An automotive generation describes a group of years in which a car line maintained the same general platform, size, shape and features.
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The second-generation Chevrolet Camaro is a pony car by the Chevrolet division of General Motors produced for the 1970 through 1981 model years. It was introduced February 26, 1970 It was longer, lower, and wider than the first generation Camaro. A convertible body-type was no longer available. GM engineers have said the second generation is much more of "A Driver's Car" than its predecessor.
Dubbed "Super Hugger", the second-generation Camaro was developed without the rush of the first generation and benefited from a greater budget justified by the success of the first generation. Although it was an all-new car, the basic mechanical layout of the new Camaro was familiar, engineered much like its predecessor with a unibody structure utilizing a front subframe, A-arm and coil spring front suspension, and rear leaf springs. The chassis and suspension of the second generation were greatly refined in both performance and comfort; base models offered significant advances in sound-proofing, ride isolation, and road-holding. Extensive experience Chevrolet engineers had gained racing the first-generation led directly to advances in second-generation Camaro steering, braking, and balance.
The Gold State Coach is an enclosed, eight horse-drawn carriage used by the British Royal Family. It was built in the London workshops of Samuel Butler in 1762 and has been used at the coronation of every British monarch since George IV. The coach's great age, weight, and lack of maneuverability have limited its use to grand state occasions such as coronations, royal weddings, and the jubilees of a monarch.
The coach weighs four tons and is 24 feet (7.3 m) long and 12 feet (3.7 m) high. It is gilded and features painted panels by Giovanni Cipriani and rich gilded sculpture including three cherubs on the roof (representing England, Ireland and Scotland) and four tritons, one at each corner (representing Britain's imperial power). The body of the coach is slung by braces covered with Morocco leather and decorated with gilt buckles. The interior is lined with velvet and satin. The Gold State Coach is pulled by a team of eight horses wearing the Red Morocco harness. Originally driven by a coachman, the horses are now postilion-ridden in pairs. The coach is housed at the Royal Mews of Buckingham Palace.
Media related to Gold State Coach at Wikimedia Commons
Rail transport is a means of conveyance of passengers and goods by way of wheeled vehicles running on rail tracks. In contrast to road transport, where vehicles merely run on a prepared surface, rail vehicles are also directionally guided by the tracks on which they run. Track usually consists of steel rails installed on sleepers/ties and ballast, on which the rolling stock, usually fitted with metal wheels, moves. However, other variations are also possible, such as slab track where the rails are fastened to a concrete foundation resting on a prepared subsurface.
Rolling stock in railway transport systems generally has lower frictional resistance when compared with highway vehicles, and the passenger and freight cars (carriages and wagons) can be coupled into longer trains. The operation is carried out by a railway company, providing transport between train stations or freight customer facilities. Power is provided by locomotives which either draw electrical power from a railway electrification system or produce their own power, usually by diesel engines. Most tracks are accompanied by a signalling system. Railways are a safe land transport system when compared to other forms of
The Dodge Charger LX is a rear-wheel drive four-door automobile introduced in February 2005. Built by Chrysler for its North American Dodge brand, the car was created to continue the Dodge Charger line, and replaced the Dodge Intrepid as Dodge's full-size sedan. Dodge Charger (2006-2010) shares the LX platform with the Chrysler 300, the newer third-generation Dodge Challenger, and the discontinued Dodge Magnum.
The first Charger was a 1964 show car, based on the Dodge Polara and fitted with a 426 Wedge V8 engine. The first production Charger, based on the Dodge Coronet, was introduced as a 1966 model. In 1999, Dodge introduced a new Charger R/T concept car. It took many styling cues from the 1960s Chargers, sharing their long nose and rearward cab, but was much shorter at 187 in (4,750 mm), compared to 203 in (5,156 mm) for the 1966 Charger. It was also 650 lb (295 kg) lighter. Although it had four doors where the earlier models had two, the rear doors were intended to be blended unobtrusively into the body.
Both the SXT and R/T models were also available as AWD (All Wheel Drive) starting in 2007. The All-Wheel Drive system is derived from the Mercedes-Benz 4MATIC technology. From
The Nash-Healey is a two-seat sports car that was produced for the American market between 1951 and 1954. Marketed by Nash-Kelvinator Corporation with a Nash Ambassador drivetrain and a European chassis and body, it served as a halo (or image) vehicle for the automaker to promote the sales of the other Nash models. It was "America's first post-war sports car", and the first introduced in the U.S. by a major automaker since the Great Depression. The Nash-Healey was the product of a partnership between Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and British automaker Donald Healey, as well as a later restyle by Pinin Farina and subassembly in Italy.
Donald Healey and Nash-Kelvinator CEO George W. Mason met on the Queen Elizabeth, an ocean liner going from the United States to Great Britain. Healey was returning to England after his attempt to purchase engines from Cadillac, but General Motors declined his idea. His idea was expand production of the Healey Silverstone that race car driver Briggs Cunningham had customized with Cadillac’s new 1949 overhead-valve V8 engine. Mason and Healey met over dinner and a production plan ensued during the remainder of the voyage. The two became friends because
The Chevrolet Corvette (C2) (C2 for Second Generation), also known as the Corvette Sting Ray, is a sports car produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors for the 1963 through 1967 model years.
The 1963 Sting Ray production car's lineage can be traced to two separate GM projects: the Q-Corvette, and perhaps more directly, Mitchell's racing Stingray. The Q-Corvette, initiated in 1957, envisioned a smaller, more advanced Corvette as a coupe-only model, boasting a rear transaxle, independent rear suspension, and four-wheel disc brakes, with the rear brakes mounted inboard. Exterior styling was purposeful, with peaked fenders, a long nose, and a short, bobbed tail.
Meanwhile, Zora Arkus-Duntov and other GM engineers had become fascinated with mid and rear-engine designs. It was during the Corvair's development that Duntov took the mid/rear-engine layout to its limits in the CERV I concept. The Chevrolet Experimental Research Vehicle was a lightweight, open-wheel single-seat racer. A rear-engined Corvette was briefly considered during 1958-60, progressing as far as a full-scale mock-up designed around the Corvair's entire rear-mounted power package, including its complicated
The fourth-generation Ford Taurus is an automobile produced by the Ford Motor Company from 2000 to 2007. It was the fourth in six generations of the Ford Taurus.
When the third generation Taurus debuted, it was hurt by criticism of its design, which was formed from oval derived design elements. The design was very controversial, and it strongly limited the appeal of the car. As a result, for the fourth generation Taurus, Ford designed it with a more subdued, angular design, as part of Ford's New Edge styling of the early 2000s, in hopes of increasing the car's appeal. Instead of sloping back, this car's trunk stood upright in a more traditional shape, which greatly increased trunk space. The roof was also raised into a more upright stance to increase headroom, which can be evidenced by the thicker C-pillar and larger area between the tops of the doors and the top of the roof. Because of this, the Ford Taurus became a full-size car.
The front and rear clips were also redesigned on the Taurus and Sable sedans; all body panels were brand-new except the doors. Station wagons received the new front clips but from the firewall back they were essentially the same as the 1996-1999 wagons.
The Volkswagen Polo Mk2 is the second generation of the Volkswagen Polo supermini, it was produced from late 1981 until 1994.
A revised Polo model (known as the Mark 2 or Mark II, internally designated Typ 86C) was introduced in October 1981, with the major change being the introduction of a new body style with a steep (almost vertical) rear window, as well a version with a diagonal rear window and a similar profile to the previous model. These two body styles were called the Wagon and Coupé respectively, although in fact both were three-door hatchbacks. The latter was added to the range in 1983.
The sedan version was no longer called the Derby in all countries, and was changed to the Polo Classic. Production was expanded to Spain in the mid 1980s following Volkswagen's takeover of SEAT.
1093 cc or 1272 cc engines were available at launch. In 1986, the Polo received numerous technical improvements; amongst many other minor updates, the engines were changed to lower maintenance hydraulic tappets, new camshafts and valve gear and an automatic choke; the 1043 cc engine replaced the 1093 cc, and in some markets the 1.3 litre engine was available with fuel injection and equipped with a
SJ series Jeep Cherokee was a full-size SUV produced from 1974 through
1983 by the Jeep division of the American Motors Corporation. It was
similar to the Wagoneer. The trim levels of the Cherokee included the
S, Limited, Classic, Chief, Sport, Pioneer, and Laredo. It was designed
by Brooks Stevens.
