient Greek: [empedoklɛ̂ːs]; c. 490–430 BC) was a Greek pre-Socratic philosopher and a citizen of Agrigentum, a Greek city in Sicily. Empedocles' philosophy is best known for being the originator of the cosmogenic theory of the four Classical elements. He also proposed powers called Love and Strife which would act as forces to bring about the mixture and separation of the elements. These physical speculations were part of a history of the universe which also dealt with the origin and development of life. Influenced by the Pythagoreans, he supported the doctrine of reincarnation. Empedocles is generally considered the last Greek philosopher to record his ideas in verse. Some of his work survives, more than in the case of any other Presocratic philosopher. Empedocles' death was mythologized by ancient writers, and has been the subject of a number of literary treatments. Empedocles was born, c. 490 BC, at Agrigentum (Acragas) in Sicily to a distinguished family. Very little is known about his life. His father Meto seems to have been instrumental in overthrowing the tyrant of Agrigentum, presumably
    10.00
    1 votes
    41
    Marcus Garvey

    Marcus Garvey

    Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr., ONH (17 August 1887 – 10 June 1940) was a Jamaican political leader, publisher, journalist, entrepreneur, and orator who was a staunch proponent of the Black nationalism and Pan-Africanism movements, to which end he founded the Universal Negro Improvement Association and African Communities League (UNIA-ACL). He founded the Black Star Line, part of the Back-to-Africa movement, which promoted the return of the African diaspora to their ancestral lands. Prior to the twentieth century, leaders such as Prince Hall, Martin Delany, Edward Wilmot Blyden, and Henry Highland Garnet advocated the involvement of the African diaspora in African affairs. Garvey was unique in advancing a Pan-African philosophy to inspire a global mass movement and economic empowerment focusing on Africa known as Garveyism. Promoted by the UNIA as a movement of African Redemption, Garveyism would eventually inspire others, ranging from the Nation of Islam to the Rastafari movement (which proclaims Garvey as a prophet). The intent of the movement was for those of African ancestry to "redeem" Africa and for the European colonial powers to leave it. His essential ideas about Africa were
    10.00
    1 votes
    42

    Nanda Bayin

    Nanda Bayin (Burmese: နန္ဒဘုရင်, pronounced: [nàɴda̰ bəjɪ̀ɴ]; 1535–1600), was the king of the Toungoo Dynasty of Myanmar from 1581 to 1599. Nanda was the eldest son of King Bayinnaung, and became the heir apparent upon his father's accession in January 1551. He was one of lead commanders in all of his father's campaigns that conquered Lan Na, Siam and Lan Xang, among others. Soon after Nanda succeeded his father in November 1581, he faced the impossible task of keeping his father's empire together. He spent the first half of his reign putting down the rebellions, and the second half defending his own capital against the rebel forces. Siam revolted in 1584 and fought off Nanda's repeated invasions by 1593. By 1597, all the vassal states had revolted. In 19 December 1599, Nanda surrendered to the joint forces of city of Toungoo (Taungoo) and Arakan, and was taken prisoner to Toungoo. He was assassinated a year later by Natshinnaung, the heir apparent of Toungoo.
    10.00
    1 votes
    43

    Robert Williams

    Robert Williams (c. 1954 – January 25, 1979), a worker at a Ford Motor Company factory in Michigan, was one of the first individuals killed by a robot. According to press reports: A jury has ordered the manufacturer of a one-ton robot that killed a worker at a Ford Motor Co. plant to pay the man's family $10 million. The Wayne County Circuit Court jury deliberated for 2 1/2 hours Tuesday before announcing the decision against Unit Handling Systems, a division of Litton Industries. The suit was brought by the family of Robert Williams, who was killed Jan. 25, 1979, at a casting plant in Flat Rock, Mich. The robot was designed to retrieve parts from storage, but its work was deemed too slow. Williams was retrieving a part from a storage bin when the robot's arm hit him in the head, killing him instantly. In the suit, the family claimed the robot had no safety mechanisms to prevent this, lacking even a warning noise to alert workers the robot was nearby. Kenji Urada, a Japanese factory worker who died in 1981, is often mistakenly cited as the first person killed by a robot. Williams died two years before Urada.
    10.00
    1 votes
    44

    Jansen Van Vuuren

    Jansen Van Vuuren (1958¬タヤMarch 5, 1977) was a safety marshall in the 1977 South African Grand Prix at Kyalami. A 19 year old ticket clerk at Johannesburg airport, he was a volunteer marshal at his local racing circuit. He died when crossing the track to extinguish a fire on Renzo Zorzi's retired Shadow, but was hit by Tom Pryce at high speed, who was unable to avoid him. The impact killed both Pryce and Van Vuuren instantly, Pryce killed by the fire extinguisher that the marshall was carrying. Van Vuuren's corpse was so torn apart by the impact that it was only recognized by exclusion after the race director gathered all of his colleagues. The impact from the fire extiguisher ripped Pryce's helmet from his head. Even though Formula One in the seventies remained rather blasᅢᄅ when compared to the contemporary era, the sport reacted with genuine sorrow at the loss of two young men. Tyrrell mechanic Trevor Foster viewed the incident from a distance, later recalling; "I can remember quite vividly his [Pryce's] teammate's car had already pulled off to the side of the track and it had started a small fire. Then the next thing I can remember is seeing Tom's car coming down the
    6.67
    3 votes
    45
    Martin I of Aragon

    Martin I of Aragon

    Martin of Aragon (29 July 1356 – 20 January 1410), called the Elder, the Humane, the Ecclesiastic, was the King of Aragon, Valencia, Sardinia and Corsica and Count of Barcelona from 1396 and King of Sicily from 1409 (as Martin II). He was the last descendant in legitimate male line of Wilfred the Hairy and with him the rule of the House of Barcelona came to an end. Martin was born in 1356, either in Girona or in Perpignan. He was the second son of King Peter IV of Aragon and Eleanor of Sicily (Leonora), princess of the Sicilian branch of the House of Aragon. As a cadet prince of the Aragonese royal family, Martin was given the Duchy of Monblanch (modern Montblanc). In 1380 his father appointed him lord and regent of the island of Sicily, then known also as Trinacria, since its queen Maria of Sicily, who was Martin's cousin, was underage (Maria's father, Frederick III the Simple, died in 1377). As a son of Eleanor of Sicily Martin was himself an heir to the island, should Maria's family die out. In Barcelona on 13 June 1373 Martin married María López de Luna (d. Villarreal, 20 December 1406), daughter and heiress of Lope, Lord and 1st Count of Luna and Lord of Segorbe and wife
    6.67
    3 votes
    46

    Arthur Aston

    Sir Arthur Aston (1590–1649) was a lifelong professional soldier, most noted for his support for King Charles I in the English Civil War, and in folklore for the gruesome manner of his death. He was a native of Cheshire and from a prominent Roman Catholic family. Arthur Aston's father was a professional soldier who had served in Russia in the 1610s, and, being a Catholic, had caught the attention and trust of the Polish king Sigismund III. Arthur Aston senior agreed to raise 2,000 British mercenaries for the Polish crown for the Turkish war of 1621. Though most of these mercenaries bound for Poland were turned back by Protestant Denmark in the Denmark Straits, Captain Arthur Aston Junior successfully landed about 300 Britons and Irishmen of his father's levies in Poland in 1621. These troops later formed a guard for the King of Poland. Arthur Aston Senior died in 1624. Aston advanced to the rank of Major by 1627, and saw considerable service during the Polish-Swedish wars. He was captured by Swedish troops near Danzig in 1627. After the peace of Altmark of 1629, Aston left Poland for the service of Sweden and was commissioned by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden to raise an English
    8.00
    2 votes
    47

    Carl McCunn

    Carl McCunn (1946 – 1981) was an American wildlife photographer who became stranded in the Alaskan wilderness and eventually committed suicide when he ran out of supplies. McCunn was born in West Germany when his father Donovan McCunn was in the United States Army, and was raised in San Antonio, Texas. He graduated from high school in 1964, and enlisted in the U.S. Navy shortly after dropping out of community college. McCunn served in the Navy for four years and was discharged in 1969. He briefly lived in Seattle, Washington before he settled in Anchorage, Alaska in 1970. In March 1981, McCunn paid a bush pilot to land him at a remote lake approximately 225 miles northeast of Fairbanks, Alaska near the Coleen River in the Alaskan wilderness on the southern margin of the Brooks Range. McCunn intended to photograph wildlife for about five months. McCunn had lived five months on the Brooks Range in 1976. On this trip, he flew in with 500 rolls of film, 1,400 pounds of provisions, two rifles and a shotgun. Not believing he would need them, he prematurely disposed of boxes of shotgun shells in the river near his camp. Although McCunn thought he had arranged for the pilot to return for
    8.00
    2 votes
    48
    Chrysippus

    Chrysippus

    Chrysippus of Soli (Ancient Greek: Χρύσιππος ὁ Σολεύς, Chrysippos ho Soleus; c. 279 BC – c. 206 BC) was a Greek Stoic philosopher. He was a native of Soli, Cilicia, but moved to Athens as a young man, where he became a pupil of Cleanthes in the Stoic school. When Cleanthes died, around 230 BC, Chrysippus became the third head of the school. A prolific writer, Chrysippus expanded the fundamental doctrines of Zeno of Citium, the founder of the school, which earned him the title of Second Founder of Stoicism. Chrysippus excelled in logic, the theory of knowledge, ethics and physics. He created an original system of propositional logic in order to better understand the workings of the universe and role of humanity within it. He adhered to a deterministic view of fate, but nevertheless sought a role for personal freedom in thought and action. Ethics, he taught, depended on understanding the nature of the universe, and he taught a therapy of extirpating the unruly passions which depress and crush the soul. He initiated the success of Stoicism as one of the most influential philosophical movements for centuries in the Greek and Roman world. Chrysippus was the son of Apollonius of Tarsus
    8.00
    2 votes
    49

    Eben Byers

    Eben McBurney Byers (April 12, 1880 – March 31, 1932) was a wealthy American socialite, athlete, and industrialist. He won the 1906 U.S. Amateur in golf. He earned notoriety in the early 1930s when he died from multiple radiation-induced cancers after consuming a popular patent medicine made from radium dissolved in water. The son of industrialist Alexander Byers, Eben Byers was educated at St. Paul's School and Yale College, where he earned a reputation as an athlete and ladies' man. He was the U.S. Amateur golf champion of 1906, after finishing runner-up in 1902 and 1903. Byers eventually became the chairman of the Girard Iron Company, which had been created by his father. In 1927, while returning via chartered train from the annual Harvard–Yale football game, Byers fell from his berth and injured his arm. He complained of persistent pain and a doctor suggested that he take Radithor, a patent medicine manufactured by William J. A. Bailey. Bailey was a Harvard University dropout who falsely claimed to be a doctor of medicine and became rich from the sale of Radithor. Bailey created Radithor by dissolving radium in water to high concentrations, claiming it could cure many ailments
    8.00
    2 votes
    50
    Grigori Rasputin

    Grigori Rasputin

    Grigori Yefimovich Rasputin (Russian: Григорий Ефимович Распутин [ɡrʲɪˈɡorʲɪj jɪˈfʲiməvʲɪtɕ rɐˈsputʲɪn]) (22 January [O.S. 10 January] 1869 – 29 or 30 December [O.S. 16 December] 1916) was a Russian Orthodox Christian and mystic who is perceived as having influenced the latter days of the Russian Emperor Nicholas II, his wife Alexandra, and their only son, Alexei. Some people called Rasputin the "Mad Monk", while others considered him a "strannik" (or religious pilgrim) and even a starets (ста́рец, "elder", a title usually reserved for monk-confessors), believing him to be a psychic and faith healer. It has been argued that Rasputin helped to discredit the tsarist government, leading to the fall of the Romanov dynasty in 1917. Contemporary opinions saw Rasputin variously as a saintly mystic, visionary, healer and prophet or, on the contrary, as a debauched religious charlatan. There has been much uncertainty over Rasputin's life and influence as accounts of his life have often been based on dubious memoirs, hearsay and legend. In his homeland he is revered as a righteous man by many people and clerics, among them Elder Nikolay Guryanov. Rasputin was born a peasant in the small
    8.00
    2 votes
    51

    Len Koenecke

    Leonard George "Len" Koenecke (January 18, 1904 in Baraboo, Wisconsin, USA – September 17, 1935 in Toronto, Ontario, Canada) was an American baseball player who played Major League Baseball for the Brooklyn Dodgers and the New York Giants. He is most widely known for his unusual death. Koenecke was the son of a locomotive engineer and had worked as a fireman. Koenecke made his professional debut for the Moline Plowboys in the Mississippi Valley League in 1927. In 1928 he joined Indianapolis in the American Association. After several seasons with Indianapolis, Koenecke was signed to the New York Giants in December 1931 in a deal worth $75,000. Manager John McGraw predicted he would "be a bright star in the National League". He played just the one season with the Giants. In 1933 while playing for the International League Buffalo Bisons, he hit .334 and drove in 100 RBI's while hitting 8 home runs. In 1934 Koenecke joined the Brooklyn Dodgers where in his first season he hit 14 home runs, 73 RBI and set a National League outfielding record fielding 0.994. His second season saw a decline in his onfield performance and his drinking became a problem to the point where he was cut during
    8.00
    2 votes
    52
    Knut Frænkel

    Knut Frænkel

    Knut Hjalmar Ferdinand Frænkel (born 14 February 1870, died probably at the end of October 1897) was a Swedish engineer and arctic explorer who perished in the Arctic balloon expedition of 1897 of S. A. Andrée in 1897. Frænkel was born in Karlstad, son of a major in the Army engineering corps (väg- och vattenbyggnadskåren), and grew up in mountainous Jämtland in eastern middle part of Sweden, where he acquired an interest in outdoor activities and sports. He later went to the Palmgren School in Stockholm and graduated with a civil engineering degree from the Royal Institute of Technology in 1896, and was preparing himself to enter the Army engineers when the chance came up in 1897 to join S. A. Andrée's planned balloon expedition to the North Pole. The third participant was Nils Strindberg. Frænkel replaced the meteorologist Nils Gustaf Ekholm who had participated in the preparations but dropped out in the last moment, critical of the construction of the balloon. During the balloon expedition, Frænkel was responsible for writing the detailed protocols of everything done by the participants. After the landing on the ice, he wrote the meteorological journal and was responsible for
    5.50
    4 votes
    53

    Sergei Chalibashvili

    Sergo Shalibashvili (Georgian: სერგო შალიბაშვილი; Russian: Шалибашвили Сергей) (June 22, 1962, Tbilisi - July 16, 1983, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada) was a Georgian competitive diver from the Soviet Union. He earned a silver medal at the European Youth Championship in 1978 in Florence, diving from the 10-meter diving platform. Shalibashvili died at the age of 21 following an accident during competition at the 1983 Summer Universiade (1983 World University Games) in Edmonton, Alberta, when he hit his head on the platform while attempting a reverse 3½ somersault in the tuck position. He fell into a week-long coma and subsequently died of heart failure, never having regained consciousness. The total score obtained for the jump was 0.0, after a French judge placed an estimate of -3.5. Well-known diver Greg Louganis was a participant in the competition and witnessed the incident. He remembered what had happened as follows: I had a premonition. I closed my eyes and plugged my ears. I knew something terrible had happened when I felt the tower shake. I heard screaming. I ran to the edge of the platform and saw a lot of blood in the pool. I wanted to jump in after him, but people were yelling,
    5.50
    4 votes
    54

    Jonathan Burton

    Southwest Airlines Flight 1763 was a scheduled passenger flight, operated by Southwest Airlines, from McCarran International Airport, in Las Vegas, Nevada, to Salt Lake City International Airport, in Salt Lake City, Utah. On August 11, 2000, Jonathan Burton, a Las Vegas resident, stormed the cockpit door of the Boeing 737 operating the flight, in an apparent case of air rage. The 19-year-old was subdued by eight other passengers with the help of others and with such force that he died of asphyxiation. The death was initially believed to have been a heart attack. There were conflicting reports of Burton's air rage and the events which happened on the plane. CBS News reported the conclusion of the U.S. Attorney's office that criminal charges would not be filed because the death was not intended. Time ran an article by Timothy Roche entitled "Homicide in the Sky" in which they described the ruckus rising after Burton had initially been subdued. According to the article, the eight men who pinned Burton rose after Burton had injured an off-duty officer in his struggles and pushed aside the men holding him. Time reported that fellow passenger Dean Harvey said that one of the men involved
    6.33
    3 votes
    55
    Saint Peter

    Saint Peter

    Saint Peter or Simon Peter was an early Christian leader and one of the twelve apostles of Jesus. Peter is featured prominently in the New Testament Gospels and the Acts of the Apostles and is venerated as a saint. The son of John or of Jonah or Jona (King James Bible (KJB), Douay–Rheims Bible (D-R)), he was from the village of Bethsaida in the province of Galilee or Gaulanitis. His brother Andrew was also an apostle. Peter is venerated in multiple churches and is regarded as the first pope by the Catholic Church. After working to establish the church of Antioch, and presiding for seven years as the leader of the city's Christian community, he preached, or his epistle was preached, to scattered communities of believers: Jews, Hebrew Christians and the gentiles, in Pontus, Galatia, Cappadocia, Asia Minor and Bithynia. He then went to Rome, where in the second year of Claudius, it is claimed, he overthrew Simon Magus and held the Sacerdotal Chair for 25 years. He is said to have been put to death at the hand of Emperor Nero. Peter wrote two general epistles. The Gospel of Mark is also ascribed to him (as Mark was his disciple and interpreter). Several other books bearing his name—the
    6.33
    3 votes
    56

    Sharon Lopatka

    Sharon Rina Lopatka (September 20, 1961 – October 16, 1996) was an Internet entrepreneur in Hampstead, Maryland, United States, who was killed in a case of apparent consensual homicide. Lopatka was tortured and strangled to death on October 16, 1996, by Robert Frederick Glass, a computer analyst from North Carolina. The apparent purpose was mutual sexual gratification. The case became the earliest widely publicized example of a consensual homicide mediated through the use of the Internet. Lopatka, formerly Sharon Denburg, grew up in the suburbs of Baltimore, Maryland in an Orthodox Jewish home. She was the daughter of Abraham Denburg, formerly the cantor of Beth Tfiloh Congregation. When she was 29, she married Victor Lopatka, an Ellicott City, Maryland native and a practising Catholic, in an act she considered to be a rebellion against her Jewish upbringing. Lopatka started an internet business from a kit she purchased from an Arizona company. This enabled her to profit from the use of 1-900-numbers by giving psychic readings. Using the Internet, where she also advertised pornography related to unusual sexual fetishes, Lopatka searched for a man who would torture and kill her.
    6.33
    3 votes
    57
    Thomas Midgley, Jr.

    Thomas Midgley, Jr.

    Thomas Midgley, Jr. (May 18, 1889 – November 2, 1944) was an American mechanical engineer and chemist. Midgley was a key figure in a team of chemists, led by Charles F. Kettering, that developed the tetraethyllead (TEL) additive to gasoline as well as some of the first chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). Over the course of his career, Midgley was granted over a hundred patents. While he was lauded for his scientific contributions during his lifetime, the negative environmental impacts of some of Midgley's innovations have considerably tarnished his legacy. Environmental historian J.R. McNeil says that Midgley had a greater impact on the environment than any other single organism in world history. Bill Bryson in his book, 'A Short History Of Nearly Everything', has expressed a similar opinion. Midgley was born in Beaver Falls, Pennsylvania, to a father who was also an inventor. He grew up in Columbus, Ohio, and graduated from Cornell University in 1911 with a degree in mechanical engineering. Midgley began working at General Motors in 1916. In December 1921, while working under the direction of Kettering at Dayton Research Laboratories, a subsidiary of General Motors, Midgley discovered
    6.33
    3 votes
    58

    Garry Hoy

    Garry Hoy (1955 – 9 July 1993) was a lawyer for the law firm of Holden Day Wilson in Toronto. He is best known for the circumstances of his death; in an attempt to prove to a group of his partners at the firm that the glass in the Toronto-Dominion Centre was unbreakable, he threw himself through a glass wall on the 24th story and fell to his death after the window frame gave way. He had apparently performed this stunt many times in the past, having previously bounced harmlessly off the glass. The event occurred in a small boardroom adjacent to a boardroom where a reception was being held for new articling students. Mr. Hoy was a noted and respected corporate and securities law specialist in Toronto. He was a professional engineer, having completed his engineering degree before studying law. He was a highly respected philanthropic member of the Toronto Asian community. In the words of Toronto Police Service Detective Mike Stowell: "At this Friday night party, Mr. Hoy did it again and bounced off the glass the first time. However, he did it a second time and this time crashed right through the middle of the glass." In another interview, the firm's spokesman mentioned that the glass
    5.25
    4 votes
    59
    Gus Grissom

    Gus Grissom

    Virgil Ivan Grissom (April 3, 1926 – January 27, 1967), (Lt Col, USAF), better known as Gus Grissom, was one of the original NASA Project Mercury astronauts and a United States Air Force pilot. He was the second American to fly in space, and the first member of the NASA Astronaut Corps to fly in space twice. Grissom was killed along with fellow astronauts Ed White and Roger Chaffee during a pre-launch test for the Apollo 1 mission at Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (then known as Cape Kennedy), Florida. He was the first of the Mercury Seven to die. He was also a recipient of the Distinguished Flying Cross and, posthumously, the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. Grissom was born in Mitchell, Indiana on April 3, 1926, the second child of Dennis and Cecile King Grissom. His father was a signalman for the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad, and his mother a homemaker. His older sister died shortly before his birth, and he was followed by three younger siblings, Wilma, Norman and Lowell. As a child he attended the local Church of Christ where he remained a lifelong member and joined the Boy Scouts' Troop 46. He was enrolled in public elementary schools and went on to attend Mitchell High
    9.00
    1 votes
    60
    Hypatia of Alexandria