The Chevrolet Corvette (C4) is a sports car produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors for the 1984 through 1996 model years. The editors of Consumer Guide stated: "The first fully redesigned Corvette in 15 years was more sophisticated and more practical than the beloved Shark. And like previous generations, the new C4 only got better in time." The convertible returned, as did higher performing engines, exemplified by the 405 hp (302 kW) LT5 found in the ZR-1. In early March 1990, the ZR-1 would set a new record for the highest 24 hour-5,000 mile land-speed by going over 175 mph (282 km/h). Though prices rose even as sales declined, the fourth generation Corvette won its own loyal following as one of the world's most desirable sports cars. The last C4 was produced on June 20, 1996.
The C4 Corvette was known for its evolved, sleek and modern look. In a departure from the fiberglass panels of its forebearers, the c4's rear bumpers and panels were made from molding plastics, a sheet molding compound. The C4 coupe was the first general production Corvette to have a glass hatchback (the limited edition 1982 Collector Edition being the first Corvette equipped with this feature)
The Dodge Charger (L-body) was built by Dodge, a division of Chrysler Corporation. There have been a number of vehicles bearing the Charger nameplate, but the name has generally denoted a performance model in the Dodge range. The 1983–1987 Chargers were based on the front-wheel drive Chrysler L platform. The styling was inspired by that of the foxbody Ford Mustang (third generation).
For 1979, Chrysler brought out sporty versions of the L-body Dodge Omni/Plymouth Horizon called the Dodge Omni 024 and the Plymouth Horizon TC3. The cars shared a 70 hp (52 kW) 1.7 L Volkswagen I4 as the only engine under the O24/TC3 name.
In 1981, the Charger nameplate returned as a performance package on the Omni 024. Called the Charger 2.2, it cost $399 extra and came with a hood scoop, quarter-window appliques, special gearing, rear spoiler and "Charger 2.2" tape graphics and the new 84 hp (63 kW) 2.2 L I4 which was designed and built by Chrysler. 7,306 were built.
In 1982, the Dodge Charger returned for a second year as the performance option for the 024. Nothing was changed from 1981 except for a Pentastar emblem on its hood and the addition of a resonator to the exhaust, since the previous model
The Pontiac GTO nameplate was revived for the 2004 model year, now as an American-market version of the Australian-built Holden Monaro. This version sold poorly due to bland styling and was cancelled after 2006.
The Pontiac GTO was relaunched in the United States in late 2003, based on the Holden Monaro's V platform. The fact that the new GTO is based on an entirely different vehicle (the "Old Goat" being a muscle car and the Holden Monaro being an Australian sports car) has provoked much criticism from muscle car enthusiasts, stating that redesigning the GTO from the ground up would be more nostalgic and would possibly bring better sales for the car. The revival was prompted by former GM chairman Bob Lutz, who drove a Holden Monaro while on a business trip in Australia. The GTO is produced in Australia, and is equipped with the Chevrolet Corvette's LS1 V8 engine with a choice of a 6-speed manual transmission or a 4-speed automatic. The same model is sold in the United Kingdom as a Vauxhall and as a Chevrolet in the Middle East.
Sales of the 2004 GTO were below expectations, forcing the brand to cut production to just 12,000 per year. The optional hood scoops slated for the
The first-generation Ford Taurus is an automobile that was produced by the Ford Motor Company as the first of six generations of the Ford Taurus. Introduced in December 1985 as a 1986 model, the front-wheel drive Taurus was a very influential design that is credited with saving Ford from bankruptcy, bringing many innovations to the marketplace and starting the trend towards aerodynamic design for the American automakers.
Development for the first-generation Taurus started in the early 1980s to replace the Ford LTD, at the cost of billions of dollars, with a team led by vice president in charge of car development Lewis Veraldi dubbed "Team Taurus". The Taurus' development employed a strategy of teamwork and customer communication that would prove very influential for the automotive industry, as it consolidated all of Ford's designers, engineers, and marketing staff into a group who worked on the car collectively. The Taurus' development was initially kept very secret by Ford, and not much was revealed about the final Taurus until it was unveiled in 1985.
After its release, the Taurus became a strong seller, as over 200,000 would be sold in the 1986 model year, and over a million
The Volkswagen Polo Mk3 is the third generation of the Volkswagen Polo supermini, produced from 1994 until late 1999 and some in 2000. It was produced in two forms, the initial car (1994–2000) being known as the Mark 4 or IIII, and the facelifted version (2000–2002) known as the Mark 4 Phase II or unofficially as the Mark 3F or IIIF.
The third generation Polo (known internally as the Typ 6N) was launched in September 1994, and was a completely new model/chassis from the old Polo, although early versions used the engines from the Mark 2. The Mark 4 was the first Polo to be made available as a five-door as well as three-door hatchback; these were built in 1995-1999.
The platform used for this model used a modified version of the floorpan of the Volkswagen Golf Mark 3, as did the SEAT Ibiza Mk2. A multitude of mechanical parts and all of the suspension components were intechangeable among the three models. Although the dashboard and a number of mechanical components, including engines, were shared with the Ibiza, outwardly the Polo models were entirely different with no body panels shared with the SEAT model.
Initially, only three- and five-door hatchback versions were available. In
The Porsche 956 was a Group C sports-prototype racing car designed by Norbert Singer and built by Porsche in 1982 for the FIA World Sportscar Championship. It was later upgraded to the 956B in 1984. This car holds the all-time record for the fastest vehicle ever to lap the famed Nurburgring, completing the 13 mile circuit in 6 minutes and 11 seconds.
Built to comply with the championship's new Group C regulations which were introduced in 1982, the car was a replacement for Porsche's successful 936 model which competed in the previous Group 6 category of the World Championship. The project began in June 1981, and the first prototype chassis was completed on March 27, 1982, in time for the beginning of the World Championship season. Jürgen Barth tested the first chassis at Porsche's private test track.
The 956 features a chassis made of an aluminium monocoque, a first for the company, helping to allow the car to meet the 800 kg (1,764 lb) weight minimum in Group C. The engine is the same as the one used in the Porsche 936, the Type-935 2.65 L turbocharged Flat-6, producing approximately 635 hp (474 kW). The very first dual clutch gearbox was also designed for the 956, mated to a
The Chevrolet Corvette (C6) is a sports car produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors introduced for the 2005 model year. The current generation Corvette is the first with exposed headlamps since the 1962 model. Variants include the ZR1, the most powerful production Corvette to date, and the C6.R, an American Le Mans Series GT1 championship and 24 Hours of Le Mans GTE-Pro winner.
The Corvette C6 was virtually all new including new bodywork with exposed headlamps, an overhaul of the suspension geometry, a larger passenger compartment, a larger 6.0 L (364 cu in; 5967 cc) engine and a much higher level of refinement. Overall, it is 5.1 inches (13 cm) shorter than the C5, but its wheelbase has increased by 1.2 inches (3 cm). It is also one inch (2.5 cm) narrower. The 6.0 L LS2 V8 produces 400 horsepower (300 kW) at 6000 rpm and 400 lb·ft (542 N·m) of torque at 4400 rpm.
With an automatic transmission, the Corvette achieves 15/25 mpg (city/highway); the manual-transmission model gets 16/26 mpg. The Corvette's manual transmission is fitted with Computer Aided Gear Shifting (CAGS), obligating the driver to shift from 1st directly to 4th when operating at lower RPMs. This boosts
The Porsche 997 (Nine-Nine-Seven) is the internal designation for the Porsche 911 model manufactured and sold by German manufacturer Porsche between 2004 (as Model Year 2005) and 2012. Production of the Carrera and Carrera S coupés began in early 2004, all-wheel drive Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S versions began shipping in November 2005, Turbo and GT3 derivatives went on sale in late 2006 and the 911 GT2 in 2007. In addition to the coupe and cabriolet versions, Targa versions of the Carrera 4 and Carrera 4S were also available, which carry on with the "glass canopy" roof design used on all Targa 911s since the Type 993 Generation 911.
During 2009 Porsche made comprehensive changes to the 997 lineup which included small styling changes, increases in engine displacement across the board, the addition of direct injection and the introduction of the company's new "PDK" dual clutch transmission. As a result, the updated 997 models were faster, lighter and more fuel efficient than the outgoing versions and have somewhat better handling. In the case of the 997 Turbo, a comprehensively re-tuned all wheel drive system with an optional "torque vectoring" system was also a part of the upgrades
The second-generation Ford Taurus is an automobile produced by the Ford Motor Company from 1992 to 1995, which served as the second out of six generations of the Ford Taurus.