    Hypatia of Alexandria

    Hypatia (ca. AD 350–370–March 415) ( /haɪˈpeɪʃə/ hy-PAY-shə; Ancient Greek: Ὑπατία; Hypatía) was a Greek Neoplatonist philosopher in Roman Egypt who was the first historically noted woman in mathematics. As head of the Platonist school at Alexandria, she also taught philosophy and astronomy. As a Neoplatonist philosopher, she belonged to the mathematic tradition of the Academy of Athens, as represented by Eudoxus of Cnidus; she was of the intellectual school of the 3rd century thinker Plotinus, which encouraged logic and mathematical study in place of empirical enquiry and strongly encouraged law in place of nature. According to the only contemporary source, Hypatia was murdered by a Christian mob after being accused of exacerbating a conflict between two prominent figures in Alexandria: the governor Orestes and the Bishop of Alexandria. Kathleen Wider proposes that the murder of Hypatia marked the end of Classical antiquity, and Stephen Greenblatt observes that her murder "effectively marked the downfall of Alexandrian intellectual life". On the other hand, Maria Dzielska and Christian Wildberg note that Hellenistic philosophy continued to flourish in the 5th and 6th centuries,
    9.00
    1 votes
    61
    Louis Slotin

    Louis Slotin

    Louis Alexander Slotin (December 1, 1910 – May 30, 1946) was a Canadian physicist and chemist who took part in the Manhattan Project, the secret U.S. program during World War II that developed the atomic bomb. As part of the project, Slotin performed experiments with uranium and plutonium cores to determine their critical mass values. During World War II, Slotin continued his research at Los Alamos National Laboratory. On May 21, 1946, Slotin accidentally began a fission reaction, which released a burst of hard radiation. He was rushed to a hospital, and died of radiation sickness nine days later on May 30, the second victim of a criticality accident in history. Slotin was hailed as a hero by the United States government for reacting quickly enough to prevent his accident from killing any colleagues. The accident and its aftermath have been dramatized in several fictional and non-fiction accounts. Slotin was the first of three children born to Israel and Sonia Slotin, Yiddish-speaking refugees who had fled the pogroms of Russia to Winnipeg, Manitoba. He grew up in the North End neighborhood of Winnipeg, an area with a large concentration of Eastern European immigrants. From his
    9.00
    1 votes
    62
    Saint Antipas

    Saint Antipas

    Many Christian traditions believe Saint Antipas to be the Antipas referred to in the Book of Revelation (Revelation 2:13) as the "faithful martyr" of Pergamon, "where Satan dwells". According to Christian tradition, John the Apostle ordained Antipas as bishop of Pergamon during the reign of the Roman emperor Domitian. The traditional account goes on to say Antipas was martyred in ca. 92 AD by burning in a brazen bull-shaped altar used for casting out demons worshiped by the local population. There is a tradition of oil ("manna of the saints") being secreted from the relics of Saint Antipas. On the calendars of Eastern Christianity, the feast day of Antipas is April 11. Some Christians pray to this saint for ailments of the teeth.
    9.00
    1 votes
    63
    Valerian

    Valerian

    Valerian (Latin: Publius Licinius Valerianus Augustus; 193/195/200 – 260 or 264), also known as Valerian the Elder, was Roman Emperor from 253 to 260. He was taken captive by Persian king Shapur I after the Battle of Edessa, becoming the only Roman Emperor who was captured as a prisoner of war, causing instability in the Empire. Unlike the majority of the pretenders during the Crisis of the Third Century, Valerian was of a noble and traditional senatorial family. Details of his early life are elusive, but for his marriage to Egnatia Mariniana, who gave him two sons: later emperor Publius Licinius Egnatius Gallienus and Valerianus Minor. He was Consul for the first time either before 238 as a Suffectus or in 238 as an Ordinarius. In 238 he was princeps senatus, and Gordian I negotiated through him for Senatorial acknowledgement for his claim as emperor. In 251, when Decius revived the censorship with legislative and executive powers so extensive that it practically embraced the civil authority of the emperor, Valerian was chosen censor by the Senate, though he declined to accept the post. Under Decius he was nominated governor of the Rhine provinces of Noricum and Raetia and
    9.00
    1 votes
    64
    Zishe Breitbart

    Zishe Breitbart

    Siegmund Breitbart (22 February 1883 – 12 October 1925) (Yiddish: זיגמונד ברייטברט), also known popularly as Zishe or Sische Breitbart (Yiddish: זישה ברייטברט), was a Polish-born circus performer, vaudeville strongman and Jewish folklore hero. He was known as the "Strongest Man in the World" and Eisenkönig ("Ironking") during the 1920s. Breitbart was born into an Observant Jewish family of blacksmiths near Łódź, on February 22, 1883. Breitbart performed extensively in Europe and America touring with the Circus Busch using a strength act themed to fit his former background as a blacksmith. He bent iron bars around his arm in floral patterns, bit through iron chains or tore them apart, and even broke horseshoes in half. As a showman, Breitbart feats also included holding back two whipped horses, pulling a wagon-load of people with his teeth and supporting enormous weights, such as automobiles loaded with up to 10 passengers, while lying on his back. Stones would be broken by sledgehammers on his chest. He also lifted a baby elephant, and while holding on to the elephant, he climbed a ladder and held a locomotive wheel by rope in his teeth while three men were suspended from the
    9.00
    1 votes
    65
    Alexander Bogdanov

    Alexander Bogdanov

    Alexander Aleksandrovich Bogdanov (Russian: Алекса́ндр Алекса́ндрович Богда́нов; born Alyaksandr Malinovsky, Belarusian: Алякса́ндр Алякса́ндравіч Маліно́ўскі; 22 August 1873 [O.S. 10 August] –7 April 1928) was a Russian physician, philosopher, science fiction writer, and revolutionary of Belarusian ethnicity. He was a key figure in the early history of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social Democratic Labor Party, being one of its cofounders and a rival to Vladimir Lenin until being expelled in 1909. In the first two decades of the Soviet Union, he was an influential opponent of the government from a Marxist perspective. The polymath Bogdanov received training in medicine and psychiatry. His scientific interests ranged from the universal systems theory to the possibility of human rejuvenation through blood transfusion. He invented an original philosophy called “tectology,” now regarded as a forerunner of systems theory. He was also an economist, culture theorist, science fiction writer, and political activist. Ethnically Belarusian, Alyaksandr Malinovsky was born into a rural teacher's family, the second of six children. He attended the Gymnasium at Tula, which he compared to
    7.50
    2 votes
    66
    Boston molasses disaster

    Boston molasses disaster

    The Boston Molasses Disaster, also known as the Great Molasses Flood and the Great Boston Molasses Tragedy, occurred on January 15, 1919, in the North End neighborhood of Boston, Massachusetts in the United States. A large molasses storage tank burst, and a wave of molasses rushed through the streets at an estimated 35 mph (56 km/h), killing 21 and injuring 150. The event has entered local folklore, and some residents claim that on hot summer days, the area still smells of molasses. The disaster occurred at the Purity Distilling Company facility on January 15, 1919. The temperature had risen above 40˚ F (4.4˚ C), climbing rapidly from the frigid temperatures of the preceding days. At the time, molasses was the standard sweetener in the U.S. Molasses can also be fermented to produce rum and ethyl alcohol, the active ingredient in other alcoholic beverages and a key component in the manufacturing of munitions at the time. The stored molasses was awaiting transfer to the Purity plant situated between Willow Street and what is now named Evereteze Way, in Cambridge. Near Keany Square, at 529 Commercial Street, a huge molasses tank 50 ft (15 m) tall, 90 ft (27 m) in diameter and
    7.50
    2 votes
    67
    Henry II of France

    Henry II of France

    Henry II (31 March 1519 – 10 July 1559) was King of France from 31 March 1547 until his death in 1559. Henry II's reign was dominated by war against the House of Habsburg, chiefly in Italy. He suffered an untimely death in a jousting tournament held to celebrate the Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis at the conclusion of the conflict. During Henry's reign, Protestantism became an important minority religion in France, in spite of his efforts to suppress it. His death led to a weakening of French royal authority that helped spur decades of religious violence between Protestants and Catholics. Henry was born in the royal Château de Saint-Germain-en-Laye, near Paris, the son of Francis I and Claude, Duchess of Brittany (daughter of Louis XII of France and Anne, Duchess of Brittany). His father was captured at the Battle of Pavia in 1525 by his sworn enemy, Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, and held prisoner in Spain. To obtain his release it was eventually agreed that Henry and his older brother be sent to Spain in his place. They remained in captivity for three years. Henry married Catherine de' Medici (13 April 1519 – 5 January 1589) on 28 October 1533, when they were both fourteen years old.
    7.50
    2 votes
    68

    Kip Siegel

    Keeve M. (Kip) Siegel (1923-1975) was a US physicist. He was a professor of Physics at the University of Michigan in Ann Arbor, MI, and the founder of Conductron Corporation, a high tech producer of electronic equipment which was absorbed by McDonnell Douglas Corporation; KMS Industries and KMS Fusion. KMS Fusion was the first and only private sector company to pursue controlled thermonuclear fusion research through use of laser technology. Keeve Milton Siegel was born in New York City to David Porter Siegel, Chief of the Criminal Division of the US Attorney's office for the Southern District of New York, and Rose Siegel (née Jelin). His uncle, Isaac Siegel, was a member of Congress. He graduated from Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in 1948 with a Bachelor of Science degree. He joined Michigan's Upper Atmospheric Physics Group, which had been set up that year, as a research associate and became the head of the group a year later. He continued in this position until early 1952, by which time he had completed his Master of Science degree from RPI (1950), and got married (1951). Due to the importance of their work to what would become NORAD, it was renamed the Theory and Analysis
    7.50
    2 votes
    69
    Molière

    Molière

    Jean-Baptiste Poquelin, known by his stage name Molière, (French pronunciation: [mɔ'ljɛʁ] ; baptised January 15, 1622 – February 17, 1673) was a French playwright and actor who is considered to be one of the greatest masters of comedy in Western literature. Among Molière's best-known works are Le Misanthrope (The Misanthrope), L'École des femmes (The School for Wives), Tartuffe ou L'Imposteur, (Tartuffe or the Imposter), L'Avare (The Miser), Le Malade imaginaire (The Imaginary Invalid), and Le Bourgeois Gentilhomme (The Bourgeois Gentleman). Born into a prosperous family and having studied at the Collège de Clermont (now Lycée Louis-le-Grand), Molière was well suited to begin a life in the theatre. Thirteen years as an itinerant actor helped him polish his comic abilities while he began writing, combining Commedia dell'arte elements with the more refined French comedy. Through the patronage of a few aristocrats, including Philippe I, Duke of Orléans – the brother of Louis XIV – Molière procured a command performance before the King at the Louvre. Performing a classic play by Pierre Corneille and a farce of his own, Le Docteur amoureux (The Doctor in Love), Molière was granted the
    7.50
    2 votes
    70
    Tycho Brahe