The second-generation Taurus shared all of its mechanical parts with the first-generation Ford Taurus, yet its exterior and interior were nearly completely redesigned. However, its exterior still strongly resembled that of the first-generation Taurus, leading many to falsely believe that the second-generation was simply a face-lift of the first-generation Taurus. This is partially true, however, as the wagon model, from the B-pillar to the rear of the car, was a carryover from the first generation. The second generation of Taurus proved to be very popular, selling 410,000 units in its first year, becoming the best selling car in the United States. It would hold this title until 1995, when it was discontinued and replaced with the third-generation Ford Taurus.
The exterior of the second generation was completely redesigned from the first generation. Its length was increased by a few inches, and it was a couple of hundred pounds heavier, and had a more rounded roofline. Every body panel, save for the doors, was
The Volkswagen Polo Mk4 is the fourth generation of the Volkswagen Polo that has been sold by the German automaker Volkswagen from early 2002 to 2009 in most countries. It is still being manufactured in South Africa, where it is sold as the Polo Vivo. The MK4 replaced the Volkswagen Polo Mk3 in the supermini class. The Polo Vivo replaced the Citi Golf.
This product was created in Africa Launched in September 2001, the fourth generation Polo (internal designation Typ 9N) was made available in early 2002. In keeping with VW's aim of floor pan sharing it shares its platform with the SEAT Ibiza 6L, SEAT Córdoba 6L and Škoda Fabia Mk1. The car is all new, and bears more structural resemblance to the 6K than the 6N, outwardly the most recognizable change is the quad round headlights similar to the Volkswagen Lupo. At a length of 3,900 mm (153.5 in), it is larger than the first generation of its larger sibling, the 3,820 mm (150.4 in) Volkswagen Golf Mk1.
The car was available with several petrol and diesel engines: a 1.2 L three-cylinder petrol engine with 55 PS (40 kW; 54 hp) or 64 PS (47 kW; 63 hp) (depending on the number of valves per cylinder, two or four) and a 16-valve 1.4 L
The Chevrolet Corvette (C5) is a sports car produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors for the 1997 through 2004 model years.
The C5 was a major change from the previous generation. Designed from the outset as a sturdy convertible, as opposed to a coupé that was subsequently weakened by the removal of the roof structure, the car now had a hydroformed box frame. The transmission was moved to the rear of the car to form an integrated, rear-mounted transaxle assembly which was connected to the all-new LS1 engine via a torque tube; this engine/transmission arrangement helped facilitate a desirable 50-50 (percentage, front-rear) weight distribution for the vehicle. The LS1 engine initially produced 345 hp (257 kW), but that was increased slightly in 2001 to 350 hp (261 kW). The 4L60-E automatic transmission carried on from previous models, but the manual was replaced by a Borg-Warner T-56 6-speed that is capable of propelling the C5 to a top speed of 175 mph (282 km/h). Gone were the squeaks and rattles of the C4, replaced by a stronger frame that would last for at least two more generations. By all measures, the new C5 was better in every aspect than the C4 it replaced.
The third-generation Mustang was produced by Ford Motor Company from 1979 to 1993. Built on Ford’s ubiquitous Fox platform, it evolved through a number of sub-models, trim levels, and drivetrain combinations during its production life. It underwent a multi-faceted update for 1987, and for a time seemed destined for replacement with a rebadged import before company executives were swayed by consumer opinions. Enthusiasts group the generation into two segments: the 1979-1986 cars, with their quad headlight arrangement, and the 1987-1993 cars, with their "no-grille" front fascia styling. Production ended with the introduction of the SN95 fourth-generation Mustang for the 1994 model year.
For 1979, the all new Mustang was based on the larger Fox platform, initially developed for the Ford Fairmont and Mercury Zephyr twins that debuted in 1978. The interior was completely restyled and could now more comfortably seat four, even with the smaller back seat. The new Mustang also had more trunk space and a bigger engine bay for better serviceability. Body styles included a coupe (notchback) and hatchback (fastback). The only trim level available over the base model was Ghia. There was also a
The 1960s was a decade that began on January 1, 1960 and ended on December 31, 1969. It was the seventh decade of the 20th century.
The 1960s term also refers to an era more often called The Sixties, denoting the complex of inter-related cultural and political trends across the globe. This "cultural decade" is more loosely defined than the actual decade, beginning around 1963 and ending around 1974.
In the United States, "the Sixties", as they are known in popular culture, is a term used by historians, journalists, and other objective academics; in some cases nostalgically to describe the counterculture and social revolution near the end of the decade; and pejoratively to describe the era as one of irresponsible excess and flamboyance. The decade was also labeled the Swinging Sixties because of the fall or relaxation of some social taboos especially relating to sexism and racism that occurred during this time.
The 1960s have become synonymous with the new, radical, and subversive events and trends of the period, which continued to develop in the 1970s, 1980s, 1990s and beyond. In Africa the 1960s was a period of radical political change as 32 countries gained independence from
The Chevrolet Corvette C5-R is a grand touring racing car built by Pratt & Miller and General Motors for competition in endurance racing. The car is based on the C5 generation of the Chevrolet Corvette sports car, yet is designed purely for motorsports use. It became one of the most dominant cars in GT categories, with wins at the 24 Hours of Daytona, 12 Hours of Sebring, and 24 Hours of Le Mans, as well as championships in the American Le Mans Series. The Corvette C5-Rs debuted in 1999 and continues to be raced to this day, although the C5-R has effectively been replaced by the Corvette C6.R.
The Corvette C5-R was part of a plan by General Motors and their Chevrolet brand to create a factory team to participate in grand touring races not only in North America, but also elsewhere in the world, most notably at the 24 Hours of Le Mans. GM had previously been against approving factory support for Corvette racing programs, although the IMSA GT Championship's Corvette GTPs had seen some support until they ended competition in 1989. With the fifth generation Corvette however, GM chose to show the performance capabilities of the new car by using a more production-based racing car instead
The De Tomaso Mangusta is a sports car from Italian automobile manufacturer De Tomaso produced between 1967 and 1971.
The Mangusta replaced the Vallelunga model, on which its chassis was based. The word "mangusta" is Italian for "mongoose", an animal that can kill cobras. It was rumored that the car was so named because De Tomaso had some talks with Carroll Shelby to replace the Shelby Cobra with a racing car to be built in Italy by the Argentine-born De Tomaso ("De Tomaso Sport 5000" a.k.a. "De Tomaso P70"), but no deal was signed since Shelby became involved in the Ford GT40 racing program. Nevertheless, Alejandro de Tomaso and Carroll Shelby were friends and business is business, so it is also rumored that the first handful of engines for the Mangusta may have come from Shelby. The Mangusta was replaced by the much cheaper-to-build De Tomaso Pantera in 1971.
401 Mangustas were built, about 150 of the European version, the remainder were the North American version. The initial cars are claimed to have a more powerful Ford HiPo 289 cu. in. engine; the later cars all had Ford 302 engines. With the 1970 model USA destined cars were produced with 2 headlamp pop-up, an estimated 50
The seventh generation of the Honda Civic was released in September 2000 as 2001 model. Compared to its predecessor, it retained similar exterior dimensions, but increased significantly in interior space thus bumping up Civic to a compact car size segment. There was a flat rear floor, giving better comfort to the rear seat passengers. This generation abandoned the front double wishbone suspension, which had been used in the fourth to sixth generations, replacing it with MacPherson strut.
A 115 hp (86 kW) engine powered all Civics (except EX and Si), up 9 hp (7 kW) from the previous model. Power in the EX remained at 127 hp (95 kW), and all non-Si engines were stroked to 1.7 liters.
In 2003, the Civic was given new tail lights which created a circle when illuminated. For 2004, the Civic was given a facelifted front end with new headlights, bumper, and grille; it also received side skirts. In 2005 the U.S Honda introduced the Special Edition. It was available in LX or EX Special Edition.
The hybrid version arrived at North America in spring 2002. It used both a small 1.3 L I4 main gasoline engine and auxiliary electric motors, producing a combined 93 hp. The electric motors are
The S30 Nissan/Datsun 240Z (known in Japan as the Fairlady Z and later in other markets as the 260Z and 280Z) are sports car produced by Nissan Motors, Ltd. of Japan in the 1970s. HLS30 was the designation of the left-hand drive model and HS30 for the right-hand drive model. The 240Z was introduced in 1969 with a 2.4 liter straight-6 engine, rear wheel drive, and a stylish coupe body. The engine, based on the Datsun 510's 4-cylinder produced 150ￂﾠhp (112ￂﾠkW) and came with a 5-speed manual transmission (USA model received a 4 speed manual). A 4 wheel independent suspension consisted of MacPherson strut in front (borrowed from the Nissan 1800) and Chapman strut in back. Front disc brake & rear drums were standard.