    Tycho Brahe

    Tycho Brahe (14 December 1546 – 24 October 1601), born Tyge Ottesen Brahe, was a Danish nobleman known for his accurate and comprehensive astronomical and planetary observations. He was born in Scania, then part of Denmark, now part of modern-day Sweden. Tycho was well known in his lifetime as an astronomer and alchemist. His work as an astronomer was remarkably accurate for his time. Most importantly, it had a lasting impact which remains to this day. In his De nova stella (On the new star) of 1573, he refuted the Aristotelian belief in an unchanging celestial realm. His precise measurements indicated that "new stars" (stella novae, now known as supernovae), in particular that of 1572, lacked the parallax expected in sub-lunar phenomena, and were therefore not "atmospheric" tail-less comets as previously believed, but occurred above the atmosphere and moon. Using similar measurements he showed that comets were also not atmospheric phenomena, as previously thought, and must pass through the supposed "immutable" celestial spheres. As an astronomer, Tycho worked to combine what he saw as the geometrical benefits of the Copernican system with the philosophical benefits of the
    7.50
    2 votes
    71
    Nils Strindberg

    Nils Strindberg

    Nils Strindberg (1872–1897) was a Swedish photographer who was one of the three members of S. A. Andrée's ill-fated Arctic balloon expedition of 1897. Strindberg was invited to the expedition to create a photographic aerial record of the arctic. Before perishing on Kvitøya with Andrée and Knut Frænkel, Strindberg recorded on film their long doomed struggle on foot to reach populated areas. When the remains of the expedition were discovered by the Bratvaag Expedition in 1930, five exposed rolls of film were found, one of them still in the camera. Docent John Hertzberg of the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm managed to save 93 of the theoretically 240 frames. A selection of these photos were published along with the diaries of the expedition as Med Örnen mot Polen (British edition The Andrée diaries, 1931; American edition Andrée's Story, 1932), a book which credits the three explorers as its posthumous authors. In an article from 2004, Tyrone Martinsson has published some digitally enhanced versions of Strindberg's photos of the expedition, while lamenting the lack of care with which the original negatives were stored from 1944. Strindberg's so-called "shorthand" diary
    5.00
    4 votes
    72

    Alexander Litvinenko

    Alexander Valterovich Litvinenko (Russian: Алекса́ндр Ва́льтерович Литвине́нко) (30 August 1962 (4 December 1962 by father's account), – 23 November 2006) was an officer who served in the Soviet KGB and its Russian successor, the Federal Security Service (FSB). In November 1998, Litvinenko and several other FSB officers publicly accused their superiors of ordering the assassination of Russian tycoon and oligarch Boris Berezovsky. Litvinenko was arrested the following March on charges of exceeding the authority of his position. He was acquitted in November 1999 but re-arrested before the charges were again dismissed in 2000. He fled with his family to London and was granted asylum in the United Kingdom, where he became a journalist and writer and worked as a consultant for the British intelligence services MI6 and MI5. During his time in London Litvinenko wrote two books, Blowing Up Russia: Terror from Within and Lubyanka Criminal Group, wherein he accused Russian secret services of staging the Russian apartment bombings and other terrorism acts in an effort to bring Vladimir Putin to power. He also accused Putin of ordering the murder of Russian journalist Anna Politkovskaya. On 1
    6.00
    3 votes
    73
    Clement Vallandigham

    Clement Vallandigham

    Clement Laird Vallandigham (pronounced velan´digham) (July 29, 1820 – June 17, 1871) was an Ohio politician, and leader of the Copperhead faction of anti-war Democrats during the American Civil War. He served two terms in the United States House of Representatives. He was born in New Lisbon, Ohio (now Lisbon, Ohio), to Clement Vallandigham and his wife Rebecca Laird. He graduated from Jefferson College in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania. Shortly after moving to Tibet, Ohio, to practice law, Vallandigham entered politics. He was elected as a Democrat to the Ohio legislature in 1845 and 1846, and also served as editor of a weekly newspaper, the Dayton Empire, from 1847 until 1849. He ran for Congress in 1856, and was narrowly defeated. He appealed to the House of Representatives, which seated him, by a party vote, on the next to last day of the term. He was elected by a small margin in 1858 and again in 1860, when he reluctantly supported Stephen A. Douglas. Once the Civil War began, however, the majority anti-secession population of the Dayton area turned him out, and Vallandigham lost his bid for a third term in 1862 by a relatively large vote. However, this result may not be strictly
    6.00
    3 votes
    74
    Jim Creighton

    Jim Creighton

    James Creighton, Jr. (April 15, 1841 – October 18, 1862) was an American baseball player during the game's amateur era, and is considered by historians to be its first superstar. As a pitcher in baseball's amateur era, he changed the sport from a game that showcased fielding, into a confrontation between the pitcher and batter. In this period, a pitcher was required to deliver the baseball in an underhand motion with a stiff arm/stiff wrist manner. The speed with which Creighton was able to pitch the ball had previously been thought of as impossible without movement of either his elbow or wrist. Although any movement was imperceptible, opponents and spectators believed them to be illegal. Creighton was described as a high-principled, unassuming, and gentlemanly; traits considered ideal during the amateur era. Playing for the Excelsior of Brooklyn from 1860 to 1862, at the height of his popularity, he injured himself in a game in October 1862 when he suffered a ruptured abdominal hernia hitting a home run. The internal bleeding this created subsequently caused his death four days later. A respected member of both baseball and cricket communities, his death caused concern in each
    6.00
    3 votes
    75

    1977 South African Grand Prix

    The 1977 South African Grand Prix was a Formula One motor race held at Kyalami on 5 March 1977. The race is principally remembered for the fatal accident that claimed the lives of race marshal Frederick Jansen van Vuuren and driver Tom Pryce. It was also the last race for Carlos Pace, who was killed in an aircraft accident less than two weeks later. James Hunt continued his streak of pole positions, with Carlos Pace alongside and Niki Lauda next. Hunt led off at the start, with Lauda and Jody Scheckter following him after Pace struggled. The order stayed put until the seventh lap when Lauda took the lead and was never passed again, with Scheckter taking second from Hunt 11 laps later. During lap 21, two marshals ran onto the track after the Shadow of Renzo Zorzi suffered engine failure. The second marshal, Fredrik Jansen van Vuuren, was hit by the car of Tom Pryce and killed instantly by the collision; the fire extinguisher he was holding flew from his hands and hit Pryce in the face, killing and nearly decapitating him. The race continued, however, and Lauda won, his first victory since his own horror crash the previous year. South African Scheckter was second, and Patrick
    7.00
    2 votes
    76
    Claude François

    Claude François

    Claude Antoine Marie François (1 February 1939 – 11 March 1978), most simply known as Claude François (and usually nicknamed Cloclo) was a French pop singer, songwriter and dancer. He notably wrote and composed Comme d'habitude, the original version of "My Way" and Parce que je t'aime mon enfant, the original version of "My Boy." Some of his most famous songs are Le lundi au soleil, Magnolias for ever and Alexandrie Alexandra. Claude François sold some 70 million records during his career (and after his death) and was about to embark for the U.S. when he accidentally electrocuted himself in 1978 at age 39. His place in the entertainment world was roughly analogous to Cliff Richard in Great Britain, with a dash of Tom Jones. Live, Claude François was also seen as James Brown with a soul bypass. Former French President Valéry Giscard d'Estaing is quoted as saying Claude François was, to him, the equivalent of The Beatles. The son of an Italian (Calabrian) mother and a French father, Claude François was born in Egypt, in the city of Ismaïlia, where his father, Aimé François (1908–1961), was working as a shipping traffic controller on the Suez Canal. In 1951 the job took the family to
    7.00
    2 votes
    77
    Jean-Baptiste Lully

    Jean-Baptiste Lully

    Jean-Baptiste de Lully (French pronunciation: [ʒɑ̃batist də lyˈli]; Italian: Giovanni Battista Lulli; 28 November 1632 – 22 March 1687) was an Italian-born French composer who spent most of his life working in the court of Louis XIV of France. He is considered the chief master of the French baroque style. Lully disavowed any Italian influence in French music of the period. He became a French subject in 1661. Lully, son of a working-class miller, was born in Florence, Italy. Lully had little education, but he learned basic techniques on the guitar, originally taught by a Franciscan friar of Florence. Later in France, he learned how to play the violin, and to dance. In 1646, he was discovered by Roger de Lorraine, the chevalier de Guise, son of Charles, Duke of Guise, and was taken to France, where he entered the services of Mademoiselle de Montpensier (la Grande Mademoiselle) as a scullery-boy and Italian-language teacher. With the help of this princess, his talent increased. He studied the theory of music under Nicolas Métru. It has been said that a scurrilous song on his patroness (the doggerel he set to music refers to a "sigh" she produced while at stool) resulted in his
    5.67
    3 votes
    78

    Surinder Singh Bajwa

    Surinder Singh Bajwa (ca. 1955 – 21 October 2007) was the Deputy Mayor of Delhi. He served as a member of the Bharatiya Janata Party and was elected councilor for the Anand Vihar ward in April 2007. On 20 October 2007 Bajwa was attacked by a group of Rhesus Macaques at his home and fell from a first floor balcony, suffering serious head injuries. On 21 October 2007 he died from those injuries. Bajwa is survived by his wife and two sons.
    5.67
    3 votes
    79

    Christopher Johnson McCandless

    Christopher Johnson McCandless (February 12, 1968 – August 1992) was an American adventurer who adopted the alias Alexander Supertramp and hiked into the Alaskan wilderness in April 1992 with little food and equipment, hoping to live simply for a time in solitude. Almost four months later, McCandless' remains were found, weighing only 67 pounds (30 kg; 4 st 11 lb); he died of starvation near Lake Wentitika in Denali National Park and Preserve. In January 1993, author Jon Krakauer published McCandless' story in that month's issue of Outside magazine. Inspired by the details of McCandless's story, Krakauer wrote and published Into the Wild in 1996 about McCandless' travels. The book was adapted into a film by Sean Penn in 2007 with Emile Hirsch portraying McCandless. That same year, McCandless's story also became the subject of Ron Lamothe's documentary The Call of the Wild. A full-length article on McCandless also appeared in the February 8th, 1993 issue of the The New Yorker magazine. McCandless was born in El Segundo, California, the first of two children to Walter "Walt" McCandless and Wilhelmina "Billie" Johnson. Chris had one younger sister, Carine. In 1976, the family settled
    8.00
    1 votes
    80

    John Kendrick

    John Kendrick (born John Kenrick, c. 1740–1794) was an American sea captain, both during the American Revolutionary War and the exploration and maritime fur trading of the Pacific Northwest alongside his subordinate Robert Gray. Kendrick was born about 1740 in what was then part of the Town of Harwich, Massachusetts (now Orleans, Massachusetts), according to official town records in Orleans, his last name was originally Kenrick, but later adopted the "d". John Kendrick came from a long family line of seamen. Solomon Kenrick, his father, was a humble seaman and this fact gave young John the ambition of becoming a sea captain. He had a common education, like most people at the time. At age 20, he joined a whaling crew, working on a schooner owned by Captain Bangs. John Kendrick later joined Captain Jabez Snow's company during the French and Indian War in 1762. Like most Cape Codders of the time, he served for only eight months and did not re-enlist. All that is known about him between 1762 and the 1770s is that he owned a few merchant ships and married Huldah Pease of Edgartown on Martha's Vineyard. Kendrick was reputed to have participated in the Boston Tea Party on December 16,
    8.00
    1 votes
    81
    William Huskisson

    William Huskisson

    William Huskisson PC (11 March 1770 – 15 September 1830) was a British statesman, financier, and Member of Parliament for several constituencies, including Liverpool. He is best known today, however, as the world's first widely reported railway casualty as he was run over by George Stephenson's locomotive engine Rocket. Huskisson was born at Birtsmorton Court, Malvern, Worcestershire, the son of William and Elizabeth Huskisson, both members of Staffordshire families. He was one of four brothers. After their mother Elizabeth died, their father William eventually remarried and had further children by his second wife. His half-brother Thomas Huskisson was a captain of the Royal Navy, an eyewitness of Trafalgar, and was appointed as the Paymaster of the Navy. His other half-brother George Huskisson was an officer in the Royal Marines before taking up his appointment as Collector of Customs at Saint Vincent.Portrait painted in 1831 by Richard Rothwell of Ireland. Huskisson was a student at Appleby Grammar School (later renamed Sir John Moore Church of England Primary School), a boarding school designed by Sir Christopher Wren on the Leicestershire/Derbyshire borders. In 1783, Huskisson
    8.00
    1 votes
    82
    Humayun

    Humayun

    Nasir ud-din Muhammad Humayun (Persian: نصیر الدین محمد همایون‎; OS 7 March 1508 – OS 17 January 1556) was the second Mughal Emperor who ruled present day Afghanistan, Pakistan, and parts of northern India from 1530–1540 and again from 1555–1556. Like his father, Babur, he lost his kingdom early, but with Persian aid, he eventually regained an even larger one. On the eve of his death in 1556, the Mughal empire spanned almost one million square kilometers. He succeeded his father in India in 1530, while his half-brother Kamran Mirza, who was to become a rather bitter rival, obtained the sovereignty of Kabul and Lahore, the more northern parts of their father's empire. He originally ascended the throne at the age of 22 and was somewhat inexperienced when he came to power. Humayun lost Mughal territories to the Pashtun noble, Sher Shah Suri, and, with Persian aid, regained them 15 years later. Humayun's return from Persia, accompanied by a large retinue of Persian noblemen, signaled an important change in Mughal court culture, as the Central Asian origins of the dynasty were largely overshadowed by the influences of Persian art, architecture, language and literature and also there are
    6.50
    2 votes
    83
    Julien Offray de La Mettrie

    Julien Offray de La Mettrie

    Julien Offray de La Mettrie (November 23, 1709 – November 11, 1751) was a French physician and philosopher, and one of the earliest of the French materialists of the Enlightenment. He is best known for his work L'homme machine ("Machine man"), wherein he rejected the Cartesian dualism of mind and body, and proposed the metaphor of the human being as machine. La Mettrie was born at Saint-Malo in Brittany on December 25, 1709 and was the son of a prosperous textile merchant. His initial schooling took place in the colleges of Coutances and Caen. After attending the Collège du Plessis in Paris, he seems to have acquired a vocational interest in becoming a clergyman, but after studying theology in the Jansenist schools for some years, his interests turned away from the Church. In 1725, La Mettrie entered the College d'Harcourt to study philosophy and natural science, probably graduating around 1727. At this time, d'Harcourt was pioneering the teaching of Cartesianism in France. After his studies at d'Harcourt, La Mettrie decided to take up the profession of medicine. A friend of the La Mettrie family, François-Joseph Hunauld, who was about to take the chair of anatomy at the Jardin du
    6.50
    2 votes
    84
    6.50
    2 votes
    85
    Pyrrhus of Epirus

    Pyrrhus of Epirus

    Pyrrhus or Pyrrhos (Greek: Πύρρος, Pyrros; 319/318 BC–272 BC) was a Greek general and statesman of the Hellenistic era. He was king of the Greek tribe of Molossians, of the royal Aeacid house (from circa 297 BC), and later he became king of Epirus (r. 306–302, 297–272 BC) and Macedon (r. 288–284, 273–272 BC). He was one of the strongest opponents of early Rome. Some of his battles, though successful, cost him heavy losses, from which the term "Pyrrhic victory" was coined. He is the subject of one of Plutarch's Parallel Lives (Greek: Βίοι Παράλληλοι). Pyrrhus was the son of Aeacides and Phthia, a Thessalian woman, and a second cousin of Alexander the Great (via Alexander's mother, Olympias). He had two sisters: Deidamia and Troias. Pyrrhus was only two years old when his father was dethroned, in 317 BC, his family taking refuge with Glaukias, king of the Taulantians, one of the largest Illyrian tribes. Pyrrhus was raised by Beroea, Glaukias's wife and a Molossian of the Aeacidae dynasty. Glaukias restored Pyrrhus to the throne in 306 BC until the latter was banished again, four years later, by his enemy, Cassander. Thus, he went on to serve as an officer, in the wars of the
    6.50
    2 votes
    86

    Diana Durre

    Diana Durre, 49 years old, died when a Taco Bell sign fell onto the 2005 Ford pickup that she was in.
    5.33
    3 votes
    87
    Eleazar Maccabeus

    Eleazar Maccabeus

    Eleazar Avaran, also known as Eleazar Maccabeus, Eleazar Hachorani/Choran(or Horani) (b. ???BC - d. 162 BC; Hebrew: אלעזר המכבי, אלעזר החורני Eleazar HaMakabi) was the fourth son of Mattathias and the younger brother of Judas Maccabeus. He was killed (4 Maccabees 1:7-10) at the Battle of Beth-zechariah (1 Maccabees 6:32-33) during the Maccabean revolt. Very little is known About Eleazar, except his heroic death as was told. According to the scroll of Antichus, his father saw in him a Zealot among zealots, like Pinhas. In 2 Maccabees 8:21-23 it is told that Eleazar read from the Tanakh in front of the people just before the last battle began in 3 Maccabees 6:16-19. According to 1 Maccabees 6:43-46, during the Battle of Beth-zechariah, Eleazar identified a war elephant that he believed to carry the Seleucid King Antiochus V, due to the special armor the elephant wore. He decided to endanger his life by attacking the elephant and thrusting a spear into its belly. The dead elephant then collapsed upon Eleazar, killing him as well. Despite this heroic effort, the smaller Jewish army was defeated in the battle. Josephus wrote that Eleazar, though killing many enemy soldiers, did not gain
    5.33
    3 votes
    88
    Herod the Great

    Herod the Great

    Herod (Hebrew: הוֹרְדוֹס‎, Hordos, Greek: Ἡρῴδης, Hērōdēs), also known as Herod the Great (born 73 or 74 BCE, died 1 BCE in Jericho), was a Roman client king of Judea. His epithet of "the Great" is widely disputed as he is described as "a madman who murdered his own family and a great many rabbis." He is also known for his colossal building projects in Jerusalem and elsewhere, including his expansion of the Second Temple in Jerusalem (sometimes referred to as Herod's Temple) and the construction of the port at Caesarea Maritima. Important details of his biography are gleaned from the works of the 1st century CE Roman-Jewish historian Josephus Flavius. The Romans made Herod's son Herod Archelaus ethnarch of Judea, Samaria, and Idumea (biblical Edom) from 4 BCE to 6 CE, referred to as the tetrarchy of Judea. Archelaus was judged incompetent by the Roman emperor Augustus who then combined Samaria, Judea proper and Idumea into Iudaea province under rule of a prefect until 41. Herod's other son Herod Antipas was tetrarch of Galilee from 4 BCE – 39 CE. Herod was born around 74 BCE in the south (Idumea was the most southern region). He was the second son of Antipater the Idumaean, a
    5.33
    3 votes
    89
    Vic Morrow

    Vic Morrow

    Victor Harry "Vic" Morrow (February 14, 1929 – July 23, 1982) was an American actor whose credits include a starring role in the 1960s TV series Combat!, prominent roles in a handful of other television and cinema dramas, and numerous guest roles on television. He and two children died when a stunt helicopter crashed on them during the filming of Twilight Zone: The Movie. Morrow was born in the Bronx, (New York) to a middle class Jewish family, the son of Jean (née Kress) and Harry Morrow, an electric engineer. When he was 17, Morrow dropped out of high school and joined the U.S. Navy. He married actress Barbara Turner with whom he had two daughters: actress Jennifer Jason Leigh and Carrie Ann Morrow. Morrow's marriage to Barbara lasted seven years and ended in divorce in 1964. He did not remarry until 1975, over a decade later, when he courted Gale Lester (currently Gale Morrow Butler). They were married for five years and were separated just prior to Morrow's death. Morrow had a falling out with his daughter Jennifer Jason Leigh following his divorce from her mother; Leigh changed her last name as a teenager to avoid being publicly associated with Morrow. They remained estranged
    5.33
    3 votes
    90

    Lee Seung Seop

    Lee Seung Seop (Hangul: 이승섭; born c. 1977, died August 5, 2005) was an industrial boiler repairman in Daegu, South Korea. On August 3, 2005, he achieved global notoriety when he visited a nearby Internet cafe and proceeded to play StarCraft for almost fifty consecutive hours. Ultimately, from both exhaustion and dehydration induced heart failure he went into cardiac arrest. He died shortly thereafter at a local hospital. A friend commented: "He was a game addict. We all knew about it. He couldn't stop himself." About six weeks before his death, his girlfriend, also an avid gamer, broke up with him, and he had been fired from his job for missing work to play computer games.
    5.00
    3 votes
    91
    György Dózsa

    György Dózsa

    György Dózsa (or György Székely, Romanian: Gheorghe Doja; 1470 - 20 July 1514) was a Székely Hungarian man-at-arms (and by some accounts, a nobleman) from Transylvania, Kingdom of Hungary who led a peasants' revolt against the kingdom's landed nobility. He was eventually caught, tortured, and executed along with his followers, and remembered as both a Christian martyr and a dangerous criminal. During the reign of king Vladislas II of Hungary (1490–1516), royal power declined in favour of the magnates, who used their power to curtail the peasants’ freedom. Born in Dálnok (today Dalnic), Dózsa was a soldier of fortune who won a reputation for valour in the wars against the Ottoman Empire. The Hungarian chancellor, Tamás Bakócz, on his return from the Holy See in 1514 (with a papal bull issued by Leo X authorising a crusade against the Ottomans), appointed Dózsa to organize and direct the movement. Within a few weeks he had gathered an army of some 100,000 so-called kuruc, consisting for the most part of peasants, wandering students, friars, and parish priests - some of the lowest-ranking groups of medieval society. They assembled in their counties, and by the time Dózsa had provided
    6.00
    2 votes
    92
    Kurt Gödel