Production began in 1968, the 1970 240Z was introduced to the American market by Yutaka Katayama, president of Nissan Motors USA operations, widely known as 'Mr. K'. The early 1970 model 240Z had a chrome "240" badge on the B-pillar quarter panel. Two vents were included in the rear hatch below the glass molding. In mid-1971 the B-pillar side badges were restyled with the letter Z in white, and the vents were eliminated from the hatch. Design changes for the US model
The Volkswagen Polo Mk1 (sometimes written in Roman numerals as Mark I) is the first generation of the Volkswagen Polo supermini. It was produced from 1975 until 1981.
The original Polo (known internally as the Typ 86), a rebadged version of the Audi 50, was introduced in 1975 on mainland Europe and was launched in the UK and the Isle of Man in 1976. The differences between the Audi and VW models were minor, with the Polo being cheaper and much more basic. The two cars were initially sold alongside each other, but the Audi 50 never sold as well, and was withdrawn in 1978.
The manufacturer let it be known that Bertone had been involved in the styling of the Polo and its Audi sibling, although the car was essentially an in-house Audi design, with the Italian design studio's contribution restricted to the circular extractor vent cover at the base of the C pillar, and the small "flick-up" at the rear end of the waist line.
The Polo was manufactured at the Volkswagen plant in Wolfsburg. In 1977, the Derby sedan was released, which was simply a Polo, identical to the hatchback from the C-pillar forward, with a large boot attached (an old Audi proposal, but never sold by this brand).
The North American eighth generation Honda Accord is a mid-size sedan and coupe introduced for the 2008 model year. It is also marketed in parts of Asia and as the Honda Inspire in Japan.
The size of the 2008 Accord has been increased by 4 inches (102 mm) in length and 3 inches (76 mm) in width. As a result, the interior space is also enlarged: an Accord sedan is considered a full-size car by EPA standards, having a combined interior space of 120.0 cubic feet (3.40 m) without moonroof and 115.0 cubic feet (3.26 m) with. The Accord coupe is still classified as a mid-size car, as it has a combined interior space of 104.0 cubic feet (2.94 m) without moonroof and 101.6 cubic feet (2.88 m) with moonroof. Unlike most full-sized sedans, the parking brake lever has always remained on the center console like the previous generations, as opposed to the driver footwell.
A hybrid version is no longer offered, as Honda felt their "hybrid system works better on smaller cars".
The Honda Accord Coupe concept car was unveiled at the 2007 North American International Auto Show. It previewed the production 2-door model with i-VTEC VCM V6 engine and Advanced Compatibility Engineering body
The first generation Honda City (Honda Jazz in Europe) was a subcompact hatchback aimed mainly at the Japanese domestic market. The somewhat ungainly designed City, referred to by Honda as "Tall Boy" style, was also marketed abroad and was available in a number of versions. First introduced in November 1981 it carried the model codes AA for sedans, VF for vans, and FA for the widetrack Turbo II and Cabriolets. It was sold at the Honda Japan dealership sales channel called Honda Clio.
While the City's layout was traditional for its category, with front-wheel drive and a transversely mounted engine, the innovative tall seating arrangement created comparable legroom to a car many times its size. This, combined with class leading fuel economy led to it being a rapid and considerable success in the Japanese domestic market. In spite of the creativity and novelty of its design, the City was narrowly pipped for the Japanese motoring journalists' Car Of The Year Award by the luxurious Toyota Soarer. The engine was the CVCC-II 1,231 cc four-cylinder "ER", specifically designed for the City. It was also available together with the Motocompo, a special 50 cc 'foldaway' scooter constructed to
For the third generation (introduced in September 1983 for model year 1984), the Civic's wheelbase was increased by 2–5 inches (13 cm) to 93.7 inches (hatchback) or 96.5 inches (sedan). A three-door hatchback, four-door sedan (also known as the Honda Ballade), the five-door "Shuttle" station wagon, and sporting CRX coupé shared common underpinnings. This included independent front control arms with torsion bar springs and a semi-independent rear beam with coil springs. However, the body panels were largely different between models. The Civic-based Honda Quint five-door hatchback also underwent a model change, and became the Honda Quint Integra, available as both a three- and five-door fastback. The Quint Integra (soon just "Integra") was sold at the Japanese Honda Verno dealership along with the CR-X. The Civic in Japan was now exclusive to Honda Primo, along with Honda's kei cars as well as superminis like the Honda City.
The sedan and hatchback shared the same dashboard, but the CRX and wagons both had their own unique dash (CRX having a covered cubby in the middle of the dash, the wagon having a pop up set of vents which could be used or retracted into the dash). The hatchback
The Chevrolet Corvette (C1) is the first generation of the sports car by the Chevrolet division of General Motors introduced late in the 1953 model year and produced through 1962. It is commonly referred to as the "solid-axle" generation, as the independent rear suspension didn't appear until the 1963 Sting Ray. The Corvette was rushed into production for its debut model year to capitalize on the enthusiastic public reaction to the concept vehicle, but expectations for the new model were largely unfulfilled. Reviews were mixed and sales fell far short of expectations through the car's early years. The program was nearly canceled, but Chevrolet would ultimately stay the course and Harley Earl and company would transform the Corvette into a true world-class sports car.
In 1927 General Motors hired designer Harley Earl who loved sports cars. GIs returning after serving overseas in the years following World War II were bringing home MGs, Jaguars, Alfa Romeos, and the like. In 1951, Nash Motors began selling an expensive two-seat sports car, the Nash-Healey, that was made in partnership with the Italian designer Pinin Farina and British auto engineer Donald Healey, but there were few
For 1988, the Honda Civic was significantly redesigned. The suspension had a radical re-configuration with what Honda called "double-wishbone suspension" on all four corners, wheelbase was increased to 98.4 inches (250 cm), and the body was redesigned with a lower hood line and more glass, giving less drag. Rear suspension however is more accurately described as multi-link trailing arm suspension since the upper control arm only has a single anchor and there is toe control used on the main trailing arm.
The base model of the fourth generation Civic had a 1.2 L SOHC, this single carbureted engine was not available for the Japanese and American markets. In Japan the base version received a 1.3 L SOHC single carbureted engine, thus equipped it was called either 23L or 23U.
The 1.5 L SOHC engine came in a wide variety of models, dual-point injection, single carbureted and dual carbureted. Those engines were available in the Japanese-market 25X and 25XT. The Japanese version of the sporting Si, initially the top version, featured a (ZC) D16A8/A9 1.6 L 16V DOHC engine.
But there was more to come, and in late 1989 the new top model of the hatchback was the new SiR, fitted with the
The fourth-generation Chevrolet Camaro debuted for the 1993 model year on an updated F-body platform. It would retain the same characteristic since the first-generation's introduction back in 1967; 2-doors, 2+2 seating, available as a coupe (with optional T-top roof) or convertible, rear-wheel drive, and a choice of V6 and V8 powerplants. The 1998 model year was refreshed and revised with both exterior and engine changes. The fourth-gen Camaro would last up through the 2002 model year when General Motors discontinued production due to slow sales, a deteriorated sports coupe market, and plant overcapacity.
1993 was the debut year for the fourth generation Camaro, and production continued until 2002. Production was moved from GM's Van Nuys, California, assembly plant to Sainte-Thérèse, Quebec, Canada in 1993. The new design incorporated sheet moulding compound (SMC) made from chopped fiberglass and polyester resin for the roof, hatch, doors, and spoiler. Both the front and rear suspension design was improved. Base Camaros were powered by a 160 hp (119 kW) 3.4 L V6. The 1993 Camaro also featured the LT1 V8 engine with 275 hp (205 kW) and 325 lb·ft (441 N·m) torque that had been
The Peugeot Bébé or Baby was a small car nameplate from Peugeot made from 1905 to 1916. Vehicles under this name were known technically within Peugeot as the Type 69 and the Type BP1.
The original Bébé was presented at the Paris Motor Show in 1904 and stole the show as a modern and robust creation that was cheap, small, and practical. Its weight was 350 kilograms (770 lb) and length was 2.7 metres (110 in), and these tiny dimensions meant that its small engine could propel it to 40 kilometres per hour (25 mph). Though selling price was deliberately kept as low as possible, technologies like rack and pinion steering and a driveshaft instead of a chain were included in the vehicle. Production began in Audincourt in 1905, and the car proved to be popular. Bébé sold 400 units in the first year, or 80% of Peugeot's production. It was also exported, particularly to Britain. The Type 69 was sold until 1912.