    Kurt Gödel

    Kurt Friedrich Gödel (/ˈkɜrt ɡɜrdəl/; German pronunciation: [ˈkʊʁt ˈɡøːdəl] ( listen); April 28, 1906 – January 14, 1978) was an Austrian American logician, mathematician, and philosopher. Later in his life he emigrated to the United States to escape the effects of World War II. Considered one of the most significant logicians in human history, with Aristotle and Frege, Gödel made an immense impact upon scientific and philosophical thinking in the 20th century, a time when many, such as Bertrand Russell, A. N. Whitehead and David Hilbert, were pioneering the use of logic and set theory to understand the foundations of mathematics. Gödel is best known for his two incompleteness theorems, published in 1931 when he was 25 years old, one year after finishing his doctorate at the University of Vienna. The more famous incompleteness theorem states that for any self-consistent recursive axiomatic system powerful enough to describe the arithmetic of the natural numbers (for example Peano arithmetic), there are true propositions about the naturals that cannot be proved from the axioms. To prove this theorem, Gödel developed a technique now known as Gödel numbering, which codes formal
    6.00
    2 votes
    93
    Dan Andersson

    Dan Andersson

    Daniel "Dan" Andersson (born 6 April 1888 in Skattlösberg, Grangärde parish (in present-day Ludvika Municipality), Dalarna, Sweden, died 16 September 1920 in Stockholm) was a Swedish author and poet. He also set some of his own poems to music. Andersson married primary school teacher Olga Turesson, the sister of artist Gunnar Turesson, in 1918. A nom de plume he sometimes used was Black Jim. Andersson is counted among the Swedish proletarian authors, but his works are not limited to that genre. Andersson grew up under poor conditions in the village of Skattlösberg where his father, primary school teacher Adolf Andersson and his wife Augusta Scherp (herself previously a teacher), worked in the school. The village is located in the so-called "Finn Woods" of southern Dalarna, where Forest Finns immigrated to cultivate new land. On his father's side, Andersson descended from these Finnish settlers. Andersson took odd jobs during the first years of his life, for instance as a forestry worker and school teacher. It was difficult to make a living. The family had considered trying to find a better life in America, and Andersson was sent there as a 14-year old in 1902 to see if it would be
    7.00
    1 votes
    94

    Jerome Irving Rodale

    Jerome Irving Rodale (surname accented on second syllable) (August 16, 1898 – June 8, 1971), was a playwright, editor, author, and founder of Rodale, Inc. He was one of the first advocates of a return to sustainable agriculture and organic farming in the United States. He founded a publishing empire, founded several magazines, and published many books—his own and those of others—on health. He also published works on a wide variety of other topics, including The Synonym Finder. Rodale popularized the term "organic" to mean grown without pesticides. Rodale was born in New York City on August 16, 1898, the son of a grocer. He grew up on the Lower East Side. His birth name was Cohen but, thinking it would be a handicap in business, he changed it to a non-Jewish one. He married Anna Andrews in 1927 and had three children: Robert Rodale (1930–1990), Nina Rodale (who married Robert Hale Horstman and then married Arthur Houghton), and Ruth Rodale. Inspired by his encounter with the ideas of Albert Howard, Rodale had an interest in promoting a healthy and active lifestyle that emphasized organically grown foods. He founded Rodale, Inc. in 1930 in Emmaus, Pennsylvania, and established the
    7.00
    1 votes
    95
    7.00
    1 votes
    96
    Michael Malloy

    Michael Malloy

    Michael Malloy (1873 – February 22, 1933), alias "Mike the Durable" and "Iron Mike", was a homeless Irishman from County Donegal who lived in New York City during the 1920s and 30s. Although he was a former firefighter, he is most famous for surviving a number of attempts on his life by five acquaintances, who were attempting to commit life insurance fraud. The events that led to Malloy's death began in January 1933. He was, at the time, alcoholic and homeless. Five men who were acquainted with Malloy, Tony Marino, Joseph Murphy, Francis Pasqua, Hershey Green, and Daniel Kriesberg (later dubbed "the Murder Trust" by the headlines), plotted to take out three life insurance policies on Malloy and then get him to drink himself to death. The first part of the plot was successful (probably achieved with the aid of a corrupt insurance agent), and they stood to gain over $3,500 (more than $61,000 by 2011's standards by the CPI) if Malloy died an accidental death. Marino owned a speakeasy and gave Malloy unlimited credit, thinking Malloy would abuse it and drink himself to death. Although Malloy drank for a majority of his waking day, it did not kill him. To remedy this, antifreeze was
    7.00
    1 votes
    97
    Thomas Urquhart

    Thomas Urquhart

    Sir Thomas Urquhart of Cromarty (or Urchard, 1611–c. 1660) was a Scottish writer and translator, most famous for his translation of Rabelais. Urquhart was born to an old landholding family in Cromarty in northern Scotland. At the age of eleven he attended King's College, University of Aberdeen. Afterwards he toured the Continent, returning in 1636. In 1639, he participated in the Royalist uprising known as the Trot of Turriff; he was knighted by Charles I at Whitehall for his support. In 1641 he published his first book, a volume of epigrams. Urquhart's father died in 1642, leaving behind a large estate encumbered by larger debts. As the eldest son, Urquhart was from that time on harassed by creditors. He left for the Continent in order to economize, but returned in 1645 and published Trissotetras, a mathematical treatise. In 1648, Urquhart participated in the Royalist uprising at Inverness. He was declared a traitor by Parliament, though he doesn't seem to have suffered any other consequences. Two years later he marched with Charles II and fought in the Battle of Worcester. The Royalist forces were decisively defeated and Urquhart was taken prisoner. He lost all his manuscripts,
    7.00
    1 votes
    98
    George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence

    George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence

    George Plantagenet, 1st Duke of Clarence, 1st Earl of Salisbury, 1st Earl of Warwick, KG (21 October 1449 – 18 February 1478) was the third son of Richard Plantagenet, 3rd Duke of York, and Cecily Neville, and the brother of kings Edward IV and Richard III. He played an important role in the dynastic struggle known as the Wars of the Roses. He is also remembered as the character in William Shakespeare's play Richard III who was drowned in a vat of Malmsey wine. George was born on 21 October 1449 in Dublin at a time when his father was beginning to challenge Henry VI for the crown. His godfather was James FitzGerald, 6th Earl of Desmond. He was the third of the four sons of Richard and Cecily who survived to adulthood. Following his father's death and the accession of his elder brother, Edward, to the throne, George was created Duke of Clarence in 1461 and invested as a Knight of the Garter. On 11 July 1469, George married Isabel Neville, elder daughter of Richard Neville, 16th Earl of Warwick. Clarence had actively supported his elder brother's claim to the throne, but following his marriage, he began to play a dangerous game. When his father-in-law the Earl of Warwick became
    5.50
    2 votes
    99
    Jon-Erik Hexum

    Jon-Erik Hexum

    Jon-Erik Hexum (September 5, 1957 – October 18, 1984) was an American model and actor. He died as a result of an accidental self-inflicted gunshot wound to the head on the set of the CBS television series Cover Up in which he played the male lead. Hexum was born in Englewood, New Jersey, to Gretha and Thorleif Hexum. He and his elder brother, Gunnar, were raised in Tenafly, New Jersey, by their mother after their parents divorced when Hexum was four. After graduating from high school, Hexum went on to Case Western Reserve University in Cleveland, in order to study biomedical engineering. He soon left that university, however, and transferred to Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan. During that time, he worked as a radio disc jockey, played football, and acted in minor stage roles. Only a few days after graduation, he moved to New York in 1980, in order to pursue his acting career. While working as an apartment cleaner, he met Bob LeMond of LeMond/Zetter Management and the manager of John Travolta. LeMond saw great potential in Hexum. At LeMond's urging, Hexum relocated to Los Angeles in September 1981 in order to audition for a movie called Summer Lovers, which was
    4.33
    3 votes
    100

    Ed White

    Edward Alvin White (born April 4, 1947 in La Mesa, California) is a former American football player. After retiring from football, White has worked as a coach and artist. He graduated from Indio High School in Indio, California. In college, White played for the University of California, Berkeley Golden Bears (1966-68) as a lineman and was selected a consensus All-American player in 1968. White began his professional football career with the Minnesota Vikings after being drafted in the second round of the 1969 AFL/NFL draft. He is one of 10 players to have played in all four Vikings Super Bowl appearances in the 1970s. Before the 1978 season, he was traded to the San Diego Chargers, with whom he played until 1985 when he retired after seventeen years and 241 games. Mainly used at offensive guard, he was selected to the Pro Bowl four times. He played as an offensive lineman for the Chargers 1978-85. After retiring from the NFL, White worked as a football coach. Following his retirement, he was inducted into College Football Hall of Fame, University of California Hall of Fame, Breitbard Hall of Fame, East-West Shrine Game Hall of Fame, and the San Diego Charger Hall of Fame. Indio
    6.00
    1 votes
    101

    Vladimir Viktorovich Smirnov

    Vladimir Viktorovich Smirnov (Russian: Влади́мир Ви́кторович Смирно́в; May 20, 1954, Rubizhne, Ukrainian SSR – July 28, 1982, Rome, Italy) was a Soviet foil fencer. Smirnov won the gold medal in individual men's foil at the 1980 Summer Olympics. He won the World Championships the following year. During the 1982 World Championships in Rome, Smirnov was fencing Matthias Behr of West Germany on July 19. Behr's blade broke during the action. The broken blade went through the mesh of Smirnov's mask, through his eye orbit, and into his brain. Smirnov died nine days later. Smirnov was kept on life support until the final touch of the final event was held, when he was disconnected from life support. He was kept alive because no one wished him to die during the Championships. Smirnov's accident was the driving force behind the significant improvement of safety gear in fencing. Maraging steel blades (instead of the carbon steel ones of the day), kevlar (or other ballistic nylon) in the uniforms, and masks two to three times stronger than the one he wore, and other safety rules, all came about because of his death.
    6.00
    1 votes
    102
    Harry K. Daghlian, Jr.

    Harry K. Daghlian, Jr.

    Haroutune Krikor Daghlian, Jr. (May 4, 1921 – September 15, 1945) was an American physicist with the Manhattan Project who accidentally irradiated himself on August 21, 1945, during a critical mass experiment at the remote Omega Site facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, resulting in his death 25 days later. Daghlian was irradiated as a result of a criticality accident that occurred when he accidentally dropped a tungsten carbide brick onto a 6.2 kg delta phase plutonium bomb core. This core, available at the close of World War II and later nicknamed the "Demon core", also resulted in the death of Louis Slotin in a similar accident, and was used in the Able detonation, during the Crossroads series of nuclear weapon testing. Daghlian was the first of three children born to Margaret Rose Currie and Haroutune Krikor Daghlian. Soon after his birth in Waterbury, Connecticut, the family moved across state to the coastal town of New London. He was educated at Harbor Elementary School, where he played violin in the school orchestra, and at Bulkeley High School. In 1938, at the age of 17, he entered the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, intending to study
    5.00
    2 votes
    103
    J.G. Parry-Thomas

    J.G. Parry-Thomas

    John Godfrey Parry-Thomas (6 April 1884 – 3 March 1927) was a Welsh engineer and motor-racing driver who at one time held the Land Speed Record. He was the first driver to be killed in pursuit of the land speed record. Parry-Thomas was born in Wrexham, Wales, the son of the curate of Rhosddu. The family moved to nearby Oswestry when he was five years old, and he was educated at Oswestry School. He went on to study engineering at The City and Guilds College in London. Parry-Thomas became chief engineer at Leyland Motors, a company whose main products were commercial vehicles. He filed for and received a number of patents, in the fields of electrical and automotive engineering. After the First World War he and his assistant Reid Railton designed the Leyland Eight luxury motor car, which was intended to compete with Rolls-Royce. His experience of driving this car around Brooklands in 1920 persuaded him to give up his career with Leyland and become a full-time motor-racing driver and engineer. In partnership with another engineer, Major Ken Thomson from New Zealand, he started Thomas Inventions Development Co. Ltd., based inside the Brooklands circuit itself. After his death, this
    5.00
    2 votes
    104
    David Douglas

    David Douglas

    David Douglas (25 June 1799 – 12 July 1834) was a Scottish botanist. He was born to John Douglas, a stonemason, and Jean Drummond. He worked as a gardener, and explored the Scottish Highlands, North America, and Hawaii, where he died. The son of a stonemason, he was born in the village of Scone north-east of Perth, Scotland. He attended Kinnoull School and upon leaving he found work as an apprentice to William Beattie, head gardener at the estate of the 3rd Earl of Mansfield at Scone Palace. He spent seven years at this position, completing his apprenticeship, and then spent a winter at a college in Perth to learn more of the scientific and mathematical aspects of plant culture. After a further spell of working in Fife (during which time he had access to a library of botanical and zoological books) he moved to the Botanical Gardens of Glasgow University and attended botany lectures at the University of Glasgow. William Jackson Hooker, who was Garden Director and Professor of Botany, was greatly impressed with him and took him on an expedition to the Highlands before recommending him to the Royal Horticultural Society of London. Hooker recommended Douglas to London's Royal
    4.50
    2 votes
    105
    George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon

    George Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon

    George Edward Stanhope Molyneux Herbert, 5th Earl of Carnarvon (26 June 1866 – 5 April 1923) was an English aristocrat best known as the financial backer of the search for and the excavation of Tutankhamun's tomb in the Valley of the Kings. Born at the family home, Highclere Castle, in Hampshire on 26 June 1866, George Herbert was educated at Eton and Trinity College, Cambridge, succeeding to the Carnarvon title in 1890. On 26 June 1895, at St. Margaret's Church, Carnarvon married Almina Victoria Maria Alexandra Wombwell, daughter of Marie Wombwell née Boyer, the wife of Captain Frederick Charles Wombwell. Exceedingly wealthy, Carnarvon was at first best known as an owner of racehorses and a reckless driver of early automobiles, suffering in 1901 a serious motoring accident near Bad Schwalbach in Germany which left him significantly disabled. In 1902, the 5th Earl established Highclere Stud to breed thoroughbred racehorses. In 1905, he was appointed one of the Stewards at the new Newbury Racecourse. His family has maintained the connection ever since. His grandson, Henry George Reginald Molyneux Herbert, 7th Earl of Carnarvon, was racing manager to Queen Elizabeth II from 1969, and
    4.50
    2 votes
    106

    Mitsugoro Bando VIII

    Bandō Mitsugorō VIII (八代目 坂東 三津五郎, Hachidaime Bandō Mitsugorō) (19 October 1906–16 January 1975) was one of Japan's most revered Kabuki actors from the 1930s until his death. He was a renowned tachiyaku and katakiyaku, specializing in particular in the aragoto style. He was officially designated as a "living national treasure" by the Japanese government in 1973. Eighth in the line of Bandō Mitsugorō, he was adopted by Bandō Mitsugorō VII; his son and grandson would go on to take the name as well, becoming ninth and tenth in the line respectively. Bandō made his stage debut at the age of 7, in 1913, as Bandō Yosouke III. He would take the name Minosuke VI in 1928, at the Meiji-za theatre. He later tried to adapt The Tale of Genji to the stage, but was prohibited from doing so by the authorities. After a few years in a kabuki troupe run by the Toho company, he moved to Kansai; he lived there for nearly 20 years, performing in Osaka and other venues, and taking part in the final performances at the Ōsaka Kabuki-za, which closed and became a department store in 1958. In 1962, following his return to Tokyo, and the death of his adopted father Bandō Mitsugorō VII, Bandō celebrated a
    4.50
    2 votes
    107
    Steve Irwin

    Steve Irwin

    Stephen Robert "Steve" Irwin (22 February 1962 – 4 September 2006), nicknamed "The Crocodile Hunter", was an Australian wildlife expert, television personality, and conservationist. Irwin achieved worldwide fame from the television series The Crocodile Hunter, an internationally broadcast wildlife documentary series which he co-hosted with his wife Terri. Together, the couple also owned and operated Australia Zoo, founded by Irwin's parents in Beerwah, about 80 kilometres (50 mi) north of the Queensland state capital city of Brisbane. Irwin died on 4 September 2006 after being pierced in the chest by a stingray barb while filming an underwater documentary film titled Ocean's Deadliest. The Sea Shepherd Conservation Society ship MY Steve Irwin was named in his honour. Irwin was born on his mother's birthday to Lyn and Bob Irwin in Essendon, a suburb of Melbourne, Victoria. He moved with his parents as a child to Queensland in 1970, where he attended Landsborough State School and Caloundra State High School. Irwin described his father as a wildlife expert interested in herpetology, while his mother Lyn was a wildlife rehabilitator. After moving to Queensland, Bob and Lyn Irwin
    4.50
    2 votes
    108
    Tom  Lonergan

    Tom Lonergan

    Thomas Joseph Lonergan and Eileen Cassidy (née Hains) Lonergan, born 1964 and 1969, respectively, were a married couple from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, United States, who were mistakenly stranded in the Coral Sea on January 25, 1998, while scuba diving with a group of divers off of Australia's Great Barrier Reef. The boat which had transported the group to the dive site departed from the location before the Lonergans returned from their dive, with none of the vessel's crew or passengers noticing that the two had not come back aboard. The couple was never found and they are presumed to have died at sea. At the time of the incident, the Lonergans had recently completed a three-year tour of duty with the Peace Corps on the island of Tuvalu in the Pacific Ocean and were repeating that work on Fiji. It was not until two days later, on January 27, 1998, that the pair was discovered to be missing after a bag containing their belongings was found on board the dive boat. A massive air and sea search took place over the following three days. Although some of their diving gear was found washed up later on a beach miles away from where they were lost indicating that they drowned, their bodies
    4.50
    2 votes
    109
    Brian Wells

    Brian Wells

    Brian Douglas Wells (November 15, 1956 – August 28, 2003) was an American pizza delivery man who was killed by a time bomb fastened to his neck, purportedly under coercion from the maker of the bomb. After he was apprehended by the police for robbing a bank, the bomb exploded. The bizarre affair was subject to much attention in the mass media. In a July 2007 indictment, federal prosecutors alleged that Wells had been involved in the planning of the botched crime. Two of his conspirators, Marjorie Diehl-Armstrong and Kenneth Barnes, were indicted by a federal grand jury on charges of bank robbery, conspiracy, and weapons charges. Kenneth Barnes subsequently pleaded guilty in September 2008 and largely confirmed that Wells was indeed involved in planning the robbery but also revealed Wells was under the impression an actual bomb would not be used. When he discovered the bomb was real, Barnes said a pistol was fired, and witnesses confirmed hearing a gunshot, in order to force Wells' compliance. On December 4, 2008, U.S. District Judge Sean J. McLaughlin sentenced Barnes to 45 years in federal prison for his role in the bank robbery and use of a destructive device during a crime of
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    1 votes
    110

    Sherwood Anderson

    Sherwood Anderson (September 13, 1876 – March 8, 1941) was an American novelist and short story writer. His most enduring work is the short story sequence Winesburg, Ohio. Writers he has influenced include Ernest Hemingway, William Faulkner, John Steinbeck,and Thomas Wolfe. It was Anderson's influence which saw both Faulkner and Hemingway first published. Anderson was born in Camden, Ohio, the third of seven children of Erwin M. and Emma S. Anderson. After Erwin's business failed, the family was forced to move frequently, finally settling down at Clyde, Ohio, in 1884. Partly as a result of these misfortunes, young Sherwood found various odd jobs to help his family, which earned him the nickname "Jobby." He left school at age 14. Anderson moved to Chicago near his Brother Karl's home and worked as a manual laborer until near the turn of the century, when he enlisted in the United States Army. He was called up but did not see action in Cuba during the Spanish-American War. After the war, in 1900, he enrolled at Wittenberg University in Springfield, Ohio. Eventually he secured a job as a copywriter in Chicago and became more successful. In 1904, he married Cornelia Lane, the daughter
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    111

    Gareth Jones

    Gareth Jones (6 June 1925 Lampeter, Wales – 30 November 1958) was a British actor, chiefly remembered for the circumstances of his death. During the live television broadcast of the Armchair Theatre play Underground on the ITV network in the UK, Jones suffered a massive heart attack and died during a live television video production off camera, between two of his scenes while in make-up. Director Ted Kotcheff was forced to improvise with his cast to carry on the play to its conclusion, with producer Sydney Newman ordering him to "shoot it like a football match". Coincidentally, his character was to have suffered a heart attack during the play. Jones had previously appeared in a BBC Television adaptation of Under Milk Wood in 1957.
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    112
    Edward Higgins White

    Edward Higgins White

    Edward Higgins White, II (Lt Col, USAF) (November 14, 1930 – January 27, 1967) was an engineer, United States Air Force officer and NASA astronaut. On June 3, 1965, he became the first American to "walk" in space. White died along with fellow astronauts Gus Grissom and Roger Chaffee during a pre-launch test for the first manned Apollo mission at Cape Kennedy. He was awarded the NASA Distinguished Service Medal for his Gemini 4 spaceflight and was posthumously awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor. White was born in San Antonio, Texas, where he attended school and became a member of the Boy Scouts of America. White's father, Edward H. White, Sr. was a major general in the Air Force. After graduation from high school, he was accepted to the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, where in 1952 he earned his Bachelor of Science degree and was commissioned as a 2nd Lieutenant in the U.S. Air Force. White then chose a commission with the U.S. Air Force and attended flight school, a course that takes more than a year. Following graduation from flight school, White was assigned to the 22nd Fighter Day Squadron at Bitburg Air Base, Germany and would spend three and a half years in
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    113
    Edward II of England

    Edward II of England

    Edward II (25 April 1284 – 21 September 1327), also called Edward of Caernarfon, was King of England from 1307 until he was deposed by his wife Isabella in January 1327. He was the sixth Plantagenet king, in a line that began with the reign of Henry II. Between the strong reigns of his father Edward I and son Edward III, the reign of Edward II was considered by some to be disastrous for England, marked by alleged incompetence, political squabbling and military defeats. Widely rumoured to have been either homosexual or bisexual, Edward also fathered at least five children by two women. His inability to deny even the most grandiose favours to his male favourites (first a Gascon knight named Piers Gaveston, later a young English lord named Hugh Despenser) led to constant political unrest and his eventual deposition. Edward I had pacified Gwynedd and some other parts of Wales and the Scottish lowlands, but never exerted a comprehensive conquest. However, the army of Edward II was devastatingly defeated at Bannockburn, freeing Scotland from English control and allowing Scottish forces to raid unchecked throughout the north of England. In addition to these disasters, Edward II is
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    114
    Georg Wilhelm Richmann