The Type BP1 Bébé was a design by Ettore Bugatti, initially for the German car firm Wanderer, then also built under license by Peugeot for the French market. Peugeot displayed it under their marque at the Paris Motor Show in 1912. Production began in 1913 following discontinuation of
The Porsche 996 is the internal designation for the Porsche 911 model manufactured and sold between 1998 and 2005. It has since been replaced by the Type 997. Both body styles were produced by Porsche in 2005, based upon model type.
At its debut, the 996 featured the most significant changes to the Carrera model since its 1963 introduction; the most significant change with this new iteration is the water-cooled engine replacing the previously air-cooled engine. Progressively stringent noise regulations, environmental concerns, a higher expectation for refinement and a high-performance 4 valve per cylinder engine made the switch necessary. The 996 Carrera (non GT and Turbo models) engine is designed with what Porsche calls the "integrated dry sump oiling". This "integrated dry sump" engine does not have an oil scavenge pump in the crankcase to pump the engine oil to a separate holding tank outside the crankcase as a true dry sump design would have. The only scavenge pumps in the 996 engine are in the camshaft boxes and the oil is pumped from there to the bottom of the crankcase as it would be in any "wet sump" engine. Other changes include a sleeker body with a more steeply raked
The Nissan 350Z (known as Nissan Fairlady Z Z33 in Japan) is a two seat sports car that was manufactured by Nissan from 2003 to 2009 and marks the fifth generation (codename: Z33) of Nissan's Z-car line. The 350Z entered production in late 2002 and was sold and marketed as a 2003 model. The first year there was only a coupe, as the roadster did not debut until the following year. Initially, the coupe came in base, Enthusiast, Performance, Touring and Track versions, while the roadster was limited to Enthusiast and Touring trim levels. The Track trim came with lightweight wheels and Brembo brakes, but its suspension tuning was the same as all other coupes. The Nissan 350Z has been succeeded by the 370Z for the 2009 model year.
After the Nissan 300ZX was withdrawn from the U.S. market in 1996, Nissan initially tried to keep the Z name alive by re-creating the 240Z the following year. The car was conceived by Nissan's North American design team in their free time, and the concept was introduced in a four state Road Show in July 1998 to various car media, dealers and employees. Yutaka Katayama, regarded as the "Father of the Z" unveiled the Z concept sketch to the public when he
The third-generation Chevrolet Camaro was introduced for the 1982 model year. It continued to use General Motors's F-body platform and would produce a "20th Anniversary Commemorative Edition" for 1987 and "25th Anniversary Heritage Edition" for 1992. These were also the first Camaros with factory fuel injection, four-speed automatic transmissions, five-speed manual transmissions, four-cylinder engines, 16-inch wheels, and hatchback bodies. The third-generation Camaro continued through the 1992 model year.
The Third-Generation Camaro was released for sale in January 1982. The 1982 model introduced the first Camaros with factory fuel injection, a hatchback body style, and a four-cylinder engine. The Camaro Z28 was Motor Trend magazine's Car of the Year for 1982. Three models were available: Sport Coupe, Berlinetta, and Z28.
The Sport Coupe came standard with the 2.5 L 151 cid LQ9 four-cylinder engine. The 2.8 L 173 LC1 V6 and 5.0 L 305 LG4 V8 were optional. Dog dish-style hubcaps were standard; full wheel covers were optional as were steel, five-spoke 14x7-inch body-colored rally wheels.
The Berlinetta came with the standard 2.8 LC1 V6 or the optional 5.0 LG4 V8. The Berlinetta came
The Chevrolet Corvette C6.R is a grand tourer racing car built by Pratt & Miller and General Motors for competition in endurance racing. It is a replacement for the Corvette C5-R racing car, applying the body style of the new C6 generation Chevrolet Corvette as well as improvements to increase the speed and reliability on the track. Since its debut in 2005, it has continued on from the previous dominance of the C5-R in its racing class with multiple American Le Mans Series championships and race wins in the Le Mans Series, FIA GT Championship, and 24 Hours of Le Mans. There are two main versions of the Corvette C6.R: the GT1 version which has 600 HP, carbon ceramic brakes and aggressive aerodynamics, and the GT2 version which has 470 HP, iron brakes and relatively stock aerodynamics with respect to the road car. By 2012 the C6.R GT1 was retired from competition while the GT2 version continues to race around the world.
Having already established the C5-R as a winning car, the development of the C6.R was more of an evolution of a design rather than an all new car which required long periods of testing and design. Pratt & Miller's process was aided by the fact that, unlike the C5-R
The fifth-generation Ford Taurus is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company from 2008 until 2009. It is the fifth in six generations of the Ford Taurus. However, it is sold under the Taurus name only in the United States and Canada since the Ford Five Hundred was sold in Mexico.
This generation of the Taurus is sold in the Middle East as the Ford Five Hundred.
The Ford Taurus was one of the company's best-selling nameplates. However, it suffered from slumping sales since the late 1990s, steadily losing market share in the midsize segment to the Toyota Camry and Honda Accord. The fourth-generation Ford Taurus soon relied heavily on sales incentives and fleet sales, which further diminished its appeal. The Taurus was discontinued in late 2006, being succeeded by the Ford Fusion and Ford Five Hundred, however the Five Hundred did not perform to expectations.
However, this caused a controversy within the auto industry, with popular automotive websites such as Autoblog and The Truth About Cars expressing their disappointment at Ford for letting the Taurus nameplate decline. MSNBC interviewed many Ford workers who felt that Ford unjustly abandoned the car that had done so
The Sinclair Research C5 is a battery electric vehicle invented by Sir Clive Sinclair and launched by Sinclair Vehicles Ltd in the United Kingdom on 10 January 1985. The vehicle is a battery-assisted tricycle steered by a handlebar beneath the driver's knees. Powered operation is possible making it unnecessary for the driver to pedal. Its top speed of 15 miles per hour (24 km/h), is the fastest allowed in the UK without a driving licence. It is powered by a 200w or 250W motor. It sold for £399 plus £29 for delivery.
It became an object of media and popular ridicule during 1980s Britain and was a commercial disaster, selling only around 17,000 units, although according to Sinclair, it was "the best selling electric vehicle" until November 2011 when the Nissan Leaf had sold over 20,000 units.
Sir Clive Sinclair started to think about electric vehicles as a teenager, and it was an idea he toyed with for decades. In the early 1970s Sinclair Radionics was working on the project. Sinclair had Chris Curry work on the electric motor. However, the company focus shifted to calculators and no further work was done on vehicles until the late 1970s. Development began again in 1979 and
The Nissan S130 (also sold as the Datsun 280ZX and Nissan Fairlady Z, depending on the market) was a sports coupé produced from 1978 to 1983. It was the second generation Z-car, replacing the Datsun 260Z/280Z in late 1978. The 280ZX was the first time where the "By Nissan" subscript was badged alongside the Datsun logo, along with the Nissan trucks. The 280ZX was Motor Trends Import Car of the Year for 1979. The 280ZX was replaced by the Nissan 300ZX in 1984.
The 280ZX was a complete redesign, retaining only the L28 inline-6 engine and other driveline components from the 280Z. Both two-seater and four-seater (2+2) designs were offered.
With a focus on the oil crisis of the late 1970s, Nissan improved fuel economy, emissions, and aerodynamics over the first generation Z-Cars. In addition, high-end audio systems were standard.
The 280ZX adopted suspension similar to that of the concurrent Bluebird 910, with MacPherson struts in front and semi-trailing arm independent in the rear. The wheelbase was up from its predecessor (90.7 in (2,304 mm)) to 91.3 in (2,319 mm) for the two-seater.
The 280ZX's body was redesigned with aerodynamics in mind. By closing in the open grille of the first
300ZX is the name given, in much of the world, to the "Z31" and "Z32" generations of Nissan's Z sports car. Like all other versions of the Z-Car, it was sold in Japan as the Fairlady Z, regardless of model year.
Sold on the Japanese market from 1983 through 2000 and in the United States from 1984 through 1996, the 300ZX name followed the numerical convention initiated with the 240Z, put forth by Yutaka Katayama, the one time president of Nissan Motors USA. The "X" designation had debuted with the previous generation Z car, the 280ZX, to signify the presence of luxury and comfort oriented features. The Z31 model of 1983 through 1989 was the more popular model, with over 100,000 more units sold than the Z32.
The Z31 generation featured 5 different motor packages. A turbocharged dual over head cam 2.0L straight six (RB20DET, found in 200zr), a turbocharged single over head cam 2.0L V6 (VG20ET, found in 200Z/ZS/ZG), a naturally aspirated single over head cam 3.0L V6 (VG30E, found in 300zx), a turbocharged single over head cam 3.0L V6 (VG30ET, found in 300zx Turbo) and a naturally aspirated dual over head cam 3.0L V6 (VG30DE, found in 300zr). The Z32 came with 2 different motor
The fifth-generation Chevrolet Camaro is a pony car produced by General Motors and marketed under the Chevrolet brand. It is the fifth distinct generation of the Camaro to be produced since its original introduction in 1967. Production of the new Camaro began on March 16, 2009 after several years on hiatus since the previous generation's production ended in 2002 and went on sale to the public in April 2009 for the 2010 model year.
On January 6, 2006, the first official word regarding a fifth generation Chevrolet Camaro from General Motors came at the 2006 North American International Auto Show, where the 2006 Camaro Concept was released. AutoWeek editors unanimously awarded the Camaro Concept "Best In Show." The concept is based on the new GM Zeta platform and was designed by South Korean-born Sangyup Lee. Road & Track offered an exclusive first look at the car which had photos as well as a short video on the day the concept was released.
The concept car features the following: 2-door, 4-passenger, rear-wheel drive coupe, while the body-styling is an homage to the first generation Camaro. The wheelbase is 110.5 in (281 cm), which is 9 in (23 cm) longer than the previous generation,
The fifth generation of the Honda Civic debuted in Japan on September 10, 1991. The new Civic was larger than its precedessor, had a more aerodynamic body and the wheelbase was increased to 257 cm (101.3 inches) for the three-door hatchback and 262 cm (103.2 inches) for the four-door sedan. The wagon was also dropped for overseas markets, while the previous generation station wagon ("Shuttle") continued in Japan. This generation of Civic used lightweight materials to create a fuel efficient economy car. Compared to the previous generation, the cowl was raised, which allowed for more suspension travel. Along with that change the ride became softer than that of the previous generation, which provided a more compliant ride at expense of crisper handling.
In addition, vehicles with the 1.6 L SOHC VTEC 125 PS (92 kW; 123 hp) engines such as the Si hatchback and EX coupé models found in the United States, provoked popularity of the (relatively) high-performance 1.6 L inline-four segment. In South Africa a unique model with the B18B3 from the Acura Integra RS was specially built to fill the gap left by the absence of the DOHC B16A VTEC engine in the range.
Trims available in the two-door
The Porsche 993 is the company's internal name for the version of the Porsche 911 model manufactured and sold between late 1993 and early 1998, replacing the 964. Its discontinuation marked the end of air-cooled Porsches.
Like previous and future generations of the Porsche 911, there were several variants of the car manufactured, varying in body style, drivetrains, and included equipment. The Porsche 993 was replaced by the Porsche 996.
Citing cost reasons, the design of the Porsche 993 used the doors of the Porsche 964, along with the flat-6 engines, as well as gearbox in 2wd variants. These are reported to be the only major components carried over.
One of the changes in the 993 over preceding 911s is the implementation of an all-alloy multi-arm rear suspension attached to an all-alloy subframe. Its design was derived from the project 989, a four-door sedan which never went into production, and was later continued in the 993's successor, type 996. It required the widening of the rear wheel arches, which itself helped the 993's stability. This suspension improved the 993's cornering abilities, making it more direct and more stable and helping to reduce the tendency to oversteer if
The Dymaxion car was a concept car designed by U.S. inventor and architect Buckminster Fuller in 1933. The word Dymaxion is a brand name that Fuller gave to several of his inventions, to emphasize that he considered them part of a more general project to improve humanity's living conditions. The car had a fuel efficiency of 30 miles per US gallon (7.8 L/100 km; 36 mpg-imp). It could transport 11 passengers. While Fuller claimed it could reach speeds of 120 miles per hour (190 km/h), the fastest documented speed was 90 miles per hour (140 km/h).
Isamu Noguchi was involved with the development of the Dymaxion car, creating plaster wind tunnel models that were a factor in determining its shape, and during 1934 drove it for an extended road trip through Connecticut with Clare Boothe Luce and Dorothy Hale.
The Dymaxion car was a three-wheeler, steered by a single rear wheel, and could do a U-turn in its own length. However, the rear-wheel steering made the car somewhat counterintuitive to operate, especially in crosswind situations. The body was teardrop-shaped, and naturally aerodynamically efficient. The car was twice as long as a conventional automobile, at 20 feet (6.1 m) long.
The 1980 Civic debuted with a more angular shape, increased engine power, and larger dimensions in all models. The wheelbase now measured 88.6 inches (2,250 mm) for the hatchback (the two-door "sedan" was dropped) and 91.3 inches (2,319 mm) for the wagon. The Civic engines came in cross flow and CVCC design depending on the market they were sold in; the base 1335 cc ("1300") CVCC engine made 55 hp (41 kW), while the 1488 cc ("1500") CVCC engine produced 67 hp (50 kW). Three transmissions were offered: a four-speed manual (on base models), a five-speed manual and a three-speed automatic.
The Civic 1300 and 1500 came in base and DX versions, and the latter featured a five-speed manual transmission, partial cloth seats, carpet, rear window defroster, intermittent wipers, and a cigarette lighter. The 1500 GL added radial tires, a rear window wiper/washer, tachometer, clock, and body side moldings. The Civic wagon came in a single version that was similar to the DX trim level.
In 1980 a three-box four-door sedan debuted, as did a three-speed automatic transmission that replaced the aging two-speed unit fitted to the first generation Civic. Rectangular headlamps and black bumpers
In the U.S., the seventh generation North American Honda Accord was a mid-size car available from 2002 to 2007 in both coupe and sedan styles. The sedan was also marketed as the Accord in parts of Latin America, Asia, Middle East, Caribbean, Australia and New Zealand markets. It was related to the Honda Inspire available in Japan from 2003. The North American Honda Accord, with modifications for local market needs, was the launch vehicle of Honda in the Korean market with sales beginning from May 20, 2004.
Production started in Honda's Marysville Auto Plant. In early 2005, Honda's East Liberty Auto Plant started building the Honda Accord Sedan on the same assembly line that produces Civic and Element to increase Honda's flexibility in meeting increased market demand of Acura TL that was also assembled in the Marysville Plant.
A larger car than its predecessor, the North American Accord was given a new level of refinement with chrome interior accents and higher grade materials. The lineup still included the DX, LX, EX, LX-V6 and EX-V6 like the previous generation. Mechanically, the 4-cylinder engine was the all new K-series, for the first time the 4-cylinder Accord gained a direct
The third-generation Ford Taurus is an automobile manufactured by the Ford Motor Company from 1996 to 1999.
The third generation of Ford Taurus was the first to be completely redesigned from the ground up, and used a rounded, oval-derived design that was very controversial at the time, considered to be the main reason for this model's downfall in the market. It was designed to appeal to buyers of the Toyota Camry and Honda Accord — both of which were similarly styled — as well as to make Ford a design leader in the North American market, a title that was attributed to the Chrysler Corporation. Among the most controversial features of the design were both the front fascia that was composed of separate circular headlights, circular turn signals and the oval shaped rear window (the Sable, unlike the Taurus, had a more conventional window).
This generation of Taurus was released for sale in late 1995 to mixed reactions from consumers. It managed to retain its status as the best selling car in America through the 1996 model year; however, this was achieved through heavy sales to car rental companies: only 49% of Taurus sales in 1996 were to private customers. Because of this, the Taurus
The Citroën 2CV (French: "deux chevaux" i.e. "deux chevaux-vapeur [fiscaux]", literally "two tax horsepower") was an economy car produced by the French car manufacturer Citroën between 1948 and 1990. It was technologically advanced and innovative, but with uncompromisingly utilitarian unconventional looks, and deceptively simple Bauhaus inspired bodywork, that belied the sheer quality of its underlying engineering. It was designed to move the French peasantry on from horses and carts. It is considered one of Citroën's most iconic cars. In 1953 Autocar in a technical review of the car wrote of "the extraordinary ingenuity of this design, which is undoubtedly the most original since the Model T Ford". It was described by CAR magazine journalist and author LJK Setright as "the most intelligent application of minimalism ever to succeed as a car". It was designed for low cost, simplicity of use, versatility, reliability, and off-road driving. For this it had a light, easily serviceable engine, extremely soft long travel suspension (with height adjustment by lengthening/shortening of tie rods) high ground clearance, and for oversized loads a car-wide canvas sunroof, which (until 1955)
La Jamais Contente (English: The Never Satisfied) was the first vehicle to go over 100 kilometres per hour (62 mph). It was an electric vehicle with a light alloy torpedo shaped bodywork and with Fulmen batteries. The high position of the driver and the exposed chassis underneath spoiled much of the aerodynamics. The light alloy, called partinium, is an alloy of aluminum, tungsten and magnesium.