    Georg Wilhelm Richmann

    Georg Wilhelm Richmann (Russian: Георг Вильгельм Рихман) (July 22, 1711 – August 6, 1753 (old style: July 11, 1711 – July 26, 1753)) was a German physicist who lived in Russia. He was born into a Baltic German family in Pernau (today Pärnu, Estonia) in what had been Swedish Livonia but later became part of Imperial Russia as a result of the Great Northern War (1700-1721). His father died of plague before he was born, and his mother remarried. In his early years he studied in Reval (today's Tallinn, Estonia); later he studied in Germany at the universities of Halle and Jena. In 1741 he was elected a member of the St. Petersburg Academy of Sciences. He did pioneering work on electricity and atmospheric electricity, and also worked on calorimetry, in doing so collaborating with Mikhail Lomonosov. Richmann also worked as a tutor of the children of Count Andrei Osterman. In 1741 he translated Alexander Pope's Essay on Man into German from French. He was electrocuted in St. Petersburg while "trying to quantify the response of an insulated rod to a nearby storm." He was attending a meeting of the Academy of Sciences, when he heard thunder. The Professor ran home with his engraver to
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    115
    Georgi Markov

    Georgi Markov

    Georgi Ivanov Markov (Bulgarian: Георги Иванов Марков; March 1, 1929 – September 11, 1978) was a Bulgarian dissident writer. Markov originally worked as a novelist and playwright in his native country, then governed by a communist regime under Chairman Todor Zhivkov, until his defection from Bulgaria in 1969. After relocating to the West, he worked as a broadcaster and journalist for the BBC World Service, the US-funded Radio Free Europe, and Germany's Deutsche Welle. Markov used such forums to conduct a campaign of criticism against the incumbent Bulgarian regime. As a result of this, it has been speculated that the Bulgarian government may have decided to silence him, and may have asked the KGB for help. He died as a result of an incident on a London street when a micro-engineered pellet containing ricin was fired into his leg via an umbrella wielded by someone associated with the Bulgarian secret police. Georgi Markov was born on 1 March 1929, in Knyazhevo, a Sofia neighbourhood. In 1946 he graduated from the Gymnasium (high school) and began university studies in industrial chemistry. Initially Markov worked as a chemical engineer and a teacher in a technical school. At the age
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    116
    Henry I of England

    Henry I of England

    Henry I (c. 1068/1069 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William I of England. He succeeded his elder brother William II as King of England in 1100 and defeated his eldest brother, Robert Curthose, to become Duke of Normandy in 1106. A later tradition called him Beauclerc for his scholarly interests— he could read Latin and put his learning to effective use— and Lion of Justice for refinements which he brought about in the royal administration, which he rendered the most effective in Europe, rationalising the itinerant court, and his public espousal of the Anglo-Saxon legal tradition. Henry's reign established deep roots for the Anglo-Norman realm, in part through his dynastic (and personal) choice of a Scottish princess who represented the lineage of Edmund Ironside for queen. His succession was hurriedly confirmed while his brother Robert was away on the First Crusade, and the beginning of his reign was occupied by wars with Robert for control of England and Normandy. He successfully reunited the two realms again after their separation on his father's death in 1087. Upon his succession he granted the baronage a Charter of Liberties, which linked his rule of law to the
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    117

    Inejiro Asanuma

    Inejiro Asanuma (浅沼 稲次郎, Asanuma Inejirō, December 27, 1898 – October 12, 1960) was a Japanese politician, and leader of the Japan Socialist Party. A noted public speaker, Asanuma was unusual in postwar Japan for his forceful advocacy of socialism, and his support of the Chinese Communist Party was particularly controversial. Asanuma was assassinated by an extremist during a televised political debate in Tokyo. His violent death was seen in graphic detail on national television, causing widespread public shock and outrage. Inejiro Asanuma's mother died during his birth, leaving him to be raised by his father, who later died of cancer at the age of forty-two. He was widely criticized for a 1959 incident where he went to Communist-controlled Mainland China and called the United States "the shared enemy of China and Japan". When he returned from this trip he wore a Mao suit while disembarking from his plane in Japan, sparking criticism even from Socialist leaders. At that time, both the United States and Japan recognized the Republic of China as the rightful government of Mainland China. On October 12, 1960, Asanuma was assassinated by 17-year-old Otoya Yamaguchi, a right-wing
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    118
    Martha Mansfield

    Martha Mansfield

    Martha Mansfield (July 14, 1899 – November 30, 1923) was an American actress in silent films and vaudeville stage plays. Born Martha Ehrlich in New York City to Maurice and Harriett Gibson Ehrlich. Although many biographies state that Mansfield was born in Mansfield, Ohio, her birth record and death certificate both have New York City as her place of birth. In 1912, she was left in her mother's care after her father deserted the family. At the age of 18, she showed an aptitude for acting and began a stage career. Her advancement as a performer came quickly. For a time she was a dancer performing with the Ziegfeld Follies. Before she relocated to the west coast, Mansfield played leads in films produced by Famous Players-Lasky. Her first Hollywood movie was Civilian Clothes (1920) directed by Hugh Ford. She gained prominence as Millicent Carew (originally offered to Tallulah Bankhead) in the film adaptation of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde, which starred John Barrymore. She appeared with Eugene O'Brien in The Perfect Lover (1919). The final completed features in her short film career were Potash and Permutter and The Leavenworth Case, both from 1923. On November 30, 1923, while working on
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    119

    Matthew Vassar

    Matthew Vassar (April 29, 1792 – June 23, 1868) was an English-born American brewer and merchant. He founded the eponymous Vassar College in 1861. He was a cousin of John Ellison Vassar. He was born in East Dereham, Norfolk, England. In 1796, he emigrated with his family to New York and settled on a farm near Poughkeepsie. When Vassar was 14 years old, his parents had him apprenticed to a tanner. One day before he was to begin his apprenticeship, he ran away to Newburgh, New York, subsequently entering the brewing business. He took over his family's small brewery at the age of eighteen. Over the next several decades he developed his Poughkeepsie brewery into one of the country's largest, by the 1830s becoming perhaps the first to achieve nationwide distribution to every state and amassing a sizable personal fortune in the process. Lydia Booth, a niece of Matthew Vassar, encouraged him to establish a women's college in the United States, which would be located in Poughkeepsie. In January 1861, the New York Legislature passed an act to incorporate Vassar College, one of the first women's colleges in the U.S. On 26 February 1861, Matthew Vassar presented the college's Board of
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    120
    Salomon August Andrée

    Salomon August Andrée

    Salomon August Andrée (18 October 1854, Gränna, Småland – October 1897, Kvitøya, Arctic Norway), during his lifetime most often known as S. A. Andrée, was a Swedish engineer, physicist, aeronaut and polar explorer who died while leading an attempt to reach the Geographic North Pole by hydrogen balloon. The balloon expedition was unsuccessful in reaching the Pole and resulted in the deaths of all three of its participants. Andrée was born in the small town of Gränna, Sweden; he was especially close to his mother, especially after the death of his father in 1870. He attended the Royal Institute of Technology in Stockholm and graduated with a degree in mechanical engineering in 1874. In 1876 he went to the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, where he was employed as a janitor at the Swedish Pavilion. During his trip to the United States he read a book on trade winds and met the American balloonist John Wise; these encounters initiated his lifelong fascination with balloon travel. He returned to Sweden and opened a machine shop where he worked until 1880; it was less than successful and he soon looked for other employment. From 1880 to 1882 he was an assistant at the Royal Institute
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    121
    Stefan Edberg

    Stefan Edberg

    Stefan Bengt Edberg (born 19 January 1966) is a Swedish former World No. 1 professional tennis player (in both singles and doubles) from Sweden. A major proponent of the serve-and-volley style of tennis, he won six Grand Slam singles titles and three Grand Slam men's doubles titles between 1985 and 1996 and the only player ever to win the 'Junior Grand Slam'. He also won one season-ending championship title, the Masters Grand Prix and an Olympic Gold medal in Singles in 1984 when Tennis was an exhibition sport. In addition he won four Masters Series titles and four Championship Series titles, was ranked in the Singles Top 10 for ten successive years per ATP Rankings data, 9 years on the trot in the Top 5, and is considered one of the greatest players of his era. Edberg is the childhood idol of Roger Federer. Edberg first came to the tennis world's attention as a junior player. He won all four Grand Slam junior titles in 1983 to become the first-ever player to achieve the "Junior Grand Slam". Later that year as a professional, Edberg won his first career doubles title in Basel. Edberg accidentally caused the death of Dick Wertheim with an errant serve during the 1983 US Open. In
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    122
    Thích Quảng Đức

    Thích Quảng Đức

    Thích Quảng Đức (English pronunciation: /ˌtɪtʃ ˌkwɒŋ ˈdʊk/ TICH KWONG DUUK; 1897 – 11 June 1963, born Lâm Văn Tức), was a Vietnamese Mahayana Buddhist monk who burned himself to death at a busy Saigon road intersection on 11 June 1963. Thích Quảng Đức was protesting the persecution of Buddhists by South Vietnam's Roman Catholic government led by Ngo Dinh Diem. Photos of his self-immolation were circulated widely across the world and brought attention to the policies of the Diệm regime. Malcolm Browne won a Pulitzer Prize for his renowned photograph of the monk's death. After his death, his body was re-cremated, but his heart remained intact. This was interpreted as a symbol of compassion and led Buddhists to revere him as a bodhisattva, meaning heroic-minded one (satva) for enlightenment (bodhi), which heightened the impact of his death on the public psyche. Thích Quảng Đức's act increased international pressure on Diệm and led him to announce reforms with the intention of mollifying the Buddhists. However, the promised reforms were not implemented, leading to a deterioration in the dispute. With protests continuing, the ARVN Special Forces loyal to Diệm's brother, Ngô Đình Nhu,
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    123

    Valentin Bondarenko

    Valentin Vasiliyevich Bondarenko (Ukrainian: Валентин Васильович Бондаренко, Russian: Валентин Васильевич Бондаренко, 16 February 1937 - 23 March 1961) was a Soviet fighter pilot and cosmonaut. He died during a training accident in Moscow, USSR, in 1961. A crater on the Moon's far side is named for him. Bondarenko was born in Kharkiv, Ukrainian SSR, USSR. His father was a furrier and was sent to the Eastern Front in the first days of World War II. The youngster and his mother went through several years of privation during the 1941–1944. From an early age, Bondarenko was fascinated by aviation heroes and dreamed of becoming a military aviator himself. While still at Kharkiv's Higher Air Force School, he was member of the local aviation club. After Bondarenko's graduation in 1954 he was admitted to the Voroshilov Aviation Military Academy and a year later he was transferred to an air force college in Grozny, Armavir Military Pilot Aviation School, from which he graduated in 1957. In 1956 he married Galina Semenovna Rykova, a medical worker. Their first child was born later that year. During 1956, Bondarenko was sent to Armavir Higher Air Force Pilots School, graduating in 1957—the
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