The land speed record was established on April 29 or May 1, 1899 at Achères, Yvelines near Paris, France. The vehicle had two direct drive Postel-Vinay 25 kW motors, running at 200 V drawing 124 Amperes each for about 68 hp, and was equipped with Michelin tires. Chassis number was n°25.
The vehicle was driven by the Belgian driver Camille Jenatzy. Camille was the son of Constant Jenatzy, a manufacturer of rubber products (rubber was still a novelty at the time). Camille had studied as an engineer, with an interest in electric traction automobiles. He became known for his record-breaking speed runs, and was nicknamed Le Diable Rouge ("The Red Devil") for the colour of his beard. He died in 1913, after being shot in a hunting accident.
Willing to carve a place in the then promising Parisian
Tiger II is the common name of a German heavy tank of the Second World War. The final official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen Tiger Ausf. B, often shortened to Tiger B. The ordnance inventory designation was Sd.Kfz. 182. It is also known under the informal name Königstiger (the German name for the "Bengal tiger"), often mistranslated as King Tiger or Royal Tiger by Allied soldiers.
The design followed the same concept as the Tiger I, but was intended to be even more formidable. The Tiger II combined the thick armor of the Tiger I with the sloped armor used on the Panther medium tank. The tank weighed almost seventy metric tons, was protected by 100 to 180 mm (3.9 to 7.1 in) of armor to the front, and was armed with the long barrelled 8.8 cm Kampfwagenkanone 43 L/71 gun. The chassis was also the basis for the Jagdtiger turretless tank destroyer.
The Tiger II was issued to heavy tank battalions of the Army (Schwere Heerespanzerabteilung - abbreviated s.H.Pz.Abt) and the Waffen-SS (s.SS.Pz.Abt). It was first used in combat with s.H.Pz.Abt. 503 during the Normandy campaign on 11 July 1944; on the Eastern Front the first unit to be outfitted with Tiger IIs was s.H.Pz.Abt. 501
The eighth generation of the Honda Civic was introduced in 2005. This generation introduced the "two-tier" instrument panel. In many countries (USA, UK, New Zealand), all models (including the base model) come standard with power windows, anti-lock brakes (ABS), and side/curtain airbags (for a total of six airbags). Additionally, the 2006 models acquired ULEV-2 (Ultra Low Emission Vehicle) certification and boast a more powerful 1.8-litre engine than the 2005 counterparts while retaining almost equal fuel economy.
In the North American market, the sedan and coupe styles are available, which were designed in Japan and Ohio, respectively. The sedan and coupe are available in several trim levels (DX, DX-G, LX, EX, EX-L, and Si). The Hybrid only comes as a sedan, while the Si coupe was joined by a sedan in 2007, and the Si sedan entered the Canadian lineup in 2008. 2008 saw the addition of new interior features such as a 60/40 rear folding seat and remote trunk release for LX models (previously only available on EX models), while 2009 models had a mid-generation refresh most notable on the front grille. In Canada, the Japanese-market type Civic 2.0GL is sold as the Acura CSX, and uses
Tiger I is the common name of a German heavy tank developed in 1942 and used in World War II. The final official German designation was Panzerkampfwagen Tiger Ausf. E, often shortened to Tiger. It was an answer to the unexpectedly formidable Soviet armour encountered in the initial months of the Axis invasion of the Soviet Union, particularly the T-34 and the KV-1. The Tiger I design gave the Wehrmacht its first tank mounting the 88 mm gun, in its initial armored fighting vehicle-dedicated version, which in its Flak version had previously demonstrated its effectiveness against both air and ground targets. During the course of the war, the Tiger I saw combat on all German battlefronts. It was usually deployed in independent tank battalions, which proved to be quite formidable.
While the Tiger I was feared by many of its opponents, it was over-engineered, used expensive and labour intensive materials and production methods, and was time-consuming to produce. Only 1,347 were built between August 1942 and August 1944. The Tiger was prone to certain types of track failures and immobilizations, and limited in range by its huge fuel consumption. It was, however, generally mechanically
The Porsche 964 is the company's internal name for the version of the Porsche 911 model manufactured and sold between 1989 and 1994. Designed by Benjamin Dimson in 1986, it featured significant styling revisions over previous versions of the 911, most prominently the more integrated bumpers (fenders), although it was still obviously a 911. It was the first generation of 911 to be offered with Porsche's optional Tiptronic automatic transmission as well as the first generation to be offered with all wheel drive. Design patents were first filed on May 12, 1987 in Germany and on November 10, 1987 in the United States.
"Type" 964 (nine-sixty-four) or simply 964 (nine-six-four) is in fact the internal code name for the car; the vehicle was badged simply as Carrera 2 or Carrera 4. The official name for the model, as printed on the front of the Owner's Manual, is "Porsche 911 Carrera 2" or "Porsche 911 Carrera 4". The 964 name is now often used to distinguish this car from other generations of the Carrera, especially among Porsche enthusiasts.
The 964 was considered over 85% new as compared to its predecessor, the Carrera 3.2. The first 964s available in 1989 were all wheel drive equipped
The AE86 generation of the Toyota Corolla Levin and Toyota Sprinter Trueno is a small, lightweight coupe introduced by Toyota in 1983 as part of the fifth generation Toyota Corolla lineup. For the purpose of brevity, the insider-chassis code of "AE86" depicts the 1600 cc RWD model from the range. In classic Toyota code, the "A" represents the engine that came in the car (4A series), "E" represents the Corolla, "8" represents the fifth generation (E80 series) and "6" represents the variation within this generation.
The Levin has fixed-headlights, and the Trueno has retractable headlights, both could be hatchback or coupe. The export model name Corolla covers both variations. The AE86 (along with the lower spec 1,452 cubic centimetres (1.452 L) AE85 and 1587 cc SR5 versions) was rear wheel drive (unlike the front wheel drive CE80, EE80 and AE82 models), and is among the last rear-drive cars of its type, at a time when most passenger cars were being switched to front-drive. In 1987, there was a limited edition model of the AE86 called "Black Limited" that served as a send-off model before the AE86 chassis was replaced later that year by the front wheel drive AE92 Corolla/Sprinter
Honda began selling the 1169 cc (70 in³) transversely mounted inline four-cylinder Civic for about US$2,200. The Civic was largely developed as an all new platform, and was the result of taking the previous Honda N600 and increasing the length, width, height, and wheelbase. The engine displacement was almost double the previous N600 (599 cc) at 1,170 cc, with two more cylinders added. The car produced roughly 50 hp (37 kW) and included power front disc brakes, vinyl seating, reclining bucket seats, and a woodgrain-accented dashboard which has many similarities to the later Rover SD1. The hatchback version added a fold-down rear seat, an AM radio, and cloth upholstery. The car had front and rear independent suspension. A four-speed manual transmission was standard. Options for the Civic were kept to a minimum, consisting of air conditioning, an automatic transmission called the Hondamatic, radial tires, and a rear wiper for the hatchback. The car could achieve 40 mpg-US (5.9 L/100 km; 48 mpg-imp) on the highway, and with a small 86.6-inch (2,200 mm) wheelbase and 139.8-inch (3,550 mm) overall length, the vehicle weighed 1,500 pounds (680 kg).
The four-door sedan version of this
The Chevrolet Corvette (C3) is a sports car produced by the Chevrolet division of General Motors for the 1968 through 1982 model years. Corvette chief Zora Arkus-Duntov wanted a striking new Corvette; although engines and chassis components were mostly carried over from the previous generation, its body and interior were new. "Though initially flawed, the 1968 like the 1958, would improve and mature into a car precisely right for its time." The so-called Shark was produced during one of the most troubled periods in America: civil unrest, burgeoning federal guidelines, fuel economy and pollution regulations, oil embargoes, rising fuel and insurance costs, runaway inflation, and a lingering recession. Through it all the third generation Corvette continued to set new sales records with an all-time high of 53,807 produced for the 1979 model year.
The Corvette C3 was patterned after the Mako Shark II designed by Larry Shinoda. Executed under Bill Mitchell's direction, the Mako II had been initiated in early 1964. Once the mid-engined format was abandoned the Shinoda/Mitchell car was sent to Chevrolet Styling under David Holls, where Harry Haga's studio adopted it for production on the
The Porsche 991 is the internal designation for the seventh generation Porsche 911 which was unveiled at the 2011 Frankfurt Motor Show on 15 September as the replacement for the 997. An initial release of photos and information was revealed by Porsche on 23 August 2011.
The current direct injection 3.8-litre flat-six engine from the Carrera S remains, with power increasing to 400 PS (294 kW; 395 hp). The Carrera engine is a 3.4-litre, producing 350 PS (257 kW; 345 hp). The car features an optional stop/start system and also electro-mechanical power steering. The car also features a new seven-speed manual gearbox, a first for a production car, along with an improved seven-speed PDK dual clutch transmission.
Compared to the outgoing 997, the 991 wheelbase has increased by 100 mm (3.9 in) to 2,450 millimetres (96.5 in), with the overall length up by 70 mm (2.8 in) to 4,490 millimetres (176.8 in). A new transaxle was developed so that the rear wheels could be moved 76 millimetres (3 in) backward in relation to the position of the engine, which significantly improves the weight distribution and cornering performance of the new 911. Due to the use of high-strength steels, aluminium and
The second generation Pontiac GTO was unveiled with the 1968 model year. Due in part to its revolutionary body-colored urethane front bumper (the first car to come equipped with one), it was awarded the 1968 Motor Trend Car of the Year.
1969 was much of a carryover year with minor styling changes. The big news was the addition of Ram Air III, Ram Air IV and The Judge options.
Mechanically, 1970 was a carryover year however the car received a styling make over forgoing the troublesome but attractive hidden headlights for a fixed patter and new distinctive "eyebrow" creases along the side of the body.
The Continental Mark II was a personal luxury car produced by the Continental Division of the Ford Motor Company in 1956 and 1957. Many aficionados of the automobile consider the Continental Mark II one of the classics of the postwar period.
Ford wanted a superior and standalone up-market brand aside from Lincoln, to compete with General Motors' Cadillac and Chrysler Corporation's Imperial brands.
The new Continental was not intended to be the largest nor the most powerful automobile; rather, the most luxurious and elegant American car available, designed to recapture the spirit of the great classics of the prewar period—with prices to match. The Mark II's inspiration was the celebrated V12-powered Lincoln Continental of the 1940s, among the most notable cars of that War-interrupted decade.
Having considered using an outside design team, Ford turned inside to their own Special Products Division. In Fall 1952, they designated John Reinhart as chief stylist; Gordon Buehrig as the chief body engineer, assisted by Robert McGuffey Thomas; and Harley Copp as chief engineer.
Ford had wanted to use unibody technology, but Copp argued against such a choice for a high-brand/low volume model,
The Austin Maxi was a medium sized 5-door hatchback car from British Leyland for the 1970s. It was the first British five speed five-door hatchback.
The Maxi (code name ADO14) was the last car designed under the British Motor Corporation (BMC), and was the last production car designed by Alec Issigonis. Originally under BMC's plan for their new model range, which it had been developing since 1965, it was to have been called the "Austin 1500" and a saloon version the "Morris 1500" was to follow in the autumn.
However, upon the merger of BMC and Leyland the new management ditched the four-door saloon notchback and developed the Morris Marina instead. The new chairman Lord Stokes decided to also change the hatchback's name to the Maxi in homage to the Mini 10 years earlier.
It was launched in Oporto Portugal on 24 April 1969, to a blaze of publicity being one of the first cars to appear on the BBC's new car programme Wheelbase, a forerunner to Top Gear. It was also the first car after the creation of British Leyland. It followed the five-door hatchback pattern of the French-produced Renault 16, which was European Car of the Year in 1966 following its launch in 1965.
The first-generation Chevrolet Camaro appeared on September 26, 1966, for the 1967 model year on an all brand new rear-wheel drive GM F-body platform and would be available as a 2-door, 2+2 seat, coupe or convertible with a choice of six-cylinder and V8 powerplants. The first-gen Camaro would last up through the 1969 model year.
The Camaro's standard drivetrain was a 230 cu in (3.8 L) straight-6 engine rated at 140 hp (104 kW) and backed by a Saginaw three-speed manual transmission. There were 8 (in 67), 10 (in 68), and 12 (in 69) different engines available in 67-69 Camaros. And there were several transmission options. A four-speed manual was available. The two-speed "Powerglide" automatic transmission was a popular option in 1967 and 1968 until the three-speed "Turbo Hydra-Matic 350" automatic became available starting in 1969. The larger Turbo 400 three-speed automatic was an option on SS396 cars.
There was a plethora of other options available all three years, including three main packages:
The RS was an appearance package that included hidden headlights, revised taillights with back-up lights under the rear bumper, RS badging, and exterior bright trim. It was available on any
The sixth-generation Ford Taurus is a full-size car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company since June 2009. It is the sixth generation of the Ford Taurus, and also the largest Ford sedan available for sale.
The preceding Ford fifth generation Taurus was a facelifted and mechanically enhanced Ford Five Hundred. While this did address several deficiencies of the Five Hundred, particularly the powertrain, it was still criticized for its handling and bland styling, with one reviewer describing it as a "SUV shaped like a sedan".
In 2008, Ford Motor Company's Chief Executive Officer Alan Mulally stated that the new Taurus is "the one we should have built originally".
A leaked photo of a prototype purported to be the 2010 Ford Taurus circulated on the Internet from message boards. Ford contemplated legal action against web sites which posted the photo and Ford attorneys asked site owners to remove the photo.
The US Ford website showed videos comparing the 2010 Taurus to 2009 model year luxury sedans, including the flagships of several Japanese marques. One test showed that the Taurus' paint coat was more resistant to gravel chips than a Lexus LS460; another noted that the Taurus had a
The Leyland Eight was a luxury car produced by Leyland Motors from 1920 to 1923. The car was designed by the chief engineer of Leyland Motors, J.G. Parry-Thomas and his assistant Reid Railton, and was intended to be the finest car available. The Eight was introduced to the public at the 1920 International Motor Exhibition at Olympia, London, where it was referred to as the "Lion of Olympia".
Two engine options were offered: a 6,920 cc capacity unit producing 115 bhp or 7,266 cc with twin carburettors producing 145 bhp. Both had a single overhead camshaft and hemispherical combustion chambers. The chassis had elliptical leaf springs at front and rear. The brakes, with vacuum servo, were on the rear wheels only.
Factory-made bodies were available in open tourer style with either two or five seats and chassis were also supplied to coachbuilders. The car was very expensive, the chassis for delivery to a coachbuilder costing £2,500 in 1920 reducing to £1,875 in 1922 and only about 18 were made. It was the most expensive British car of its day. Today, only one example of this car is known to exist, and it resides in a transport museum.
Michael Collins, the Irish politician and
Renault Dauphine (IPA, dɔfin, dô-fēn'; Fr. doh-feen) is a rear-engined economy car manufactured by Renault in one body style — a three-box, four-door sedan — as the successor to the Renault 4CV, with over two million examples marketed worldwide during its production from 1956-1967.
Along with such cars as the Volkswagen Beetle, Morris Minor and Fiat 500, the Dauphine pioneered the modern European economy car.
Renault marketed variants of the Dauphine, including a sport model, the Gordini, a luxury version, the Ondine, the 1093 factory racing model, and the Caravelle/Floride, a Dauphine-based two-door convertible.
As Louis Renault's successor, and as Renault's chairman, Pierre Lefaucheux had continued to defy the postwar French Ministry of Industrial Production — which had wanted to convert Renault solely to truck manufacture. Lefaucheux instead had seen Renault's survival in automobile rather than truck manufacture, and had achieved considerable success with the 4CV, with over 500,000 produced by 1954.
The Dauphine was born during a conversation with Lefaucheux and engineer Picardy Fernand, when the two agreed that while the 4CV was appropriate in its postwar context, French
The sixth-generation Honda Civic was introduced in 1996. It retained its class-leading handling as it, along with the fourth and fifth generations, had front double wishbone suspension, the advanced independent suspension inspired by Honda's racing research. However, the sixth iteration of Civic did not have the high power-to-weight ratio as its two predecessors had. Since 2001, succeeding Civics have used the simpler front MacPherson strut. Two distinctly different wagons were also made - the JDM Orthia, based on the Civic sedan, and a Domani-based model, sold as Civic Aerodeck, in Europe. Neither were offered in North America. A Domani based five-door liftback was also offered for sale in Europe alongside the regular Civic model from 1995 to 2001.
Coupe: Trims available in the coupe body style were the EJ6 (US DX, Canadian DX and DX-V), EJ7 (US HX), EJ8 (US EX, Canadian Si) and EM1 (only 1999 and 2000; US Si, Canadian SiR).
Hatchback: Trims available in the hatchback body style were the EJ6 (US CX and DX, Canadian CX/CX-G/DX/SE), EJ9 (1.4L SOHC model), EK1 (1.5L SOHC VTEC-E model), EK2 (1.3L model), EK3 (1.5L SOHC model), EK4 (Japanese SiR, European SiR and/or VTi), EK6 (Japanese